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8 B i o l o g y N o t e s F
o r m 4 T TTO OOP PPI IIC CC 1 11: :: N NNU UUT TTR RRI IIT TTI IIO OON NN The 7 Basic Food Substances All the food we eat is made up of the following 7 basic substances: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Proteins 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Fibre 7. Water Carbohydrates, fats, proteins and vitamins are organic substances because they contain carbon in their molecular structure. Water and minerals are inorganic substances since they don t contain carbon. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are needed in bulk in our diet, while vitamins and minerals are needed in smaller amounts. A person whose diet lacks any of these nutrients suffers from malnutrition, and this may give rise to a deficiency disease. Food gives us energy. The amount of energy needed by our body isn t the same for everyone. The amount of energy needed to live depends on the person s sex, job, attitude, age and other factors like if the person is a pregnant woman. 1. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are organic substances made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are very important because they provide energy for the body. There are 3 ty pes of carbohydrates: sugars, starch, and cellulose. A. Sugars Glucose (C6H12O6) Fructose (sugars in fruit)
Sucrose (table sugar) Page 1 .
Two molecules of glucose joined togeth er with a bond. Glucose Molecule Sucrose.8 Lactose (found in milk) Maltose (found in barley grains) B. cereals etc. Page 2 .8) 5. C. potatoes. An important source of fibre. form maltose. rice. maltose and lactose are all disaccharides because they have 2 sugar molecules bonded together. Strach Found in bread. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose and fructose. cellulose and glycogen are formed when 3 or more glucose molecules are joined together with bonds. lactose and sucrose sugars. Starch. cellulose and glycogen are all polysaccharides because they are made up of 3 or more sugar molecules bonded together. Carbohydrates are all made up of molecules of glucose bonded (joined) together.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Plants store food as starch. The simplest form of carbohydrate is glucose. Cellulose Found in all unrefined plant food. Starch. Glucose s molecule is represented by a hexagon: A single sugar molecule is called a monosaccharide.
Plants store food as starch. Fat is found in vegetable oil. Lipids are fats in a liquid state. beef etc. Glucose s chemical formula is the following: C6H12O6. Polysaccharides are NOT sweet but ARE insoluble. Fats are useful for our body. bread.8 Carbohydrates are found in cereals. layers serve as an insulating layers under mammal s skins and and oils on the surface of the skin makes the skin waterproof. Both glycogen and starch are polysaccharides. can be stored for later use. because they: provide energy. Fats Fats are organic substances. Glycerol Fatty Acids Fatty Acids Fatty Acids Page 3 . fried foods. potatoes sugary food su ch as ice cream etc. 2. fruit.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. build up cell membranes. milk. The simplest fat molecule is made up of 1 molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids bonded together.8) 5. pasta. eggs. while animals store food as glycogen.
to make leaves turgid. Proteins Proteins are organic substances made up of hydrogen. so that reduces friction when bones move. When 3 or more amino acids are joined together. Page 4 . 4. There is water even in the joints. nitrogen and sometimes they contain sulphur. a polypeptide is formed. Water is also needed by plants. Amino Acid Dipeptide Polypeptide When proteins are heated. square) . Some seeds germinate with the help of water. Water Water is vital for animals and almost all living organisms. Even blood is part ially made up of water. they change shape. they are denatured. eggs. guard cells move by osmos is and water takes part in the chemical reaction in which plants make there food (b y photosynthesis).8) 5. its properties and functions are destroyed.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Food rich in proteins are milk. rectangle. sweating has a cooli ng effect on the body. carbon and oxygen. The simplest possible protein is an amino acid. Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds. game tes (sex cells like sperms and eggs) travel in a watery medium. thus proteins are made up of ami no acids. nuts. fish etc. Water is an inorganic substance with the chemical formula H2O. they are components of cell membranes. which can be represented as any form of shape (circle. When 2 amino acids connected together with a peptide bond. are used to produce enzymes (biological catalysts) and hormones. and urine and tears are mostly made up from water. Proteins are needed by the body to grow and repair tissues (a cellular structure). Water is important for animals because it gives support to aquatic animals. It makes up to one t hird of the human body mass.8 3. a dipeptide forms. meat.
g. and in regulating nervous excitability and muscular contraction. Rickets Iron Tomatoes. Anaemia headaches. cheese. e. Forms intracellular cement and the cell membranes. and regulates it. drinking water Needed to synthesize hormones of the thyroid gland. Osteomalacia (rickets) Sodium Salt. mineral water Developing bones and maintaining their rigidity. Goitre Fluorine Water. milk Important for bones and teeth. and lethargy Phosphorous Many foods. Can lead to tooth decay Magnesium Most foods Important for metabolism.8 5. tiredness. Mineral Found in Use in the body Deficiency disease Calcium Milk.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. There are other trace elements not lis ted in the table which are useful for other bodily functions. fish. Present in extra cellular fluid. liver. many foods. kidneys Part of haemoglobin in red blood cells. toothpaste Builds a layer above enamel. .8) 5. Cramps Iodine Sea food. Minerals Many minerals are important for our body.
Vitamin Found in Use Deficiency disease A Liver. but only in small quantities. Night Blindness Exophthalmia. Page 5 . Vitamins Vitamins are very. carrot Important for eyes. very important for the body.Tremors and convulsions 6.
milk.8 D Fish liver oil Healthy bones and teeth. and. dark green vegetables. eggs. Serves as a coenzyme-one that must combine with a portion of another enzyme to be effective-in the metabolism of carbohydrates. whole or enriched cereals. weakness.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. egg yolk. . Skin lesions. E Milk. and legumes. nuts. enabling pyretic acid to be metabolised and carbohydrates to release their energy. leafy green vegetables. fats. and partial paralysis. berries. lettuce Healthy reproductive system. meat. Rickets. impaired sensory perception. bread. Beriberi. especially. spinach. whole grain and enriched cereals. B1 Pork. Sterility. and mushrooms. Disorders in blood clotting. Catalyst in carbohydrate metabolism. respiratory proteins.8) 5. periods of irregular heartbeat. fish livers Important for the coagulation of blood. B2 Liver. organ meats lean meats. K Cabbage. pasta. Disturbances.
and guava. C Citrus fruits. fresh strawberries. Bleeding gums Page 6 . the protein that supports many body structures and Scurvy. Works as a coenzyme in the release of energy from nutrients. Important in the formation and maintenance of collagen. Pellagra Diarrhoea. poultry. mental confusion. canned tuna and salmon. when the central nervous system is affected. pineapple. depression and mental disturbances. meat. cantaloupe. irritability. and.Niacin (B6) Liver.
8 plays a major role in the formation of bones and teeth. an orange brown solution forms. and prevents constipation. Food rich in fibre are whole meal bread. a blue-black precipitate forms. Test for Vitamin C: with DCPIP. cereals. fresh fruit and vegetabl es. Page 7 . bran. Test for Proteins: with Copper Sulphate and Sodium hydroxide. Humans cannot digest fibre. If the result is positive. Food Tests Test for Starch: with Iodine solution. Test for Fats: with Ethanol (alcohol) A m mmmi iiil lllk kkky yyy w wwwh hhhi iiit ttte eee solution forms in presence of fat. If result is positive.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Test for Glucose: with Benedict s Solution and the mixture is heated. Fibre Fibre is mainly cellulose from plant cell walls.8) 5. 7.A blue to a c ccco oool lllo ooou uuur rrrl llle eees ssss sss liquid forms in presence of vitamin C. but it is important because it helps food to pass from the gut.A purple colour forms if the tested food contains proteins.
the particular nutrient th e enzyme acts on. Amylase. which is an enzyme. Thus. An enzyme catalysis a reaction involving a substrate. activity decrease drastically. which means that when heated above 40oC. Enzymes do not take part in the proper chemical reactions (they do not react). The rate of productivity by enzymes is very affected by temperature and by pH. The rate increases slowly when the temperature rises between 10oC to 40oC. on Enzymes 0 1 2 3 4 5 .8 T TTO OOP PPI IIC CC 2 22 E EEN NNZ ZZY YYM MME EES SS Enzymes are biological catalysts. acts on its substrate (starch). which means that every enzyme catalysis only one type of food substance. t hey just enhance the speed. the enzyme amylase catalysis only starch. therefore. for example. When the temperature is lower than normal. which enhance the speed of the chemical reactions taking place in the body. A catalyst enhances the speed of a chemical reaction. and this property makes them used over and over again. but when the temperature rises further. Properties of Enzymes Enzymes are proteins. because enzymes are be ing denatured. they become denatured by heat. An example is amylase acting on starch. Effect of Temp. enzymes become inactive. enzymes are catalysts. to produce a product (maltose). and does not take part in any other chemical reaction involving another food substance.8) 5. When the reaction is complete.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. which is a simpler type of carbohydrat e. Enzymes are specific. T he graph shows the rate of the activity by the enzymes in relation to temperature. a product is produced. they change shape and do not work anymore.
6 10 20 30 40 50 Temerature in degrees celcius mg of product per min. mg of products per minute Page 8 .
showing that the enzymes work best that at their optimum pH. It is a bell-shaped graph. the enzyme releases the products. which in thi s case is pH 2.8) 5. where the reaction takes place. The substrate approaches the enzyme.5 1 2 3 3.5 4 pH activity of enzymesactivity of enzyme Effect of pH on Enzymes Optimum pH An example: The Lock and Key Theory The lock and key theory is how scientists believe enzymes catalyze their substrate.8 The graph here below shows the sensitivity of enzymes to pH. It is shown in this diagram. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 0.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Amylase acts on Starch to produce Enzyme Substrate maltose Product Enzyme Active Site Reaction taking place Substrate Page 9 Products leave active site . After the reaction. then the substrate docks into the active site.
8 Economic Important of Enzymes Enzymes can be artificially made and used in Biological washing powders. It is very hard. Premolars: For chewing and grinding food. Certain pesticides block the active site of pests enzymes so that its resp iratory system stops working and the pest dies. To prevent tooth decay. These washing powders contain enzymes that work at a suitable temperature (e. 40oC) and dissolve food stains from fabrics. The tooth is pr imary made of dentin. It contains the pulp. which is composed of connect ive tissue with blood vessels. They are specific to particular stains. nerves etc. Once he or she is an adult. Then beneath it there is the dentin. The enamel (calcium phosphate: CaPO3) is the upper part of the crown. similar to bone but harder. therefore the substrate cannot enter the active site and the reaction does n t take place. Humans have 4 types o f teeth: Incisors: Adapted for cutting food. The central re gion of the tooth is the pulp cavity. Enzyme Inhibitors There are some poisons. varies activities must be regularly done: Page 10 . the pulp is connected to the blood capill aries. Tooth decay (dental caries) is caused by bacteria in the mouth which produce aci ds to digest food stuck in and between the teeth. Molars: For chewing and grinding food. 32 permanent teeth will be developed. Dentition The teeth are made of hardest substance found in the body. such as cyanide and arsenic that block the enzymes active site. Amylase is used to covert starch to sugars to make syrups and juices. Protease is used for tenderising meat and removing hair from hides.8) 5. Humans aged 6 months begin to grow 20 milk teeth (baby) teeth. Canines: for holing and tearing. The tooth is made up of 2 sections.g. which give nutrients and oxygen to the dental cells. an exposed Crown and the Root which is embedded in the gum.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. which is a substance.
8) 5.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. They have canines. Instead of the upper incisors. herbivores have a hard pad to pull leaves and gra ss out of the branches or soil. to ensure that food is better chewed. Page 11 . while teeth have a closed root unlike herbivores.8 V Brushing teeth with a fluoride toothpaste V Regular visits to the dentist V X-rays of the jaw to ensure that no cavity is being developed where the dentist cannot see V Use tooth floss V Wash mouth with a suitable mouth wash Herbivores have different a dental system since they eat only vegetable matter. In herbivores. and upper incisors. which means that they grow continuously. Th eir teeth have an open root. They have no canines and molars have a flat surface. The following article shows more clearly the difference between carnivores and herbivore denti tion. there is a gap called diastema between the incisors and the molars. Carnivores molars have cusps.
Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8 .8) 5.
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such as humans eat both meat and vegetable matter. 4.8) 5. Digestion: Begins from the mouth by salivary amylase (starch-breaking enzyme) and continues till the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). Parasitic: When parasitic organisms feed on or in another organism harming it. chewed and mixed with saliva. Holozoic Nutrition The digestive system can be divided into various stages. 4. fatty acids and glycerol). 2. They are able to make their own food by photosynthesis.8 T TTO OOP PPI IIC CC 3 33: :: F FFE EEE EED DDI IIN NNG GG Feeding can be divided into 4 types: 1. Omnivores. because they must search for their food. Ingestion: food is ate. Herbivores eat vegetable matter and have special bodily structures to help them digest cellulose. Assimilation: the nutrients are then assimilated (taken to) various organs around the body. Defecation (Egestion): Undigested matter such as fibre is egested (moved . were enzymes break down food into simpler soluble products (Glucose. amino acids. Absorption: the blood absorbs soluble products in the ileum (second part of the small intestine). 3. 3. and prepares nutrients for absorption. 2. Holozoic (heterotrophic): Animals feed heterotrophically. Carnivores eat meat and are usually predators.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Saprophytes are useful to the environment because they recycle nutrients. stage by stage. but it is basically div ided into 5 main stages: 1. Saprophytic: Saprophytic organisms such as fungi and some bacteria (called decomposers) that feed on dead decaying matter. Holophytic (autotrophic): Plants feed with this type of feeding. 5.
[Do not mix excretion with egesting or defecation! Excretion is the removal of waste products made by chemicals reaction within the cells.out) of the body.g. Page 13 . excreting urine]. e.
. Therefore food does not go down by gravity (astronauts would NOT survive in space if it would!). Betwe en the mouth and the oesophagus there is the epiglottis.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. The epiglottis is a flap t hat closes so as to prevent food entering the windpipe (trachea). . When they contract and relax. digestion begins from the mouth.(a ball) of mixed food with saliva that goes down the oesophagus (or gullet). which breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptides. they push down food downwards in a movement called peristalsis.8) 5. mucus. Pepsinogen: an inactive form of pepsin that is then activated by the hydrochloric acid.e. ingestion. Gastric juice contains: . The food. Ingestion The first stage. is the actual eating of food. Mucus: Protects the stomach wall from being digested by the enzymes (prevention of self-digestion). When food is mixed with saliva. Digestion The second stage. 2.8 Now the 5 stages will be examined more in detail. Pepsin: digestive enzyme. i. water and lysozyme (which is also an enzyme) that kills bacteria. The oesophagus is made up of two layers of muscle cells. The stomach is made up of layers of muscles that make it twist and squeeze so th at food is mixed with gastric juices. Physical digestion: teeth crush food to increase surface area for enzyme action to break down food. Chemical digestion also begins in the mouth. The chemical digestion continues till the duodenum. forms into a bol us. after that it is chewed. Page 14 . There are about 35 million gastric glands tha t produce gastric juice. It is divided into 2 other pa rts: 1. using teeth. On layer is circular wh ile the other runs lengthwise. Chemical digestion: food is mixed with enzymes and digestive juices to breaks down food into the 3 soluble products of digestion. The food is pushed down to the stomach. the enzyme salivary amylase starts breaking down starch into maltose Chemical Digestion in more detail Saliva contains salivary amylase.
Pancreatic amylase: breaks down starch into maltose. Trypsin: breaks down polypeptides into dipeptides.8) 5. Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3): neutralizes acids from the stomach and provides alkaline pH in the duodenum. The first part of the small intestine is called the duodenum. After 3 to 4 hours of digestion. Lipase: breaks down fats (lipids are liquid fats) into fatty acids and glycerol. 4. Sucrase: breaks down sucrose into glucose These enzymes are summarised below in the following table: Enzymes from the Intestinal Wall Substrate Product Trypsin polypeptides dipeptides Maltase maltose glucose Lipase fats fatty acids and glycerol Peptidases dipeptides amino acids Sucrase sucrose glucose From the pancreas mainly 4 chemicals are produced: 1. 2. At intervals it is passed i nto the small intestine. food becomes chyme. T he duodenum receives digestive juices for 3 different places: intestinal wall. mainly 5 enzymes are produced: 1. 2. Trypsin: breaks down polypeptides into dipeptides. 3. Lipase: Breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. From the intestinal wall. optimum pH for pepsin to work.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. 3. Hydrochloric acid (chemical formula HCl) kills bacteria and provides and acidic. 4. Peptidases: breaks down dipeptides into amino acids 5. Maltase: breaks down maltose into glucose. These chemicals are enlisted here below: Chemicals from the Pancreas Function / Substrate Product Sodium hydrogen carbonate neutralizes acids from the stomach and provides alkaline pH in the duodenum Page 15 .8 . panc reas and the liver.
The liver has two main lobes locat ed just under the diaphragm on the right side of the body. that are actual villi but smaller. fatty acids and enter glycerol ent er the blood stream through millions of small finger-like structures called villi. neutralizing them and excreting them in bile. amino acids. amino acids. glucose. Food has been all broken down into their soluble products. fatty acids and glycerol. They can be now absorbed into the blood stream from th e ileum. which is also moist to allow food to pass well and to . but gets bile. Each villus is covered with tiny h airs called microvilli. Its chief digestive function is the secretion of bile. which helps to break down large fat molecules for lipase to act on it: this process is called emulsification. It does the following fu nctions: synthesis of proteins. a solution cr itical to fat emulsion (emulsification) and absorption.8 Trypsin Pancreatic amylase polypeptides Starch dipeptides maltose Lipase Fats Fatty acids and glycerol From the liver. pills etc) from the bloodstream. Here. The liver The liver is the largest internal organ in vertebrates. Villi have a thin lining and a good blood supply to allow blood to absorb the so luble nutrients. The Ileum The ileum is a very long part of the gut so that absorption takes places efficie ntly. the duodenum receives no enzymes. soluble products: glucose. to increase surface area for absorption. and oxygen and fat-carrying substances. Food passes through the intestine with the help of muscular contracti on (peristalsis) of the intestinal wall. It has a detergent effect. Bile is a green chemical.8) 5. and it is stored in the gall bladder and it is secreted from the gall bladder to the duodenum through the bil e duct. The liver also removes excess glucose from circulation and stores it until it is needed. It converts excess amino acids int o useful forms and filters drugs and poisons (alcohol.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. like root hairs on a root in plants. Digestion ends here. The villi are tiny. immune and clotting factors.
enhance the speed of absorption. Page 16 .
faeces (undigested food such as fiber) are sto red until it is egested out of the body through the anus. The Large Intestine The large intestine is divided into the colon and rectum.8 Lacteal (absorbs fatty acids The villus s structure is shown here. they do not have any know n function in humans. The Caecum and the Appendix The caecum and the appendix are vestigial organs. Glucose and amino acids are absorbed by the blood capillaries. i. within 24-48 hours after e ating.8) 5. The colon is the part where water is absorbed. (such as rabbits) the caecum and appendix contain cellulose-digesting bacteria that produce the enzyme cellulase to digest cellulose in plant cells. which are very th in blood vessels.e. The rectum wall is covered with a layer of mucus to ease the passage of faeces. being large molecules are absorbed by t he lacteal first before draining into the blood stream. This process is called defeacation. In herbivores called ruminants. Fatty acids and glycerol.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. A summary of the digestive system Thin Epithelium Blood Vessels (absorb glucose and amino acids) and glycerol Page 17 . In the rectum.
These bacterial are housed in the caecum and appendix. While the ruminant is grazing. Ruminants have a special type of stomach called rumen. to allow them to extract grass from soil easily. Page 18 . They have a special type of dentition. Their sm all intestine is about 40 meters long.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. sheep and horses are called ruminants because they cont ain a special digestive system. These bacteria produce the enzy me cellulase that catalysis the reaction that breaks down cellulose into soluble su gar (glucose). grass is swallowed and enters the rumen. The rumen is a large stomach that contains 3 other chambers. When the animals stops eating. to allow them to digest cellulose completely. before it reaches the end of the gut. so in the ruminants.8 Digestion in Herbivores Herbivores such as cows. The following article helps you understand how the ruminant s digestive system works. little by little to allow it to be chew and swallowed properly and then the food enters into the other 3 cham bers to further digest the food before it goes into the small intestine. The bacteria gain shelter and protection as well as food from the rum inants so their relation is a mutualistic one (both benefiting from one another). different fro m carnivorous dentition.8) 5. Their gut contains cellulose-digesting bacteria. they are not vestigial organs as in humans. it regurgitates t he grass (brings the already swallowed food back to its mouth).
8 h .8) 5.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.
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l More information about the Liver Hepatic portal vein Hepatic Vein Liver Hepatic Artery Gut The liver receives blood mixed with the soluble products of digestion from the hepatic portal vein. a lot of chemical reactions o ccur. The liver receives blood rich in oxygen from the heart thro ugh the hepatic artery. Page 19 . Then the blood leaves the liver through the hepatic vein whi ch also carries a lot of heat since inside the liver.
For vital functions to take place. Breathing is the exchange of gases. Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic means without oxygen. obtained from digestion. like all mammals. It takes place in each and every mitochondria of the cells.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. respiratory surfaces are required for gas exchange (breathing. In large organisms such as mammals. Plants need energy for active transport to take place. Respiration is done to obtain energy needed by the body. Gas exchange Differences between respiration and breathing: Respiration is carried out in all cells to obtain energy.8 T TTO OOP PPI IIC CC 4 44: :: R RRE EES SSP PPI IIR RRA AAT TTI IIO OON NN What is Respiration and Why do we need it? Respiration is a chemical reaction catalysed by enzymes. There is more than one type of anaerobic respiration. One very common type of anaerobic respiration is alcohol fermentation represented in this equation below: .8) 5. It also n eeds energy to keep a constant body temperature and to transport chemical messages. in case of humans and other organisms. There are two types of respiration: Aerobic (oxygen involved) and anaerobic (no oxygen involved). it depends on the organism. Energy is released by the chemica l breaking of bonds in organic molecules (containing carbon) present in sugars and other carbohydrates. In humans. the removal of carbon dioxide and obtaining oxygen. not respiration) to take place efficiently. lungs are used for this purpose. and thus this type of chemical reaction involves only sugars (obtained from digestion of food). the body needs energy.
wine and other alcoholic drinks. 2CO + 2C H OH + energy(210kJ ) 612 6 2 25 This type of reaction (alcohol fermentation) is done by yeast. As it produces alcohol.CH O . it is important for world economy for the production of beer. Yeast s most important function is surely in the productio n of bread. Anaerobic respiration is also important for the economy as certain Page 20 .
Alcohol. and formaldehyde. 6CO + HO+ [energy] 6 12 62 2 2 glu cos e oxygen carbon dioxed water ( 2880 KJ) . the dough should have doubled its size. Some yeast and sugar and mixed with a little warm water. an d used in the production of hydrogen.8) 5. The dough is baked in a hot oven and yeast cells die. which involves oxygen. the mixture froths and this indicates that yeast cells are becoming active. The yeast liquid is mixed with flour. which is used to make butter. hydrogen cyanide. lighting. Some other types of bacteria produce methane gas (CH4). the lactic acid is converted into carbon dioxide and water by oxyg en. This whole process is known as oxygen debt. ethyne. anaerobic respiration takes place in the muscles. Anaerobic respiration takes place in humans as well. yoghurt cheese and other dairy products. The dough is then kneaded for a few minutes to ensure that all the yeast and the rest of the ingredients and evenly distributed. salt and warm water to make the dough. The dough is left in a warm place for fermentation is take place. Yeast produces alcohol and carbon dioxide and this gas causes the dough to rise. During strenuous exercise. lactic acid (slightly poisonous) is produced and can cause cramps. with a low boiling point evaporates almost immediately and the carbon dioxide leaves the bread with small holes inside it. in this case. After an hour. Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration is the respiration. blood vessels cannot provide enough oxygen for muscle cells to do proper aerobic respiration. a flammable gas used for cooking and fuelling machinery. In these reactions. After some time. An example of aerobic respiration is shown here in this equation: CH O + 6O .Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8 anaerobic bacteria produce lactic acid. ammonia. Making Bread This is a simple method to make bread. Af ter the exercise.
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birds. 2830kJ of energy are released by oxidizing 180 grams of glucose. Energy is stored in the body as ATP (adenosine triphosphate).8 The enzymes catalyze the oxidation of glucose to form carbon dioxide and water. which is surrounded by rings of cartilage to stay stiff. First the air passes through the nose and through the trachea. respiration slows down because heat denatures enzymes. so when the body temperature rises above 40oC. hair-like structures that . As enzymes catalyse this reaction. Voice box (larynx) Rings of Cartilage Trachea Pleural membrane Alveoli Bronchioles. reptiles and some amphibians. it is controlled also by temperature. There are some cells with cilia. terminal bronchioles Intercostals muscles Pulmonary Veins The Air Passage The air passes through a number of passages before it goes to the bloodstream to be used up. because glucose alone does not provide energy.8) 5. The lungs The lungs are the respiratory surface of mammals.Pleural fluid Ribs Pulmonary Artery Space for Heart Diaphragm Bronchus Pleural fluid Ribs Pulmonary Artery Space for Heart Diaphragm Bronchus Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. The nose and trachea have specia l cells on their walls.
bronchioles. After the trachea. These trap germs as well as dust from the air.are continuously beating up and down. Another type of special cells in the epithelium of the nose and trachea are the mucus-secreting cells. the air passes through the bronchi. terminal Page 22 . These have a hole in them from where mucus is secreted.
some of this water evaporates and there is always some water vapour in our exhaled breath. or alveoli. Alveoli are surrounded by a lot of blood capillaries 3.8 bronchioles and finally to the air sacks. These alveoli are shown he re Blood capillary filled with oxidized blood (oxy-hemoglobin Alveolus Blood capillary with Thin water deoxidized blood film in this diagram. Breathing Page 23 . 2. Blood capillaries are very thin to allow diffusion. In fact. 4. They have a thin film of water to ensure good and fast gas exchange by diffusion surrounds the alveoli. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchange in the alveoli by diffusion.8) 5. The alveoli are adapted for gas exchange by a number of factors: 1. There are many air sacks for a large surface area. Oxygen is carried in the r ed blood cells (rbc) while carbon dioxide is carried in the plasma as Hydrogen Carbonate (HCO3-) ions.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Numerous alveoli create a large surface area for gas exchange.
Germs and irritants penetrate deeper into the lung tissue and so the body s defence cell move into attack. it is Page 24 . This illness can cause permanent disability and eventually death. the diaphragm relaxes (dome shaped) and the volume in the chest decreases. the rib cage moves inwards and downwards. Bronchitis causes more than a 1000 deaths every year and it is a disease. the cigarettes contain many other chemicals. Their remains. although it can be treated if detected in the early stages. Coughing can only clear the build up of mucus in the lungs. 2) nicotine and while it is burn ing it produces 3) carbon monoxide. This disease. while the others left become thicker. Smoking and its Negative Effects Cigarettes contain 3 harmful chemicals: 1) Tar. Some of these are irritants. Irritants and chemicals that annoy the lungs. While you exhale.8 While breathing in. which mostly causes loss of workdays. Bronchitis: This disease results as much of the epithelium is damaged and destroyed by the cigarettes smoke and irritants. Apart from these. This growth is called a tumour or cancer. may cause cancer. Emphysema: Emphysema causes the walls between alveoli become torn and broken. Lung Cancer: Carcinogenic chemicals (chemicals which can cause cancer) cause lung tissue to divide in an uncontrolled manner. Since the volume decreases pressure increases and the air is expelled out of the lungs. Cancerous cells may go into the bloodstream and secondary tumour may arise. Since the volume increases the pressure decreases and the air is drawn into the lungs. Secondly. This is known as smoker s cough. it affects the epithelium in two ways: it irritates the goblet cells. along with the mucus make up phlegm. which must be coughed and spat everyday. so that they ca n no longer sweep out the mucus. Other chemicals are carcinogens. The smoke produced by the cigarettes is very harmful. The tumour spreads through the lung destroying other healthy tissue. This causes the lungs to have a smaller surface area for gas exchange. emphysema and lung cancer. The sufferer coughs and wheezes and struggles for breath. it slows down. Some diseases caused by cigarettes are bronchitis. making them produce more mucus. the diaphragm flattens and the volume in the chest increases.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. the rib cage moves upwards and outwards. or even stops the beating of the cilia.8) 5.
It is a harmful gas because it combines with the blood. thus it is a greenhouse gas (traps the sun s heat. convert ozone in t he protective ozone (O3) layer back into oxygen (O2). Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide rise from industrial effluent and car exhau st. 4 of them are poisonous for the hum an body. Other Lungs diseases Pneumonia: Certain bacteria and viruses cause this illness. The germs doesn t do much harm but sometimes. namely carbon monoxide CO. preventing it from absorbing oxygen. Page 25 . These cause the alveoli to get filled with fluid and cell debris. They are both toxic gases and in order to block nitrogen dioxide from escaping i nto the air.8 usually found too late and the victim dies. letting harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun penetrate the atmosphere. Tuberculosis (TB): It is cause by a bacillus (pathogenic bacteria). Stonecutters. carbon monoxide . with the help of rare catalysts. nitrogen dioxide NO2 and ozone O3. the bacillus may spread out through the lungs causing sever damage. CFC s (chlorofluorocarbons) although not considered pollutants. miners and asbestos workers may catch illnesses such as silicosis.8) 5. cars should be equipped with catalytic converters. Carbon monoxide is also produced by cars and other burning sources that are not properly ventilated such as gas heaters and fire places in enclosed rooms. pneumoconiosis and asbestosis respectfully. Dust Diseases: These diseases are caused when large amounts of dust are breath during work. harmless nitrogen and water. nitrogen dioxide and ozone. These devices conver t nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide. causing glob al temperature to rise. sulphur dioxide SO2. these diseases are incurable.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Even in small concentrations it may be fatal. sulphur dioxide. thus it makes a hole in this layer. Air Pollution The air is polluted by mainly 5 different gases: carbon dioxide. Oxygen starvation results sinc e a much of the alveoli block gas exchange. Carbon dioxide CO2 is not a toxic gas in moderate concentrations. Special precautions must be taken because once caught. causing skin cancer. This disease can be treated and cured nowadays. changing climate and endangering animal and plant species). but it contrib utes to global warming.
Disaccharides: Sugars with more than one glucose molecule attached together by bonds. non-digested substance used to sweep out undigested food out of the body. Polysaccharide: three or more sugar molecules are bonded together. another bulk material found in food. Glycogen: The chemical used by animals to store food. rice and cereals. Although ozone is useful in the ozone layer. roughage Water: Very important chemical. oxygen. Glucose: C6H12O6 Final product of digestion of carbohydrates. hydrogen. Carbohydrates: 1 of the bulk material of which food is made of. Proteins. Maltose: Found in barley grains. Minerals. potatoes. Vitamins: Organic substances needed in small amounts by the body.8 Certain electrical machinery and photocopiers produce ozone (O3) gas.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. A chemical used by plants to store food. nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. which is 20-50 km above sea level. Monosaccharides: Sugar with one glucose molecule. Page 26 . Proteins: Substances made up of carbon.8) 5. Vitamins. Basic Nutrients: The 7 basic food substances that are: Carbohydrates. Used for growth and repair or tissue. Some are coenz ymes and other help to prevent illnesses. Fibre and Water. it is hig hly poisonous and can contribute to acid rain. Fats: Made up of fatty acids and glycerol. Glycerol: Part of the fat molecule. insoluble. Fructose is also a monosaccharides. the most abundant compound in the Universe and in the body. Lactose: Found in milk. Fructose: A sugar found in fruit. Fibre: An insoluble. Fats. An organic substance from which the body gets energy. Glossary For Half Yearly Terms To Study Nutrition: the study of food. Starch: Found in bread. an insoluble polysaccharide. Sugars: Carbohydrates used to get energy. Minerals: Important substances needed in small quantities to prevent illnesses. Sucrose: Table sugar.
important for bones and teeth. D. Substrate: The food on which an enzyme acts. Prevents beriberi (weakness. Sodium: Found in salt. mineral water. Important for blood coagulation. leafy green vegetables. Helps to prevent goitre. Prevents pellagra (metal confusion. fish liver. nuts. dark green vegetables. Products: The substances released by the enzymes after the reaction is completed . Water Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins B1. egg yolk. Vitamin E: Found in milk.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Foods rich in Protein: Meat. Prevents night blindness (exophthalmia). and drinking water. B2. diarrhoea) Vitamin C: Found in citrus fruit. Prevents richets. Niacin (B6): Found in liver. Vitamin B1: Found in Pork. used for growth and repair of bone and cartilage tissue. lettuce. Calcium: Found in Milk. Page 27 . Phosphorous: Found in many foods.8) 5. headaches). Prevents Skin lesions. canned tuna. Prevents sterility. Peptide Bonds: Bonds attaching amino acids together to form dipeptides and polypeptides. liver and kidneys. Prevents rickets. Dipeptide: 2 amino acids attached together by peptide bonds. C. poultry. eggs. Fat soluble Vitamins: Vitamins A. partial paralysis) Vitamin B2: Found in liver. B6. E. Amino Acid: The final product of digestion of proteins. eggs. Vitamin K: Found in cabbage. Iodine: Found in sea food. milk. cheese. K. malformed bones. Polypeptides: 3 or more amino acids attached together by peptide bonds.8 Fatty acid: There are 3 fatty acids in a fat molecule. Vitamin A: Found in liver and carrots. (bleeding gums) Enzymes: Biological catalysts. Part of haemoglobin in rbc. Prevents cramps. Active site: Where the substrate enters. irregular heartbeat. Vitamin D: Found in fish liver oil. Urine: The body s excretorial waste. Peptide bonds: the bond by which amino acids are attached. Iron: Found in tomatoes. spinach. Prevents anaemia (tiredness. Prevents Scurvy. Denatured: Proteins like enzymes get denatured by heat (loses its properties).
Ingestion: food is ate. Protease: An enzymes used for tenderising meat. Canines: for holing and tearing. such as humans eat both meat and vegetable matter. Defecation (Egestion): Undigested matter such as fiber is egested (moved out) of the body.8) 5. Root: The lower part of the tooth. and prepare nutrients for absorption.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Omnivores. Amylase: Found in saliva and duodenum. Parasitic: When parasitic organisms feed on or in another organism harming it. Premolars: For chewing and grinding food. Digestion: Begins from the mouth by salivary amylase (starch-breaking enzyme) and continues till the duodenum. Cusps: hills on the teeth of carnivores and omnivores. Used in industry to convert starch to sugars to make syrups and juices. Absorption: the blood absorbs soluble products. Dental Caries: Tooth decay. Page 28 . Holophytic (autotrophic): Plants feed with this type of feeding. e. Molars: For chewing and grinding food. were enzymes chemically break down food into simpler soluble products. stage by stage. Incisors: Teeth adapted for cutting food. Assimilation: the nutrients are then assimilated (taken to) various organs aroun d the body. Herbivores eat vegetable matter and have special bodily structures to help them digest cellulose. [Do not mix excretion with egesting or defecation! Excretion is the removal of waste products made by chemicals reaction within the cells. Holozoic (heterotrophic): Animals feed heterotrophically. Crown: The upper part of the tooth. because they must search for their food. Arsenic: Enzyme inhibitor. Carnivores eat meat and are usually predators. Saprophytic: When saprophytic organisms such as fungi and some bacteria that feed on dead decaying matter. Saprophytes are useful to the environment because they recycle nutrients. Cyanide: Enzyme inhibitor.g. chewed and mixed with saliva.8 Biological Washing Powders: Washing powders that contain enzymes. They are able t o make their own food by photosynthesis.
Lipase: breaks down fates (lipids) into fatty acids and glycerol. as well as products such as steroids. Pancreatic amylase: breaks down starch into maltose. Liver: The largest and very important internal organ found in the body. Physical digestion: teeth to increase surface area for enzyme action to break down food. Peptidases: breaks down dipeptides into amino acids Sucrase: breaks down sucrose into glucose From the pancreas mainly 4 chemicals are produced: Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3): neutralizes acids from the stomach and provides alkaline pH in the duodenum. From the intestinal wall:. Hydrochloric acid (HCl acid): kills bacteria and provides and acidic pH for pepsin to work. Mainly five enzymes are produced: Trypsin: breaks down polypeptides into dipeptides. it produces bile. Maltase: breaks down maltose into glucose. The chemical digestion continues till the duodenum. Trypsin: breaks down starch into maltose. The liver cells help the blood to assimilate food substances and to excrete waste materials and toxins. Among it s functions. oestrogen. Pepsin: digestive enzyme. which breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptides. The liver also stores Page 29 . Lipase: Breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. breaks down drugs and alcohol. and converts the fin al products of digestion into glycerol for storage. Chemical digestion: food is mixed with saliva and salivary amylase breaks down some starch from the food (if there is) into maltose.8 excreting urine. and other hormones.8) 5. Pepsinogen: an inactive form of pepsin that is then activated by the hydrochlori c acid. Oesophagus: Gullet. Lysozyme: Chemical found in the saliva used to kill bacteria. Mucus: Protects the stomach from being digested by the enzymes.
Vestigial organs found in the body are the caesium and the appendix. It continues digestion of food and it receives enzymes from the intestinal wall and from the pancreas. Villi: Small structures found on the walls of the ileum where absorption stakes place. Venule: The vein that carries amino acids and monosaccharides. Microvilli: Even smaller villi on the large villi in the ileum. Absorption is done by the villi surrounding its walls. in fact. Hepatic Portal Vein: The vein that transports blood rich in soluble products of digestion from the ileum to the liver. Arteriole: The vein that transports blood in the villi. Mucus-Secreting Cell: Cells present in the trachea. Duodenum: The first part of the small intestine. Gall Bladder: An organ used to store bile. Ancient human beings who ate Page 30 . the liver is a source of iro n. Ileum: A long part of the gut where digestion stops and absorption starts.8 iron. many of the B-complex vitamins. There are millions of them to ensure that all nutrients have been absorbe d. Detoxification: One of the functions of the liver. vitamin A. It ends in the large inte stine. Hepatic Vein: The vein that transports blood from the liver to the heart. This function is carried out by the liver. Fat molecules are too large to be absorbed by the blood so it is broken down into smaller molecules by the bile. also called goblet cells. Vestigial Organ: An organ that has no known functions. Caesium: Another vestigial organ located near the appendix. They are found in the villi. Lacteal: The structure found in the villi that absorbs fat droplets. Deamination: The destruction of red blood cells so that the body forms new ones. and vitamin D. the intestinal wall and on the epithelium of the villi. Appendix: A vestigial organ located the between the ileum and colon. stomach wall.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Epithelium: The first thin layer of cells of the villi and other small structure s in the body. Emulsification: The process by which bile does detergent action on lipids. nose. where the liver breaks down drugs. Hepatic Artery: The artery that gives blood from the heart to the liver. It receives bile that the liver produced from the gall bladder. Bile: A green chemical used for emulsification.8) 5.
Colon: The first part of the large intestine where water and fluid are absorbed. Organic Molecules: Molecule containing carbon. Page 31 . Regurgitation: Ruminants bring the food they have already eaten and swallowed back to their mouth to continue chewing it. Respiration is a chemical reaction while gas exchange is just the exchange of gases. Anaerobic: A type of respiration that does not involve oxygen and doesn t produce as much energy as aerobic respiration. water and energy. Rumen: A large stomach with 3 compartments found in ruminants.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Cellulose: A cellulose-digesting enzyme produced by certain bacteria found in herbivores. these organs ceased from being used. Ruminants: Herbivores with a special type of stomach called a rumen. It ends in the rectum. Mitochondria/Mitochondrion: An organelle found in all cells that do respiration. Large Intestine: Part of the alimentary canal. Gas exchange: The process where oxygen is absorbed by the blood and carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. Aerobic: A type of respiration where oxygen is involved.8 mainly vegetable matter probably used these organs. Then. Alcoholic Fermentation: A type of anaerobic respiration where alcohol is a product of the chemical reaction.8) 5. They were home to cellulose-digesting bacteria. by evolution. Don t mix gas exchange with respiration. Lactic Acid: An acid produced in muscle tissues during strenuous exercise when there is lack of oxygen. Herbivores: Vegetable eating animals. a state called oxygen debt occurs. An example of such relationships is the relationship between the cellulose-digesting bacteria in the caesium and appendi x of ruminants. It is dividing into the colon and rectum. Respiration: A chemical reaction catalysed by enzymes where (in case of aerobic respiration) oxygen combines with glucose to form carbon dioxide. Mutualistic Relationship: A type of relationship between organisms where both animals are benefiting from each other. Oxygen Dept: When lactic acid is produce.
Pleural Membrane: A thin membrane that covers the inside of the ribs and the outside of the lungs. The place where the actual gas-exchange takes place. Plasma: Part of the fluid in blood. Tiny structures surrounded by many blood vessels to ensure that gas exchange takes place rapidly and efficiently. An example of this type of respiration is alcoholic fermentation. HCO3-. Pulmonary Vein/Artery: Blood vessels from which blood passes from and into the heart. A film of moisture between the two layers lets them slide easily over each other as the lungs move. Alveoli: Also called air sacks. Rings of cartilage t o make it stiff surround these structures. Trachea: Otherwise called windpipe. Ribs: Bones surrounding the lungs. These movements are shown her e in this diagram.8 when after exercise the body continues breathing heavily so re gain all the oxyg en needed by the muscle cells to break down lactic acid in carbon dioxide and water . Intercostals: Muscles between they ribs that contract and relax during inhalatio n and exhalation. There are two bronchi and they are attached to the trachea. Blood capillaries: Very. very small blood vessels that surround alveoli. Exhalation: Breathing out. Bronchus: One of the pipes from which air passes before going inside the lungs. Inhalation: Breathing in. The second pipe from where air passes and is filtered by cilia and mucus secreting cells. They ar e Page 32 . Breathing: A series of movements made by intercostals.8) 5. Rings of cartilage to make it st iff surround this structure and so that it doesn t get bent. the rib cage and pectorals to enable the air to get into the lungs. Diaphragm: A muscle present only in mammals to ease inhalation and exhalation. They are connected to the lungs and the heart.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. These are found inside the lungs . Hydrogen carbonate ions: Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood by this ion. Bronchioles: Small pipes from which air passes. This muscle is found under the lungs. Aerobic respiration: A type of respiration where oxygen is involved. Lungs: Major organs in some animals needed for gas exchange.
Diseases caused by smoking: Bronchitis. Goblet Cells: Mucus secreting cells. TB (Tuberculosis) and Dust Diseases. such as the outside of an organ or the lining of a cavity wall in the body.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. sulphur dioxide.8) 5. Tar: A chemical found in cigarettes. liquid alkaloid. Poisonous gases in the air: Carbon monoxide. nitrogen dioxide. C10H14N2 that constitutes the princ ipal active chemical constituent of tobacco. Carbon monoxide: A poisonous gas released by lightened cigarettes. Page 33 . Epithelium: A layer of cells that serves as a protective covering over a surface . oily. ozone. Nicotine: Colourless.8 very thin and tender and are found in many other places in the body. Emphysema and Lung Cancer Other lung Diseases: Pneumonia.
Skin The skin is responsible for transferring excess heat from inside the body to the outside environment. the skin and the kidneys. the lungs must provide the oxygen with a temperature of around 37 degress Celsius so that chemical reactions involving oxygen can take place. water and waste products (urea . the liver. Kidneys The kidneys are responsible for osmoregulation. the liver produces all the necessary heat for the body to keep its internal temperature around 37oC.e. They exchange carbon dioxide with oxygen from the air. Therefore. The Liver The liver is a major organ in the human body that makes a large amount of chemical reactions that produce heat (chemical reactions that produce heat are called exothermic). Lungs The lungs are responsible to exchange of gases in the body. Also. It also protects the body from germs. to control the amount of water in the body. i.8 Part 2 of Biology Notes (Rest of syllabus) T TTO OOP PPI IIC CC 5 55: :: H HHO OOM MME EEO OOS SST TTA AAS SSI IIS SS KEEPING A CONSTANT BODY ENVIRONMENT Introduction There are mainly 4 organs that help the body to keep a constant body environment: the lungs.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5. by filtering blood from salts. For that reason it is one of the organs that does homeostas is.
Page 34 .). because blood transports heat and helps to keep the body at a constant temperature. Blood is involved and so the kidneys are also part of homeostasis.
The major organs in the excretory system are the kidneys. This process is called ultra-filtration and it is done by nephrons (explained further in the following pages) The Kindey The diagram below shows the kidneys. The function of the kidneys is to filter blood from urea (waste produced b y chemical reactions in the body) excess water. The body can survive with just one kidney. Blood in the renal artery is full of oxygen but also full of waste (urea and salts) thus it h as to be filtered. th us it is clean. but with none. the bladder and blood vessels connected to it. Blood in the renal vein is deoxidized or reduced (without oxygen) and filtered by kidneys.8) 5. and excess salts. Renal Artery: The artery that transports blood INTO the kidneys. Page 35 . Renal Artery Medulla Kidney Wall Pyramid Pelvis Cortex Renal Vein Urither Renal Vein: The vein that transports blood OUT OF the kidneys.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8 The Excretory System The excretory system is the system responsible for the disposal of waste materia l produced by the body --Urine. the person must use the kidney machine (explained in the following pages) or else he or she dies.
Ring of Muscle: A ring of muscle that is kept closed before one goes to the toil et to excrete the urine. Renal Vein Renal Artery Right Kidney Bladder Ring of Muscles Urethra Ureters Page 36 . which stores urine before it is excreted out of the body . excess salts) into the bladder.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8 Ureters: Carry urine (urea. excess water.8) 5. They control the passage of urine out of the body. Urethra: The last structure from which urine passes before going out of the body . Bladder: The structure.
8 The Nephron Second Coiled Tubule (all useful salts reabsorbed) First Coiled Tubule (all glucose re-absorbed) % .Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5.
The filtrate contains glucose.The nephron is the structure. not all glucose is re absorbed and it is found in Urine. Loop of Henle: Here some water is re-absorbed. The First Coiled Tubule: Here. Selective re-absorption: Not everything is re-absorbed at once. but every tubule re-absorbs a particular nutrient. This increases pressure in the glomerulus. Since each part of the nephron re-absorbs the useful nutrients one at a time. where blood is filtered (ultra-filtered) from urea. Glomerulus: A network of blood capillaries. In a diabetic person. The structure of the nephron is shown above. If it is not that concentrated it will re-absorb l ess Page 37 . it is called a selective re-absorption. half inside a pyramid and the other half inside th e cortex. It is known as ULTRAFILTRATION. This filtration takes place on a microscopic scale. Blood in the renal artery is oxygenated and with urea. If it is concentrated (has little water). The pressure causes some constituents of blood to leak out of the capillary tube. all the glucose that passed from the capillary walls to the nephron is re-absorbed. The amount of water re-absorbed depends on the concentration of blood. water and salts. The renal artery is wider than the blood vessel through which it moves out. This takes place in the Bowman s capsule. a lot of water will be re-absorbed. Proteins and Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are too large and they don t pass through the capillary walls. urea. excess water and sal ts.
8) 5. urine is in large amounts. water and salts pass down the ureter into the bladder which stores urine. ADH is produce by the pituitary gland in the brain and causes thirst. Second Coiled Tubule: Here some salts (Na+.1% 0% Salts 0. very dilute (full of water) and with few waste.03% 2% Page 38 .4% 0.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. When there is a lot of ADH. urine is full of waste and with relatively few water .6% Urea 0. Constituents of Blood and Urine Substance Percentage in Blood Percentage in Urine Water 92% 95% Erythrocytes cells) (red blood 7% 0% Glucose 0. more water will be re-absorbed by the loop of henle. The amount of water re-absorbed also depends on a chemical called ADH (Anti-diuretic hormone). Cl-) are re-absorbed.8 water. Collecting Duct: Here. water and salts. hence. urea. Urine is a mixture of urea. When ADH is not found in the blood.
As a Sense Organ The skin contains many receptors or sense organs (heat receptors. As a Protective Organ The skin acts as a barrier against foreign bodies (germs).8 The Skin The skin is the organ responsible for: Protection. In fact. and Temperature Control (Homeostasis). Page 39 . Some animals have blubber (thick fat layer) under their skin to keep warm in very cold weather. The Human Skin The diagram below shows a cross section of the skin. This means that they have a constant body temperature. cold receptors . some reptiles (cold-blood ed animals) stay long hours in the sun to heat up their bodies. pressure receptors. it h as the same colour as its surroundings (camouflage). g.8) 5. polar bears) Ectothermic or poikilothermic (cold-blooded) animals have their internal temperature controlled by their surroundings. Sensitivity. Penguins.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. The human skin has 3 layers : the epidermis (made up of dead cells) the dermis (where there are the major livi ng cells and nerves) and the fat layer (full of fat for insulation). touch receptors) and these make the skin sensitive. pain receptors. As the Organ which Controls Temperature Warm blooded animals are called Endothermic or homoeothermic (warmblooded). In some animals. other animals are covered in spine s or produce an oil to make it water proof. e.
Blood vessels travel at the surface of the skin. Vaso-dilation takes place (Blood vessels widen thus more heat is lost) Shivering takes Place (uncontrolled constriction of muscles) Hair erector muscle contracts and hair erects so that air and heat is trapped between the hair and the skin.8 Hair erector Oil Temperature Control When it is Hot When it is Cold Skin loses heat Skin doesn t lose heat Sweating (oil glands produce sweat that passes through the sweat duct and evaporates through the sweat pore) Hair erector muscle relaxes and hair is loosened and touches with skin so that no heat and air is trapped.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Vaso-constriction (blood vessels get narrower so that less heat is lost to the environment. Page 40 .8) 5. Blood vessels travel deep down the skin.
has 2 upper chambers called atria (singular: Atrium) and 2 lower chambers called ventricles. The heart.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5. This is known as double circulation.8 T TTO OOP PPI IIC CC 6 66 T TTH HHE EE H HHE EEA AAR RRT TT The heart is a 4 chambered double pump. Left ventricle Right ventricle Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Aorta (Blood to head and body) (blood Vena Cava to lungs) (blood from head (blood from and body) lungs) Right atrium Left atrium Tricuspid valves . responsible of circulating oxygenated blood around the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The heart has 2 pumps and circulates oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood. An adult heart pumps about 5 litres of blood per minute.
Atrium: One of the upper chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from t he Oxygenated Blood Deoxygenated Blood heart and then divides into many arteries all around the body. Vena Cava: The largest vein found in the body.valves Semi-lunar Bicuspid valves Tendon Aorta: The largest artery found in the body. It transports de-oxygenated blood to the heart from the rest of the body. Page 41 . De-oxygenated blood is then transported to the lungs to be oxygenated. Tricuspid valve: A valve that lets blood to pass from the right atrium to the ri ght ventricle.
© Gareth Williams . Pulmonary Artery: The artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to t he lungs. Semi-lunar valves: the 2 valves which let blood pass from the lower ventricle to the aorta and the pulmonary artery. g Biology for you Stanley Thornes (publishes) Ltd.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Pulmonary Vein: The vein that carries oxygenated blood to the left atrium. The arteries are on the right hand side of the diagram while the veins are on the left hand side. A Double circulation This diagram shows the double circulation of the blood.8) 5.8 Ventricle: one of the lower chambers of the heart. Tendon: Special fibres in the heart muscle. Bicuspid valve: the valve that lets blood to pass from the left atrium to the le ft ventricle.
Blood Vessel Hepatic Artery Blood Vessels Route Heart Liver Function Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver Hepatic Vein Liver Heart Carries deoxygenated blood from the liver to the heart Hepatic Portal Vein Ileum Liver Carries blood filled with amino acids. Pulmonary Vein Lungs Heart Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. fatty acids and glycerol and salts from the small intestine (Ileum) to the liver to be stored Renal Artery Heart Kidney Carries oxygenated blood full of waste from the heart to the lungs.8 The following table shows the various blood vessels of the body. It is important to view the blood vessels shown here in the different organs studied this year. their route and function.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. water.8) 5. glucose. Renal Vein Kidney Heart Carries filtered blood from the kidneys to the heart. Pulmonart Artery Heart Lungs Carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs Aorta Heart Body Carries oxygenated Page 43 .
Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5.8 blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the rest of the body Vena Cava Body Heart Carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium of the heart. The Difference between Arteries and Veins The main difference between arties and veins is that arteries carry blood from t he heat to all the other tissues in the body while veins carry blood from the body to th e heart. Usually, veins carry deoxygenated blood and arteries carry oxygenated blood. One exception is that the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart and the pulmonary vein carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the lu ngs. Veins have valves so that blood goes in the right direction; arteries don t have v alves because blood flows with a lot of pressure inside the arteries and backflow of b lood is impossible. Arteries have a thin lumen (inner structure of the blood vessel, whe re blood passes) because blood flows with a high pressure and the walls have to be wide, while veins have a wide lumen. Arteries have an elastic wall, but veins don t have an elastic wall. Artery Vein Thin Lumen Wide Lumen Page 44
Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5.8 Blood Blood is the main fluid found in the body. The functions of blood are the follow ing: The fluid that carries all the nutrients and oxygen around the body to all cells Transports heat around the body Transports hormones Transports antibodies Important for excretion of urea, excess water and salts Blood clotting Controls the amount of water and chemicals in the body tissues The body has about 6 litres of blood (9% body mass). There are 4 blood groups in humans, namely A, B, O and AB (rarest) Blood is made up of Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells), Leucocytes (white blood cells), and Plasma. Erythrocytes (red-blood cells) Erythrocytes are numerous, have no nucleus and have a bi-concave shape (for a la rger surface area) to carry oxygen (O2) more efficiently. Red-blood cells are made in the bone marrow and their life span is about 4 month s. Deamination (taking away iron from the red-blood cells, hence, destroying them t o be replaced by new ones) takes place in the liver. Erythrocytes contain haemoglobin that when it is oxygenated, haemoglobin becomes oxyhaemoglobin. Carbon dioxide travels in the plasma as (hydrogen carbonate ions ) HCO3-ions. This also helps erythrocytes to carry O2. Carbon monoxide (CO) combines with the haemoglobin 300 times faster than O2, thus it is very harmful. This gas is produced by cigarettes and burning of fuels such as in cars. People living in high altitudes have a greater number of Erythrocytes since less oxygen is present in the air. Their body has adapted to the environment. This is known as acclimatization. Page 45
Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5.8 Page 46 Phagocyte Lymphocyte Lobed Nucleus Large Nucleus These two diagrams above show erythrocytes, viewed from the front and a cross section. Leucocytes Leucocytes are lager than Erythrocytes. They re colourless, and are made in the re d bone marrow and the lymph glands. There are various types of leucocytes: Phagocytes and Lymphocytes are two of these types. Phagocytes engulf the germs, which leaves remains of dead germs and leucocytes called pus. The process by which phagocytes engulf germs is similar to the way amoebas feed and is known as phagocytosis. Lymphocytes produce antibodies, detect the germ s antigen and it can either make the germ burst, or clump together, or make them harmless. Platelets are Fragments of cells also found in the blood. Plasma Plasma is a sticky fluid, containing water, salts, food substances, urea, hormon es, platelets, prothrombin, blood proteins, fibrinogen (for blood clotting), globuli n (helps to destroy germs), albumin (makes blood thick and viscous). Front view Cross section
Lymph nodes are structures tha t produce cells similar to white blood cells that fight germs. Lymph vessels also have valves like veins do. It is a yellowish in colour because it contains urea when it is full of waste. which is insoluble and forms solid threads that forms the cloth. Inside them. providing them with oxygen and all the necessary nutrients. Along these lymph vessels.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. these lymph nodes become swollen and painful. there are lymph nodes. excess water and waste substances pass from the cells to the tissue fluid. Page 47 .8) 5. Tissue fluid drains in the lymph vessels. This watery liquid keeps the cells in the right condition. bacteria and germs ar e being trapped and killed by these cells. Tis sue fluid is drained from blood capillaries. Tissue Fluid Tissue fluid is a liquid found around cells. Lymph vessels transport the fluid call ed lymph. Platelets activate prothrombin into thrombin. Platelets Hemophilia is a genetic disease where blood fails to clot. Useful substances pass from the tissue fluid to the cells and urea. When there is an in fection.8 Blood Clotting When a blood vessel is damaged. Then thrombin activates fibrinogen into fibrin. platelets enter the wound.
C . green algae. 2 2 612 6 2 chlorophyll Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen Products Raw Materials Water goes upwards from the roots Glucose goes downwards from the leafs Water is absorbed by the roots by osmosis Photosynthesis is performed by plants.8 T TTO OOP PPI IIC CC 6 66 P PPH HHO OOT TTO OOS SSY YYN NNT TTH HHE EES SSI IIS SSWhat is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide and water is chang ed to glucose by the action of chlorophyll and with sunlight energy. light 6C. or other heterotrophic organism. . a plant. To photosynthesize. + 6. + 6. needs Car .Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. and plant-like protists such as the Euglena.8) 5.
light and chlorophyll. to be stored. Thus. then it must have photosynthesized but if the leaf has no Page 48 . To find out if the plant has performed photosynthesis. while water goes upwards the stem from the roots through the xylem vessels in th e vascular bundles. water. Plants store food as starch. If the leaf has starch. the plant transforms glucose into starch. you must do a starch test on a leaf. Glucose goes down the stem towards the roots in the Phloem vessels in the vascular bundles.bon dioxide. which is an insoluble polysaccharide. after producing glucose.
p lants wouldn t exist. Inside a Leaf Photosynthesis happens in plants. The Importance of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process in which plants get the energy from. De-starching De-starching occurs when the plant doesn t make any photosynthesis (e. Dip it in alcohol (ethanol) to decolorize it. which eat plants. 2. 3. It tu rns starch into glucose and uses it up. Cut a leaf from a plant and boil it in a beaker with water to soften it. Without it. Thus photosynthesis is indirectly useful for other animals. Photosynthesis releases oxygen as a by-product of its reaction. hence it has photosynt hesized.8 starch. The leaf must be put in a boiling tube dipped in warm water. then the leaf has starch. The green part of the plant is usually the leaf. because i t is in the dark) and so the plant uses its stored starch stored for energy.8) 5. and this is because chloroplast s have a special green chemical called chlorophyll that converts sunlight into chemical energy. Results for Iodine test If the iodine turns blue-black. exactly in the chloroplasts that are found in leaves. Put the decolorized leaf again in the warm water to soften it again. Oxygen is used b y almost all living organisms for the breakdown of glucose and release of energy. Put the leaf on a white tile and add two drops of iodine on the leaf. 4.g. The following picture shows a cross section of a typical leaf. Testing a Leaf for Starch 1.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Page 49 . that means the plant has not photosynthesized and it used up all the sta rch it had in the leaf to stay alive. Don t heat up the boiling tube with alcohol because it is flammable.
The lower epidermis is similar to the upper epidermis. so diffusion of gases takes place efficiently.8) 5. Stomata are surrounded by two guard cells. as photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and produce s oxygen. which are the only cells in the lower epidermis that have chloroplasts. The spongy layer is characterized by air spaces between the cells. with the cells making it up that don t have chloroplasts. tiny holes from which exchange of gases takes place. The palisade and the spongy layer are made up of cells called mesophyll cells.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8 Stomata Vascular bundle (vein) Waxy cuticle Upper Epidermis Palisade layer Air spaces Spongy layer Lower epidermis The waxy cuticle is the uppermost part of the leaf. It is here that most photosynthesis takes place. The palisade layer is a thick layer of elongated cells packed with chloroplasts. The cells in the spongy layer also have chloroplasts. The cells in this layer don t have chloroplasts. The following picture shows the structure of guard cells: Page 50 . so that light pa sses directly into next layer. but this layer has stomata. These cells have t hin cell walls on the outer side but wide cell walls on the inner side. but the first layer that is made up of living cells. The upper epidermis is the second layer of the leaf. It is transparent. It makes the leaf waterproof and protects the leaf from losing water.
How are leaves adapted for photosynthesis Leaves have numerous adaptations to ease photosynthesis. carbon dioxide gets in and oxygen does out while photosynthesis takes place. is found near the upper side of the leaf. V The waxy cuticle and epidermis are transparent to allow light passage throughout the leaf. and all of them receive light. for absorbing light and carbon dioxide. and these organelles move around the cell so as to find the best position to find light.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Water and soluble minerals pass from the xylem vessels while sugars pass from the phloem vessels.8 Stomata Thick cell wall Think cell wall In the leave there are also vascular bundles (plant veins) that are made up of x ylem and phloem vessels. which are packed with chloroplast. the palisade layer.8) 5. V Leaves are thin to allow fast diffusion of carbon dioxide. V The palisade layer is made up of palisade mesophyll cells. Page 51 . V They have a large surface area. V The place were most photosynthesis takes place. V Leaves are arranged so that they don t over-shadow each other. were most of the light comes. V They have a lot of stomata in the lower epidermis for gas exchange.
3. which means it can now be moved or transported in a solution since glucose is water-soluble. which makes starch. releasing water and carbon dioxide. These storage organs can be formed in roots.8 V There are air spaces around the spongy mesophyll cells to allow gas circulation. starch is mobilised. leaves or stems. Page 52 . In order to make some of these materials. Conversion to starch: Enzymes in the plant convert glucose into starch.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Some plants store food in tubers or bulbs that can also germinate. the plant can make other important chemical and material such as proteins. Storage in germination structures: the plant stores some food for the next generation by storing starch or fat in their seeds and fruits. the plant must have a supply of nitrogen in order to produce proteins. uncoils back into single glucose molecules in a process called hydrolysis. Production of cell material: from sugars. With these. When energy is needed and no glucose is formed by photosynthesis. This is done so that glucose can be stored. 2. such as when it is dark. such as roots. to supply their needs. fats and oils. Since glucose is soluble. which are formed by part of the plant swelling up. Plants and animals do this my oxidizing glucose in the process called respiration. through the phloem vessels. Thus the plant converts it into starch. which is insoluble and stores it. sulphur and potassium. the plants must also have other minerals absorbed from the soil such as nitrogen. When a seed germinates. Glucose and sugars In the chemical reaction of photosynthesis. plants need energy. the plant can do a number of things: 1. For instance. it cannot be stored. glucose and other sugars are produce d. Starch is stored in special storage organs. food passes from the seed to the new growing plant until it can make its own food by photosynthesis. it can only be used straight away or transported. When a plant performs hydrolysis. 4. the chain of glucose molecules. 5.8) 5. Respiration: like any other living thing. Translocation: this means that the excess sugars produced by the leaves are transported into other parts of the plant. that cannot make photosynthesis.
apart from carbon dioxide and water.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5. Fertilisers can be either artif icial. such Page 53 . Mineral Symbol Importance Deficiency Nitrogen N To make amino acids. the plant needs other substances important for the formation of other material. one must add fert ilizers in order to replenish the soil with vital minerals. proteins and chlorophyll Poor growth and chlorosis (yellowing of the leaf) Potassium K Helps chlorophyll and protein formation. chlorosis Calcium Ca Formation of cell wall cement in the middle lamella Abnormal leaf shape. DNA. resistance to disease Abnormal leaf shape. Some minerals needed b y plants are listed here. poor buds and slow growth Magnesium Mg Centre of chlorophyll molecule Chlorosis of old leaves Iron Fe Formation of chlorophyll Chlorosis of young leaves Sulphur S Formation of amino acids Chlorosis of young leaves and excessive root growth Phosphorous P Formation of ATP.8 Important Minerals for Plants As mentioned above. poor growth If the soil is deficient in some of these important nutrients. for respiration and photosynthesis Lack of energy.
The relationship between each and every one of these factors and photosynthesis are described below: If light increases.8) 5. When temperature increases photosynthesis increases.8 as NPK (Nitrogen. photosynthesis increases. Potassium).Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Some advantages that this method has are that the crop yield is increased and the soil doesn t have to be fertilized each year. they are expensive and can decrease soil fertility in the long run. when one factor is increasing. which has all the necessary minerals so that a plant to grow healthy. These increase crop yield. level of carbon dioxide. If water is plenty. and light. The ra te of photosynthesis is affected by water. it is someti mes called soil-less culture. above 35oC. Important terms in Botany Water cultures: A full water culture is a solution. the other factors cause the rate of photosynthesis to stay constant anyway. Hydroponics: It is the method to grow plants without soil. photosynthesis increases. photosynthesis increases. temperature. up to a certain point. This is shown in the graphs below: Page 54 . photosynthesis halts completely in most plants. such as humus and manure. If carbon dioxide is plenty. super phosphates or natural. Limiting Factors Limiting factors stop the rate of photosynthesis from increasing further. Despite this. however. in fact. Plants are grown with water cultures. Phosphorous. or else.
Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8 Limiting Factors 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 PhotosynthesisRate of photosynthesis at 0.01%carbon dioxide Rate of photosynthesis at 0.5 1 1.5 4 4.5 3 3.8) 5.5 2 2.5 5 Rate of PhotosynthesisRate of Photosynthesis Carbon Dioxide limiting 12345678 light Intensity Page 55 .1%carbon dioxide 0 250 500 750 1000 1500 2500 4000 5000 Light Rate of Photosynthesis 0 0.
8) 5.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 5 Rate of PhotosynthesisRate of Photosynthesis Light Limiting 12345678 Concentration of Carbon Dioxide Rate of Photosynthesis Rate of PhotosynthesisRate of Photosynthesis 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature Page 56 .8 Rate of Photosynthesis 0 0.5 2 2.5 4 4.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.
8 Food Chains and Food Webs There are various ways to represent who animals feed in a particular habitat. The ot her organisms in the chain are called consumers because they consume (eat) the organism before them. In order to represent this situation. The ultimate source of energy is always the sun. Robin Grass Fallen oak leaves Caterpillars Grass Insects Earthworms Chameleon Ground beetles Mole Fox Page 57 . Plants Insects Birds Mammal The first organism in a food chain is always a producer. an organism doesn t eat only one type of food. An example of a food web is given here below. Producers make their ow n food from the sun by photosynthesis. but it is usually not included in a food chain. The following is an example of a simple food chain. a food web is produced. More often than not.8) 5. The last organism in a food chain is always called the top carnivore. any anima l eats more than one species of organism. then th ere is the secondary consumer and so on. i. A food chain is one such a way to show what eats what. A food web is a collection of food chains mixed together to get a clearer picture of what animals eat what. Plants are an example of a producer. The arrows in the food chain represents the flow of energy or the phrase is eate n by. I f an organism eats both plants and animals.e. The secondary consumer is a carnivore because it eats other animals. The primary consumer is always a herbivore because it eats plants or another producer. then it is called an omnivore.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. The first consumer is called the primary consumer.
Grass Rabbit Fox When energy flows from one organism to the other.8) 5. Grass Caterpillar Bird Ladybird Aphids Rose In order to show the dry mass of the organisms in a food chain. Two examples of a pyramids o f numbers are shown here below. a Pyramid of biomass is produced.Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4. Then following i t are the primary consumer. it doesn t give us the number of organisms involved.8 A food web gives us more information about the feeding of animals than food chai ns. some energy is always lost. a Pyramid of Numbers. The first (bottom) layer in the pyramid is always the producer. Th at is the pyramid of biomass is always the shape of normal upright pyramid instead as shown in the above diagram. Despite this though. Page 58 . To show the number of organisms involved in a food chain. then the secondary and so on.
These are present in the leaves. in the stem and in the roots. Sieve plates Xylem Vessels Lignin Phloem Vessels Sieve tubes Companion Cells Vascular Bundles END OF BIOLOGY NOTES Page 59 .Biology Form 4 Notes (2003-2004)2005 Jordan Mifsud (4.8) 5. Lignin is a strong mate rial formed from dead cells. it is the important for the transport of materials throughout the plant. The xylem vessels are made up of strong tubes of lignin. The xylem vessels carry water and minerals up from the roots to the lea ves while the phloem vessels carry sugars solutions from the leaves to the rest of t he plants. The vascular bundles are made up of two vessels namely the Xylem and the Phloem vessels.8 Short note on Xylem and Phloem Vessels Plant veins are called vascular bundles. Phloem vessels are made up of sieve plates with sieve tubes supported by companion cells.
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