Fluid Mechanics Flow Measurement Experiment

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Fluid Mechanics Flow Measurement Experiment

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 12

ENGINEERING

MEASUREMENT (E2)

1

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

1.0 Objective

1. Measure the flow of water using different flow meters (orifice plate flow meter

and measuring nozzle, venturi nozzle and rotameter) by applying Bernoulli’s

principle

2. Investigate the relationship between flow and pressure in flow using Pitot tube

3. Determine the corresponding flow coefficients for each flow meters

4. Calibrate the flow meters

2.0 Introduction

In this experiment, the ability to operate flow measuring equipment (Orifice, Pitot

tube and Venturi nozzle) for discharge coefficient comparison from each equipment

will be performed. Measuring the flow rate is an important aspect in all industries and

there are several ways to measure the flow of fluids in pipes.

3.0 Theory

rapidly converging section (denoted as point 2 in Figure 1) which increases the

velocity of flow and hence reduces the pressure. It then returns to the original

dimensions of the pipe by a gently diverging the diffuser. By measuring the pressure

differences, the discharge coefficient can be calculated. This is a particularly accurate

method of flow measurement as energy loss is very small.

Referring to the above Venturi tube diagram, the Bernoulli equation can be applied to

points 1 and 2. Following the analysis, the equations for flow rate can be derived.

2

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

2 g h1 h3 (Eq. 1)

Qth= A V A

3 3 A3

2

3

1- A

1

A1 cross sectional area at 1 (m2 )

A3 cross sectional area at 3 (m2)

h1 height of manometer column 1 in meters (m)

h3 height of manometer column 3 in meters (m)

The discharge coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual volume flow rate to

theoretical volume flow rate:

The discharge coefficient is less than unity due to the losses caused by the wall shear

stress, the losses in contraction and the losses during expansion.

Q act C Q

d th

2g h1 h3

=C A

d 3 2

C A

d 3

2g

2

h1 h3

A A

1- 3 1- 3

A A

1 1

2g

and Q act n Δh ...........where nC A

d 3 2

A

1- 3

A

1

In order to find n and hence, Cd experimentally, a graph of Log Qact versus Log h can be

used.

An orifice plate is a restriction with an opening smaller than the pipe diameter which

is inserted in the pipe; the typical orifice plate has a concentric, sharp edged opening,

as shown in Figure 2. Because of the smaller area the fluid velocity increases, causing

3

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

a corresponding decrease in pressure. The flow rate can be calculated from the

measured pressure drop across the orifice plate, P1-P3. The orifice plate is the most

commonly used flow sensor, but it creates a rather large non-recoverable pressure due

to the turbulence around the plate, leading to high energy consumption.

Referring to the orifice plate diagram, the Bernoulli equation can be applied to points

1 and 3. Following the analysis, the equations for volumetric flow rate can be

expressed as the following:

2g Δh

Qth = a 2

(Eq. 3)

1- m

a cross-sectional area of plate (m2 )

m ratio of cross-sectional area of plate to pipe, (a/A)

Δh difference in height of manometer column (m)

The discharge coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual volume flow rate to

theoretical volume flow rate:

4

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Q act C Q

d th

2g Δh 2g (Eq. 4)

= C a C a Δh

d 1 - m 2 d 2

a

1-

A

aA aA

and Q act C 2g Δh ...........where meter coefficien t

d 2 2 2 2

A -a A -a

4.0 Apparatus

(9), an orifice plate, a measuring nozzle and a Pitot tube (8) for flow measurement and

a rotameter (3). The flow rate can be regulated using the gate valve (2). The pressure

losses at the measuring elements can be recorded using pressure connections with

rapid action couplings. The connections are connected to a six-tube manometer (6),

which is fitted with a ventilation valve. The six-tube manometer is used in order to

determine the pressure distribution in the Venturi nozzle or the orifice plate flow

meter and measuring nozzle. The total pressure is measured by a Pitot tube.

with frame measurement

connections

Multi-tube Rotameter

manometer

Gate valve for

Water inlet outlet

Water outlet

measuring nozzle, or Pitot tube Venturi nozzle

GmbH)

5

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

The tube manometer panel (Figure 6) has 6 glass cylinders (11) with milimeter (mm)

scale for measuring the water column (WC). The unit mmWC is used here (10mmWC

≙ 1mbar). The measuring range is 390 mmWC. All the tubes are connected to one

another at the upper end and ventilated by a shared ventilation valve (12). The

measuring connections (10) are at the lower end. Differential pressure measurements

are carried out with the ventilation valve closed (12, 13), while relative gauge

pressure measurements with the ventilation valve open (12). Standard pressure unit is

Pascal (Pa), where 1Pa = 1N/m2= 10-5bar = 0.01mbar

Equating the pressure at the level (pressure at the same level in a continuous body of

static fluid is equal),

p1 p A gh1

p2 p A gh2

Pressure difference, p

p p1 p 2 p A gh1 p A gh2

p p1 p 2 g (h1 h2 )

6

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

which the liquid flows from bottom to top. A specially shaped float moves freely in

the liquid flow and is carried along by the flow due to its flow resistance. This results

in equilibrium between the weight of the float on the one hand and its drag and lifting

force on the other. The float adjusts to a particular height in the measuring tube

depending on the flow volume. Because of the operating principle, a reliable

measuring range on a rotameter never begins at zero, but at 5-10% of the final

measuring value. The measured flow rate value is always read at the upper edge of the

float. The maximum flow measured by the rotameter is 1,600 L/h.

7

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

8

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

9

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

1. Make sure Orifice or Nozzle are fix (Venturi meter is permanently fixed).

2. Make sure manometer tubes are connected (H1 & H2) to the Orifice / Nozzle.

3. For the Venturi meter, make a tube connection H1 to H3.

4. Close inlet valve and control valve.

5. Switch on the main switch.

6. Switch on the pump.

TO GET RID OF THE AIR BUBBLE

7. Now open the inlet valve slowly, also open the control valve slowly until

maximum level (until water in the manometer overflow).

i. Open the black valve (anticlockwise) on top of the manometer to

release all bubble in the system;

ii. Close the black valve.

8. Now close the control valve.

9. Switch off the pump and control the water level.

10. Now slowly open the white valve until maximum level of 30-40 mm.

11. Now switch on the pump again.

12. Open the control valve slowly until level of water in H1 reach maximum (390

mm) and manometer H at minimum level. Take all the reading (Multi-tube

Manometer/ Rotameter).

13. Collect the water in a jar and at the same time, take the time taken for the

maximum volume filled/collected or close the basin tank valve, take the time

measured for example, 5 Liter.

14. Now take 4 different flow rate, Q (Range above 200 L/min is the reference

flow to all component).

15. Now close the control valve and pump switch again.

EXPERIMENT PLEASE DISCONNECT ALL TUBES FROM

ORIFICE/VENTURI EXCEPT FROM GLASS MANOMETER

16. Switch on the pump and slowly open the control valve to get rid of the bubble.

17. Repeat as previous steps.

10

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

NOZZLE

water (second) (mm) (mm) (mm)

collected (m3/s) (m3/s)

(Liter)

ORIFICE PLATE

water (second) (mm) (mm) (mm)

collected (m3/s) (m3/s)

(Liter)

VENTURI METER

water (second) (mm) (mm) (mm)

collected (m3/s) (m3/s)

(Liter)

11

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

7.0 Discussion

Discuss below questions for all flow measuring meter (nozzle, orifice plate and

venturi meter):

a) Discuss the trend of manometer water level respective to different flow meter.

b) Determine the discharge coefficient for every flow meter and explain the

differences in their discharge coefficient value (if any).

c) Plot the flow values recorded against the associated differential

Pressure(Bernoulli equation computation).

d) Demonstrate the relationship between flow and pressure using Bernoulli

principle. Discuss your calculated data. Your discussion should include

following elements comparison of flow coefficients

- investigation of relationships between flow and pressure in flow

measurement.

- which flow meter gives more accurate measurement and explanation of your

choice.

- factors contributing to errors or inaccuracy in experimental data and propose

recommendation to improve the results.

e) Suggest the most accurate flow meter based on your chosen experiment.

12

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