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THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

HIGH-TECH CRIME
AND CRIME-FIGHTING
THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

HIGH-TECH CRIME
AND CRIME-FIGHTING

Michael Newton
The Encyclopedia of High-Tech Crime and Crime-Fighting

Copyright © 2004 by Michael Newton

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Newton, Michael, 1951––


The encyclopedia of high-tech crime and crime-fighting / by Michael Newton
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index
ISBN 0-8160-4978-5 (HC) — ISBN 0-8160-4979-3 (PB)
1. Computer crimes—Encyclopedias. 2. Computer viruses—Encyclopedias. 3. Computer hackers—Biography. I. Title
HV6773.N48 2004
364.16'8—dc21
2002192847

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Printed in the United States of America

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This book is printed on acid-free paper.


Inventor, n. A person who makes an ingenious arrangement of
wheels, levers and springs, and believes it civilization.
—Ambrose Bierce
The Devil’s Dictionary

If the human race wants to go to hell in a basket,


technology can help it get there by jet. It won’t change the desire or
the direction, but it can greatly speed the passage.
—Charles M. Allen
“Unity in a University,”
speech at Wake Forest
University, 25 April 1967
Contents

FOREWORD ix

AUTHOR’S NOTE xiii

INTRODUCTION xv

ENTRIES A–Z 1

GLOSSARY 357

BIBLIOGRAPHY 363

INDEX 367
Foreword
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY mistakes. Justice was swift, punishment brutal, and
As long as one man has and another wants, there mistakes were made.
will always be crime. The second story of the Bible It was not until the latter part of the 19th century
is that of people breaking established rules. It is that matters began to improve. Advances in science
followed by an account of the first murder. And not aided both law enforcement officials and those who
much has changed since then. Murder, robbery, stood falsely accused of crimes.
theft, and rape are part of humankind’s history. One concern of the justice system was the identi-
To maintain order, most societies establish laws, fication of repeat offenders. Until the late 1800s
rules of behavior that people are expected to obey. police relied upon their memories to identify those
Those who do not are punished as an example and a who had been previously arrested. In 1878 the
warning to the rest. Laws that are unenforced soon development of the dry-plate photographic process
cease to be effective. So when a crime is committed, made it possible to record images of people taken
it is vital to society to quickly identify the law- into custody. Police, however, were slow to make
breaker. Only by the swift detection, capture, and use of this new technology.
punishment of the criminal can order be maintained. In 1879, while working for the French Prefect of
That is society’s interest. Those who break the law Police, Alphonse Bertillon proposed that a series of
have another interest, mainly to cover up their 14 different measurements taken of a prisoner would
crimes and elude detection for as long as possible, positively identify him. In November 1882 his sys-
preferably forever. tem was adopted on a trial basis, and in February
For a long time, the advantage was with the crim- 1883 a prisoner calling himself “Dupont” was iden-
inal. If the criminal could commit a crime and leave tified as one who had been previously arrested under
its scene undetected, he or she stood a good chance the name “Martin.” By the end of 1884 Bertillon’s
of escaping justice. Those charged with law enforce- method had led to the identification of more than 300
ment had to rely on luck, witnesses, and any obvious repeat offenders. By then Bertillon had embraced the
clues that the criminal might have left behind. Luck new technology of photography, establishing a
was often with the careful criminal, who made sure rogues’ gallery of felons, their images preserved in
not to leave behind any incriminating evidence. what are now the traditional full face and profile
A larger danger in those times was that the wrong “mugshots.”
person could be arrested and convicted for a crime. The Bertillonage system was universally accepted
Identifications by victims and witnesses are not 100 until the turn of the century when two cases, one in
percent reliable. Suspects developed by police England and the other in the United States, pointed
through witnesses, analysis of past behavior of out its deficiencies. In England in 1901 one of a pair
known felons, and the interpretation of whatever of identical twins, Albert and Ebenezer Fox, stood
evidence was found on crime scenes had little chance accused of theft. But which one? Their Bertillon
of proving their innocence once accused of a crime. measurements identical, they could only be identified
The real criminal was not likely to confess, nor was through fingerprints. Once their identities were estab-
law enforcement likely to admit the possibility of lished, Ebenezer went to jail and Albert was set free.

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The Encyclopedia of High-Tech Crime and Crime-Fighting

Two years later, in the United States, a prisoner mitting crimes. Efforts to disguise or alter prints
named Will West arrived in Fort Leavenworth have been made throughout the years, most of them
Prison. However, based on his Bertillon measure- unsuccessful. The only known case of a man suc-
ments, “Will West” was already incarcerated there. ceeding in fully and permanently blanking out his
As it turned out there were two men, one William prints was that of Robert Phillips, aka Roscoe Pitts.
West, the other, Will—with the same features and the In 1941 Dr. Leopold Brandenburg grafted skin from
same Bertillon measurements. Only through finger- Phillips’s abdomen onto his fingertips, successfully
prints could the men be properly identified. obscuring his fingerprints. Unfortunately for Phillips,
At the same time, the use of fingerprints to solve when he was next arrested, police used his palm-
crime was growing. The earliest known case was in prints to identify him.
1879 in Tokyo, where Scottish doctor and mission-
ary Henry Faulds used a sooty handprint left at the THESE DAYS
scene of a theft to exonerate the man police had In 1977 I began my career with the Baltimore Police
arrested for the crime. A second man arrested a few Department’s (BPD) Crime Laboratory. As a crime
days later confessed, his hand print matching that laboratory technician and later as a supervisor, my
found on the scene. job was (and still is) to document crime scenes and
In 1892 Juan Vucetich of the Argentine police the evidence found on them. My job was also to
solved the double murder of two children using a search for and find that evidence with the goal of
bloody print found on a doorpost to show that their identifying those involved in the crime. In doing so, I
mother had committed the deed. Scotland Yard had found myself using techniques similar to those
its first arrest and conviction using fingerprints in described above. Fingerprinting on the scene was still
1902. This was for a burglary. The Yard’s first mur- being done with brushes and powders. Once a latent
der conviction from prints came in 1905. print was found, it could be identified only if there
Other methods of identification were also being was a suspect, or else after a long and tedious search
developed. The year 1902 saw the first attempts to through arrest records and open case files. Likewise,
employ ABO blood typing to solve crimes. In 1916 while spent cartridge cases and fired bullets could be
Dr. Leone Lattes of the University of Turin’s Institute matched to recovered weapons, linking them to
of Forensic Medicine used ABO grouping to exoner- other crimes in which the weapon had been used
ate a suspect in an assault. required the long process of manually sifting through
Some years later, the growing science of forensic evidence from past cases.
ballistics was beginning to allow investigators to Blood found on the scene was matched to suspects
match bullets and expended cartridge cases to the and victims through ABO grouping and similar
weapons that had fired them. In 1915 a man named genetic markers. Semen and other bodily fluids were
Charlie Stielow was arrested for a murder committed useless unless the person from whom they came
with a .22 pistol in Orleans County, New York. secreted these markers. And all too often, more than
Stielow was tried, convicted, and sentenced to be exe- one of the people involved in the crime had identical
cuted in Sing Sing. Those convinced of his innocence marker profiles, making a positive identification
persevered, and finally his life was spared and he was impossible.
set free when it was demonstrated that the pistol Gradually, though, technology caught up to our
recovered from him could not have fired the fatal needs. By the early 1980s the BPD Crime Lab began
shot. Further developments in the 1920s and 1930s using cyanoacrylate (Super Glue) fumes to develop
by such experts as Calvin Goddard of the U.S. Army’s prints on surfaces that were previously considered
Ordnance Reserve and Sir Sydney Smith, Medico- unsuitable for processing. Lasers gave us another
Legal Adviser for the British government in Egypt, led tool with which to find still more latent prints. And
to the methods of firearms identification that are then our evidence-gathering capability again
being used to the present day. increased with the use of deoxyribonucleic acid
Of course, just as law enforcement used technol- (DNA) analysis. Not only could we better compare
ogy to combat crime, the criminal class was not slow blood and semen from victims and scenes to those
to employ it for their own ends. To cite one example, suspected of committing the crimes, but such items
fingerprints have long been a bane to the criminal, as the mouths of soda bottles, the handles of
especially those who don’t wear gloves while com- weapons, and the triggers of handguns now bore

x
Foreword

invisible traces, which if properly recovered could comparisons lead to the exoneration of the innocent,
positively identify a suspect. so too is DNA comparison freeing or clearing those
If I were asked to pick the one recent scientific wrongly suspected or convicted.
advance that changed law enforcement most radi- Just how much modern science and technology
cally, I would have to choose the computer. Its effect has affected the world of crime and crime fighting is
on crime and crime fighting, and the satisfaction one explored in the following work. Just as the author
gets from doing the job, has been amazing. Comput- did in his previous volumes on kidnappings and
ers are used in the analysis of crime patterns. serial killers, Michael Newton ably uses the encyclo-
Reports, crime scene diagrams, and facial compos- pedia format to closely examine this subject, concen-
ites—back in 1977 all of these were prepared by trating mainly on the advances in DNA and
hand, and not always done as accurately or pre- computers, but also exploring other technologies
sented as neatly as we would have liked. Computers such as personal protection, fingerprint recovery,
now allow us to do these jobs more thoroughly and and how such sciences as anthropology, podiatry,
professionally. and dentistry play their part in the solving of crimes.
This, however, is administrative office stuff that, The reader should be warned. Mr. Newton’s work
while important, is secondary to the main goal— may challenge some dearly held ideas and concepts.
putting the bad guys in jail. And it is in this area that Who can read about the number of people exoner-
the computer best serves law enforcement. ated by DNA and other evidence and not question
Police departments on the local, state, and federal the validity of past convictions and executions? Who
levels have established massive databases that hold can feel absolutely secure sitting at their computer
digital records of inked prints of those arrested, terminals with the presence of so many worms,
latent prints recovered from crime scenes, lands and viruses, and cyber-scams out there? Who can con-
grooves from fired bullets, firing pin impressions tinue to enjoy certain cop shows knowing how
from spent cartridge cases, and DNA patterns from things are done in the real world?
body fluids recovered on crime scenes and taken On the other hand, knowledge that this technol-
from sex offenders. ogy exists also may provide its own sense of security.
The use of these computer databases gives law No longer will predators be anonymous. The means
enforcement a powerful weapon. No longer do to track them by the traces they leave behind are
police need to develop a suspect to have a recovered there. Unjust convictions may become fewer and
print matched to a suspect. Entering the print into an fewer as the means to identify the true criminals
AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System), improve. And the awareness of the schemes used by
a fingerprint examiner can sometimes make a match computer thieves and outlaws to separate us from
in a case without witnesses or suspects within 24 our money and disrupt our lives is one of the first
hours of the crime being committed. Similar data- tools needed in protecting ourselves from them.
bases exist to match recovered bullets and cartridge In this regard, Michael Newton’s Encyclopedia of
cases from one scene to those on another and to the High-tech Crime and Crime-fighting serves us well,
gun that fired them. Still another does the same for discussing the dangers and benefits of today’s tech-
the DNA patterns from recovered evidence and nology and how it is used and misused by both sides
known offenders. Thanks to these tools, law enforce- of the law.
ment no longer needs to rely on luck, witnesses, and
obvious clues to identify participants in crimes. —John L. French,
These databases also turn back time. Investiga- Supervisor,
tions of crimes that occurred five, 10, even 20 years Baltimore City Police Crime Laboratory
ago are given new life as more and more informa-
tion is gathered and criminals who walked free for Bibliography: Patricia Barnes-Svarney, et al. The
far too long are identified and arrested for their past New York Public Library Science Desk Reference.
misdeeds. New York: Stonesong Press/Macmillan, 1995; Larry
More important, with the ability to make faster Ragle, Crime Scene. New York: Avon Books, 2002;
and more accurate identifications comes the oppor- Gus Russo, The Outfit. New York: Bloomsbury,
tunity to free those falsely accused of or unjustly 2001; Jay Siegel, Pekka J. Saukko, and Geoffrey C.
imprisoned for crimes they did not commit. Just as Knuper, eds. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences.
the beginnings of fingerprint, firearms, and ABO London: Academic Press, 2000; Sydney Smith,

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The Encyclopedia of High-Tech Crime and Crime-Fighting

Mostly Murder. New York: Dorset Press, 1988; DNA Evidence.” CD-ROM. National Commission
Frank Smyth, Cause of Death, The Story of Forensic on the Future of DNA Evidence, National Institute
Science. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980; of Justice; “The History of Fingerprints.” Latent
Jurgen Thorwald, Crime and Science. New York: Print Examination. Available online. URL: http://
Harcourt, Brace and World, 1967; “What Every onin.com/fp/fphistory.html. Updated February 17,
Law Enforcement Officer Should Know About 2003. Accessed March 25, 2003.

xii
Author’s Note
Entries in The Encyclopedia of High-Tech Crime and Crime-Fighting are alpha-
betically arranged. SMALL CAPITALS within the text denote a subject with its
own discrete entry elsewhere in the book. “Blind” entries provide further cross-
referencing for certain topics, as where one or more individuals are treated
collectively—e.g., SCHNEIDER, Bjorn. See FASTLANE. While thousands of
computer viruses exist today, a representative sampling was arbitrarily chosen
for this volume to include (a) notorious examples and (b) lesser-known viruses
discussed as examples of various types.

xiii
Introduction
“May you live in interesting times.” The reasons for this law-and-order gap are
Robert F. Kennedy, visiting South Africa in July twofold. First, law enforcement and the related pri-
1966, invoked that phrase in a globally publicized vate security industry are by nature both reactive
speech, describing it as an ancient Chinese curse. and conservative. Both respond to threats of criminal
Linguists and historians in the past four decades activity as they arise. “Pro-active” law enforcement
have found nothing to support Kennedy’s claim, is, in fact, no more than an aggressive drive against
which appears to be pure invention, but his instincts crimes recognized from past experience. Investiga-
were true. Interesting times are those marked by con- tors and technicians in the field do not anticipate
flict and courage, peril and progress, fear and fasci- new problems on a daily basis, much less when the
nation. crimes defy pedestrian imagination.
For good or ill, we live in interesting times. Second, the police are forced to work within a
Children of the post–World War II “baby boom,” framework of established laws, which always lag
now middle-aged, were ill prepared for the 21st cen- behind criminal trends, mending fences after the fact.
tury. Their generation was raised on novels, films, Offenses must be legally defined, parameters and
and Saturday morning cartoons that predicted an era penalties debated, guidelines for investigation clari-
of intergalactic travel and adventure, hover cars and fied, budgets approved. The process may take
ray guns, global peace and harmony. Reality is rather months or years, and even when it is accelerated—as
different, with nonstop wars and terrorism, the AIDS in the congressional response to terrorist attacks of
pandemic, deforestation and global warming, and September 11, 2001—implementation of new legis-
fossil fuel crises. Space exploration has languished, lation still takes time.
for the most part, with manned flight halted at the The “9/11” crisis, in fact, provides a perfect case
moon and our neighbor Mars inviolate outside of in point for how criminals run circles around seden-
sci-fi fantasies. At the same time, however, even as tary law enforcement agencies. Slipping through
humanity gave up on colonizing outer space, techni- loopholes in the extant security and immigration
cians labored to invent a new dimension: cyberspace. statutes, terrorist leader Osama bin Laden used
It is the new frontier, a virtual realm where reality American flight schools to train his suicide pilots for
itself is fluid, and rules—if they exist at all—seem airline hijackings that would level the World Trade
made to be broken. And like every other frontier in Center and gravely damage the Pentagon. Rather
the long parade of human history, the new domain than risk his men by sending them aboard those
has outlaws. planes with firearms, he armed them with simple
It seems to be a law of nature that criminals knives permitted under short-sighted airline security
always outpace law enforcement in adopting and regulations. In the wake of September 11, new regu-
adapting new technology. From six-guns to auto- lations were enacted pertaining to screening of lug-
matic weapons, Model-T Fords to Lear jets, adding gage—which played no part whatever in the 9/11
machines to the Internet, lawbreakers always get attacks—and even when those statutes were passed
there first, while law-abiding servants of the people in record time, airline and airport spokesmen
lag behind. reported that installation of the newly mandated

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The Encyclopedia of High-Tech Crime and Crime-Fighting

security devices might take three years or more to revenge, religious and political fanaticism—coupled
complete. with new technology to become at once more prof-
Criminals, for their part, are bound by none of the itable and more threatening to organized society.
restrictions that hamper law enforcement. The most Such crimes as theft, fraud, stalking and harassment,
notorious of them are innovators, always thinking of espionage, sabotage, and terrorism are as old as
new ways to victimize the public. As the Reno gang homo sapiens, but new advances in communications,
“invented” train robbery in 1866, and Jesse James data storage and retrieval elevate common felons to
pioneered daylight bank robbery a few years later, so new levels of achievement.
modern felons labor nonstop to take full advantage At the same time, certain modern crimes are truly
of new technology, seeking more efficient ways to that: without computers and associated hard- or
beat the system and avoid detection in the process. software they would not exist. “Phreaking”—the art
“High-tech” crimes are defined by their era. When of defrauding long-distance telephone carriers with
bank robber Henry Starr abandoned horses and computers or other devices—has existed only since
made his first getaway by automobile, in 1914, he the final quarter of the 20th century. Computer
was on the cutting edge of outlaw technology, and it “hacking,” likewise, is a product of the 1960s,
served him well for the next seven years. Today a turned to crime (for sport or profit) even as aging
computerized thief in Moscow can steal millions pioneers in the field volubly defend an illusory
from a New York bank without leaving his apart- “hacker ethic.” Child pornography may be as old as
ment—and he stands a better chance than Starr ever the first camera, but its present global prolifera-
did of escaping with the loot, unrecognized. tion—complete with “morphing” of victims’ bodies
A thread of inevitability runs throughout recorded and faces to confound investigators—is a product of
human history. The discovery of electricity paved the our interesting times. Drug dealers and addicts have
way, albeit unpredictably, for the invention of mod- existed throughout history, but only in the past three
ern computers. Before the invention of transistors, decades have synthetic “designer drugs” been manu-
glass vacuum tubes regulated the flow of electricity factured with an eye toward societal demographics.
inside computers—the largest and most powerful of Embezzlers have always plagued financial institu-
its day being the Electronic Numerical Integrator tions, but before the cyberage they were unable to
and Computer (ENIAC) built at the University of grow rich by “data diddling” and “salami slicing.”
Pennsylvania in 1946. ENIAC weighed almost (See the CYBERCRIME entry for definitions.)
60,000 pounds, filled a 30-by-50-foot room, and Progress always has a price. No advance in tech-
cost more than $3.2 million to build. Transistors nology comes without corresponding changes in
were invented in 1958, and the first case of Ameri- society, both good and bad. It is the challenge of a
can computer crime was recorded the same year. By free society to use modern technology for the great-
1976, U.S. authorities had logged 374 cases of est benefit, while restraining those who would cor-
“computer abuse”—including four cases of frus- rupt new inventions and use them for personal gain,
trated owners who shot their own computers in fits to the detriment of their neighbors and in violation
of rage. of the law. It remains for future historians to judge
The rest is history. how well that task has been achieved, or whether
Some high-tech crimes are simply variations on cyberspace shall prove to be an ungovernable Wild
familiar themes, their ancient motives—greed, desire, Frontier.

xvi
Entries A–Z
A
ABENE, Mark: hacker “Phiber Optik” that “hacking crimes constitute a real threat to the
Hailed in some quarters as “the digital age’s first full- expanding information highway.”
fledged outlaw hero,” condemned by prosecutors as Abene’s friends and supporters, including cowork-
a nefarious Internet marauder, New York native ers at the New York–based ECHO bulletin-board sys-
Mark Abene—a.k.a. “Phiber Optik”— seemed an tem, were dismayed by Phiber Optik’s prison sentence.
unlikely HACKER at first glance. A high school An outpouring of e-mail support for Abene ranged
dropout, Abene first encountered computers while from incoherent obscenities to advice on survival in
killing time in the electronics department of a prison: “Try not to get killed,” one fan suggested,
Queens department store where his mother worked. while another urged Abene to “skip the country.”
Beginning with an inexpensive Radio Shack TRS-80 Phiber Optik surrendered in January 1994 to serve his
computer, dubbed the “Trash-80” by hackers, Abene time in a minimum-security facility in Pennsylvania,
learned rapidly by trial and error, networking with and emerged from prison physically unscathed. Upon
like-minded youth in cyberspace. In the late 1980s, release, he was treated to a welcome-home party by
he was a founding member of an informal hackers’ hundreds of supporters, at a posh Manhattan night-
syndicate dubbed the MASTERS OF DECEPTION. club. New York magazine subsequently dubbed him
Abene’s specialty was penetrating corporate com- one of the city’s 100 smartest people.
puters and cheating telephone networks of money on
long-distance calls. To that end, he practiced at home
on an old telephone receiver, researching its codes so ACME Rent-a-Car: illegal use of satellite technology
exhaustively that the phone eventually fell apart. James Turner, a resident of New Haven, Connecticut,
Convicted on state charges of computer trespass in got more than he bargained for when he rented a van
1991, Abene received probation and continued his from the local branch of Acme Rent-a-Car in the fall
hacking career without letup. He was arrested a sec- of 2000. Turner knew the vehicle came equipped with
ond time in 1993, as part of a federal crackdown on GPS (global positioning satellite) technology, but he
the Masters of Deception, was indicted on multiple assumed the equipment was installed as a convenience
charges and held for trial in New York. Abene ulti- for renters. “I was not aware of what GPS could do,”
mately pleaded guilty on two counts—one each of he later told reporters. “I thought it was an onboard
computer intrusion and conspiracy—and was sen- navigation system, to use when you got lost.”
tenced to one year in prison on November 3, 1993. With that in mind, Turner was “very, very sur-
Judge Louis Stanton, intent on “sending a message” prised” to learn, upon returning the van, that Acme
to prospective hackers, proclaimed from the bench had fined him $450 for driving at excessive speeds

1
ADAMS, Kenneth

while the vehicle was in his possession. Since Turner have a problem in rental cars, that people don’t treat
had charged the rental fee to his bank debit card, the them like their own cars. The main reason to put in
fines were in fact extracted from his account before the GPS receivers is not to track the people but to
he returned the van. Nor was Turner’s case the only track the vehicles. With this device you can track
one of its kind, as revealed by subsequent investiga- within a city block anywhere in the world.”
tion. One unlucky renter’s bank account had been And that, critics say, is part of the problem. Privacy
completely drained by fines, without his knowledge, advocates note that rental car records might be
based on fine print in the rental contract which obtained by angry spouses in divorce litigation or by
allowed Acme to dun its customers for violating traf- employers seeking to spy on their traveling workers.
fic laws. Rental companies using the GPS hardware universally
James Turner took Acme to small claims court, deny any intent to violate consumer privacy or profit
asserting that the company had no right to invade his from their high-tech “safety” equipment, but critics
privacy or to usurp police authority by charging remain skeptical. Connecticut authorities advise con-
renters $150 each time they exceeded an arbitrary sumers nationwide to read the fine print in their rental
speed limit. Connecticut’s Department of Consumer contracts and to question personnel in charge of rent-
Protection entered the fray in July 2001, filing crimi- ing cars about the firm’s resort to GPS technology. If
nal charges against Acme’s New Haven office. any aspect of the contract is unclear, or if the company
According to the complaint, not only were Acme’s announces its intent to act in a policeman’s role, con-
speeding fines illegal, but the company “did not sumers are advised to take their business elsewhere.
notify consumers when [it] withdrew money out of
credit card and ATM accounts to pay these illegal
fees.” Acme’s lawyers responded that the practice of ADAMS, Kenneth See FORD HEIGHTS FOUR
fining lead-footed drivers “saves by discouraging
speeding.” As for the state’s complaint, attorney
Max Brunswick declared, “If they say it’s not fair ADOPTION Fraud: Internet con games
practice, we will give [Turner] his money back. We As civilized societies have long attempted to regulate
are not out to make money on this.” the process of child adoption, so have outlaw profi-
Civil libertarians were less concerned about indi- teers sought means of circumventing legislation
vidual monetary losses than about the implications meant to safeguard children, birth parents, and
of satellite tracking applied to individuals at random, adoptive parents alike. In the 19th century—and
throughout society. David Sobel, general counsel for later, in some parts of Canada and the United
the Washington-based Electronic Privacy Informa- States—“baby farmers” contrived to arrange illegal
tion Center, remarked on Acme’s case that “the chal- adoptions, selling infants to the highest bidders (or,
lenge right now is to ensure, before these services and in some extreme cases, killing the children while
capabilities are widely deployed, that rules are in billing their mothers for ongoing care). Modern tech-
place.” Robert Smith, of the Privacy Foundation, nology offers new avenues of profit for unscrupulous
expressed concern for “a long-term problem that’s adoption “facilitators,” no longer restricted to word
not going away. Most people are innocent [but] they of mouth or discreet newspaper advertisements.
still get tracked.” The Internet has been a goldmine for swindlers
Ironically, GPS tracking systems—developed for who offer infants for adoption, then collect a hand-
military combat applications—were initially installed some finder’s fee with no intention of delivering the
in rental cars as a crime-fighting measure, enabling human “merchandise.” In some cases, the children
companies to pinpoint missing vehicles if they were offered for adoption may exist, although descriptions
not returned on time by would-be auto thieves. A of their race, gender, and physical condition may be
benefit to renters was the peace of mind obtained false; in other cases, there are no babies at all, no
from knowing they could not get lost while driving pregnant mothers waiting to deliver. There are only
in an unfamiliar area. It was a short step from that websites and mail drops for payments that vanish
point, however, to surveillance of consumers via without a trace.
hardware that permitted rental companies to track a Since the mid-1990s, Internet adoption fraud has
driver’s speed or other “dangerous” behavior. As ranked among the fastest-growing types of cyber-
Max Brunswick, the attorney, told the media, “You crime. As Bill Pierce, founder of the National Coun-

2
ADOPTION Fraud

cil for Adoption, told an interviewer in August 2000, don’t even care when cancer’s involved, I’m going to
would-be adoptive parents “are getting burned on tell Dakota to pick another couple.”
the Internet at a rate that is inconceivable.” Richard The end came for Furlow after Charles Elliott, a
Pearlman, executive director of the Chicago-based Philadelphia accountant and fraud investigator,
Family Resource Center, told the Los Angeles Times received a complaint against Tender Hearts from one
in January 2001: “The Internet makes it possible to of his regular clients. After contacting several victim-
trade in human lives. There is so much potential to ized couples, Elliott handed his information to the
make money in the adoption field that no one is FBI, and Furlow was indicted on multiple counts of
above bad practice.” Robert Tuke, president of the mail fraud. She pleaded guilty in August 2000,
American Academy of Adoption Attorneys in 2001, receiving a sentence of three years and 10 months in
agreed. “Whereas before the con artist would ply prison from a judge who denounced her for preying
their trade by mail or in person,” Tuke informed the on the “fundamental human need to have a family.”
Times, “on the Internet they can reach a wider audi- Furlow was not alone in practicing adoption swin-
ence easier and disguise easier who they are.” dles on the Internet, by any means. Jill and Steven
Prospective parents are “especially vulnerable” in Hopster, from Redmond, Washington, broke the
Tuke’s view, often caught by swindlers “in a highly mold for adoptive parents in 2000 by specifically
emotional state.” requesting a biracial infant. After conclusion of a
The most prolific Internet adoption swindler on contract with the birth mother of one such child, the
record is Sonya Furlow, a resident of Philadelphia Hopsters were dismayed to find the woman offering
who victimized at least 44 couples in the late 1990s, “their” child to other couples on the Internet. Inves-
stealing at least $200,000 from victims spanning the tigation demonstrated that the mother had, in fact,
United States. One pair of victims, Steve and Kelly deceived them in regard to both the baby’s race and
Motl of Wisconsin, shelled out $10,000 to Furlow’s legal status. Another couple, left anonymous in
operation—ironically dubbed Tender Hearts Family media reports, spent 10 weeks in Tijuana, Mexico,
Services—beginning in the spring of 1998. In addi- waiting for delivery of their new child before a “facil-
tion to Furlow’s “finder’s fee,” the payments were itator” told them the mother had changed her
allegedly intended to support a pregnant young mind—and again, no refunds were forthcoming.
woman named Laurel through her confinement and (The facilitator in that case, Adrienne Lewis, faced
delivery of her child. In fact, as the Motls learned to legal complaints from 18 couples in May 2001.)
their ultimate sorrow, there was no child—and no The most notorious case of international adoption
“Laurel.” Furlow had simply lied and kept the fraud to date involves the so-called “Internet twins,”
money for herself. exposed by a British tabloid newspaper on January
Another couple, Ken and Kelly Mostrom, refi- 16, 2001. A couple from northern Wales, Alan and
nanced their home and paid Furlow $3,500 before Judith Kilshaw, revealed on that date that they had
the “facilitator” sent them a terse e-mail, explaining paid a U.S. adoption broker £8,200 ($12,000) to
that the nonexistent birth mother had changed her facilitate adoption of six-month-old twin girls from
mind and decided to keep her baby. There was, of Arkansas. The Kilshaws had already named the girls
course, no refund on the “finder’s fee.” Roy and Belinda and Kimberly, when they discovered that
Kelly Kaiser, of Philadelphia, researched adoption broker Tina Johnson had sold the twins to a Califor-
thoroughly, intending to “be smart” about their nia couple, Richard and Vickie Allen, for £4,000
choices, but they still fell into Sonya Furlow’s web. ($6,000) in October 2000. To rectify the “error,”
Once again, Furlow promised a child in return for Johnson then persuaded the Allens to return the girls
$3,500, but a last-minute phone call reported that to their birth mother, one Tranda Wecker, in order to
mother “Elise” had reneged on the deal. John and complete the more lucrative transaction.
Terry Nakai, from Colorado, paid Furlow $4,500 on While the Allens vowed to sue for custody, and the
behalf of an alleged birth mother named “Dakota,” Kilshaws filed adoption papers in Arkansas, British
then balked at making further payments as they prime minister Tony Blair vowed strict enforcement
noted gaps in Furlow’s story, including a claim that of an international Adoptions Act (ignored since its
“Dakota” was suddenly stricken with cancer. Finally, passage in 1999), and FBI agents began investigating
came Furlow’s angry telephone message: “I don’t the swindle in America. On January 18, British
think I want to deal with people like you. If you police served the Kilshaws with an emergency protec-

3
AHNEN, Steven

tion order and placed the twins in foster care, pend- ing. Such was the case for two of Sonya Furlow’s vic-
ing resolution of the case in court. Six days later, a tims, Steve and Kelly Motl. Late in 2000, still relying
court in Missouri awarded custody to Aaron Wecker, on the Internet, the Motls successfully adopted a new
the twins’ biological father, but the babies remained daughter, Grace, and report themselves completely
in British foster care. The Allens and the Kilshaws satisfied.
met on February 1, airing their dispute on Oprah
Winfrey’s television show, and Tranda Wecker hired
attorneys to fight for custody of the twins on Febru- AHNEN, Steven: hacker “Code3”
ary 8. Richard Allen was arrested on March 1, 2001, A resident of Sarasota, Florida, born April 13, 1958,
charged with child abuse on accusations from two Steven Ahnen was a member of a HACKERS syndicate
teenage baby-sitters, and the Allens withdrew their known to its members as “PIRATES WITH ATTITUDE.”
bid for custody of the twins despite his not-guilty The reference to piracy was no idle boast, since mem-
plea. Five days later, on March 6, Arkansas judge bers of the group engaged in wholesale theft of soft-
Mackie Pierce denied custody to both the Allens and ware on the Internet, stealing more than 5,000
Kilshaws, remanding settlement of the case to a court copyrighted programs in the late 1990s, operating
in Missouri, where the twins were born. FBI agents through a hidden website based on the campus of a
raided Tina Johnson’s Caring Heart Adoption service Quebec university. On May 4, 2000, a federal grand
on March 14, in El Cajon, California, seeking evi- jury in Chicago indicted 12 hackers and five accom-
dence for possible indictments. Finally, on April 9, plices employed by Intel Corporation on charges of
2001, Britain’s highest court ordered the twins conspiracy to infringe copyrights. Steven Ahnen,
returned to Missouri, for settlement of custody known to fellow hackers as “Code3,” was among 13
between their biological parents. defendants who pleaded guilty in an effort to reduce
As hazards for would-be adoptive parents multiply penalties.
in cyberspace, the National Adoption Center (NAC)
offers safety tips for those who surf the Web in search
of children. NAC spokesperson Gloria Hochman “AIDS” Virus Warnings: Internet hoax
offers the following advice to prospective parents: While several real-life computer VIRUSES have
employed the name of AIDS or the HIV virus in their
1. Be certain the advertised adoption agency is duly titles, this notorious Internet warning, broadcast via e-
licensed in the state where it operates. mail, refers to a virus that does not exist. The apparent
2. Request the agency’s annual reports and verify its deliberate effort to spark Internet panic is recognizable
record of successful adoptions. as a hoax because it is unsigned, and because no com-
3. Shun Internet websites that do not provide an puter virus has the power to attack and disable hard-
agency’s physical address and telephone number. ware as described. The usual warning method reads as
Verify the address and telephone number before follows, with grammatical errors intact:
proceeding further.
4. Avoid websites that promise quick adoptions. THEREE IS A VIRUS GOING AROUND CALLED
Baby-shopping on the Internet does not absolve THE A.I.D.S VIRUS. IT WILL ATTACH ITSELF
the parties from obeying state and federal statutes INSIDE YOUR COMPUTER AND EAT AWAY AT
governing adoptions. YOUR MEMOR THIS MEMORY IS IRREPLACE-
5. Determine who funds the website. Legitimate ABLE. THEN WHEN IT’S FINISHED WITH MEM-
adoption agencies are normally funded by some ORY IT INFECTS YOUR MOUSE OR POINTING
government agency or by a reputable charity. DEVICE. THEN IT GOES TO YOUR KEY BOARD
6. Make no payments without itemized bills, detail- AND THE LETTERS YOU TYPE WILL NOT
ing all expenses. If the worst comes to pass, that REGISTER ON SCREEN. BEFORE IT SELF
documentation facilitates lawsuits and/or crimi- TERMINATES IT EATS 5MB OF HARD DRIVE
nal prosecution for fraud. SPACE AND WILL DELETE ALL PROGRAMS ON
IT AND IT CAN SHUT DOWN ANY 8 BIT TO 16
The story of Internet adoptions is not universally SOUND CARDS RENDERING YOUR SPEAKERS
bleak, however. Even couples victimized by swindlers USELESS. IT WILL COME IN E-MAIL CALLED
on the Web are sometimes favored with a happy end- “OPEN:VERY COOL! :) DELETE IT RIGHT AWAY.

4
AIRPORT Security

THIS VIRUS WILL BASICLY RENDER YOUR nationwide, generally stationed near security check-
COMPUTER USELESS. YOU MUST PASS THIS ON points barring access from the airport concourse to
QUICKLY AND TO AS MANY PEOPLE AS departure and arrival gates. CAS guidelines have
POSSLE!!!!! YOU MUST! three main goals in terms of security: (1) to prevent
attacks on airports or aircraft; (2) to prevent acci-
dents or injuries due to transport of dangerous
AIRPORT Security materials; and (3) to ensure the safety of passengers.
In the wake of airborne terrorist attacks that claimed Step one in the airport security chain is identity
some 3,000 American lives on September 11, 2001, confirmation on both passengers and airport employ-
airport and airline security is a matter of paramount ees. Upon check-in, all passengers are required to
importance both to government officials and to the present a photo ID (and a passport, if traveling
millions of travelers who fly each day around the internationally). The ID must be presented a second
world. It remains to be seen whether new security time, with the passenger’s ticket and boarding pass,
devices and techniques, coupled with stricter legisla- before he or she boards an aircraft at the departure
tion passed since “9/11,” will in fact make air travel gate. Travelers are also briefly questioned on check-
safer, or simply cause increased delays and aggrava- in, specifically asked whether they personally packed
tion for commercial passengers. their luggage, if the bags have been in their possession
The world’s first airline hijackings (or “skyjack- at all times, and whether any third party has asked
ings”) occurred in Peru, with two planes comman- them to carry objects aboard the plane. Those ques-
deered by political dissidents on February 21 and 23, tions are designed to prevent terrorists from slipping
1931. Sporadic incidents were recorded over the next explosive devices onto a flight without risk to them-
30 years, mostly involving defectors from communist selves (as happened in at least one incident during the
nations, but the United States did not experience its 1980s, when a young woman unwittingly carried a
first skyjacking until May 1, 1961, when a Korean disguised bomb in her luggage as a favor for a new
War veteran of Puerto Rican extraction diverted a “boyfriend”).
National Airlines flight to Havana. Skyjackings pro- Airport and airline employees, from janitors to
liferated through the 1960s and became a standard pilots and flight attendants, are also required to carry
terrorist tactic in the early 1970s, compelling airports photo ID clearly stating the subject’s name, position,
worldwide to install metal detectors (for passengers) and access privileges. Ten-year background checks
and X-ray devices (for carry-on luggage). The U.S., were supposedly required for airport/airline person-
Israel, and a few other nations also stationed armed nel even before September 2001, but the system
“sky marshals” on selected flights, particularly those remains deeply flawed. On December 14, 2001—
scheduled for high-risk areas. Although sky marshals three months after the worst terrorist attacks in U.S.
frustrated a handful of skyjackings and killed or history—officials at San Francisco International Air-
wounded several terrorists, their numbers were never port revealed that 29 employees with full access to
sufficient to end the threat. Rather, skyjacking aircraft and runways were convicted felons (includ-
seemed to run its course and taper off as U.S. rela- ing sex offenders, kidnappers, and individuals con-
tions with Cuba, and Middle East peace initiatives, victed of firearms violations). The ex-convicts were
sapped support from major radical groups. Still, discovered after airport officials belatedly screened
occasional skyjackings and bombings of commercial fingerprints for 3,000 of their 13,000 employees.
aircraft continued into the 21st century, capped by (The other 10,000 background checks were still in
the tragic events of September 2001. progress.) Apparently relieved that “only” 1 percent
Modern guidelines for U.S. airport security are of their employees thus far had turned out to be
established by Civil Aviations Security (CAS), a divi- felons, airport officials declared that those ex-con-
sion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). victs discovered on staff had “lost their access to
FAA/CAS agents are found in every American airport, secure areas”—but they would not be fired.
prepared for immediate threat-response, and most Access to airport departure and arrival gates has
major U.S. airports have their own police forces (or been restricted since September 2001 to passengers
officers assigned from the local metropolitan police with valid tickets. Prior to reaching the terminal
department). Since September 11, uniformed troops gates, all passengers are required to pass through
of the National Guard are also found in airports metal detectors, while their carry-on baggage is x-

5
AIRPORT Security

rayed. Federal legislation passed since 9/11 mandates Corrosives including acids, lye, drain cleaner,
installation of new equipment to x-ray check-through mercury, and automobile batteries
baggage as well, but airports around the country have Household items including any solvents, bleach,
predicted that they will miss the mandatory installa- pool chemicals, flammable liquids, or flamma-
tion deadline by several years, due to shortages of ble perfume in bottles of 16 ounces or larger
equipment and funding. In addition to weapons—
now including knives of any size, formerly those with Failure to declare weapons or any of the items
blades of four inches and longer— airline passengers listed above when boarding an aircraft may result in
and personnel are forbidden from transporting the criminal prosecution, with penalties including prison
following items without specific authorization: time and stiff fines. It is furthermore illegal even to
joke about weapons, explosives, hijacking, or other
Explosives including fireworks, ammunition, such threats in an airport or on board an airplane,
sparklers, matches, gunpowder, or signal flares pranksters being liable to arrest and criminal prose-
Pressurized containers including hair spray, oxy- cution even when they are unarmed and have no
gen tanks, propane tanks, spray paint, or criminal intent.
aerosol insect repellent The majority of airport metal detectors operate
Poisons including arsenic, cyanide, or any pesti- on the pulse induction (PI) principle. PI systems
cides and insecticides typically employ a coil of wire on one side of an

An X ray of a briefcase. X-ray technology plays a key role in airport security. (Lester Lefkowitz/CORBIS)

6
AIRPORT Security

arch as a transmitter and receiver. Short, powerful puter technology compares the images from both
pulses of electric current pass through that coil, detectors to present the clearest possible picture.
each generating a momentary magnetic field. As Items are usually displayed in color on the viewing
each pulse ends, the magnetic field reverses polarity monitor, with organic materials always depicted in
and collapses, thereby sending another burst of orange, while the colors for inorganic material and
current (called the “reflected pulse”) through the metal varies depending on the unit’s manufacturer.
coiled wire. Common PI metal detectors send out Most explosives are organic, and would thus be
anywhere from 25 to 1,000 pulses per second, among the objects highlighted in orange. Airport
depending on the model, with each reflected pulse security personnel are (theoretically) trained to
lasting some 30 microseconds (millionths of a sec- identify weapons, ranging from obvious handguns
ond). When a metal object passes through the arch, and knives to improvised explosive devices (IEDs),
the electric pulse creates an opposite magnetic field but once again, human negligence and faulty equip-
around the object, thereby triggering a longer-than- ment make the system far from perfect. One exam-
normal reflected pulse, detected by a built-in “sam- ple: on December 30, 2001 (11 weeks after 9/11,
pling circuit,” which notes discrepancies in the with strict new procedures in place), passenger
length of any reflected pulse and sounds an audible Barry Brunstein was arrested in Memphis, Ten-
alarm. Many newer metal detectors are “multi- nessee, for attempting to carry a loaded pistol on
zone” models, equipped with multiple transmit- board an airliner. Prior to arrival in Memphis that
receive coils at different heights, to increase their day, he had carried the gun aboard two other
sensitivity. flights, departing Tampa and Atlanta, without
Prior to September 2001, passengers who trig- being stopped.
gered alarms from airport metal detectors after emp- X-ray scanning systems are admittedly imperfect,
tying their pockets (and sometimes removing jewelry even with the best technicians in charge. Electronic
and other items) might be double-checked with devices, such as laptop computers, contain so many
hand-held metal detectors, frisked for hidden intricate components that an intelligent bomber
weapons, or asked to disrobe in private examination could easily hide explosive devices within. Requiring
rooms. Since 9/11, random frisks and double-scans travelers to remove their computers from cases and
of passengers have become routine, including turn the computers on still fails to guarantee that a
requests that some travelers remove their shoes for small explosive charge is not concealed inside. To
inspection prior to boarding. One security firm, that end, chemical “sniffers” are employed—essen-
Adams Electronics, offers special “HF-1 Detector tially “an automated chemistry lab in a box.” Secu-
Gloves” with built-in, battery-powered metal detec- rity personnel rub a cloth over the suspect device or
tors, thereby leaving both of an inspector’s hands article of baggage, then “read” the cloth with the
free in the event hand-to-hand self-defense is sniffer, detecting any trace residue of chemicals com-
required. The HF-1 gloves are made from Kevlar and monly used to build bombs.
Nomex, protecting the wearer’s hands from being Examination of checked luggage, in airports where
cut, punctured, or burned (in the event that an incen- it presently occurs at all, is carried out by one of three
diary device is uncovered). different methods. Medium X-ray systems are fixed
While passengers are individually screened, their devices that scan whole pallets of cargo or luggage for
carry-on luggage passes through an X-ray system contraband items. Mobile X-ray units are contained
that typically divides objects scanned into three cat- within large trucks, capable of scanning loaded lug-
egories: organic, inorganic, and metal. Most airport gage carts or vans as they drive slowly past a station-
units operate on a dual-energy X-ray system, gener- ary target. Fixed-site X-ray systems are whole
ating X rays in the range of 140 to 160 kilovolt buildings constructed as massive scanners, examining
peaks (KVP)—a reference to the X ray’s penetrating tractor-trailers of luggage parked inside. Legislation
power. (Higher KVP means greater penetration.) In passed since September 2001 mandates X-ray screen-
dual-energy systems, X rays pass through the object ing of all checked luggage in every American airport,
being examined, then strike a detector that passes but purchase and installation of large units at ticket
the X rays to a filter, which in turn blocks out check-in counters remains problematic. (When all else
lower-energy rays. The remaining high-energy X fails, bomb-sniffing dogs are sometimes used to check
rays then strike a second detector, whereupon com- luggage before it is loaded aboard an aircraft.)

7
“AIRSNORT”

An alternative method to standard X-ray inspec- September 11 hijackings and will produce the same
tion is found in computer tomography (CT) scanner half-assed results.”
systems. The CT scanner is a hollow tube that sur-
rounds luggage, slowly revolving while bombarding
it with X rays, recording the data and creating a “AIRSNORT”: wireless password decryption program
highly detailed “slice” (tomogram) of the bag. From Introduced in August 2001, AirSnort is a wireless local
there, the CT scanner calculates mass and density of area network (WLAN) surveillance tool that passively
objects inside the bag, reporting on any items that monitors transmissions, computing encryption keys
fall within the normal range of dangerous materials. upon collection of sufficient data. After collecting
Most European airports run all checked baggage 100MB to 1GB of data, AirSnort is reportedly able to
through CT scanners, and while many American air- produce the target password in less than one second.
ports possess the technology, it has not been used Local area networks are theoretically protected by
consistently because its slow rate of operation plays a built-in security, the Wired Equivalent Privacy
havoc with tight airline schedules. Before 9/11 only (WEP) system—also labeled the “802.11b stan-
overtly suspect bags were subjected to CT scans. dard”—which automatically encrypts data as it is
Even today, the devices are not universally available transmitted. But system analysts agree that WEP
or consistently employed in the United States. leaves much to be desired in terms of real security. In
How effective are the latest airport security regu- fact, AirSnort designers Blake Hegerle and Jeremy
lations in America? On September 28, 2001, Presi- Bruestle insist they went public with their creation in
dent George W. Bush called for installation of two hopes of spurring WLAN technicians to install better
reinforced cockpit doors on commercial airliners, security systems. As Bruestle told Wired News, “We
each door with a separate key. He further suggested felt that the only proper thing to do was to release the
increasing the number of armed sky marshals to project. It is not obvious to the layman or the average
cover “most” domestic flights and increased federal administrator how vulnerable 802.11b is to attack.
control of airport security measures, though he It’s too easy to trust WEP. . . . It’s easy to be compla-
stopped short of requiring that screeners be made cent. AirSnort is all about opening people’s eyes.”
federal employees. Bush announced his plan to Or opening their networks to pernicious HACKERS,
work with Congress and pass new security regula- as the case may be. The AirSnort website maintained
tions “in an expeditious way,” but some accused by Hegerle and Bruestle includes detailed instruc-
the president of paying mere lip service to height- tions on downloading their program and the hard-
ened security. On December 30, 2001, Bush’s ware required to use it effectively. Mark Denon, a
Department of Transportation discarded new rules freelance technology writer, found it “very easy” to
that would have required airport screeners to be access networks using AirSnort. “I’ve been able to
high school graduates—a regulation that would connect to networks when standing outside of busi-
have dismissed one-fourth of the nation’s 28,000 nesses, hospitals, or Internet cafés that offer the serv-
airport security agents. ice,” he told Wired News. “You can jump in and use
Bush’s strange reversal brought heated criticism the network to send e-mail or surf the Net, and often
from experts in the field of airline security. James it’s quite possible to access whatever information is
Hall, former chairman of the National Transporta- moving across the network.”
tion Safety Board, told reporters, “We’re dealing One benefit for hackers using AirSnort is the pro-
with very sophisticated and trained individuals who gram’s virtual untraceability. As inventor Hegerle
are trying to blow up our commercial aircraft. These explains, AirSnort does not communicate in any way
screeners are going to be an important line of with other computers on the target network. As a
defense, and it seems to me we should have higher passive eavesdropper, it simply listens to the net-
educational standards for them.” Meanwhile, a fed- work’s flow of traffic, capturing sufficient data to
eral investigator sneaked three knives past airport decode a busy network’s password in three or four
screeners in Miami, while similar experiments hours. Low-traffic networks take longer to crack,
defeated X-ray devices in Fort Lauderdale and but Bruestle notes that data collection need not be
Philadelphia. Billie Vincent, former FAA security continuous. AirSnort can revisit a network over sev-
director, angrily dismissed Bush’s improvements as eral days of intermittent snooping, until sufficient
“more of the half-assed measures that got us into the data is collected to decrypt the password.

8
ALIBRIS/INTERLOC

ALEJANDRO, Gilbert: exonerated by DNA evidence Texas. Despite his cash award, Gilbert Alejandro
On the night of April 27, 1990, a woman in Uvalde remains understandably bitter toward Zain. “He
County, Texas, was attacked in her home by a should be put away for a long time,” Alejandro told
stranger who forced a pillowcase over her head, then reporters, “like I was put away in prison doing hard
raped her. Unable to describe her assailant’s face, the labor.”
victim recalled his general build and his clothing,
including a cap, gray T-shirt and dark shorts. Police
canvassed the neighborhood and questioned three ALEXANDER, Richard: exonerated by DNA evidence
men, one of whom wore clothes matching the rapist’s In 1996 a sexual predator known only as the River
description. None were detained for a lineup, but the Park Rapist terrorized female residents of South
victim later identified suspect Gilbert Alejandro via Bend, Indiana. Police arrested 30-year-old Richard
mug shots from a previous arrest. Alexander that August, charging him with four of
At trial, Alejandro’s only defense was an alibi pro- the attacks on the basis of eyewitness statements
vided by his mother, testifying under oath that he from victims. DNA testing excluded him as a suspect
was at home when the rape occurred. Against that in one of those rapes, and some investigators were
testimony, prosecutors offered the victim’s shaky skeptical of the other three cases, Detective Sergeant
identification, buttressed by testimony from FRED Cindy Eastman telling reporters, “We had a gut feel-
ZAIN, chief medical examiner of nearby Bexar ing that Alexander was not the guy.” Supporting that
County. Zain told the court that a DNA test of belief, at least three more similar rapes were reported
semen found on the victim’s clothing matched Ale- after Alexander’s arrest. Still, task force officers and
jandro’s DNA “and could only have originated from prosecutors forged ahead with their case. Alexan-
him.” Jurors convicted Alejandro, and he was sen- der’s first trial ended with a hung jury in June 1997.
tenced to a 30-year prison term. At his second trial, in March 1998, jurors acquitted
On appeal it was discovered that Fred Zain had him of one rape but convicted him of two others.
grossly misrepresented results of the Bexar County Alexander received a 70-year prison term for those
DNA tests in Alejandro’s case. The first test per- crimes.
formed, in July 1990, had produced inconclusive He caught a break five years later, when alleged
results, while a second test performed three months burglar and child-molester Michael Murphy confessed
later actually excluded the defendant as a source of to one of the rapes for which Alexander stood con-
the semen on file. Alejandro’s lawyers filed a writ of victed. New DNA tests were ordered, and their find-
habeas corpus and he was released to his parents’ ings conclusively exonerated Alexander of an attack
custody, his movements tracked by an electronic committed on August 7, 1996. Four days later, on
monitor. A Uvalde County judge reviewed Alejan- December 12, 2001, he was released from custody by
dro’s case on July 26, 1994, receiving testimony order of the St. Joseph County Superior Court.
that the 1990 DNA test had excluded Alejandro as Authorities now say two rapists are suspected in the
a suspect. Two members of the original trial jury River Park attacks, and that five of those crimes
also testified that their guilty verdicts were based remain under active investigation.
solely on Fred Zain’s false testimony. As a result of
that hearing, Alejandro’s conviction was over-
turned, and Uvalde County prosecutors dismissed ALIBRIS/INTERLOC: Internet vendor charged with fraud
all charges on September 21, 1994. Alejandro later An Internet bookseller and provider of communica-
sued Uvalde County for false imprisonment and tions services headquartered in Emeryville, Califor-
was awarded $250,000 in damages for his four-year nia, Alibris was charged with illegally intercepting
incarceration. customer communications and possessing unautho-
Fred Zain, meanwhile, was fired by Bexar County rized password files in November 1999. According
in 1993, and later charged with aggravated perjury, to the specific federal charges, filed on November 22,
evidence tampering, and fabrication for his part in Alibris and its corporate predecessor Interloc, Inc.
Alejandro’s wrongful conviction. Jurors acquitted (formerly operating in the Greenfield, Massachusetts,
him at trial, in 1998, but 100 more convictions area) intercepted thousands of e-mail messages sent
based upon his testimony are under review across by on-line bookseller Amazon.com to Alibris clients

9
“ALICIA”

using Interloc e-mail addresses. Those interceptions, “A Little Girl Is Dying”: Internet hoax
conducted between January and June 1998, were Built-in denials aside, this widely circulated Internet
allegedly designed to give Alibris/Interloc an unfair hoax is a chain letter and it accomplishes precisely
competitive advantage over Amazon.com and other nothing. Anyone familiar with the American Cancer
vendors. Society knows that while that organization accepts
As U.S. Attorney Donald Stern explained: “In this donations for research, it does not distribute any
case, an Internet service provider intercepted mail funds to cancer patients. The original hoax e-mail
passing through its network to gain a business reads:
advantage. The continued growth of e-commerce
depends on the security of electronic transactions. You guys. . . . this isn’t a chain letter, but a choice for all
We are committed to prosecuting the electronic theft of us to save a little girl that’s going to die of a serious
of valuable intangible business property with the and fatal form of cancer. Please sent this to everyone
same vigor we have applied to the theft of valuable you know . . . or don’t know at that. This little girl has
physical property in the past.” 6 months left to life her life, and as her last wish, she
Martin Manley, president and chief executive of wanted to send a chain letter telling everyone to live
Alibris, told reporters that none of the e-mails inter- their life to fullest, since she never will. She’ll never
cepted and stored on his company’s computers had make it to prom, graduate from high school, or get
ever been opened, but the company chose not to married and have a family of her own. By you sending
defend itself in court. A plea agreement, dated this to as many people as possible, you can give her and
November 25, 1999, recorded Alibris’s agreement to her family a little hope, because with every name that
pay $250,000 in settlement of the federal claim. It this is sent to, the American Cancer Society will donate
was a bargain, even so, since conviction at trial car- 3 cents per name to her treatment and recovery plan.
ried a potential fine of $250,000 on each separate One guy sent this to 500 people!!!! So, I know that we
count of e-mail interception. can sent it to at least 5 or 6. Come on you guys. . . . and
if you’re too selfish to waste 10-15 minutes and scroll-
ing this and forwarding it to EVERYONE, just think it
“ALICIA”: computer virus could be you one day. . . . and it’s not even your
First reported in July 1998, “Alicia” is described as a $money$, just your time. Please help this little girl out
“dangerous memory-resident, polymorphic, parasitic guys, I know you can do it!! I love you guys!
virus which attaches to the end of .com and .exe
files.” Once that infestation is accomplished, the A variation on the theme, perhaps intended as a
virus infects files located while searching disk direc- form of personal harassment, invokes the name of a
tories, using DOS functions FindFirst/Next. Alicia real-life physician who in fact has nothing to do with
also attacks computer archives, adding to them its the chain letter’s circulation. With his surname and
“infected dropper”—a dummy program bearing one address deleted in the interest of privacy, that version
of the following file names: hdbk.com, hdnk.com, reads:
hddk.com, hdok.com, hdpk.com, kdhd.com.
The Alicia virus seeks out archive files by using file- PLEASE FORWARD THIS TO HELP THIS
name extensions. The list of extensions includes .zip, LITTLE GIRL ALL FORWARDED E-MAILS ARE
.arj, .rar, .ace, .ha, .arc, .pak, .lzh, .lha, and .zoo. When TRACKED TO OBTAIN THE TOTAL COUNT.
attacking archives, the virus dissects their internal for-
mats, creates a new record, and writes its own infected Dear All:
dropper. The eight archive formats affected by Alicia
are .zip, .arj, .rar, .ace, .ha, .pak/arc, .lzh/lha, and .zoo. PLEASE pass this mail on to everybody you know. It is
The virus delivers its payload on May 24, or upon the request of a special little girl who will soon leave
executing an infected dropper. In either case, it dis- this world as she has cancer. Thank you for your effort,
plays the string “Alicia X Version Gamma 0.1 X by this isn’t a chain letter, but a choice for all of us to save
Star0 IKX In honor of B0z0ikx.” Despite potential a little girl that’s dying of a serious and fatal form of
havoc caused before the virus is identified, expert cancer.
technicians report that the infected strings are easily Please send this to everyone you know . . . or don’t
extracted after diagnosis. know. This little girl has 6 months left to live, and as

10
ANDERSON, Marvin Lamont

her dying wish, she wanted to send a letter telling Dr. Dennis ———-, Professor
everyone to live their life to the fullest, since she never Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology
will. Shel’ll [sic] never make it to prom, graduate from [Institution deleted]
high school, or get married and have a family of her
own.
By you sending this to as many people as possible, ANDERSON, Marvin Lamont: wrongly convicted; cleared
you can give her and her family a little hope, because by DNA
with every name that this is sent to, The American Can- A Virginia resident, convicted of rape in 1982 on the
cer Society will donate 3 cents per name to her treat- basis of a victim’s eyewitness testimony, Marvin
ment and recovery plan. One guy sent this to 500 Anderson received a 210-year prison sentence at his
people!!!! So I know that we can send it to at least 5 or trial. He was paroled in 1997, after serving 15 years,
6. Just think it could be you one day. It’s not even your but the stigma of his rape conviction followed
money, just your time!!! Anderson as he attempted to rebuild his life. New
legislation signed by Governor Jim Gilmore in May
“PLEASE PASS ON AS A LAST REQUEST” 2001 allowed Anderson’s lawyers to petition for DNA

Marvin Anderson clutches his absolute pardon from Virginia governor Mark Warner as he and his sister walk out of the
capitol in Richmond on Wednesday, August 21, 2002. Anderson received his pardon after being exonerated of rape
charges by DNA evidence. (AP)

11
“ANDROID”

testing of semen recovered from the original crime users with illegal free access to DirecTV, a satellite
scene. “I knew once they did the testing it would television service. Spokesmen for the Justice Depart-
exonerate me,” Anderson told reporters. “I knew ment and U.S. Customs estimated that use of coun-
because I didn’t do this.” terfeit access cards resulted in a $6.2 million yearly
His longstanding assertion of innocence was vin- loss to the legitimate satellite television industry.
dicated in December 2001, when results of DNA Angell and three other Smartcard defendants pleaded
testing excluded Anderson as a possible suspect in guilty in August 2001. Two months later, in Provi-
the rape. The test results partially matched DNA dence, U.S. District Judge Mary Lisi sentenced him to
from two convicted sex offenders in Virginia’s data one year’s probation and a $5,000 fine.
bank, but the evidence samples were too degraded
for a positive match to be made on either suspect.
Anderson, for his part, was the 99th convicted felon ANTARAMIAN, Michael Harry: alleged software pirate
cleared by DNA testing in the United States since the On June 1, 2000, FBI agents arrested 52-year-old
procedure was discovered. “I’m not bitter,” he told Michael Antaramian and 47-year-old Fred Hariri on
interviewers. “There’s no anger. What happened to federal charges of conspiracy and criminal copyright
me was a mistake by many people, not just any one infringement. The California residents—Antaramian
individual.” of Sacramento, Hariri from Glendale—were accused
Prior requests for DNA testing in Anderson’s case of illegally copying software and high-security com-
had been stalled when authorities reported semen puter chips used in the arcade-style video games “NFL
evidence missing from their files. The crucial evi- Blitz 2000” and “Golden Tee Golf 99.” Both games
dence was rediscovered in 2001, in time for Vir- use sophisticated technology to prevent unauthorized
ginia’s new statute to waive the existing deadline on reproduction of their software, but Antaramian
submission of exculpatory scientific evidence. Ander- allegedly developed a method of circumventing the
son has announced his intent to seek a pardon from security systems. After copying the chips and software,
Governor Gilmore. A spokesperson for Gilmore’s federal prosecutors say, he then supplied the software
office denied any knowledge of the case on Decem- to Hariri, who in turn sold it to others.
ber 7, 2001, but told reporters, “We would look for- Following a brief courtroom appearance in Sacra-
ward to reading his clemency petition.” mento on June 2, Antaramian was released on his
own recognizance and ordered to appear in Los
Angeles federal court six days later. Hariri, mean-
“ANDROID”: computer worm while, was arraigned in Los Angeles on the day of his
Initially reported in May 2000, “Android” is a worm arrest and posted $25,000 bond to secure his release.
virus spread via Internet channels by e-mail attach- If convicted on all charges, both defendants face a
ments that, when opened, target ultra.exe Windows maximum of 15 years in federal prison and fines of
executable files. One week after infecting a computer, $750,000 each. Antaramian was also named in an
the worm delivers its payload, erasing files with the additional forfeiture count, which would compel him
following extensions on both local and remote drives: (if convicted) to surrender all materials related to the
.ico, .doc, .txt, .htm, .jpg, .gif, .zip, .rar. The damaged copyright infringement scheme. Both defendants are
files, once erased, are not recoverable. On the fifth of considered innocent of any crime until their cases are
any month thereafter, the worm drops its resolved by trial or plea bargains.
android.bmp file with the “ANDROID” text in it,
and registers it in the computer’s system as wallpaper.
ANTHROPOLOGY, Forensic: identifying skeletal remains
Anthropology—literally the study of human
ANGELL, Brian: Internet swindler beings—is broadly divided into three subfields: cul-
A resident of Warwick, Rhode Island, 30-year-old tural anthropology (the study of cultures, societies,
Brian Angell was one of 17 persons arrested for lifestyles, beliefs, etc.); archaeology (the study of past
fraud following a two-year federal sting operation cultures, via dwellings and relics left behind); and
dubbed Operation OPERATION SMARTCARD.NET. The physical (or biological) anthropology (involving all
defendants were accused of buying and reselling hun- physical and/or biological aspects of the primate
dreds of counterfeit “smart cards” that provided order from prehistoric times to the present). A broad

12
ANTHROPOLOGY, Forensic

The skull of an 1812 soldier is cleaned and ready for the anthropologist to make a facial approximation. The skull is
covered in latex and gauze to make a mold. (Kathleen O. Arries)

field in its own right, physical anthropology is fur- times (as when aboriginal graves are disturbed).
ther subdivided into various specialties, including Old injuries or abnormalities become definitive in
osteology (study of bones). Within the field of osteol- cases where detailed X rays of missing persons are
ogy we find another sub-specialty: forensic anthro- available. While evidence of soft-tissue injury is
pology—the study of skeletal remains as they are wiped out by decomposition, skeletal remains may
relevant to legal cases. still reveal cause of death if they display unhealed
In essence, forensic anthropologists examine fractures, knife or bullet wounds, a broken hyoid
skeletal remains (a) to identify the subject, where bone (from strangulation), and so forth.
feasible; and (b) to determine cause of death, where The most dramatic task performed by forensic
evidence exists. Incomplete or badly damaged anthropologists is facial reconstruction from skulls
remains make the task more difficult—sometimes or their fragments. Work in this field dates from the
impossible—but some facts are discernible even early 1940s. Pioneers included FBI technician
from incomplete skeletons. A skull may reveal the William Krogman and I. A. Gerasimov, in Russia.
subject’s race (though interracial marriages confuse Once sex and race are determined, science yields to
the issue) and sex (with a 25 percent margin of art as modeling clay is applied to the skull, recon-
error when the skull alone is found). In adult sub- structing the subject’s face in part from careful meas-
jects the pelvis identifies gender (with a 10 percent urements and partly from the sculptor’s imagination.
margin of error), but no difference is seen in prepu- Race helps determine the shape of eyes, nose, and
bescent males or females. Long bones of the arms lips, but much of the rest remains guesswork. With-
and legs give a fair indication of height and may out photographs or eyewitness descriptions, forensic
help suggest age. Bones may also be dated with fair anthropologists cannot determine whether a subject
accuracy, to determine if a skeleton is “new” (and was fat or thin in real life, scarred or tattooed,
thus of concern to police) or a relic from earlier bearded or balding. Hair styles, created with wigs,

13
ANTHROPOLOGY, Forensic

Strips of clay are placed on the mold and smoothed out to the desired tissue depths. Applying the nose, lips, and ears takes
an artist’s touch. The finished approximation of the soldier as he might have looked before his death. (Kathleen O. Arries)

14
ANTIABORTION Groups On-line

convicted on five murder counts in April 1990 and


sentenced to life imprisonment.
Various professional organizations exist to pro-
mote understanding and proper application of foren-
sic anthropology. The Canadian Association of
Physical Anthropology was founded at Banff in 1972,
so that practitioners from Canada “should not have
to travel to Kansas in order to meet each other profes-
sionally.” Five years later, the American Board of
Forensic Anthropology was created “to provide, in
the interest of the public and the advancement of the
science, a program of certification in forensic anthro-
pology.” The board’s website lists numerous certified
members who are available for consultation with law
enforcement agencies, attorneys, and the like. The
300-member Midwest Bioarchaeology and Forensic
Anthropology Association was created in 1994, “in
an effort to support communication on both formal
and informal levels.” Members of these organizations
(and others abroad) regularly share information on
major cases, including investigation of mass graves
discovered around the world, from Central America
A police officer kneels at the edge of a shallow grave to Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Far East.
where the dirt has been removed to reveal the image of a
woman. Her polyester clothes are still intact after nine
years in the ground. (Kathleen O. Arries) ANTIABORTION Groups On-line
The 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v.
Wade, legalizing abortion on demand, ranks as one
of the most controversial judicial decisions in Ameri-
generally spring from pure speculation. Still, in some can history. In terms of conflict generated, it equals
cases the models may jog memories, leading authori- the 1857 Dred Scott decision (proclaiming that
ties to witnesses who may have known the anony- blacks had no civil rights), the 1896 decision in
mous subject in life. Plessy v. Ferguson (legitimizing “separate but equal”
The same technique may be used to “age” images segregation of the races) and the 1954 ruling in
of missing persons, whether they be runaways, kid- Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (banning seg-
nap victims, or fugitives from justice. Modern com- regation in public schools). Pro-choice advocates
puter technology makes aging of photographs hailed Roe v. Wade as a landmark victory for U.S.
simple, and such photos are often seen on posters of women, while antiabortion forces, chiefly fundamen-
missing children or fugitive felons, including mem- talist Christians, denounced the ruling as a step
bers of the FBI’s “Ten Most Wanted” list. While pho- toward genocide and eventual divine punishment.
tos dominate the “aging” field, clay models are also Despite the heated rhetoric and scattered protests
sometimes used. One such model, sculpted in outside women’s clinics, the first act of “pro-life” ter-
Philadelphia by Frank Bender, led directly to the rorism was not recorded until February 18, 1978,
arrest of longtime fugitive John Emil List. In New when a clinic was firebombed in Cleveland, Ohio.
Jersey, List had shot and killed five members of his The next act of violence came a full year later, on Feb-
family on November 9, 1971, then disappeared, ruary 19, 1979, with an arson attempt at a clinic in
starting a new life as “Robert Peter Clark.” He was Hempstead, New York. Following Ronald Reagan’s
still at large on May 21, 1989, when Bender’s “aged” 1980 election as president, with public support from
bust of List appeared on the TV show America’s the religious far right and repeated attacks on Roe v.
Most Wanted. Recognition by neighbors led the FBI Wade from Reagan himself, the tenor of “pro-life”
to List’s Virginia workplace 10 days later; he was dissent changed radically. Almost overnight, the ter-

15
ANTIABORTION Groups On-line

rorist “Army of God” launched a guerrilla campaign The official “Army of God” website includes the pre-
against women’s clinics nationwide, while individual dictable “Wanted Posters of Enemies,” along with
fanatics cast themselves in vigilante roles, staging posthumous attacks on murdered physicians and
repeated attacks on abortion facilities and their per- praise for their killers. It also supports the “White
sonnel. A conservative tabulation of U.S. “pro-life” Rose Banquet,” a yearly fund-raising event held in
violence between 1980 and 2000 includes three kid- honor of imprisoned clinic terrorists, which features
nappings, seven murders; 17 attempted murders; 40 prominent guest speakers from the Christian right.
clinic bombings; 163 arson incidents; 80 attempted Proceeds from the banquet are allegedly contributed
bombings or arson attacks; 115 cases of assault and to families of those imprisoned, but as with most reli-
battery; 60 burglaries; 882 incidents of vandalism; gious ventures, no public accounting is made of the
420 cases of stalking; 526 bomb threats; 8,246 cash collected. The sixth annual White Rose Banquet,
harassing phone calls; and 33,800 arrests in riotous held on January 21, 2002, was sponsored by con-
demonstrations. In 2001, dozens of American clinics victed clinic bomber Michael Bray and his Reforma-
received envelopes in the mail alleged to contain tion Lutheran Church of Bowie, Maryland. In
anthrax, while murders of abortion providers contin- addition to hawking Bray’s self-published book, A
ued in New York, Canada, and Australia. Time to Kill, the church’s Internet website had this to
From the start of their campaign against Roe v. say about the banquet (errors uncorrected):
Wade, “Christian soldiers” have formed strange
alliances across the far right of the political spectrum. With the exception of January Y2K, the White Rose
Militant white supremacist groups including the Banquet has been held each year since 1996 to recog-
Aryan Nations, White Aryan Resistance, and several nize the sacrifices the saints of Christ have made to pro-
factions of the Ku Klux Klan joined the “pro-life” tect the unborn. It is a time when we gather together
crusade, proclaiming abortion to be part of a “Jewish and read letters from prisoners and be updated on their
conspiracy” designed to reduce white numbers in unjust incarceration. In addition, there will be an auc-
America while minorities proliferate. One of the tion of Prisoners of Christ artifacts, memorabilia, and
antiabortion movement’s most popular tactics—pub- handicrafts. Each year one or two prisoner’s families
lication of Wanted posters with the photographs, receive receive the entire proceeds of the banquet and
home addresses, and telephone numbers of clinic auction to help while their love one in imprisoned.
physicians and nurses—was pioneered in 1985 by the Items donated by prisoners in the past have
Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (later the included: handicrafts, pencil sketches, including callig-
White American Party, its leader convicted of conspir- raphy of the Ten Commandments, by [Florida death
acy to share loot from bank robberies by neo-Nazis). row inmate] Paul Hill, artwork by Shelley Shannon
In recent years, as scrutiny from law enforcement [jailed for attempted murder in Kansas], the black
and the media has restricted their activities, extremists leather jacket worn by James Mitchell as he burned a
of the “pro-life” movement have relied heavily on the baby killing center in Northern Virginia, denim jacket
Internet to communicate and plan their functions, [clinic arsonist] Joshua Graff wore while performing his
while offering praise and support to convicted terror- acts of kindness towards the unborn, and the watch
ists, encouraging others to follow their “Christian” used by Dennis Malvasi to time his incendiary device to
example. The mock Wanted (or “Unwanted”) posters blow up Planned Parenthood in NYC.
have been featured on various websites for years, pro- Again, The Annual White Rose Banquet is held to
viding stalkers with the basic information they require honor and to recognized the action our brothers and
to locate, harass—and sometimes murder—abortion sisters have taken to protect the unborn from the
providers. (Those who flaunt the posters, meanwhile, bloody abortionist.
insist that they are merely intended to direct group The Almighty says that He honors those who honor
prayers or allow peaceful Christians to voice their dis- Him. We would do likewise. We will give honor where
pleasure over ongoing abortions.) The same websites honor is due!
feature gory photographs of alleged “murdered chil- Join us again in celebration of those who have suf-
dren”—i.e., aborted fetuses—and Biblical invocations fered years in prison for honoring God by sacrificing their
of God’s wrath against perceived sinners. lives and freedom for the sake of the innocent ones. . . .
Support for convicted clinic bombers and assassins Like unto previous years, we will read letters from
is virtually universal on “pro-life” Internet websites. saints in bonds. And shall we not auction some of their

16
ANTIABORTION Groups On-line

personal wares again as relics? In this time of national The ACLA’s “reward” offer for antiabortion com-
darkness, it is good to rejoice in the sacrifices offered by mandos was described on-line as an effort to “Reward
our brothers and sisters. . . . the diligence and success of activist groups working
We also reserve the right to discriminate between the within the ACLA guidelines by offering rewards of
wicked and the righteous and shall refuse tickets to $500 for persuading an abortionist to stop murdering
known abortion proponents who come only to gaze the unborn. And offering rewards of $1,000 to end
and spy upon our celebration. On the other hand, we the killing by closing any abortion facility. This gives
may choose to let certain members of that low class them some cash to work on the next abortionist, or
participate according to our good pleasure. abortion facility.” While no “ACLA guidelines” were
provided, the group’s public support for convicted
Some “pro-life” groups are even more blatant in arsonists, bombers, and murderers speaks for itself. As
their on-line support of terrorist activities. The for the “Nuremberg Files,” it is noteworthy that the
American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), name of New York physician Barnett Slepian was
another sponsor of the White Rose Banquet, main- crossed out on the ACLA’s website the same day a
tains close relations with “Reverend” Bray’s Mary- sniper murdered him, on October 23, 1998.
land church, and describes its own activities on a Such rhetoric—and cash offers—have not gone
separate website thus (errors intact): unchallenged by pro-choice activists. In 1999
Planned Parenthood and four physicians, targeted by
The ACLA published “reward” posters offering local antiabortion websites as criminals and “baby butch-
activists and groups cash rewards for their anti-abor- ers,” sued a dozen “pro-life” leaders under federal
tion activities[.] In preparation for the day when they racketeering statutes and a 1994 law making it illegal
hope abortion rights will be outlawed, ACLA has to incite violence against abortion providers. A jury
launched its so-called “Nuremberg Files Project.” “The in Portland, Oregon, ruled for the plaintiffs and
goal of our project,” according to David Crane, the ordered the antiabortion defendants to pay $109
group’s national director, “will be to gather all available million in damages, but that verdict was overturned
information on abortionists and their accomplices for by a federal appellate court on March 28, 2001. The
the day when they may be formally charged and tried at appellate court ruled that website messages and
Nuremberg-type trials for their crimes. The information Wanted posters were protected by the First Amend-
in these files will be specifically the kind of evidence ment to the U.S. Constitution unless the defendants
admissible in a court of law.” He added, “The Project “threatened to commit violent acts, by working
will set up several secret archives which will be safe alone or with others.” Conversely, they could not
from seizure by those who would allow criminal child- be punished if they “merely encouraged unrelated
killers to go free.” terrorists” to attack clinics and doctors.
“We don’t want to make the mistakes that allowed “Pro-life” rhetoric reached a new low after
so many Nazis to escape justice after World War II,” September 11, 2001, when antiabortion activists
said Paul deParrie, one of the assistants involved in the blamed Roe v. Wade for Palestinian terrorist attacks
project. “We intend to have extensive files on each of on New York City and the Pentagon. One website
them which will permit prosecutors to easily identify posted the following message from Troy Newman,
the criminal perpetrators and bring the appropriate self-described director of “Operation Rescue West”
judgment against them.”. . . . (errors preserved):
Last year the ACLA published a poster called “the
deadly dozen.” According to Crane, “It exposed 12 Today the LORD has visited our land in judgment. An
abortionists nationwide. The media and the federal invading force has pierced the shores of our country to
government called it a ‘hit list.’ Some of the abortionists wreck havoc on us, on our cities and our people.
were even tracked down on their vacations and told Because the immutable character of God never
they were put on a hit list. So, what we could probably changes, let us consider for what cause the Lord has
never accomplish with our exposure campaign, the gov- smitten us.
ernment did for us very effectively! We do praise God Could it be that the blood of over 44,000,000 pre-
for that. Like in the Scripture where ‘the wicked flee born children has brought this destruction to our shores?
and no man pursueth, but the righteous are as bold as I have heard the networks and the President say,
lions,’ we’ve seen fear in the hearts of the wicked.” “We must punish the perpetrators!” While we must

17
“ANTIWIN”

seek justice, it is America who is guilty of a far greater AOL V4.0 Cookie Chain Letter: Internet hoax
crime—the murder of our own innocent children. Broadcast on the Internet as a purported attempt to
So prior to sending aircraft carriers and heavy expose corporate malfeasance at America Online
bombers to destroy the terrorist compounds let us look (AOL), this malicious hoax distributed by e-mail has
inwardly, to ourselves, for certainly we are covered no basis in reality. Its source remains unknown, with
head to toe with innocent blood and we value human disgruntled employees or dissatisfied subscribers
life no more than the terrorists flying the jetliners. making up the list of “usual suspects.” The message
Today is a day of mourning and weeping in repen- reads as follows:
tance. Cry to our God and beg for His forgiveness!
America deserves, yes warrants the judgment of From a former AOL employee:
God. . . .
America is in the clutches of remedial judgment! I’ll try and cut through the crap, and try to get to the
God has tried to wake us up with shark attacks, great point of this letter.
forest fires, earthquakes, huge storms and long I used to work for America Online, and would like
droughts, school shootings, financial upheaval and to remain anonymous for that reason. I was laid off in
power outages. Now look to the LORD with sorrow early September, but I know exactly why I was laid off,
and be saved or pound your fists in the sand and we which I will now explain:
will tread ever forward to final destruction! Since last December, I had been one of the many peo-
Understand America . . . Because we have not hated ple assigned to design AOL 4.0 for Windows (AOL 4.0
bloodshed (abortion), bloodshed (World Trade Towers, beta, codenamed Casablanca). In the beginning, I was
Pentagon) will pursue America. . . . very proud of this task, until I found out the true cost of
America, God is not blessing you so stop asking for it. Things were going fine until about mid-February, when
it. Instead fall on your knees and beg the LORD to save me and 2 of my colleagues started to suspect a problem,
America. Mr. President appoint for a day of fasting and an unexplainable ‘Privacy Invasion’, with the new ver-
mourning. Pastors and Elders call for weeping and sion. One of them, who is a master programmer, copied
sackcloth. Americans repent for the innocent blood the finished portion of the new version (Then ‘Build 52’),
shed upon our land. and took it home, and we spent nearly 2 weeks of sleep-
less nights examining and debugging the program, flip-
ping it inside-out, and here is what we found.
“ANTIWIN”: computer virus family Unlike all previous versions of America Online, ver-
Identified for the first time in July 1997, the “Anti- sion 4.0 puts something in your hard drive called a
win” group of computer viruses are classified as dan- ‘cookie’. (AOL members click here for a definition).
gerous memory-resident, parasitic, encrypted viruses. However, the cookie we found on Version 4.0 was far
The several viruses write themselves to the end of more treacherous than the simple Internet cookie. How
executed .exe files, but are also “smart” enough to would you like somebody looking at your entire hard
check file names and avoid infection of various utili- drive, snooping through any (yes, any) piece of informa-
ties and anti-virus applications that would otherwise tion on your hard drive. It could also read your pass-
expose their presence in a system. word and log in information and store it deep in the
The Antiwin viruses use on-the-fly encryption/ program ode. Well, all previous versions, whether you
decryption, so that their code is encrypted in a com- like it or not, have done this to a certain extent, but only
puter’s memory, as well as in the damaged files. Fur- with files you downloaded. As me and my colleagues
thermore, the viruses carry their own bugs, which discovered, with the new version, anytime you are
may freeze computers when the target files are signed on to AOL, any top AOL executive, any AOL
attacked. worker, who has been sworn to secrecy regarding this
In some cases the Antiwin viruses display a message feature, can go in to your hard drive and retrieve any
reading “Use registered copies of MS Windows” when piece of information that they so desire. Billing, down-
an infected computer freezes. Others contain the text load records, e-mail, directories, personal documents,
“Greetings from MrStrange, Kiev T. G. Shevchenko programs, financial information, scanned images, etc.
University >Antiwin<, (c) by MrStrange.” The master Better start keeping all those pictures on a floppy disk!
copy of the Antiwin virus also contains the text: This is a totally disgusting violation of our rights, and
“MrStrange hails you from Kiev! My first virus.” your right to know as well. Since this is undoubtedly

18
AOL Database Scam

‘Top Secret’ information that I am revealing, my life at Subject: AOL Database Corruption, Please View!
AOL is pretty much over. After discovering this inform MIME-Version: 1.0
attain, we started to inform a few other workers at Content-Type: text/plain; charset=“us-ascii”
America Online, so that we could get a large enough Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
crew to stop this from happening to the millions of X-mailer: AOL 2.5 for Windows
unfortunate and unsuspecting America Online members. To: undisclosed-recipients:;
This was in early August. One month later, all three of us
were unemployed. We got together and figured there was Dear Member:
something we had to do to let the public know.
Unemployed, with one of us going through a Hello. I am your AOL Technical Representative. Section
divorce (me) and another who is about to undergo 56 of our data base has lost all Linux functions. When
treatment for Cancer, our combined financial situation your account logged onto our system, we were tem-
is not currently enough to release any sort or article. We porarily able to verify it as a registered user. Approxi-
attempted to create a web page on three different mately 90 seconds ago, your verification was made void
servers containing in-depth information on AOL 4.0, by loss of data in Section 56. Now, due to AOL verifica-
but all three were taken down within 2 days. We were tion protocol, it is mandatory for us to reverify you.
running very low on time (4.0 is released early this win- Please visit http://216.33.20.4/biz3/AOLTech142/
ter), so we figured our last hope to reveal this madness index.html for more information.
before it effects the people was starting something simi-
lar to a chain letter, this letter you are reading. Please Regards,
do the following, to help us expose AOL for who they Michelle
really are, and to help us and yourself receive personal Community Action Team
gratification for taking a stand for our freedom: America Online, Inc.

1. Forward this letter to as many people as you can *Have you heard about AOL’s newest and easiest to use
(not just friends and family, as many as you can)! software: Version 4.0? You can upgrade for free at key-
2. Tell people who aren’t on America Online in person, word: Update. With AOL 4.0, you can send multiple
especially important people (Private Investigators, files, change screen names without signing off, customize
Government workers, City Council) your toolbar, and much, much more. Upgrade today!!
3. If the information about the new version isn’t
exposed by the time AOL is released early this win- Presumably, the addition of an advertisement
ter, for your own protection, DON’T DOWN- made the scam message seem more legitimate. It is
LOAD AOL 4.0 UNDER ANY CONDITION!!! unknown how many AOL subscribers may have
fallen for the hoax and given up their passwords. A
Thank you for reading and examining this informa- similar fraud, posing as an AOL giveaway program,
tion. Me and my colleagues hope that you will help us made the Internet rounds beginning in September
do the right thing in this situation. Enjoy America 1999. Like the original, it directed victims to a web-
Online (just kidding!). site resembling AOL’s, but which existed solely to
collect personal information about those who logged
Regards, A former AOL employee on. That message read (with errors intact):

Subject: AOL Giveaways!!!


AOL Database Scam: Internet fraud technique
Beginning in June 1999, a message circulated on the For out AOL members. Thank you for enjoying the best
Internet directing America Online subscribers to internet service on the net. Because we value our cus-
“verify” their registration by visiting a website tomers during our current update members must please
unconnected to that company. Those who heeded the submittheir information to be eligible for our FREE
warning and followed the steps laid out for them at drawing of cash and prizes on November 12, 1999.
the bogus website were, in fact, providing unknown Winners will be randomly selected and notified through
persons with their AOL passwords and user names. email. Best of luck to our Members! Aol Staff “http://
The original message read: 216.33.20.4/az2/tryfree/index.html”> CLICK HERE

19
AOL4FREE Scams

AOL4FREE Scams: Internet swindles and hoaxes wasting annoyance, while the more serious forms
As exposed by HOAXBUSTERS, THE “AOL4Free” cha- may involve loss of critical data or criminal prosecu-
rade evolved through three phases, beginning in tion for weak-willed users.
1996 with an AOL4Free Macintosh program, writ-
ten by a former Yale computer science student and
distributed to hundreds of users, providing illegal “AOL Riot”: threatening Internet hoax
free access to America Online that cost the company The following hoax message represents an effort to
between $40,000 and $70,000 in service charges. coerce participation in an Internet chain letter attack-
The March 1997 issue of CSI Computer Security ing America Online. The VIRUSES and computer tech-
Alert noted that the (anonymous) author of the pro- nology it describes do not exist, nor have any of the
gram was arrested and pleaded guilty to defrauding HACKERS’ screen names provided been linked to real-
AOL. Any attempt to replicate or use the AOL4Free life individuals. The message read (with original
program subjects all users to criminal prosecution on errors):
the same charge.
Part two of the AOL4Free story involves a fake AOL RIOT JUNE 1, 1998
virus warning broadcast on the Internet as a hoax. WARNING:
The e-mail message reads:
You must forward this letter to 10 people or your
VIRUS ALERT!!! account will be terminated on June 1, 1998. All recipi-
DON’T OPEN E-MAIL NOTING “AOL4FREE” ents of this e-mail are being tracked. When you received
Anyone who receives this must send it to as many peo- this, when you forwarded it, who you forwarded it to,
ple as you can. It is essential that this problem be recon- is all on record. We are AOL’s most elite hacker group,
ciled as soon as possible. A few hours ago, I opened an known as LcW. We have hacked AOL’s (easily infil-
E-mail that had the subject heading of trated) systems on numerous occaisions. We have shut
“AOL4FREE.COM”. Within seconds of opening it, a down AOL keywords, we can kick any AOL Staff
window appeared and began to display my files that member off for 24 hours, we have gained access to
were being deleted. I immediately shut down my com- Steve Case’s account, we have created AOL’s most
puter, but it was too late. This virus wiped me out. It famous hacking programs (Fate X, HaVoK, HeLL
ate the Anti-Virus Software that comes with the Win- RaIsEr, MaGeNtA) and we can certainly get your credit
dows ’95 Program along with F-Prot AVS. Neither was card info. However, if you sent this to 10 people, like
able to detect it. Please be careful and sent this to as you are told, you will escape unharmed. We won’t ter-
many people as possible, so maybe this new virus can minate your account and you will be able to continue
be eliminated. using AOL. So if you know whats best for you, you will
send this to 10 people as soon as possible. If you think
Ironically, while that warning is a complete hoax, we are bluffing. . . . just wait till June 1, and see if you
there is an aol4free.com Trojan horse file at large “in can sign or not.
the wild” that creates fraudulent AOL accounts
while deleting all files on the C drive of an infected CAUTION: THERE WILL BE A VIRUS UPLOADED
computer. Unlike the nonexistent virus from the ON AOL’S MAIN SERVER ON JUNE 1, 1998. ANY
“warning” hoax, however, this real-life version is a USERS WHO HAVEN’T FORWARDED THIS MES-
DOS program that leaves Macintosh computers SAGE WILL AUTOMATICALLY HAVE THE VIRUS
unscathed while attacking Windows software. It runs DOWNLOADED INTO THEIR SYSTEM. WE SUG-
the DOS deltree command on the C drive of an GEST YOU FORWARD THIS MESSAGE OR YOUR
infected machine, thereby deleting all files in a given COMPUTER WILL BE FRIED.
directory, including the directory itself and any sub- *****
directories. In that manner, the C hard drive is soon Because of the outrage of AOL’s increasing prices,
wiped clean. LcW has decided to create a riot on May 1, that will
On balance, it seems safe to say that any and all cause havoc on AOL. We will be sending viruses our to
messages bearing the AOL4Free title should be thousands of AOL users. We will be terminating
deleted on arrival without being opened, since none accounts. We will be hacking into Guide chat rooms
of the three versions offers anything more than time- and kicking guides offline. There will be no AOL

20
AREA Code 809 Scam

Staff—just complete pandemonium. If you want to join Attention Friends


this riot, we urge you to! You won’t have to worry
about being TOSed or Reported because there will be Another scam on the lurch on the AOL net. . . .
no Guides online! So do whatever you want—punt, BEWARE!!!!!! If you receive an e-mail that is titled
scroll, tos, just turn AOL into a war zone! “Fwd: America Online 4.0 Upgrade” or that has an
***** attached file called “Setup40.exe” Do not download
LIST OF LcW HACKERS ON AOL the program it is NOT Aol 4,0 it is a program that will
e-mail your SCREEN NAME and your PASSWORD to
We represent LcW two or more people during two blackouts of your com-
The following Hackers will be co-ordinating the Riot puter screen. DO NOT DOWNLOAD DELETE IT!!!
and hacking AOL’s mainframe computer, and upload- Please E-Mail this letter to as many people as possible
ing viruses into the system. to avoid damage. . . . thanks!!!

WaReZxHaCk Spokesmen for America Online reply, for the


MaGuS record, that “AOL does not circulate ANYTHING
ReDxKiNG to customers by way of e-mail with attached files. All
HaVoK AOL software is distributed through keyworded
SkiD download areas on the service.”
SeMeN
NoStRa
PhoneTap
“APOKALIPSA”: computer virus
First identified in October 2000, the “Apokalipsa”
InetXWeb
computer virus was rated nondangerous by expert
Psy Acid
analysts and may in fact have ceased to exist “in the
PoiSon iV
wild.” The virus wrote itself to the end of executed
PaUsE
.exe files and apparently decrypted only in the year
CooLant
2000, displaying the following messages:
InFeRnO
Xstatic
Wellcome to 21st century.
Chronic Burn
Author (Martin Zdila—MATOSoft) wish you no
Zone Degreez viruses in your computer (except me—APOKALIPSA).
WaTcHeR I (virus) was born in SLOVAKIA in 1997/98. Don’t
panic, I am harmless virus what is waiting for
----- APOKALIPSA. Press any key to continue.
Oh my God . . . APOKALIPSA is here !!!
AOL RIOT ON JUNE 1, 1998—You have been ALL DATA ON YOUR DISK ARE DESTROYED,
warned LcW is taking over America Online. This is not FOREVER! . . . ha ha ha. I got you! Great joke, isn’t it ?!
no fucking joke either. You have been warned.
In fact, no disks were erased and the virus’s built-
The warning offered no explanation for the confusion of in trigger for the year 2000 seems to have rendered it
dates, with the “riot” variously scheduled for May 1 and inoperative thereafter.
June 1, 1998, but since no disturbance was noted on either
date, it hardly mattered.
AREA Code 809 Scam: Internet hoax based on actual fraud
This curious message, circulated for the first time in
AOL Upgrade Warning: Internet hoax February 2000, refers to an actual telephone scam
Yet another hoax targeting America Online, this but garbles the details and incorporates various fac-
bogus warning cautions Internet users against the tual errors that make the warning useless. The 809
perils of a nonexistent upgrade supposedly offered telephone area code is assigned to the Dominican
by e-mail with an infected attachment. It reads (with Republic, charged as an overseas call despite the
grammatical errors intact): fact that it can be dialed in the same manner as a

21
AREA Code 809 Scam

domestic long-distance call. Some numbers in that get a long recorded message. The point is, they will try to
country are pay-per-call numbers, similar to “900” keep you on that phone as long as possible to increase
numbers in the United States, but unlike the U.S., the charges. Unfortunately, when you get your phone
Dominican statutes provide for no recorded warn- bill, you’ll often be charged more than $100.00.
ings before those numbers are dialed. The 809 area HERE’S WHY IT WORKS: The 809 area code is
code therefore has been used to bilk callers of cash, located in the British Virgin Islands (the Bahamas). The
but the Internet warning is erroneous in several 809 area code can be used as a “pay-per-call” number,
respects, including the pretense that it emanates from similar to 900 numbers in the US. Since 809is not in the
the (legitimate) ScamBusters website. The hoax mes- US, it is not covered by US regulations of 900 numbers,
sage reads (with errors preserved): which require that you be notified and warned of
charges and rates involved when you call a “pay-per-
SPECIAL ALERT—DON’T EVER DIAL AREA call” number. There is also no requirement that the com-
CODE 809 pany provide a time period during which you may
This is pretty scary—especially given how they try to terminate the call without being charged. Further,
get you to call. Be sure you read this and pass it on to whereas many US phones have 900 number blocking to
all your friends & family so they don’t get scammed! avoid these kinds of charges, 900 number blocking will
SCAM: Don’t Respond To Emails, Phone Calls, Or not prevent calls to the 809 area code. We recommend
Web Pages which tell you to Call An “809” Phone that no matter how you get the message, if you are asked
Number. This is a very important issue of Internet to call a number with an 809 area code that you don’t
ScamBusters! Because it alerts you to a scam that is recognize, investigate further and/or disregard the mes-
spreading *extremely* quickly—can easily cost you sage. Be *very* wary of email or calls asking you to call
$100 or more, and—is difficult to avoid unless you are an 809 area code number. it’s important to prevent
aware of it. We’d like to thank Paul Breummer and becoming a victim of this scam, since trying to fight the
Brian Stains for bringing this scam to our attention. charges afterward can become a real nightmare. That’s
This scam has also been identified by the National because you did actually make the call. If you complain,
Fraud Information Center and is costing victims a lot of both our local phone company and your long distance
money. There are lots of different permutations of this carrier will not want to get involved and will most likely
scam, but HERE’S HOW IT WORKS: tell you that they are simply providing the billing for the
Permutation #1: Internet Based Phone Scam Via foreign company. You’ll end up dealing with a foreign
Email You receive an email, typically with a subject line company that argues they have done nothing wrong.
of “*ALERT*” or “Unpaid account.” The message, Please forward this entire issue of Internet ScamBusters!
which is being spammed across the net, says: I am writ- To your friends, family and colleagues to help them
ing to give you a final 24hrs to settle your outstanding become aware of this scam so they don’t get ripped off.
account . . . If I have not received the settlement in full,
I will commence legal proceedings without further The actual ScamBusters website disavows any link
delay. If you would like to discuss this matter to avoid to this e-mail, although a form of the warning (minus
court action, call Mike Murray at Global Communica- errors) may be found on that site. Among the errors
tions on at 1-809-496-2700. noted by ScamBusters are the following:
Permutation #2: Phone Or Pager Scam You receive a
message on your answering machine or your pager which 1. ScamBusters has never warned anyone to avoid
asks you to call a number beginning with area code 809. dialing 809 numbers under any and all circum-
The reason you’re asked to call varies: it can be to receive stances.
information about a family member who has been ill, to 2. Likewise, the website asks no one to forward its
tell you someone has been arrested, died, to let you know articles to friends or broadcast them across the
you have won a wonderful prize, etc. In each case, you’re Internet at large.
told to call the 809 number right away. Since there are so 3. Contrary to the hoax e-mail’s implication, the
many new area codes these days, people unknowingly 809 area code is not new, but has been in use for
return these calls. If you call from the US, you will appar- years.
ently be charged $25 per-minute! Sometimes the person 4. More significantly, the 809 area code is not
who answers the phone will speak broken English and “located in the British Virgin Islands (the
pretend not to understand you. Other times, you’ll just Bahamas).” In fact, the British Virgin Islands and

22
ARMORED Vehicles

Bahamas are not the same country, nor does plates, attached like shingles to the existing
either share the 809 area code with the Domini- armor of a military vehicle, but spaced some-
can Republic. The Bahamian area code is 242, what away from it. On impact of an armor-
while that of the British Virgin Islands is 284. piercing round, the explosive layer detonates,
flinging the steel plates apart and absorbing
most of the incoming round’s destructive force
ARMORED Vehicles before it reaches the primary target.
Armored or “bulletproof” vehicles have long been a
staple of crime and crime-fighting, as well as military It is presently illegal for American civilians to pur-
action. Prohibition-era gangsters like Chicago’s Al chase or possess armor-piercing ammunition, either
Capone protected themselves from bootleg rivals in the form of small arms “cop-killer” rounds or
with armored limousines, and the 1930s Barker- larger military ordnance, but black-market sources
Karpis gang used similar vehicles (some equipped make most forms of weaponry available to terrorists,
with smokescreen generators) to escape from police revolutionaries, and well-financed criminal gangs.
after their daylight bank holdups. Private security Three common anti-armor rounds designed specifi-
firms, in turn, initiated use of armored vehicles for cally for military use are:
shipping cash and other valuable merchandise, a
practice that continues to the present day. Increas- 1. Armor-piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding sabot
ingly, as the threat of terrorism or ransom kidnap- (APFSDS) rounds. The projectile in one of these
ping spreads throughout the world at large, shells is a long, small-diameter dart with tail fins,
high-ranking government and business figures seek made of some extremely hard and dense material
advanced security in transit for themselves, their such as tungsten carbide or depleted uranium.
families, and their associates. Because it is much smaller than the bore of the
Civilian armored vehicles typically rely on steel weapon that fires it, the dart is encased in a light
plating, shatter-resistant glass, and special “run-flat” alloy sleeve (the “sabot”) which disintegrates and
bulletproof tires to protect their drivers and passen- falls away upon firing. The dart—or “penetra-
gers. Weapons and gun ports are also frequently tor”—itself is designed to pierce armor and shat-
included, to give the targets of attack a fighting ter inside the vehicle, spraying any occupants
chance at self-defense. Drawbacks of heavily with white-hot shrapnel and fragments of the
armored vehicles include reduced speed and vehicle’s own ruptured plating.
increased fuel consumption, all of which comes with 2. High explosive anti-tank (HEAT) ammunition.
a greatly inflated price tag. Manufacturers are typi- These shells penetrate armor by using the “Mon-
cally close-mouthed about specifics of their armor roe effect” of detonating explosives at a critical
plating, but multiple layers of tempered steel and distance from the target. HEAT projectiles are
occasional lighter materials such as Kevlar are stan- cylindrical full-bore shells containing several
dard for civilian vehicles. Military and police vehicles pounds of high explosives. The front of each
often employ more expensive, bulkier armor, includ- round is a hollow cone lined with copper or some
ing the following types: other dense material, its extended nose bearing a
piezoelectric crystal at the tip. The crystal is
Composite armor, true to its name, incorporates crushed on impact, generating an electric pulse
layers of different substances, each with differ- that passes to a detonator at the base of the
ent protective properties against specific kinds round’s explosive payload. When the charge
of attack. One system employs steel armor explodes, a detonation wave passes around the
inlaid and reinforced with a network of tita- cone and collapses it in a “focusing” action, con-
nium rods; another sandwiches heat-absorbing verting it to a fast-moving (16,000 mph) jet of
chemical layers between steel plates; yet molten material and high-explosive gas. Heat and
another provides layers of rubber between velocity combine to penetrate the armor, inciner-
armor plates to absorb the shock waves of ating the vehicle’s occupants on contact and deto-
explosive rounds on impact. nating any live ammunition in the round’s path.
Explosive reactive armor (ERA) actually employs 3. High-explosive squash-head (HESH) ammuni-
a layer of explosive material between thick steel tion. These rounds premiered in World War II

23
ARSON Investigation

and have been constantly refined over the past ular activities (e.g., the testimony of a witness, pur-
half-century. Each HESH round is a blunt-nosed chase of specific property, etc.).
projectile filed with plastic explosive that
“squashes” against its target on impact, then det- CRIME CONCEALMENT
onates from a fuse in the base of the charge. Fire destroys evidence, and various arsonists have
Rather than piercing the armor, the HESH used it to conceal acts of murder, suicide, burglary,
round’s massive shock wave dislodges a large theft, or embezzlement, and to destroy crucial
steel “scab” from the vehicle’s interior plating, records pertaining to disputed property or activities.
which then ricochets around inside the vehicle
with killing force. PROFIT
These fires are normally set to obtain an insurance
Use of such destructive ammunition would be payoff, to liquidate property, to dissolve a failing
excessive and counterproductive for bandits intent business, to eliminate unwanted inventory, or to
on robbing an armored truck of cash—and it would eradicate competition.
hardly be necessary. When neo-Nazi members of The
Order robbed a Brink’s truck at Ukiah, California, of EXTREMISM
$3.8 million on July 19, 1984, three shots from a Fires in this category include acts of TERRORISM and
.308-caliber semiautomatic rifle pierced the armored discrimination (if indeed there is any discernible dif-
truck’s windows and persuaded the guards to surren- ference between the two acts), and arson incidents
der. The bandits scarcely needed the harmless card- committed during riots. Religious fanaticism may be
board tube, which they had painted to resemble a a factor, in addition to political or racial concerns.
bazooka rocket-launcher. (In 1999 a self-styled Satanist confessed to burning
more than 30 Christian churches across the Mid-
west.)
ARSON Investigation
According to a 1998 report from the Federal Emer- SERIAL ARSON
gency Management Administration (FEMA), arson is Defined as compulsive, repetitive fire-setting. Indeed,
the leading cause of fire-related property damage in repetition alone seems to distinguish this category
the United States, also resulting in an average of 500 from the “excitement” motive listed above. FBI tax-
deaths per year, nationwide. The FBI’s Crime Classi- onomists confuse the issue by creating a subcategory
fication Manual (1992) lists seven motives for delib- for spree arsonists (who set multiple fires without an
erate fire-setting. They include: emotional “cooling-off” period between incidents),
and by adding a mass arson category for offenders
VANDALISM who set multiple simultaneous fires at one location.
Subcategories of this motive include willful and mali- (The latter, clearly, has nothing to do with “serial”
cious mischief (wherein motive may be determined arson, which by definition involves successive and
by choice of targets) and peer-group pressure (most separate incidents.)
commonly seen in juvenile offenders). Arson investigators begin their task by studying
the complex chemical process that is fire. Each fire
EXCITEMENT consists of three basic elements: fuel, oxygen, and
Variants of this motive include fire-setting by thrill- heat. The physical state and shape of the fuel, avail-
seekers, by arsonists craving attention, by those seek- able oxygen, and the transmission of heat all play
ing recognition as “heroes” (firefighters sometimes critical roles in development of a specific fire. Investi-
fall into this category), or sexual deviants who gators must also understand the basics of building
achieve satisfaction from the act of setting fires. construction, including materials used and the nature
of any fire-protection systems in place, which deter-
REVENGE mine the course of a fire’s development and progress.
A more “rational” form of fire-setting, this form may The first step in any fire investigation is determin-
target individuals, specific groups or institutions, or ing a blaze’s point of origin. Only when the point of
society in general. It may also include acts of intimi- origin has been determined can authorities discover
dation, as in the case of fires set to discourage partic- how and why a blaze began. This “backwards”

24
ASPARTAME Hoax

investigation must be fully documented via field Article written by Betty Martini
notes, diagrams and sketches, photographs, and col-
lection of fire scene evidence. If investigators can I have spent several days lecturing at the WORLD
eliminate accidental causes—faulty equipment, care- ENVIRONMENTAL CONFERENCE on ASPAR-
less smoking, flammable liquids, lightning, electrical TAME: Marketed as ‘NutraSweet,’ ‘Equal,’ and ‘Spoon-
failures, and spontaneous combustion—they are ful.’ In the keynote address by the EPA, they announced
ready to proceed in search of a deliberate incendiary that there was an epidemic of multiple sclerosis and sys-
cause for the fire. That evidence may include traces temic lupus, and they did not understand what toxin
of accelerants) gasoline, kerosene, etc.) or the rem- was causing this to be rampant across the United States.
nants of an incendiary/explosive device recovered I explained I was there to lecture on exactly that
from the fire scene. Various mechanical sensors and subject. When the temperature of Aspartame exceeds
specially trained dogs assist investigators in the dis- 86 degrees F, the wood alcohol in ASPARTAME con-
covery of accelerants and other clues at a fire scene. verts to formaldehyde and then to formic acid, which in
That evidence, in turn, may prove vital in tracing the turn causes metabolic acidosis. (Formic acid is the poi-
arsonist (or, in the alternative, for use in attempts at son found in the sting of fire ants.) The methanol toxic-
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILING of an unknown fire-setter). ity mimics multiple sclerosis; thus, people were being
Collection of evidence at any crime scene must diagnosed with having multiple sclerosis in error. The
conform to rigorous forensic standards if that evi- multiple sclerosis is not a death sentence, where
dence is to withstand legal challenges in court. Pho- methanol toxicity is. In the case of systemic lupus, we
tographs and fire-scene sketches document the points are finding it has become almost as rampant as multiple
where evidentiary items were initially discovered, sclerosis, especially Diet Coke and Diet Pepsi drinkers.
and each fire department or law enforcement agency Also, with methanol toxicity, the victims usually drink
follows established procedures to document the three to four 12 oz. Cans of them per day, some even
chain of custody between discovery and trial. Mod- more. In the case of systemic lupus, which is triggered
ern computer software, such as the FireFiles system, by ASPARTAME, the victim usually does not know
provides arson investigators with case-management that aspartame is the culprit. The victim continues its
tools to organize various details of the case, track use aggravating the lupus to such a degree, that some-
evidence from collection through analysis, and to times it becomes life threatening.
help in preparation of technical reports. When we get people off the aspartame, those with
systemic lupus usually become asymptomatic. Unfortu-
nately, we cannot reverse the disease. On the other
ASPARTAME Hoax: Internet smear campaign hand, in the case of those diagnosed with Multiple Scle-
The artificial sweetener aspartame, marketed under rosis, (when in reality, the disease is methanol toxicity),
various brand names, has come under fire on the most of the symptoms disappear. We have seen cases
Internet since a 1996 scientific study reported an where their vision has returned and even their hearing
increase in brain tumors among laboratory animals has returned. This also applies to cases of tinnitus.
ingesting the chemical, although no direct causal link During the lecture I said “If you are using ASPAR-
was asserted and medical opinion later varied on the TAME [NutraSweet, Equal, Spoonful, etc.] and you
subject, as the incidence of tumors leveled off while suffer from fibromyalgia symptoms, spasms, shooting
use of aspartame continued to increase nationwide. pains, numbness in your legs, cramps, vertigo, dizzi-
In December 1999 a letter began circulating on the ness, headaches, tinnitus, joint pain, depression, anxiety
Internet, allegedly written by one Betty Martini, attacks, slurred speech, blurred vision, or memory loss,
described as a lecturer at the World Environmental you probably have ASPARTAME DISEASE!”
Conference. Its contents were entirely false, mislead- People were jumping up during the lecture saying,
ing, and defamatory to various popular products and “I’ve got this. Is it reversible?” It is rampant. Some of
their manufacturers, with no basis whatever in fact. the speakers at my lecture were even suffering from
That message read (complete with errors): these symptoms. In one lecture attended by the Ambas-
sador of Uganda, he told us that their sugar industry is
WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL CONFERENCE and adding aspartame! He continued by saying that one of
the MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS FOUNDATION & FDA the industry leader’s son could no longer walk due in
IS SUING FOR COLLUSION WITH MONSANTO. part to product usage! We have a very serious problem.

25
ASPARTAME Hoax

Even a stranger came up to Dr. Episto (one of my has written a book entitled “EXCITOXINS: THE
speakers) and myself and said, “Could you tell me why TASTE THAT KILLS” Health Press 1-800-643-3665).
so many people seem to be coming down with MS?” Dr. H.J. Roberts, diabetic specialist and world expert on
During a visit to a hospice, a nurse said that six of her aspartame poisoning, has also written a book entitled
friends, who were heavy Diet Coke drinkers, had all “DEFENSE AGAINST ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE” (1-
been diagnosed with MS. This is beyond coincidence. 800-814-9800). Dr. Roberts tells how aspartame poi-
Here is the problem. There were Congressional Hear- soning is escalating Alzheimer’s Disease, and indeed it is.
ings when Aspartame was originally included as a As the hospice nurse told me, women are being admitted
sweetener in 100 different products. Since this initial at 30 years of age with Alzheimer’s Disease. Dr. Blay-
hearing, there have been two subsequent hearings, but lock and Dr. Roberts will be writing a position paper wit
to no avail. some case histories and will post it on the Internet.
Nothing has been done. The drug and chemical lob- According to the Conference of the American Col-
bies have very deep pockets. Now there are over 5,000 lege of Physicians, “We are talking about a plague of
products containing this chemical and the PATENT neurological diseases caused by this deadly poison.” Dr.
HAS EXPIRED!!!! Roberts realized what was happening when aspartame
At the time of this first hearing, people were going was first marketed. He said, “His diabetic patients pre-
blind. The methanol in the Aspartame converts to sented memory loss, confusion, and severe vision loss.”
formaldehyde in the retina of the eye. Formaldehyde is At the Conference of the American College of Physi-
grouped in the same class of drugs as cyanide and cians, doctors admitted that they did not know. They
arsenic—DEADLY POISONS!!! Unfortunately, it just had wondered why seizures were rampant (the pheny-
takes longer to quietly kill, but it is killing people and lalanine in aspartame breaks down the seizure thresh-
causing all kinds of neurological problems. Aspartame old and depletes serotonin, which causes manic
changes the brain’s chemistry. It is the reason for severe depression, panic attacks, rage and violence).
seizures. This drug also causes birth defects. There is Just before the Conference, I received a fax from
absolutely no reason to take this product. It is NOT A Norway, asking for a possible antidote for this poison
DIET PRODUCT! The Congressional record said, “It because they are experiencing so many problems in
makes you crave Carbohydrates and will make you their country. This “poison” is now available in 90
FAT.” Dr. Roberts stated that when he got patients off PLUS countries worldwide. Fortunately, we had speak-
aspartame, their average weight loss was 19 pounds per ers and ambassadors at the Conference from different
person. nations who have pledged their help. We ask that you
The formaldehyde stores in the fat cells, particularly help too. Print this article out and warn everyone you
in the hips and thighs. Aspartame is especially deadly for know. Take anything that contains aspartame back to
diabetics. All physicians know what wood alcohol will the store. Take the “NO ASPARTAME “TEST” and
do to a diabetic. We find that physicians believe that they send us your case history. I assure you that MON-
have patients with retinopathy, when in fact, it is caused SANTO, the creator of Aspartame, knows how deadly
by aspartame. The aspartame keeps the blood sugar level it is. They fund the American Association, American
out of control, causing many patients to go into a coma. Dietetic Association Congress, and the Conference of
Unfortunately, many have died. People were telling us at the American College of Physicians. The New York
the conference of the American College of Physicians, Times, November 15, 1996, ran an article on how the
that they had relatives that switched from saccharin to an American Dietetic Association takes money from the
aspartame product and how that relative had eventually food industry to endorse their products. Therefore, they
gone into a coma. Their physicians could not get the cannot criticize any additives or tell about their link to
blood sugar levels under control. Thus, the patients suf- MONSANTO.
fered acute memory loss and eventually coma and death. How bad is this? We told a mother who had a child
Memory loss is due to the fact that aspartic acid and on NutraSweet to get off the product. The child was
phenylalanine are neurotoxic without the other acids having grand mal seizures every day. The mother called
found in protein. Thus it goes past the blood brain bar- her physician, who called the ADA, who told the
rier and deteriorates the neurons of the brain. doctor not to take the child off NutraSweet. We are
Dr. Russell Blaylock, neurosurgeon, said, “The still trying to convince the mother that the Aspartame
ingredients stimulates the neurons of the brain to death, is causing the seizures. Every time we get someone off
causing brain damage of varying degrees. Dr. Blaylock of aspartame, the seizures stop. If the baby dies, you

26
ATKINS, Herman

know whose fault it is, and what we are up against. A later version of this warning letter is identical
There are 92 documented symptoms of aspartame, in all respects except that the author’s name has
from coma to death. the majority of them are all- been changed to “Nancy Markle.” Title and con-
neurological, because the aspartame destroys the nerv- tents notwithstanding, the Multiple Sclerosis Foun-
ous system. dation has publicly disavowed any knowledge of a
Aspartame Disease is partially the cause of what is link between the disease or its symptoms and any
behind the mystery of the Desert Storm healthy prob- artificial sweeteners. The American Diabetes Asso-
lems. The burning tongue and other problems dis- ciation has likewise denounced the hoax and
cussed in over 60 cases can be directly related to the refuted its claims with respect to diabetes, while the
consumption of Aspartame product. Several thousand Food and Drug Administration has attested to
pallets of diet drinks were shipped to the Desert Storm aspartame’s safety for human consumption. Finally,
troops., (Remember heat can liberate the methanol none of the organizations named have filed or
from the aspartame at 86 degrees F.) Diet drinks sat in anticipate filing litigation of any sort against Mon-
the 120 degree F Arabian sun for weeks at a time on santo Corporation or any other manufacturer of
pallets. The servicemen and women drank them all artificial sweeteners.
day long. All of their symptoms are identical to aspar-
tame poisoning. Dr. Roberts says consuming Aspar-
tame at the time of conception can cause birth “ASSIGNATION”: computer virus family
defects.” Identified for the first time in June 1996, the “Assig-
According to Dr. Louis Elsas, Pediatrician and Pro- nation” family includes no dangerous, memory-resi-
fessor of Genetics at Emory University, In his testi- dent parasitic viruses. The several viruses write
mony before Congress. The phenylalanine concentrates themselves to the end of executed .exe files, simulta-
in the placenta, causing mental retardation. In the orig- neously installing the “Assignation.653” virus into
inal lab tests, animals developed brain tumors, pheny- the infected computer’s memory and setting the sys-
lalanine breaks down into DXP, a brain tumor agent.) tem’s date to February 5. No other viruses manifest
when Dr. Episto was lecturing on aspartame, one themselves, but the Assignation virus displays the fol-
physician in the audience, a neurosurgeon, said, lowing text strings:
“When they remove brain tumors, they have found
high levels of aspartame in them.” Stevia, a sweet food, “Assignation.426,436”: 386
NOT AN ADDITIVE, which helps in the metabolism Virus—by Qark/VLAD—1996
of sugar, would be ideal for diabetics, has now been “Assignation.653”:
approved as a dietary supplement by the FDA for kraD evoL
years, the FDA has outlawed this sweet food because Hello. . . . This is Assignation Virus V1.00 . . . ^_^
of their loyalty to MONSANTO. Today You will have a Date for Someone :-)
If it says “SUGAR FREE” on the label—DO NOT May Be with you friend, Brother, or Dark Lover :-)
EVEN THINK ABOUT IT. Senator Howard Hetzen- Copy Allright By Dark Lover ^_^ 04/22/1996
baum wrote a bill that would have warned all infants, in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
pregnant mothers and children of the dangers of
aspartame. The bill would have also instituted inde-
pendent studies on the problems existing in the popula- ATKINS, Herman: exonerated by DNA evidence
tion (seizures, changes in brain chemistry, changes in On April 8, 1986, a female shoe-store clerk was
neurological and behavioral symptoms). It was killed confronted by an unmasked gunman who stole
by the powerful drug and chemical lobbies, letting $130 from the store’s cash register, then raped her
loose the hounds of disease and death on an unsuspect- twice and forced her to fellate him, all the while
ing public. Since the Conference of the American threatening to “blow [her] brains out.” While giv-
College of Physicians, we hope to have help of several ing her statement at the Riverside County, Califor-
world leaders. nia, sheriff’s office, the victim saw a wanted poster
Again, please help us, too. There are a lot of people on fugitive Herman Atkins, sought for assaulting
out there who must be warned, please let them know two Los Angeles policemen, and she identified him
this information. The author, Betty Martini, can be as her attacker. Atkins was arrested in Phoenix
reached at 770-242-2599. seven months later, held over for trial on charges of

27
AUGUSTINE,Tyrone

rape and armed robbery. At trial in 1988, his wife copyright laws. Those charged included Augustine,
testified that Atkins was at home (in Los Angeles) his four coworkers, and 12 of the hackers from
with no car on the day of the rape. Jurors convicted Pirates with Attitude. Tyrone Augustine was among
him on all counts, and he received a 45-year prison 13 defendants in the case who pleaded guilty as
term; a second trial in Los Angeles County added charged. As of December 2001, no date had yet been
two years and eight months for the assault on the fixed for sentencing.
patrolmen.
In 1993, encouraged by reports of other inmates
freed from custody when DNA testing exonerated AUSTRALIAN Society of Forensic Dentistry
them of rape and other crimes, Atkins contacted the As its name suggests, the Australian Society of
New York-based CARDOZO INNOCENCE PROJECT. Cali- Forensic Dentistry (ASFD) is a professional organi-
fornia authorities resisted petitions for a new DNA zation devoted to the promotion of forensic ODON-
test in Atkins’s case, but an appellate court ordered TOLOGY in the nation of Australia, to facilitate
the test in August 2000. A report filed on January identification of murder, accident, and disaster vic-
15, 2001 excluded Atkins as a suspect in the rape, tims. The ASFD’s 48 identified members in 2001
and he was freed in February 2001, the 64th inmate reportedly included all practicing dentists in Aus-
cleared by DNA evidence since American courts first tralia, but membership is open (at a price of $45 per
admitted its use for appeals in 1993. Greeting year) to “any professional who has an interest in the
reporters with a smile, Atkins proclaimed, “Now application of dental techniques for forensic pur-
God, me and the people of California and the United poses.” The sole member listed from outside Aus-
States know I am an innocent man.” tralia for 2001 was Dr. Hirofumi Aboshi, a
professor of dentistry at Nikon University in Tokyo.
The ASFD’s website includes links to similar organi-
AUGUSTINE, Tyrone: software copyright pirate zations around the world and provides contact
A resident of Cambridge, Massachusetts, born May information for members available to consult on a
13, 1971, Augustine was employed by Intel Corpo- contract or emergency basis.
ration in December 1998, when he entered into a
criminal conspiracy with four coworkers and a
HACKERS’ syndicate christened “PIRATES WITH ATTI- “AZATOTH”: computer virus
TUDE.” The plotters collaborated to collect and Reported initially in October 1999, “Azatoth” is
bootleg more than 5,000 computer software pro- another “benign” virus—as opposed to the danger-
grams stockpiled on a covert website based on the ous, memory-resident, encrypted parasitic viruses
campus of a Quebec university. The Intel gang that may paralyze or destroy entire systems. It writes
agreed to trade their company’s software for free itself to the end of .exe files that have been opened or
access to programs maintained on the Canadian executed, thereafter deleting the file anti-vir.dat and
website, and Augustine went further, arranging to disabling resident driver tbdrvxxx. Azatoth displays
ship critical pieces of Intel hardware to Canada at the following text strings:
the company’s expense, but without the knowledge
of his employers. A federal grand jury in Chicago mandragore/DDT
indicted 17 of the pirates on May 4, 2000, charging [azatoth]
each with one count of conspiracy to violate U.S. windblows must die! enjoy linux!

28
B
“BABYLONIA”: computer virus entry code and overwriting it at some point to achieve
Reported for the first time in December 1999, penetration.
“Babylonia” is a memory-resident, parasitic Win- Windows Help files (.HLP) also fall prey to the
dows virus with worm and backdoor capabilities. It Babylonia virus, infected by means of a program that
utilizes codes that are found on Windows 9x com- modifies the internal file structure, adding Babylo-
puters only, therefore limiting its impact, but it nia’s script to the “system” area, and thereafter forc-
attacks several types of files within the vulnerable ing the Help system to execute a specially prepared
systems: Windows executable files; Windows help binary Windows32 program, itself a “start-up” poly-
files; and the Winsock library (thus transmitting its morphic routine that replicates the main virus code
replicants to the Internet at large). and executes it as a Windows32 application.
When attacking a vulnerable computer’s wsock32.
Babylonia installs itself into Windows memory
dll library, Babylonia patches in a program to acti-
when an infected .exe file is executed, scanning the
vate the memory-resident virus copy and send the
Windows kernel for required function addresses and
virus to the Internet at large, via infected e-mail
implanting itself as a memory-resident system driver attachments. The attached virus file is identifiable by
(VxD). Once installed, the virus commandeers a the label “x.exe.” Alternative file names built into
block of Windows VxD memory and copies itself the virus, but never displayed due to bugs in the sys-
there, afterward creating an additional file on the C tem, include i-watch-u; babylonia; surprise!; jesus;
drive, labeled c:\babylonia.exe. That file is a virus buhh; and chocolate. When the infected attachment
component afterward run as a stand-alone applica- is opened, Babylonia installs itself into the new com-
tion, releasing additional virus features. During self- puter’s system and displays two fake messages:
installation, Babylonia also scans the system drivers
for AVP9 and SPID antivirus monitors, altering them Loader Error
to prevent virus scans. API not found!
Once installed, the Babylonia virus interrupts three
kinds of Windows file access functions: file opening; Loader Error
renaming; and reading/modifying file attributes. Windows 95 [or NT] required!
Whenever an executable file is accessed thereafter, the This program will be terminated.
virus attaches itself to the file’s end, thereby increasing
its size. To gain control of files, Babylonia employs While installing itself in a computer system, the
“entry point obscuring” technology, scanning the file Babylonia virus also creates a stand-alone backdoor

29
“BADASS”

program unconnected to the virus code itself, which ents who might otherwise identify and delete it
registers itself as a “service process” invisible to a unopened.
scan of the computer’s task list. That file is copied to When the infected attachment is opened, thereby
the Windows system directory with the kernel32.exe executing the worm’s .exe file, BadAss delivers its
name and is registered to the auto-run section of the payload in the form of serial message boxes, then
system registry as HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Win- opens the MS Outlook database, retrieves e-mail
dows\CurrentVersion\Run. That done, the backdoor addresses from the built-in address book, and sends
program automatically connects to a hackers’ web- infected messages to all addresses listed therein. The
site in Japan and downloads additional files, after subject line of infected messages includes the text
which the backdoor program exits. “Moguh,” while the message reads: “Dit is wel grap-
Files downloaded from the Japanese website are pig! :-)”. Its series of preliminary message boxes are
“virus plugins,” permitting the author of the virus to distinctively insulting. The first reads as follows:
utilize infected computers at will—upgrading the
virus, installing new backdoors and “Trojan” pro- Kernel 32
grams, corrupting data, and so forth. Four plugins are An error has occured probably because your cunt
identified to date. The first, named dropper.dat, cre- smells bad. Is this really so?
ates, executes, and then deletes a file labeled c:\insta- [Yes] [No]
lar.exe, which reinstalls Babylonia if it has already
been detected and removed by the computer’s legiti- A move of the mouse cursor to the [No] button is
mate user. The second file—named greetz.dat—lurks automatically overridden, shifting it repeatedly to
until January 15, then writes and executes commands [Yes] until the [Yes] button is finally clicked. There-
displaying the following message: upon, a second message is displayed while the infec-
tion routine proceeds.
W95/Babylonia by Vecna (c) 1999
Greetz to RoadKil and VirusBuster WIN32
Big thankz to sok4ever webmaster Contact your local supermarket for toilet paper and
Abracos pra galera brazuca!!! soap to solve this problem.
Eu boto fogo na Babilonia! [OK]

A third plugin file, named ircworm.dat, installs a BadAss will not send messages twice from the
worm virus variously labeled 2kBug-MircFix.exe same infected computer. Instead, it automatically
and 2kbugfix.ini, but laboratory tests suggest the suspends activity after infected messages have been
program contains “bugs” of its own that prevent the sent to all addresses retrieved from the computer’s
worm from spreading as intended. The final plugin address book.
program—poll.dat—provides the virus’s author with
information about the infected computer and sends a
message reading “Quando o mestre chegara?” to the “BADTRANS”: computer worm
e-mail address babylonia_counter@hotmail.com. A prolific worm virus spread via Windows Win32
systems, “Badtrans” was discovered in November
2001. It consists of two primary components, a
“BADASS”: computer worm worm and a “Trojan” program that operate inde-
Identified in October 1999, “BadAss” is a computer pendently of one another. The worm segment of Bad-
worm virus spread on the Internet via MicroSoft trans sends e-mail messages with infected
Outlook. The worm is a Windows.exe file virus attachments to addresses found in the infected com-
which appears to be based on the “MELISSA” virus, puter’s address book, while the Trojan program
bearing very similar functions and sequence of transmits selected information on the infected com-
instructions in its code. BadAss is transferred by puter—including passwords, keyboard log, and
means of e-mail messages with infected attachments other user’s information—to a specified e-mail
bearing the name badass.exe, but the file can be address, for later use by the virus’s writer.
manually renamed and will afterward spread with Corruption occurs when recipients of infected
the new name, presumably unrecognized by recipi- messages open the e-mail attachments, thereby acti-

30
“BADTRANS”

vating Badtrans, whereupon the worm installs itself Me_nude (or ME_NUDE)
in the system registry. At the same time, Badtrans README
drops an additional win32.dll file—a “keyboard New_Napster_Site
hooker”—which spies on all text entered through the news_doc (or NEWS_DOC)
computer’s keyboard. In some instances, the worm S3MSONG
deletes its original infected file once installation on SEARCHURL
the target system is complete. SETUP
Badtrans spreads via e-mail in one of two ways, Sorry_about_yesterday
either extracting new addresses from the victim’s stuff
address book or retrieving them from the incoming e- YOU_are_FAT! (or YOU_ARE_FAT!)
mail box. Once the addresses are secured, the worm
begins transmitting bogus e-mail messages without Badtrans does not send infected messages twice to
the victim’s knowledge, each bearing its own infected the same e-mail address, instead storing all e-mails
attachment. Outgoing messages may include the vic- utilized in a Windows system directory file and
tim’s legitimate e-mail return address or some fake checking the file’s contents before a new message is
address, randomly chosen from the following list: dispatched. The worm’s spying Trojan program
stores information to a log file and later sends it on
“Admin” <admin@gte.net> to randomly selected e-mail addresses drawn from
“Administrator” <administrator@border.net> the 22 listed below (with their servers):
“Andy” <andy@hweb-media.com>
“Anna” <aizzo@home.com> bgnd2@canada.com
“Anna” <lindaizzo@home.com> cxkawog@krovatka.net
“JESSICA BENAVIDES” <jessica@aol.com> DTCELACB@yahoo.com
“Joanna” <joanna@mail.utexas.edu> eccles@ballsy.net
“JUDY” <JUJUB@AOL.COM> fjshd@rambler.ru
“JUDY” <JUJUB271@AOL.COM> I1MCH2TH@yahoo.com
“Kelly Andersen” <Gravity49@aol.com> JGQZCD@excite.com
“Linda” <lgonzal@hotmail.com> muwripa@fairesuivre.com
“Mary L. Adams” <mary@c-com.net> OZUNYLRL@excite.com
“Mon S” <spiderroll@hotmail.com> rmxqpey@latemodels.com
“Monika Prado” <monika@telia.com> S_Mentis@mail-x-change.com
“Rita Tulliani” <powerpuff@videotron.ca> smr@eurosport.com
“Support” <support@cyberramp.net> ssdn@myrealbox.com
“Tina” <tina08@yahoo.com> suck_my_prick@ijustgotfired.com
“Tina” <tina0828@yahoo.com> suck_my_prick4@ukr.net
thisisno_fucking_good@usa.com
The subject line of Badtrans-infected e-mails is tsnlqd@excite.com
sometimes blank, but frequently contains “Re:” fol- udtzqccc@yahoo.com
lowed by the actual subject of a previous e-mail, lifted WPADJQ12@yahoo.com
from the victim’s address book. The message text is XHZJ3@excite.com
generally blank. Attachments bearing the worm’s YJPFJTGZ@excite.com
code typically carry one of the following filenames: ZVDOHYIK@yahoo.com
mail.canada.com
Card (or CARD) imap.front.ru
docs (or DOCS) mx2.mail.yahoo.com
fun (or FUN) inbound.ballsy.net.criticalpath.net
HAMSTER mail5.rambler.ru
Humor (or HUMOR) mx2.mail.yahoo.com
Pics (or PICS) mta.excite.com
images (or IMAGES) fs.cpio.com
info mta.excite.com

31
BAILEY, Roosevelt Tobias Jr.

inbound.latemodels.com.criticalpath.net As specified in the indictment, Baker and Gonda


mail-fwd.rapidsite.net allegedly exchanged a series of e-mails between
mail.ifrance.com November 29, 1994, and January 25, 1995, in which
smt.myrealbox.com they aired desires to kidnap, rape, and murder the
mail.monkeybrains.net woman in question. The e-mails were private, but
mail.ukr.net Baker afterward prepared a kind of synopsis which he
usa-com.mr.outblaze.com posted to the Internet newsgroup “alt.sex.stories.” A
mta.excite.com criminal complaint was filed, and Baker was arrested
mx2.mail.yahoo.com on February 9, 1995, and detained overnight. On
mx2.mail.yahoo.com February 10 a U.S. magistrate extended his detention,
mta.excite.com deeming Baker a threat to the community at large. A
mta.excite.com psychological examination refuted that finding, and
mx2.mail.yahoo.com Baker was allowed to post bond on March 10, 1995.
He thereafter filed a motion with a U.S. district court
in Michigan to quash a five-count superseding indict-
BAILEY, Roosevelt Tobias Jr.: software pirate ment filed on February 14, 1995.
A resident of Indianapolis, Roosevelt Bailey Jr. Prosecutors responded to Baker’s motion by not-
operated with accomplice Terry Lorenzo Barber (of ing that federal law prescribes a fine and five-year
Radcliff, Kentucky) to procure and sell bootleg prison term for any defendant who “transmits in
computer software between December 1997 and interstate or foreign commerce any communication
May 1998. Using a variety of corporate fronts— containing any threat to kidnap any person or any
Atlanta Micro Systems, Indiana Micro Systems, threat to injure the person of another.” They further
World Technologies Group, and so forth—the part- maintained that Baker’s exchange of e-mails with
ners hawked their illicit products by telephone and Gonda revealed “the evolution of their activity from
at weekend computer shows across the Midwest. shared fantasies to a firm plan of action.” The court
Their hottest item, a CD of bootleg Adobe software disagreed, ruling that the “shared fantasies” of Baker
valued at $4,768 on the legitimate retail market, and Gonda never rose to the standard of a “true
was sold by Bailey and Barber for $75 per copy. In threat” required for prosecution under federal law.
their six months of operation, the pirates cleared Description of the intended target(s) as “female col-
$25,053 while cheating copyright holders out of lege students who lived in Defendant Jake Baker’s
$1,434,589. dormitory at the University of Michigan in Ann
Arrested in June 1998, Barber pleaded guilty to Arbor, Michigan” was deemed too vague to consti-
federal charges of trafficking in counterfeit computer tute a threat against any specific individual, though
software. On May 10, 2001 he was sentenced to four one acquaintance of Baker’s was named as the
months’ community confinement and three years’ “type” of victim desired. Likewise, the court found
probation, and also ordered to pay restitution in the no intent to carry out a crime expressed in any of the
amount of $25,053. Bailey struck a separate bargain messages. The indictment was accordingly dismissed
with federal prosecutors, pleading guilty to traffick- on June 21, 1995.
ing in counterfeit computer software, and tax eva-
sion for the years 1996 and 1997. On June 1, 2001,
a federal judge sentenced him to 18 months’ impris- BALTUTAT, Brian: software pirate
onment plus three years’ supervised probation fol- A resident of Wyandotte, Michigan, 21-year-old
lowing release from custody. Brian Baltutat maintained a website called “Hacker
Hurricane,” where 142 pirated computer software
programs were offered free of charge to all comers.
BAKER, Jake: alleged cyberstalker (case dismissed) According to the federal charges filed against him, an
A resident of Ann Arbor, Michigan, Jake Baker was estimated 65,000 persons took advantage of the site
accused by U.S. federal authorities of collaborating to download various programs, thereby swindling
with the Canadian Arthur Gonda (present where- the legitimate vendors out of untold revenue. Baltu-
abouts unknown) to harass and threaten a female tat pleaded guilty to a federal charge of copyright
classmate of Baker’s at the University of Michigan. infringement on October 12, 2000, before Judge

32
“BEANHIVE”

Julian Cook. On January 30, 2001, Baltutat was sen- say, the offer is a fraud. It reads (with errors pre-
tenced to three years’ probation, including 180 days served):
of home confinement, 40 hours of community serv-
ice, and financial restitution to various software Hi. I am, Michele Cordova, the founder of Bath &
manufacturers. In addition to those terms, Baltutat Body Works and I want your business. We are trying a
was barred from engaging in any Internet activity new advertising campaign through the power of YOU,
without specific permission from the U.S. Probation the consumer. In order for this to work, you need to
Department. He was further ordered to inform any send this e-mail to 13 people and I know that is not a
persons whose computers he may use about his con- lucky number but that is the number we need in order
viction and sentence. for this to work. Our computer tracking system will
keep count of how many people you send it to so don’t
feel like you have to send to to thirteen people all at
BANK Giveaway: Internet hoax once. You may not send it to the same person more
A preposterous fraud on its face, this Internet chain than once unless you internet pals accidentally delete
letter has nonetheless duped thousands into circulat- the message, we wouldn’t want them to miss out on
ing it with promises of untold wealth from a bizarre this great offer. To compensate you for your hard
pyramid scheme. The original message (with clumsy work, we are going to send you a $50 dollar gift
errors intact) reads as follows: certificate redeemable in any store nationwide. This is
not a joke, it will be your loss if you don’t send this to
Need some extra cash for the summer? It is really very 13 PEOPLE. Thanks again!
simple. Attached to this message is a tracking pro-
gram. For every person you to, you earn $10.00. For Michele Cordova
every person they send it to, you get $5.00, and so on. Founder of Bath & Body Works
Basically, the more people you send this to, the more
cash you earn. This is funded by national banks every- Since the e-mail itself contains no advertisement
where, who believe that summers should be more fun, for the firm in question, it is difficult to see how
and want to help children and young adults learn to sending it around the Internet could lure new cus-
manage money. As you can see, all you need to to as tomers. That careless oversight is typical of cyber-
many people as you can. From a week to a month hoaxers, whose wit and imagination often seem
later, you will receive a check in the mail for however distinctly limited.
much money you earned by sending this, and how
many people they sent it to. Good luck, and await the
check! BAUER, Linda: Internet swindler
Hello, my name is Betsy. This really works, please A resident of Hastings, Minnesota, Linda Bauer was
don’t delete it! If you choose not to read it, at least send one of 11 defendants charged in connection with the
it to people so that they can have a chance. I got this federal sting operation known as OPERATION SMART-
e*mail and tried it. Exactly a week later, I received a CARD.NET. All were accused of trafficking in counter-
check for $180.00! It was perfect timing, I?m going to feit “smart cards” that provided users with illegal free
Florida soon and really need the extra cash. Thanks access to DirecTV, a satellite television service. Those
sooo much for sending this to me, I hope someone else sales, conducted primarily via the Internet, cost the
out there turns out as happy as I did! legitimate satellite TV industry an estimated $6.2 mil-
lion per year before the ring was shut down in July
1999, with the defendants pocketing an estimated
BARBER, Terry Lorenzo See BAILEY, ROOSEVELT $516,000. Bauer was one of five accused in the case
who pleaded guilty as charged. No sentence had been
imposed at the time of this writing (December 2001).
BATH & Body Works Giveaway: Internet hoax
Circulated for the first time in November 1999, this
Internet chain letter claims that the firm of Bath & “BEANHIVE”: computer virus
Body Works will send a $50 gift certificate to anyone Only the second known Java system virus (after
who forwards the message to 13 people. Needless to “StrangeBrew”), “BeanHive” was found in the wild

33
BELL, Corethian

during February 1999. The virus consists of two murder charges. A second woman was raped and
parts, the “starter” and “main” components, infect- stabbed in December 2000, five blocks from the
ing computers by an unusual method. When attack- first crime scene, but police were confident they had
ing a target, BeanHive replicates by means of its their man in custody and drew no link between the
starter system only, while the main virus code attacks.
remains on a remote Web server maintained by a A suspect was later booked for the second crime,
hackers’ group known as Codebreakers. Running an while Bell sat in jail awaiting trial, and DNA tests were
infected Java program causes the BeanHive starter to ordered to confirm the new suspect’s guilt in that case
read its virus code from the remote server and exe- when he refused to confess. Police were startled when
cute it, searching for Java files in various directories the second suspect’s DNA also matched blood and
and infecting them with the virus starter only. No semen samples lifted from the apartment where Bell’s
trace of the main virus code remains when BeanHive mother was slain in July 2000. Bell’s case was one of
releases control of the infected system. several profiled by the Chicago Tribune in 2001,
BeanHive’s unique operating system has advan- detailing incidents of negligence and worse on the
tages and built-in limitations. Its mode of infection part of Cook County authorities, including multiple
permits the virus to hide its code within corrupted wrongful convictions and several apparent cases of
files, increasing their length only slightly and thereby deliberate “frame-ups” over the past decade. From
escaping detection in a cursory search. Retention of his cell, Bell confirmed that he had confessed only
the main virus code on a remote Web server also per- after 50 hours of near-constant interrogation,
mits the writer to upgrade BeanHive periodically, allegedly including physical abuse by relays of detec-
without using Trojan or backdoor components to tives. On January 4, 2002, Bell was released from cus-
invade widely scattered computers. A major weak- tody, all charges dismissed by the state at a hearing
ness of the virus is its inability to replicate outside of before Circuit Court Judge Daniel Darcy. Even with
very limited conditions, since systems run as Java conclusive evidence of another suspect’s guilt, some
applets or any of the more popular Web browsers are local police remained stubbornly fixated on Bell. “He
immune to its effects. gave us a statement,” Sergeant Stan Salura told
BeanHive’s starter is a Java program containing reporters. “I believe that is factual.” As for Bell, he
only 40 lines of code. Upon seizing control of a tar- dismissed the incident as a “crazy thing” and sought
get computer, it connects to the remote Web server, to get on with his life. “I feel so good,” he told the
downloads the main virus code, and runs it as a sub- press upon release. “Let’s go. I’m hungry.”
routine. The main BeanHive virus code, divided into
five parts, includes the following components:
BILL Gates Giveaway: Internet hoax
a98b34fr.class: file access functions It was perhaps inevitable that one of the world’s rich-
be93a29f.class: preparing file for infection (Pt. 1) est software developers should himself become the
c8f67b45.class: preparing file for infection (Pt. 2) subject of an Internet giveaway hoax. Several vari-
dc98e742.class: inserting virus starter into victim file ants of this fraudulent message have circulated since
e89a763c.class: file format parsing November 1997. The original, repudiated by
Microsoft spokesmen, reads (with errors intact):

BELL, Corethian: exonerated by DNA evidence FROM: GatesBeta@microsoft.com


A resident of Cook County, Illinois, 23-year-old ATTACH: Tracklog@microsoft.com/Track883432/-
Corethian Bell telephoned police one night in July TraceActive/On.html
2000, reporting that he had found his mother shot
to death in her Calumet City apartment. In fact, she Hello Everyone,
had been stabbed and sexually assaulted, the strug-
gle leaving bloodstains from a second party on the And thank you for signing up for my Beta Email Track-
walls, while semen traces were recovered from the ing Application or (BETA) for short. My name is Bill
victim’s clothing. Authorities suspected Bell, and he Gates. Here at Microsoft we have just compiled an e-
obliged them with a videotaped confession to the mail tracking program that tracks everyone to whom
crime, thus insuring his indictment on capital this message is forwarded to. It does this through an

34
BIOMETRICS

specific actions—speech patterns, handwriting, or


even something as seemingly neutral as typing on a
computer keyboard.
In addition to those broad categories, biometrics is
further defined as passive or active techniques. Pas-
sive biometrics, including voice and facial scans, may
be employed without the subject’s knowledge or
cooperation. (In the case of vocal scans, recordings
obviate even the need for a subject’s physical pres-
ence.) Active biometrics, by contrast, demands per-
sonal cooperation for scanning of hands, eyes, or
signatures with various computerized devices. Manu-
facturers of those devices describe their respective
systems as “fail-safe,” while Hollywood depicts a
steady stream of super-villains defeating biometric
scanners with false eyes, counterfeit fingerprints—
even amputated body parts removed from legitimate
users. A more likely approach to defeating biometric
scanners would involve computer HACKERS or physi-
cal interference with the hardware.
Biometrics has a number of diverse applications
for modern law enforcement, government, and pri-
Bill Gates (Microsoft Corporation) vate security. The most obvious, identification,
employs a “one-to-many” search to discover an indi-
vidual’s identity. As a case in point, security cameras
at an airport or other facilities may photograph sus-
unique IP (Internet Protocol) address log book data- pect individuals and use a biometric system to com-
base. We are experimenting with this and need your pare the suspect’s likeness with a large database of
help. Forward this to everyone you know and if it known lawbreakers, foreign agents, and so forth.
reaches 1000 people everyone on the list you will The related process of identity verification executes a
receive $1000 and a copy of Windows98 at my “one-to-one” search, comparing the claimant of a
expense. Enjoy. particular identity with recorded characteristics of
Note: Duplicate entries will not be counted. You the known individual. Thus, a thief using a stolen
will be notified by email with further instructions once credit card to withdraw funds from an automatic
this email has reached 1000 people. Windows98 will teller machine (ATM) might be photographed, exam-
not be shipped until it has been released to the general ined, and denied the cash—or stalled with automated
public. delaying tactics while police are summoned to the
scene.
Your friend, Physiological biometric verification devices, partic-
Bill Gates & The Microsoft Development Team. ularly those employing fingerprint scans or hand
geometry, may be employed for many purposes, incor-
porated in a wide variety of everyday objects. Some
BIOMETRICS: high-tech security techniques companies use biometrics to monitor employee time
Biometrics is, broadly, the use of automated technol- and attendance, thereby eliminating time cards and
ogy to identify individual persons via specific physio- improving payroll accuracy by eradication of “buddy-
logical or behavioral characteristics. Physiological punching” scams. Access control in secure areas is
biometrics employs various devices to define identity critical to many governmental, law enforcement, cor-
from data gathered by direct measurement of the rectional, and corporate operations. Devices currently
human body. Examples include fingerprint scanning, designed with built-in biometric scanners include
hand geometry, iris or retina scanning, and facial vaults and safes, custom vehicles, home security sys-
geometry. Behavioral biometrics tracks a subject’s tems, personal computers and various weapons—

35
BIOMETRICS

Linked to surveillance cameras, facial recognition technology can match faces with images from a database. (Identix Inc.)

including “SMART GUNS” designed to fire only if held in registered in current biometric systems. In short,
particular registered hands. while installation of biometrics at airports and
Interest in biometric security devices increased other “hot spots” would clearly improve security
dramatically after the terrorist attacks of September standards, breaches would still be recorded.
11, 2001. Manufacturers were naturally pleased with 2. Employee-facing systems are significantly cheaper
the rash of new orders, but they noted certain prob- and easier to operate than passenger-facing sys-
lems with the existing technology. Among them: tems designed to scan large numbers of unknown
subjects around the clock. Employees may be
1. The performance of biometric devices in daily subject to background checks and punitive action
real-world situations does not match test results (including dismissal and/or prosecution) for
obtained in vendor-controlled laboratories. attempting to defeat security systems. The general
Advertising claims aside, no system provides 100 public—airline customers, for example—may
percent security and some can be defeated more scheme to frustrate the scanners in a variety of
easily than others. Even the best scanners some- ways, ranging from simple disguises to plastic
times reject authorized users or fail to catch surgery. Passengers who travel rarely may
imposters, and a small percentage of the popula- undergo natural changes with time, from aging,
tion (for reasons unexplained) cannot be reliably injury, or disease. Finally, the sheer number of

36
BIOMETRICS

subjects—millions of travelers, versus hundreds bases like the FBI’s, the more expensive and time-
or thousands of employees—vastly increases the consuming it becomes.
scope and expense of security systems. 5. Biometric scanners use templates, rather than raw
3. Biometric systems are limited by the integrity of images, to perform their comparisons. Each tem-
the initial enrollment process. Individuals who plate is a small computer file based on distinctive
create a false identity before enrolling in a bio- individual characteristics—and like any other
metric system—as by presenting a counterfeit computer file, it is vulnerable to damage or tam-
passport or driver’s license— will normally be pering. Even without interference, each personal
deemed legitimate unless they duplicate another interaction with the scanner varies slightly—even
name enrolled in the system. Biometrics cannot microscopically. No two fingerprints are applied
prevent individuals from assuming false identi- in precisely the same manner, for instance, thus
ties, only from impersonating subjects previously insuring that air-tight 100-percent accuracy is
catalogued. unattainable by any mechanical system.
4. Biometric identification and verification address
separate issues, with the latter generally much As of early 2002, biometric scanning devices
simpler and less expensive. Subjects seeking veri- employed at most major American airports—includ-
fication, as noted above, are compared to a ing Chicago’s O’Hare Airport, San Francisco Inter-
known exemplar and accepted or rejected on that national, Charlotte/Douglas (in North Carolina) and
basis. In broader identification scans, the subject Reagan National (in Washington, D.C.)—were
may claim no particular identity at all, requiring restricted to access screening of employees. Eight
comparison of his or her facial scan with known U.S. and Canadian airports have experimented with
subjects numbering in the tens of thousands. The use of biometric scanners to let citizens circumvent
further a search extends, including external data- immigration lines, but enrollment of the population

The BioTouch™ PC Card features an optical fingerprint reader, allowing secure access for laptop users. (Identix Inc.)

37
BJORLIN, Kaj

at large is a daunting prospect, if not impossible. Ice- 3. Changes in a subject’s appearance. Alterations
land’s Keflavik International Airport uses facial scans sufficient to confuse surveillance systems may
to check passengers against a surveillance “hot list,” include a gain or loss of weight, a change of hair-
facilitated by the airport’s relatively low volume of style, aging, application of cosmetics or prosthet-
traffic. While “9/11” increased demands for facial- ics, even the wearing or removal of eyeglasses.
scan technology as a cure-all for future terrorist
attacks, various problems remain. They include: Despite its present limitations, biometric scanning
will clearly expand in the future, finding new appli-
1. Variance between enrollment and surveillance cations in both law enforcement and private indus-
devices. Enrollment in facial-scan systems nor- try. Hand and fingerprint scans have traditionally
mally involves use of a clear photograph, includ- been used for access control to secure areas, but iris
ing passport photos, drivers’ licenses, or mug and retinal scans offer a new level of security, while
shots. Surveillance is maintained by video cam- making deception more difficult. Airline passengers
eras, with significantly lower resolution than the may in future be required to provide some biometric
original images, making it possible for subjects to data prior to traveling, in the interest of greater secu-
slip through the net unrecognized. rity. Similar enrollment may be required upon
2. Environmental changes at the surveillance point. issuance of passports for international travel. Inte-
Anything from altered lighting to a change in gration of existing FBI and other criminal databases
angle of the surveillance camera’s wall mount would potentially apprehend hundreds of fugitives
may result in poor resolution and the failure of a each year. Finally, surveillance systems will certainly
system to identify enrolled subjects. expand, presumably becoming more effective and
reliable.
At the same time, wide-scale implementation of
biometric surveillance raises legal and ethical ques-
tions yet unanswered. Is it physically and/or econom-
ically feasible to make biometric enrollment
mandatory for all travelers (much less all residents)
of America or any other nation? What safeguards
can be imposed to guarantee that biometric systems
do not violate individual rights to privacy? How will
human agencies respond to the inevitable errors
every technological system produces from time to
time? Will use of biometrics alone create a dangerous
sense of false security? Until those questions are sat-
isfactorily answered, full-scale biometric surveillance
remains poised on the line between established fact
and science fiction.

BJORLIN, Kaj: fugitive software pirate


Identified by U.S. federal prosecutors as a member of
the software rip-off consortium dubbed “PIRATES
WITH ATTITUDE,” Swedish native Kaj Bjorlin was
among 17 defendants indicted on May 4, 2000, for
conspiring to infringe copyrights on more than 5,000
computer software programs. Defendants in the case
included 12 members of Pirates with Attitude and
five employees of Intel Corporation, the latter
charged with illegally furnishing computer hardware
Fingerprint scanners provide physical access to secure and software to a covert website in Quebec. By May
areas. (Identix Inc.) 2001, 14 of the defendants had either pleaded guilty

38
BLOODSTAIN Evidence

as charged or had been convicted at trial. Only Bjor- handed.” (Sheppard was initially convicted, nonethe-
lin—known on-line as “Darklord”—and another less.) By 1983 an International Association of Blood-
defendant from Belgium remain at large, outside the stain Pattern Analysts was organized, its studies
present reach of U.S. authorities. documenting the fact that bloodstain evidence at
crime scenes may reveal:

“BLACKSUN”: computer virus • The source of particular stains


Noted for the first time in June 1998, “BlackSun” • The relative position of persons and objects at the
is classified as a dangerous, memory-resident, time of impact
encrypted boot virus. It attaches itself to the master • The number of separate impacts
boot record of an infected computer’s hard drive • Whether impact was inflicted with a blunt or
and thereafter replicates to the boot sectors of any sharp object
floppy disks accessed by the system. Error messages • The distance blood traveled, and its velocity
reading “GetDiskParameters” are returned when • The elapsed time between impact and examination
the victim attempts to access infected disks. Fur- by authorities
thermore, if the digits for a month and day are the • The movement of persons and objects after impact
same (e.g., August 8: “8/8”) and the infected com- (including blood smears, drag marks, footprints,
puter’s clock strikes zero seconds, the BlackSun etc.)
virus erases all CMOS memory (Complementary
Metal Oxide Semiconductor, the battery-backed A blood-spatter pattern is determined by multiple
RAM used on modern computers to store hardware factors, including the distance a drop of blood falls,
configuration data) and thereby disables the system the force with which it falls (arterial spray versus
entirely. dripping from a vein, oozing from wounds or flung
from an upraised bludgeon, etc.), whether it falls ver-
tically or diagonally, and the type of surface it
BLOODSTAIN Evidence strikes. In addition to charting the course of an
Every bloodstain tells a story. Aside from DNA test- attack, bloodstains may also preserve contact marks
ing, which may identify the donor of a particular from other objects: footprints, fingerprints, tool
stain—and thus distinguish between offenders and marks, fabric patterns, tire marks, and so forth. In
victims—the shape, number, and placement of blood- the case of the Army doctor Jeffrey MacDonald—a
stains may chart the course of a crime for experts case as controversial in its time as that of Dr. Shep-
trained to interpret such evidence. The very presence pard 30 years earlier—crime lab technicians used
of blood (or its lack) at a crime scene tells investiga- blood-spatter evidence to demonstrate that the
tors whether a murder victim was killed on the spot, defendant bludgeoned his wife and young daughters
or perhaps slain elsewhere and transported to a sepa- to death, then stabbed himself in the chest to simu-
rate dump site. If the latter, authorities may later seek late an assault by third parties. (As in the Sheppard
warrants for the search of prospective murder scenes, case before it, substantial evidence today suggests
in hopes of discovering where the crime actually that MacDonald may, in fact, be innocent.) Similar
occurred. evidence may be gleaned from shootings, stabbings,
A murder scene with body and bloodstains intact explosions, or hit-and-run accidents.
is more useful to detectives and technicians in their Some bloodstains are invisible to authorities by the
search for answers to an unsolved crime. Scientific time they begin to process a crime scene. Perpetrators
analysis of bloodstain patterns is a relatively new may exert great energy to clean up a scene, but blood
phenomenon, dating approximately from the 1950s. evidence is very difficult to eradicate. Even when
In 1955, during trial of Ohio’s controversial Sam stains are expunged beyond visibility to the naked
Sheppard case, Dr. Paul Kirk testified that blood- eye, traces may be found by using luminol, a chemical
spatter evidence enabled him “to establish the rela- spray that causes covert bloodstains to fluoresce. In
tive position of the attacker and victim at the time of such instances, blood evidence may be found beneath
the . . . beating. He was able to determine that the carpets and floorboards, concealed in the pattern of
attacker administered blows with a left hand, which fabric or wallpaper, or hidden in sink traps and
was significant in that Dr. Sheppard was right- plumbing. Wherever it lies, bloodstain evidence may

39
BLOODSWORTH, Kirk

prove guilt by placing an absent victim at the scene June 28, 1993, and the governor granted his pardon
(through DNA), thus challenging a suspect’s alibi. In six months later. No other suspects have yet been
these days when science allows identification of one charged in the case.
individual to the exclusion of all others on earth
(except an identical twin), blood evidence is more
important than ever to prosecutors and police. “BLUE Box”: device used in telephone fraud
Invented sometime in the late 1960s, the “blue box”
is a tone-generating device that signals telephone
BLOODSWORTH, Kirk: exonerated by DNA evidence company equipment that a call has been terminated,
On July 25, 1984, a nine-year-old girl was found while in fact the conversation continues without
dead in a wooded area of Baltimore County, Mary- being billed for additional time. Refinements on the
land. She had been raped, strangled, and beaten with original device include a “black box” that emits an
a rock found at the murder scene. Five witnesses electronic signal that a call did not go through (when
claimed to have seen the child walking with a man in fact it did), and a “red box” that simulates the
on the day she was killed, and they collaborated with sound of coins being loaded into a pay telephone.
police to produce a sketch of the unknown suspect. Such devices are employed by HACKERS—commonly
Soon, an anonymous telephone call directed authori- dubbed “phreakers”—to cheat phone companies
ties to Baltimore resident Kirk Bloodsworth. The five throughout the world, with yearly losses estimated in
alleged eyewitnesses identified him as the man last the millions of dollars. Employment of any device to
seen with the victim, while a neighbor of Blood- suppress billing information is a federal crime in the
sworth’s recalled his confession of doing “a terrible United States, placing the “phreaker” at risk of pros-
thing” on the day of the crime. On March 8, 1985, ecution for interstate wire fraud.
Bloodsworth was convicted of rape, sexual assault,
and first-degree premeditated murder, drawing a sen-
tence of death. BLUE Mountain Cards: target of slanderous
Bloodsworth’s attorney appealed the conviction, Internet hoax
contending that police illegally withheld evidence Since March 1999 Blue Mountain Cards, an Internet
pointing to another suspect and that the “terrible greeting card company, has been plagued by false
thing” Bloodsworth confessed to his neighbor was a rumors and warnings that the simple act of opening
failure to buy his wife a taco salad as promised. The a greeting card on the firm’s website might cause a
Maryland Court of Appeals overturned his convic- reader’s computer system to crash. In fact, no such
tion in July 1986 and remanded the case for a new problem exists, the malicious rumor surviving as a
trial. Convicted a second time, Bloodsworth was cyberspace equivalent to the false claim that Procter
spared but received two consecutive life sentences. & Gamble’s “moon and stars” logo meant that com-
An appeal of the second conviction was denied, but pany was run by worshipers of Satan. Jared Schutz,
Bloodsworth had been busy in the meantime, study- executive director of Blue Mountain, has offered
ing the British case of serial killer COLIN PITCHFORK, the following response to the anonymous e-mail
convicted on the basis of DNA evidence. Blood- campaign.
sworth’s attorney petitioned for release of the state’s
evidence for more sophisticated testing and the pros- It is very frustrating and difficult for us to dispel these
ecution finally agreed, delivering the victim’s clothing rumors, but please help us in doing so by passing this
in April 1992. Semen from the underpants was com- email along to your friends and spreading the word that
pared with Bloodsworth’s DNA, excluding him as a there is no way that bluemountain.com can spread a
possible suspect in June 1993. The FBI Crime Labo- virus. Our electronic greeting cards are simply web
ratory repeated the test on June 25, 1993, with iden- pages that you view with your browser. Our email noti-
tical results. fications are only text messages without any attached
Although Maryland statutes forbid presentation files. When someone sends or receives cards from our
of new evidence more than one year after a defen- site, they do not actually download to their computer
dant’s final appeal, Baltimore County prosecutors any file that might contain a virus. We are worried that
joined Bloodsworth’s attorney in petitioning for a these rumors are hurting our free card efforts, and hope
pardon. Bloodsworth was released from prison on that you can help us set the record straight.

40
BODY Armor

BODY Armor
Written history does not record the first use of pro-
tective body armor by fighting men (or women), but
shields, helmets, and injury-resistant clothing cer-
tainly date from the earliest days of armed human
conflict. Leather and wood were used extensively
before technology allowed the manipulation of vari-
ous metals, and steel remained the epitome of armor
for generations thereafter. Bandits and G-men fought
their epic battles of the 1930s wearing crude steel
plates in fabric vests that slipped over their heads like
sandwich signs, and such cumbersome gear remained
the norm until bullet-resistant fabrics like DuPont’s
Kevlar, Honeywell’s GoldFlex and Zylon, or the
European firm Akzo’s Twaron were developed in the
1960s and 1970s.
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) rates body
armor on a scale of ballistic protection levels. The
armor is tested not only for resistance to actual pene-
tration, but also for minimization of blunt force
trauma (either from projectile impact or direct blows
from a hand-to-hand assailant). Blunt trauma is
measured by the dent inflicted on a soft clay pad
behind the armor, with a maximum depth of 1.7 This body armor is specially designed for tactical
inches permitted for physical safety. The NIJ’s armor operations where total protection is necessary.
rankings are: (Courtesy of Point Blank Body Armor, Inc.)

I—Blocks .38 Special round-nose lead projectiles


traveling at 850 feet per second (fps) and .22-
caliber Long Rifle ammunition at 1,050 fps. guns) and .44 Magnum rounds at the same
This armor, also protects the wearer against velocity. Its blunt-trauma protection rating is
birdshot charges from a shotgun, but is not rec- the highest offered by soft armor, thus allowing
ommended for use against any higher-velocity for more effective return fire in a gunfight.
ammunition. III—To repel most rifle bullets, this armor aban-
IIA—Consisting of 16 to 18 layers of Kevlar, this dons soft fabrics to employ 1/4-inch specially
armor is designed to cope with most threats treated steel, 1/2-inch ceramic armor plates, or
encountered in urban shooting situations. It 1-inch polyethylene plates. Blunt trauma should
will stop various rounds including 9-mm full be minimized, but the armor is heavier and is
metal jacket (FMJ) projectiles traveling at 1,090 not concealable.
fps and .357 Magnum jacketed, hollow-point IV—Finally, to protect against armor-piercing rifle
(JHP) projectiles traveling at 1,250 fps. bullets, this armor is crafted from 3/4-inch
II—With 22 to 24 layers of Kevlar, this thickness ceramic plates.
should stop bullets including 9-mm FMJ rounds
traveling at 1,175 fps and .357 Magnum jack- Special circumstances require special armor,
eted, soft-point (JSP) projectiles traveling at beyond those listed above. Bomb-disposal personnel
1,395 fps. Most shotgun pellets are also require full-body coverage in the event of an explo-
deflected. sion, typically combining both ballistic-resistant and
IIIA—Offering 30 to 32 layers of Kevlar, IIIA level fire-retardant fabrics, some of which protect the
armor stops numerous rounds including 9-mm wearer from projectiles traveling up to 2,250 fps. A
FMJ projectiles traveling at 1,400 fps (the usual typical bomb-disposal suit would include an armored
muzzle velocity for most 9-mm submachine coat (sleeves included), removable collar and groin

41
“BOOM”

protector, armored trousers (often open at the rear for units, offer 50 percent more protection on aver-
comfort, providing front-coverage only), a helmet age than vests designed to be worn under shirts
with fragment-resistant face shield, an armored chest or jackets.
plate, with special boots and gloves (available for Mobility Armor becomes a handicap if it retards
cases where an explosive device must be disarmed, the wearer’s movement, making him or her a
rather than simply transported). “Bomb blankets” are proverbial “sitting duck.” Whether fleeing an
also available to screen personnel or to shroud small attack or fighting back, a certain amount of
devices and contain shrapnel in the event of a blast. mobility is required for survival.
Manufacturers are quick to stress that no body Temperature A primary concern for wearers of
armor is ever 100 percent bulletproof. Likewise, spe- protective clothing, heat buildup may prove
cial stab-resistant fabrics or fabric combinations may uncomfortable in some situations, or debilitat-
be needed to deflect blades, in the event of an assault ing (even lethal) in others. Whenever possible,
with knife or sword. Armor-piercing ammunition has armor intended for long-term use should be tai-
been banned from civilian sales in the U.S. for many lored to the environment where it will be worn.
years, but sufficient quantities of “cop-killer” bullets Some modern (more expensive) vests include
are still available to render many forms of conceal- built-in cooling systems for extra comfort.
able armor superfluous. Factors to consider in select- Weight Heavy armor induces fatigue with pro-
ing body armor include: longed wear, and it also reduces mobility. In
most cases, this issue arises most often with
Threat assessment The type of protection Class III or IV armor, and in bomb-disposal
required obviously varies from person to per- suits. Ceramic and polyethylene plates weigh
son. A motorcycle racer needs less (or different) less than steel, and may be preferred if they pro-
protective clothing than a bomb-disposal tech- vide equivalent protection from rifle bullets.
nician. If an assailant’s weapons are known,
armor may be adjusted accordingly. In addition to “bulletproof” clothing, various tacti-
Comfort Uncomfortable armor is more likely to cal shields are also available. Special canine “vests”
be removed and abandoned, thus making it use- are sold for police dogs in firefight situations, and
less when a crisis finally arrives. A compromise projectile-resistant fabric may be crafted into a vari-
between comfort and coverage must be attained ety of other shapes. Some of the more common forms
in order for the gear to be effective. include use as upholstery (for office furniture or car
Concealability If an assailant knows his target is seats), and in backpacks or briefcases (which may be
wearing a protective vest, he may fire at the used to shield an otherwise unprotected person).
head or lower body and inflict fatal wounds
without regard to the armor. Various situations,
such as diplomatic functions or corporate gath- “BOOM”: computer virus
erings, may also require discretion on the part This encrypted virus, discovered in January 1997,
of those wearing protective gear. contains macro viruses that attack basic components
Cost The better the armor, the higher its price. of Windows and Excel systems. Opening a compro-
Urban patrolmen forced to purchase their own mised file infects the system and permits the virus
Kevlar vests have more limited options (and thereafter to alter documents saved by the “File-
consequent greater exposure) than wealthy cor- SaveAs” function. On starting Microsoft Word, the
porate CEOs or military personnel whose virus sets an infected computer’s System macro to be
equipment is funded by taxpayers. triggered at 13:13:13—that is, 1:13 P.M. and 13 sec-
Coverage Some vests offer only front-and-back onds—whereupon the menus are renamed as fol-
protection, while others wrap around the lows: Datei; Bearbeiten; Ansicht; Einfügen; Format;
wearer’s torso to include side coverage. Various Extras; Tabelle; and Fenster. The virus then prints
other garments, including entire business suits, out the following message:
may be crafted from thin layers of bullet-resist-
ant fabric, albeit with some sacrifice of fashion Mr. Boombastic and Sir WIXALOT are watching you!!
points. Tactical vests, worn outside the clothing Mr. Boombastic and Sir WIXALOT: Don’t Panik, all
by officers on SWAT teams and other assault things are removeable!!! Thanks VIRUSEX!!!

42
“BOSTON Strangler”

Next, the virus creates a new template and pro- George Washington University—promising “block-
duces the following message: buster results.” Another GWU spokesman, Paul
Fucito, said of the DNA findings: “Whether they
Greetings from Mr. Boombastic and Sir WIXALOT!!! announce one way or another whether [DeSalvo] did
Oskar L., wir kriegen dich!!! it or not, I think that will be a fairly conclusive
Dies ist eine Initiative des Institutes zur Vereidung und announcement.” He added that the DNA report
Verbreitung von Peinlichkeiten, durch in der Öffent- would “be revealing enough that it will give the
lichkeit stedhende Personen, unter der Schirmherrschaft Boston authorities the incentive to look at their evi-
von Rudi S.! dence and their findings and maybe compare notes
and maybe bring the investigation forward.”
In fact, by December 2001, neither DeSalvo’s fam-
“BOSTON Strangler”: renewed scientific investigation ily nor Mary Sullivan’s believed DeSalvo was the
Ten years before the term “serial killer” entered pop- Boston Strangler. That opinion was apparently sup-
ular usage, Boston was terrorized by an elusive preda- ported on December 6 by reports that Prof. Starrs’s
tor who raped and strangled women in their homes, “All-Star Forensic Science Team” had discovered for-
slaying 11 between June 1962 and July 1964. Accord- eign DNA from two individuals on Sullivan’s body
ing to conventional wisdom, the case broke in and clothing, neither of the samples linked to
November 1964, when 33-year-old Albert DeSalvo DeSalvo. As Professor Starrs told the press, “It’s
was jailed on rape charges, subsequently confessing to indicative, strongly indicative, of the fact that Albert
the “Boston Strangler” crimes and adding two more DeSalvo was not the rape-murderer of Mary Sulli-
victims police had failed to count on their official list. van. If I was a juror, I would acquit him with no
A plea bargain engineered by lawyer F. Lee Bailey sent questions asked.” Sullivan’s nephew, Casey Sherman,
DeSalvo to prison for life on unrelated charges. He had an even more emphatic statement for the press.
was murdered there in November 1973, and while
DeSalvo never stood trial for the Boston murders, the
case was officially “solved.”
Or was it?
The case against DeSalvo has been widely criti-
cized for over 30 years. Deviations in modus
operandi led some critics to suggest multiple stran-
glers at large in Boston, while Mafia hit man Vincent
Barbosa confided to a journalist that DeSalvo had
been paid to “take a fall” for the actual (still uniden-
tified) killer. An alternative suspect, convicted two-
time killer George Nassar, was accused in one theory
of feeding DeSalvo vital details on the murders while
they shared a ward at Bridgewater State Hospital.
Finally, more than a quarter-century after DeSalvo
was murdered in prison, forensic scientists revisited
the Boston Strangler case in an effort to determine
whether or not DeSalvo committed the murders to
which he confessed. His body was exhumed in Octo-
ber 2001, for extraction of DNA material unknown to
pathologists at the time of the original murders. The
material was slated for comparison with evidence
collected in the case of 19-year-old Mary Sullivan,
the strangler’s last victim, found dead on January 4,
1964.
Announcements of “new evidence” in the Boston
case were made on December 6, 2001, with James Recent DNA tests have cast doubt on the guilt of
Starrs—a professor of law and forensic science at confessed serial murderer Albert DeSalvo. (Author’s collection)

43
BOYANOVSKY, Brian

“If he didn’t kill Mary Sullivan, yet he confessed to it after the victim told police she was “sure” of his
in glaring detail, he didn’t kill any of these women.” guilt. Semen recovered from a blanket at the alleged
Retired Massachusetts prosecutor Julian Soshnick crime scene matched Bravo’s blood type, found in
disagreed, retorting, “It doesn’t prove anything only 3 percent of the American population. Jurors
except that they found another person’s DNA on a later convicted Bravo of rape, and he was sentenced
part of Miss Sullivan’s body.” Seeming to ignore that to an eight-year prison term.
neither donor was DeSalvo, Soshnick stood firm: “I Bravo’s appeal of the conviction was denied in
believe that Albert was the Boston Strangler.” 1992. A year later, he filed a post-conviction motion
Another retired investigator, former Boston homicide for DNA testing on the blanket, a semen-stained sheet,
detective Jack Barry, cited DeSalvo’s detailed confes- and the victim’s underpants. The motion was
sions. “He just knew so much,” Barry said, “things granted, and a subsequent report, dated December
that were never in the paper. He could describe the 24, 1993, revealed that none of the semen stains
wallpaper in their rooms.” Dr. Ames Robey, Bridge- matched Bravo’s DNA. His lawyer filed a writ of
water’s supervisor in the 1960s and the chief psychia- habeas corpus on January 4, 1994, and Bravo was
trist who evaluated DeSalvo, found the confessions released from prison three days later. By that time,
less persuasive. “He was a boaster,” Dr. Robey told the victim had also recanted her testimony accusing
reporters. “I never believed it for a minute.” Bravo of rape.
In any case, the DNA discovery still stopped short
of solving Boston’s most famous murder case. Profes-
sor Starrs believes at least one of the DNA samples BREDING, Ryan See FASTLANE
recovered from Sullivan’s body belongs to her killer,
but as he admitted in December 2001, “We cannot
tell you the $64,000 question as to whose it is.” BRISON, Dale: exonerated by DNA evidence
On the night of July 14, 1990, while walking home
from a neighborhood convenience store, a female
BOYANOVSKY, Brian: computer software pirate resident of Chester County, Pennsylvania, was
A resident of Beaverton, Oregon, born June 26, grabbed from behind by a man who seized her
1975, Brian Boyanovsky was one of five Intel Corpo- throat and pressed a knife into her back, command-
ration employees charged on May 4, 2000, with con- ing that she walk in front of him. Stabbed moments
spiracy to violate federal copyright laws. Acting in later, she lost consciousness briefly, waking as the
concert with members of a HACKERS’ gang calling attacker dragged her into some bushes near an
itself “PIRATES WITH ATTITUDE,” the Intel employees apartment complex. There, she was raped repeat-
illegally provided company hardware and computer edly before the man fled. The victim subsequently
software to establish a covert “Sentinel” website, identified Dale Brison as her attacker, and he was
operating from a college campus in Quebec. Before arrested. At trial, the prosecution introduced a hair
the syndicate was broken up, more than 5,000 stolen “consistent” with Brison’s, found by police at the
software programs were disseminated through the crime scene. Brison requested a DNA test, but the
site, with a retail value in excess of $1 million. court denied his motion. Brison’s mother corrobo-
Within a year of their arrest, Boyanovsky, his four rated his alibi—that he had been sleeping at home
coworkers and eight of the self-styled pirates had when the rape occurred—but jurors disbelieved the
filed guilty pleas in federal court. Sentencing was testimony, convicting him of rape, kidnapping,
deferred until the remaining cases were resolved. aggravated assault, carrying a prohibited offensive
weapon, and three counts of involuntary deviate
sexual intercourse. He received an aggregate sen-
BRAVO, Mark Diaz: exonerated by DNA evidence tence of 18 to 42 years in state prison on the various
On February 20, 1990, a female patient of a Los charges.
Angeles psychiatric hospital complained to staff On appeal, in 1992, the Pennsylvania Superior
members that she had been sexually assaulted. Dur- Court ordered DNA testing performed on the semen
ing successive police interviews, she named several stains from the victim’s clothing, and Brison was
different assailants, one of them Mark Bravo, a hos- excluded absolutely as a suspect in the case. County
pital orderly. Bravo was ultimately charged with rape prosecutors next insisted on performing their own

44
“BUBBLEBOY”

tests and produced identical results. Dale Brison was she chose to strike a plea bargain with prosecutors
released from custody in January 1994, after serving on September 14, 2001. Following her guilty plea, on
three and a half years of his undeserved sentence. November 26, 2001, Brown was sentenced to three
years’ probation by Judge Dan Polster in Akron,
Ohio. Special conditions of her probation included
BROWN, Albert: exonerated by DNA evidence seven months of home confinement with electronic
At age 19, in 1981, Oklahoma resident Albert Brown monitoring and full restitution to Christian & Tim-
was convicted of murdering a retired Tulsa fire- bers, in the amount of $15,346.71.
fighter, Earl Taylor, found gagged and drowned in
Lake Fort Gibson. Conviction hinged on testimony
regarding human hairs—specifically, that hairs found “BUBBLEBOY”: computer e-mail worm
on the gag in Taylor’s mouth matched Brown’s, and The first known e-mail virus capable of infecting
that hairs from Taylor’s head were found in the trunk computers without attached data, “BubbleBoy”—
of Brown’s car. Brown was sentenced to life and discovered in November 1999—uses various tricks
served 20 years before DNA testing revealed that hairs to activate its code directly from the body of mes-
lifted from the gag were not, in fact, his. sages sent via MicroSoft Outlook or Outlook
A hearing on Brown’s case was held in Tulsa on Express. When a corrupted message is opened, the
October 2, 2001, whereupon the court scheduled his worm code takes control, gains access to the target
release for October 16. Prosecutors initially agreed, computer’s disk files and system registry, raiding the
saying a retrial was “possible but not likely.” When Outlook address book and sending infected messages
Brown’s release date arrived, however, authorities to all addresses listed there.
“discovered” his history of 44 prison disciplinary Two separate tricks are utilized to spread virus
infractions, including allegations that Brown had copies from the newly infected computer. The first is
conspired with others in the stabbing of a fellow a built-in feature of MS Outlook that permits cre-
prisoner. Prosecutor Dianne Barker Harold found, ation of e-mail messages in HTML format—which in
not surprisingly, that after being falsely imprisoned turn contain scripts that automatically execute
for two decades Brown had “some anger issues and (open) when the message is displayed. BubbleBoy
authoritative issues.” She also reversed the prior may also bypass Internet Explorer security systems
decision of her office, requesting six months to on an infected computer via a breach that allows
decide if enough evidence existed for a retrial on the HTML scripts to create disk files. Known as “Script-
Taylor homicide. Freedom remains elusive for let.Typelib,” this feature allows creation of new files
Arnold Brown, as the state seeks ways to keep him in the Windows Startup folder, thus activating the
imprisoned despite the scientific evidence that appar- worm and creating new copies the next time Win-
ently exonerates him. dows is booted, while no Internet Explorer security
messages are displayed. The initial file created on a
newly infected computer is labeled “update.hta,”
BROWN, Melissa S.: computer saboteur found in the “c:\windows\start menu\programs\
A disgruntled employee of Christian & Timbers, an startup” directory. If for any reason Windows is not
executive recruitment firm in Beachwood, Ohio, 30- installed in the c:\windows directory, BubbleBoy can-
year-old Melissa Brown used her computer skills to not create its file and therefore fails to replicate.
sabotage the company for spite. Working from home Execution of the update.hta file runs the com-
in the predawn hours of April 14, 2001, Brown used puter’s Outlook application in a hidden window
a coworker’s ID and password to invade the firm’s and creates a new (infected) message, which is then
system, changing the chief information officer’s pass- sent on to all recipients found in the victim’s
word while he was absent on vacation. The resultant Outlook address book, in a manner similar to the
internal investigation cost Christian & Timbers more pernicious “MELISSA” virus. The message subject
than $15,000, resulting in Brown’s identification as line reads “BubbleBoy is back!” and the message
the hacker. text reads:
A federal grand jury indicted Brown for computer
fraud on July 6, 2001. She faced five years’ imprison- The BubbleBoy incident, pictures and sounds
ment and/or a $250,000 fine if convicted at trial, but http://www.towns.com/dorms/tom/bblboy.htm

45
“BUDDYLST.SIP” Computer Virus

The worm also changes Windows registration Please copy this information and e-mail it to every-
data, listing the program’s registered owner as “Bub- one in your address book. We need to do all we can to
bleBoy” and the registered organization as “Vande- block this virus.
lay Industries.” That done, it leaves a window open AOL has confirmed how dangerous it is, and there
on the monitor’s screen, reading: “System error, is no anti-virus program yet, which is capable of
delete ‘UPDATE.HTA’ from the startup folder to destroying it.
solve this problem.” Please take all the necessary precautions and pass
Avoiding use of HTML applications is not a guar- this information on to your friends, acquaintances and
antee of safety against BubbleBoy or similar worms, work colleagues.
since HTA files remain installed on the computer and
are therefore vulnerable. Infestation can be prevented
as follows: BUD Frog Screen-Saver Warning: Internet hoax
In January 1997 e-mail warnings circulated on the
1. Double click on the “My Computer” desktop Internet alerted readers to an alleged VIRUS code hid-
icon. den in copies of the popular “Bud Frog” screen-saver
2. Select “View -> Folder options” from the menu. program created as an advertising device for Bud-
3. Select the “File Types” tab. weiser beer. While the warning itself is an evident
4. Locate and highlight “HTML Application.” hoax, the U.S. Department of Energy’s HOAXBUSTERS
5. Click “Remove” and confirm the action. website adds a proviso that third-party copies of the
6. Close the dialog box. screen-saver program “may have been infected with
a virus between when it was released and when you
For users who wish to retain their HTML applica- get it.” The virus in question was apparently a Tro-
tions without risk of infection, Microsoft provides a jan horse program of undisclosed size and power.
system update to eliminate the security breach. It The hoax warning reads as follows:
may be downloaded and installed from http://
support/microsoft.com/supprt/kb/articles/Q240/3/08. DANGER!!! VIRUS ALERT!!!
ASP.
THIS IS A NEW TWIST. SOME CREEPOID SCAM-
ARTIST IS SENDING OUT A VERY DESIRABLE
“BUDDYLST.SIP” Computer Virus: Internet hoax SCREEN-SAVER (THE BUD FROGS). BUT IF
Appearing for the first time in October 1999, this YOU DOWN-LOAD IT, YOU’LL LOSE EVERY-
spurious warning against a nonexistent computer THING!!!!! YOUR HARD DRIVE WILL CRASH!!
VIRUS has also been translated into French and circu- DON’T DOWNLOAD THIS UNDER ANY CIR-
lated abroad. The original English version reads: CUMSTANCES!!!
IT JUST WENT INTO CIRCULATION YESTER-
Objet: Fw: Danger—Virus—Danger DAY, AS FAR AS WE KNOW. . . . BE CAREFUL.
PLEASE DISTRIBUTE TO AS MANY PEOPLE
This is not a joke AS POSSIBLE . . . THANX

This information came from Microsoft. Please pass it File: BUDSAVER.EXE (24643 bytes)
on to anyone you know who has access to the Internet. DL Time (28800 bps): <1 minute
You may receive an apparently harmless Budweiser
screen saver entitled BUDDYLST.SIP.
If you do—DO NOT OPEN IT UNDER ANY BUG’S Life Screen-Saver Virus: Internet hoax
CIRCUMSTANCES, but delete it immediately. As with the popular BUD FROGS screen saver, this pro-
Once opened, you will lose EVERYTHING on your gram, taken from the popular animated film A Bug’s
PC. Your hard disc will be completely destroyed and Life (1998), has also been the target of Internet
the person who sent you the message will have access to rumors alleging that some copies contain a Trojan
your name and password via the Internet. horse virus. In fact, no such infected copies have been
As far as we know, the virus was circulated yesterday found to date, though computer experts recommend
morning. It’s a new virus, and extremely dangerous. downloading the screen saver only from its original

46
BUTLER, Joel L.

website, as opposed to accepting it from unreliable had served 10 and one-half years of his sentence. The
third parties. The hoax warning circulated since May actual rapist has not been apprehended.
1999 reads as follows:

Subject: FW: Another Virus!!!!!! BURNS, Eric: hacker “Zyklon”


Described by federal prosecutors as the coleader of a
Someone is sending out a very desirable screen-saver, a loose-knit HACKERS’ syndicate called “GLOBAL HELL”
Bug’s Life—“BUGGLST.ZIP”. If you download it, you —a.k.a “total-ka0s”—Eric Burns was 18 years old in
will lose everything!!! Your hard drive will crash and 1998, when he designed the “Web Bandit” computer
someone from the Internet will get your screen name program to identify vulnerable Internet targets.
and password! DO NOT DOWNLOAD THIS Operating from his home in Shoreline, Washington,
UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES!!! IT JUST WENT Burns singled out Electric Press, a Virginia-based
INTO circulation yesterday, as far as we know. Please server that hosted web pages for NATO, the U.S.
distribute/inform this message. This is a new, very mali- Information Agency (USIA), and Vice President Al
cious virus and not many people know about it. This Gore. Between August 1998 and January 1999 Burns
information was announced yesterday morning by hacked the Electric Press server four times, the inva-
Microsoft. Please share it with everyone that might sions affecting dozens of U.S. embassies and con-
access the Internet. Once again, pass this along to sulates dependent on USIA for information, one
EVERYONE in your address book so that this may be attack disabling the USIA website for eight days.
stopped. Burns also hacked the web pages of 80 businesses
hosted by LASER.NET in Fairfax, Virginia; the web
pages of two Issue Dynamics clients in Virginia and
BULLOCK, Ronnie: exonerated by DNA evidence Washington, D.C.; the University of Washington’s
On March 18, 1983, in Chicago, a nine-year-old girl web page; web servers of the Virginia Higher Educa-
on her way to school was accosted by a man wearing tion Council; and an Internet service provider in
a police uniform, who forced her into his car and London, England.
drove to a nearby alley, where he raped her. A second In most cases, Burns replaced the target web pages
case was reported on April 18, 1983, the rapist flash- with his own simple messages, including his “Zyk-
ing a badge at a 12-year-old before he abducted and lon” screen name and professions of love for a
raped her. The victims described their attacker to woman named Crystal. A similar message, accompa-
police, and a sketch was prepared, later used to iden- nied by crude insults, was left on May 2, 1999, after
tify suspect Ronnie Bullock. Both victims selected hackers invaded the White House website. Burns ini-
Bullock from a lineup and later identified him in tially took credit for that attack in a series of e-mail
court. Convicted at trial in May 1984, Bullock correspondence, but later denied personal involve-
received a 60-year sentence for deviate sexual assault ment, blaming the White House hack on fellow
and a concurrent 15-year sentence for aggravated members of Global Hell. FBI agents arrested Burns
kidnapping. on May 8, 1999, charging him with multiple felony
An appellate court upheld Bullock’s conviction in counts of computer intrusion, causing damage in
March 1987, but his motion to have the rape excess of $40,000. He pleaded guilty to one count on
evidence impounded for future study was granted. September 7, 1999. On November 19, 1999, Burns
Prosecutors agreed to his motion for DNA testing was sentenced to 15 months’ imprisonment, three
in June 1993, presumably confident that the results years’ supervised probation, and a restitution order
would confirm Bullock’s verdict. Following a delay, in the amount of $36,240.
in which the victim’s underpants “disappeared” and
were then rediscovered, testing proceeded in October
1994. The lab’s report excluded Bullock as a suspect BUTLER, Joel L.: satellite TV pirate
in the case, and he was released from prison on A resident of Millersburg, Ohio, 40-year-old Joel
October 14, 1994, confined to his parents’ home Butler was indicted by a federal grand jury on
while prosecution experts duplicated the DNA tests. August 7, 2001, charged with selling and distribut-
The secondary tests again excluded Bullock, and the ing 50 fraudulently altered DirecTV satellite access
charges were dismissed, liberating Bullock after he cards, which permitted buyers to illegally receive

47
BUTLER, Sabrina

and decrypt pay-per-view programs and premium 1999. The raiders seized 23,892 videocassettes and
channels such as HBO, Showtime, and Cinemax. 58,975 CDs, charging Bynum with conspiracy to
The illicit sales, occurring between June 1, 1997, sell and distribute the illicit copies. He was indicted
and February 26, 2001, cost DirecTV an estimated on August 23, 1999, and pleaded guilty to conspir-
$100,000 in legitimate income. Butler pleaded acy on March 1, 2000. Eleven months later, on Jan-
guilty to one count of the indictment on October 1, uary 26, 2001, Bynum received a two-year prison
2001. sentence from U.S. District Judge Deborah
Chasanow. In addition to jail time, Bynum was
ordered to pay restitution of $172,500 to the
BUTLER, Sabrina: exonerated by medical evidence Motion Picture Association of America and
Mississippi resident Sabrina Butler, an 18-year-old $290,000 to the Recording Industry Association of
unwed mother, was charged with murder in 1990 America. Bynum’s prosecutor told the press, “Crim-
after her nine-month-old son was pronounced dead inals who traffic in counterfeit merchandise harm
at a community hospital. Butler told physicians and the copyright holders who are deprived of control
police that she had found the boy unconscious in his over their work and also damage consumers who
crib, attempting to revive him with CPR techniques wind up with inferior merchandise.”
before rushing to the hospital. Police noted contra-
dictions in her statement, discounting grief and But-
ler’s diagnosis as borderline mentally retarded when BYRD, Kevin: exonerated by DNA evidence
they filed the murder charge. At trial, prosecutors In 1985 a Houston woman was attacked and raped
sought the death penalty on grounds that Walter But- in her home by an unknown intruder. In statements
ler had been killed during commission of another to police, she repeatedly described her rapist as a
felony—specifically, child abuse. Butler’s defense white man, adding that “he had an unusual color of
attorneys presented the CPR story but offered no skin . . . a honey-brown color, but he was not black.”
supporting evidence. (One of the lawyers was later Four months later, while shopping in a neighborhood
described by a local newspaper as an “incompetent grocery store, she glimpsed Kevin Byrd—a dark-
drunk.”) Butler was convicted of first-degree murder skinned African American—and reported him to the
and sentenced to die. authorities as her attacker. At trial, prosecutors con-
Mississippi’s Supreme Court overturned the con- vinced a jury that the victim’s repeated descriptions
viction in 1992, on grounds that Butler’s prosecutor of her assailant as “white” were in fact a “mistake”
had improperly urged jurors to infer guilt from the by one of the detectives assigned to her case. Byrd
fact that Butler did not testify in her own defense. was convicted in August 1985 and sentenced to life
Retried in 1995, Butler had the advantage of a in prison.
skilled defense attorney and belated testimony from a Twelve years later, in early 1997, DNA testing of
neighbor who confirmed her original account of semen collected in the case proved beyond doubt that
attempted CPR. New medical evidence also revealed Byrd was innocent. The Texas Board of Pardons and
that Walter Butler suffered from cystic kidney disease Paroles recommended to Governor George W. Bush
and may have died from Sudden Infant Death Syn- that Byrd be pardoned immediately on grounds of
drome. His abdominal injuries were diagnosed as actual innocence, but Bush refused until October
posthumous results of a failed attempt to revive him. 1997, finally compelled by adverse publicity to grant
Butler was acquitted after brief deliberation and the belated pardon. Critics accused Bush of racism,
released from custody. noting that Byrd was the first black recipient of
clemency among 15 inmates pardoned by Bush, but
the reaction of Harris County authorities was even
BYNUM, Roger West: video pirate more troubling. In the wake of Byrd’s pardon, the
A prolific dealer in bootleg videocassettes of motion county clerk ordered “rape kit” evidence destroyed
pictures and compact discs of musical recordings, in 50 other cases, thereby making DNA tests impos-
52-year-old Roger Bynum was arrested following a sible—and presumably sparing county prosecutors
raid by Prince Georges County police on July 29, from further embarrassment.

48
C
“CALIFORNIA Wobbler” Computer Virus: All the best
Internet hoax Dan
In May 1999, Internet warnings began to circulate
about a so-called Wobbler VIRUS allegedly transmit- Whoever “Dan” may be, no such report was
ted in a file titled California. In fact, neither the file ever issued by IBM and no virus resembling the
nor its encoded virus exist. As with the mythical “Wobbler” has yet been discovered on-line.
“BUDDYLST. SIP” virus, warnings were also broadcast
in French. The English original read (with errors pre-
served): CALLACE, Leonard: exonerated by DNA evidence
In January 1985, a teenage resident of White Plains,
Subject: FW: New Virus Warning New York, was accosted by two strangers as she
approached her car in a mall parking lot. The men
Dear ALL brandished knives and forced her into the backseat of
a nearby sedan, where one sexually assaulted her
Thought you might be interested in this message. If you while his companion watched. Police arrested Leonard
receive an email with a file called “California” do not Callace on the basis of a suspect sketch; the victim
open the file. The file contains the “WOBBLER” virus. later picked his likeness from a photo lineup and iden-
This information was announced yesterday morning tified him in court as her rapist. (The second man was
by IBM. The report says . . . “this is a very dangerous never found.) Adamant in his protestation of inno-
virus, much worse than ‘melissa’ and there is NO rem- cence, Callace rejected a plea bargain offered by the
edy for it at this time. Some very sick individual has state, which would have freed him after four months
succeeded in using the reformat function from Norton in jail. At trial, prosecutors demonstrated that
Utilities causing it to completely erase all documents on Callace’s blood type matched semen collected from the
the hard drive. It has been designed to work with victim, and his alibi was uncorroborated. Jurors delib-
Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. erated less than an hour before convicting Callace on
destroys Macintosh and IBM compatible computers. four counts of sodomy, three counts of sexual abuse,
This is a new, very malicious virus and not many people one count of wrongful imprisonment, and criminal
know about it at this time. Please pass this warning to possession of a weapon. On March 24, 1987, Callace
everyone in your address book and share it all your received a prison term of 25 to 50 years.
online friends asap so that the destruction it can cause The verdict was affirmed on appeal, and Callace
may be minimized.” was denied leave to pursue further action before the

49
CANDLE Memorial Chain Letter

state court of appeals. While serving his time, Subject: Candle Memorial Tonight
Callace learned the basic details of DNA testing from
the case of another New York defendant, CHARLES A formal request from NASA:
DABBS. On June 27, 1991, a Suffolk County judge
approved DNA testing of semen stains from the vic- 10:30 EASTERN TIME . . . 9:30 Central, 8:30 Moun-
tim’s clothing, which eliminated Leonard Callace as tain, 7:30 Pacific
a source. He was released from prison on October 5, NASA has asked that everyone step out on their
1992, after serving nearly six years of his sentence. lawns tonight at 10:30 and light a candle. They will be
Prosecutors dismissed all charges and declined to taking a satellite picture of the US and posting it on the
pursue a new trial based on the victim’s testimony news tomorrow morning.
alone. Please pass this on to as many people as possible.
Thank you.

CANDLE Memorial Chain Letter: Internet hoax There was, of course, no candlelight memorial and
This fraudulent e-mail chain letter appeared on-line no high-flying camera in attendance. If anyone was
soon after the terrorist attacks of September 11, deceived by the hoax, they have managed to conceal
2001, in New York and Washington, D.C. Evolving the embarrassing fact.
through successive incarnations, it pleads for patriots
to mount a candlelight demonstration in honor of
victims slain in the attacks, but careful readers will “CANDYMAN”: computer virus family
note that no date is specified for the mass turnout. Logged for the first time in April 1999, the macro
viruses of the “Candyman” family attack the global
Likewise, no data is available on how many candles
macros area of a target computer upon execution of
would be required to present a light show visible
an infected document and spread to other documents
from outer space. The first version of the message
as they close. On the 25th of any month, Candyman
read:
deletes all files in the c:\windows and c:\dos folders,
then displays a message reading:
Friday night at 7:00 p.m. EST step out your door, stop
your car, or step out of your establishment and light a
No se olviden de CABEZAS - Pierri y Duahlde
candle. We will show the world that Americans are
PUTOS-Cabezas Virus by CANDYMAN Bs. As.
strong and united together against terrorism. Please
Argentina
pass this to everyone on your e-mail list. We need to
reach everyone across the United States quickly.
CANTRELL, Calvin: convicted hacker
Close behind the first plea, and apparently assum- A 30-year-old resident of Grand Prairie, Texas,
ing that Americans had answered the call, came this Calvin Cantrell was identified by federal prosecutors
second Internet message, crediting unnamed U.S. as a member and ringleader of an 11-member HACK-
officials for the call to action: ERS’ syndicate known as “Phone Masters.” The
group reportedly invaded computers of three tele-
Pretty impressive and another statement to be made if phone networks, in a vain attempt “to own the
everyone participates . . . 10:30 EASTERN TIME . . . telecommunications infrastructure from coast to
9:30 Central, 8:30 Mountain, 7:30 Pacific. coast.” When not hacking telephone company sys-
The U.S. has asked that everyone step out on their tems, the self-styled Phone Masters invaded the com-
lawns tonight and light a candle. They will be taking a puters of various credit-reporting agencies, utility
satellite picture of the U.S. and posting it on the news providers, and government computers including that
tomorrow morning. of the Justice Department’s National Crime Informa-
Please pass this on to as many people as possible. tion Center. FBI data-taps secured evidence against
Cantrell and two other defendants, all of whom
A third and final version of the hoax pretends that pleaded guilty to criminal fraud and related charges
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in spring 1999. On September 16, 1999, Cantrell
planned to take the satellite picture of candles burn- received a two-year prison sentence and was ordered
ing across America. to pay the victim companies $10,000.

50
“CAT Colonic” Computer Virus

CARDOZO Innocence Project: defenders of falsely accused May 4, 2000, his root access (the level of complete
Operating from the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of control utilized by system administrators over a sys-
Law in New York City, the Innocence Project was tem) was restricted to a single server. On May 18,
founded in 1992 by lawyers Barry Scheck (best following a dispute between Carpenter and a
known for his role in the defense of O. J. SIMPSON) and coworker, Carpenter’s supervisor initiated paper-
Peter Neufeld. A clinical law program for students, work for his dismissal.
supervised by law professors and university adminis- Carpenter’s last day on the job, he worked a shift
trators, the project offers pro bono (free) legal assis- from 2:00 P.M. on May 18 to 12:30 A.M. on May 19,
tance to prison inmates challenging their convictions 2000. Logging onto all three servers, including two
on the basis of DNA evidence. (The inmates are from which he was barred, Carpenter modified his
required, however, to obtain private funding for the supervisor’s computer profile and inserted a destruc-
actual tests, which may cost as much as $10,000.) tive code that would erase all data found on the
Limited funding and personnel currently force the servers. He then tried to cover his tracks by turning
Innocence Project to decline any cases where DNA is off system logs, removing history files and seeking to
not the primary issue. In addition to legal defense for have the virus code overwritten after it was executed.
imprisoned clients, the project also lobbies state legis- Fired from his job on May 19, Carpenter tipped his
latures for passage of laws authorizing compensation hand over the next two weeks by telephoning repeat-
of wrongly convicted and incarcerated persons. To edly, asking if everything was OK, or if anything was
date, those efforts have enjoyed limited success (only wrong with the servers. His suspicious behavior
Illinois and New York have passed such laws to date), prompted project managers to shut the Lanham
but defense of wrongly convicted prisoners has servers down and remove the destructive code.
achieved more dramatic results. As of January 2002, Charges of intentionally causing damage to a pro-
100 American inmates had been exonerated and freed tected computer were still pending when Carpenter’s
on the basis of DNA testing, 38 of those thanks to employers discovered more offenses. In addition to
members of the Innocence Project. Those represented his sabotage, Carpenter had lied under oath concern-
directly by the Cardozo Innocence Project include ing his work history, criminal record, and illegal drug
HERMAN ATKINS, TERRY CHALMERS, EDWARD HONAKER, use when he applied for the IRS job. Carpenter
and CALVIN JOHNSON JR. pleaded guilty to one felony count on July 24, 2001,
facing a maximum sentence of 10 years in prison and
a $250,000 fine. While he might serve as little as six
CARPENTER, Claude R., II: computer saboteur months in jail, prosecutors announced their intent to
A 19-year-old resident of Lusby, Maryland, Claude request an 18-month exemplary sentence and cash
Carpenter II was hired on March 13, 2000, as a sys- restitution in an amount as yet undetermined.
tems administrator for Network Resources, a sub-
contractor for the Internal Revenue Service. At the
time, Network Resources was performing work on “CAT Colonic” Computer Virus: Internet hoax
the Integrated Network Operations Management In a realm known for peculiar titles, the “Cat
System (INOMS) database, which contained an Colonic” computer VIRUS stands out as one of the
inventory of all computer hardware and software more bizarre. Thankfully, based on descriptions of its
owned by the IRS. Carpenter’s specific duties allegedly lethal behavior, it never existed in fact.
included monitoring three computer servers main- Fraudulent warnings about the virus first appeared
tained by the IRS computer center at the New Car- on the Internet in May 1999. The original bogus
rollton Federal Building in Lanham, Maryland. alert read as follows:
Carpenter’s poor work habits soon led to repeated
reprimands for misbehavior, including late arrivals If you receive an e-mail entitled, “How to Give a Cat a
and early departures from work, unavailability to Colonic,” DO NOT open it. It will erase everything on
deal with system responses and customers’ requests, your hard drive. Forward this letter out to as many peo-
and insubordinate comments to his supervisor. Three ple as you can. This is a new, very malicious virus and
disciplinary meetings in April 2000 resulted in Car- not many people know about it. This information was
penter being warned that further infractions would announced yesterday morning from IBM. Please share
lead to dismissal. Still his tardiness continued, and on it with everyone that might access the Internet. Once

51
CELL Phone Cloning

again, pass this along to EVERYONE in your address


book so that this may be stopped. AOL has said that
this is a very dangerous virus and that there is NO rem-
edy for it at this time.

CELL Phone Cloning: wireless fraud technique


Every cell phone is designed to have a unique fac-
tory-set electronic serial number (ESN) and mobile
identification number (MIN). “Cloned” cell phones
are those reprogrammed to transmit the ESN and
MIN of another (legitimate) telephone when calls are
made. Swindlers obtain those numbers by monitor-
ing radio wave transmissions and intercepting calls
in progress. After “cloning,” the legitimate phone
shares its ESN/MIN combination with one or more
additional phones—but all charges are billed to the
registered owner. In a variation of the theme, called
“tumbling,” some bootleg cell phones are pro-
grammed to use a different stolen ESN/MIN combi-
nation for each call, running through a list of
multiple numbers. This technique prevents a single
legitimate user from noting a sudden rash of bogus
calls on his or her monthly bill and thus delays expo-
“Cloned” cell phones are used to run up millions of dollars
sure of the fraud in progress.
in fraudulent calls each year.
Profits from a cloning operation are limited only
by the swindler’s nerve and imagination. Small-
timers simply use the phones themselves or share
with friends until the fraud is discovered and the
While the industry strives to outwit high-tech
ESN/MIN combination is deactivated. Others sell
cloned telephones, individually or in bulk lots. swindlers on the drawing board, legitimate cell
Finally, in larger cities, it is not unusual to find “cus- phone users can still take certain basic steps to pro-
tomers” lined up on sidewalks or in shopping malls, tect themselves from fraud. Experts recommend the
waiting their turns to make long-distance calls on a following precautions:
“vendor’s” cloned telephone for a fraction of the
normal cost. Nationwide, by 2000, cell phone 1. Whenever possible, disable any “roaming” func-
cloning cost the industry an estimated $650 million. tions built into a cell phone. Roaming permits use
Cloned cell phones are also extremely popular with of a telephone via analog systems when the caller
drug dealers and other felons who have a vested is outside a server’s normal digital range, but it
interest in keeping their telephone records untraced. also frequently defeats the purpose of secure per-
Experiments with new forms of cell phone security sonal identification numbers (PINs). Cloners love
are constantly ongoing, but wily thieves seem to roaming phones for that reason and often target
crack each new system within months of its develop- areas surrounding airports or interstate high-
ment. Meanwhile, the U.S. government took action ways, to capture signals (and ESN/MIN combina-
in April 1998, with the Cellular Telephone Protec- tions) from callers in transit.
tion Act, making it a federal crime to possess, use, or 2. Turn off telephones when they are not in use. Cell
traffic in any hardware or software configured to phones left on poll the cellular base station with
alter or modify a cell phone without proper authori- the strongest signal every few seconds, thus allow-
zation. Enforcement of the act fell to the U.S. Secret ing the system to route calls through the appropri-
Service, which reports a doubling in the number of ate base station. At the same time, however,
arrests for wireless telecommunications fraud each polling leaves a phone vulnerable to interception
year since 1991. and cloning, even when a call is not in progress.

52
CENTURION Ministries

3. Review all bills in detail and report any fraudu- to date through the efforts of McCloskey and his
lent calls to the service provider. A cursory glance staff, including EDWARD HONAKER and CLARENCE
may not reveal the occasional bogus call gener- MOORE, cleared on the basis of DNA evidence.
ated by “tumbling,” but many cloning victims are In a 1989 article, “Convicting the Innocent,”
billed for dozens—or thousands—of illegitimate McCloskey maintained that wrongful convictions
calls in a single month. occur primarily from one or more of seven causes:
(1) a widespread “presumption of guilt” against
those charged with crimes; (2) perjury by police offi-
CENTURION Ministries: defenders of the wrongfully accused cers; (3) false testimony by prosecution witnesses; (4)
America’s first Innocence Project, Centurion Min- illegal manipulation or suppression of evidence by
istries was organized in 1983 by James McCloskey, a prosecutors; (5) shoddy police work (as opposed to
corporate executive-turned-minister who earned his deliberate frame-ups); (6) incompetent defense coun-
master of divinity degree from Princeton University. sel; and (7) misconceptions by jurors concerning evi-
Operating from Princeton since its foundation, Cen- dence and testimony.
turion Ministries describes its singular mission as a Because of its small staff and meager resources,
campaign “to liberate from prison and vindicate Centurion Ministries holds potential clients to a
individuals who are completely innocent of crimes stringent standard. As described on the group’s web-
for which they have been convicted and impris- site, cases are accepted only if: the inmate has been
oned.” More than a dozen inmates have been freed sentenced to death or life imprisonment, with no

Jim McCloskey poses near a board listing cases being worked on by his organization, Centurion Ministries. (AP)

53
“CHAINSAW”

parole for at least 15 years; the inmate is “100% BROTHER FRANKLIN. IT IS ALL THE MORE
innocent,” with no involvement in the crime (thereby TRAGIC IN THAT THEY WERE YOUNG. BUT,
excluding cases of accidental death or self-defense); HAD THEY LIVED VERY, VERY LONG LIVES,
the inmate must be indigent and have exhausted all THEY COULD NOT HAVE EXPECTED NOR
standard legal appeals; and the case does not involve WOULD THEY HAVE WISHED TO SEE AS MUCH
child molestation, since such cases “require a special OF THE MAD AND MACABRE AS THEY WERE
expertise that CM does not possess.” Inmates who TO SEE THAT DAY. FOR THEM AN IDYLLIC
meet those strict criteria are invited to contact Centu- SUMMER AFTERNOON DRIVE BECAME A
rion Ministries for a review of their cases. NIGHTMARE. THE EVENTS OF THAT DAY
WERE TO LEAD TO THE DISCOVERY OF ONE
OF THE MOST BIZARRE CRIMES IN THE
“CHAINSAW”: computer worm ANNALS OF AMERICAN HISTORY, THE TEXAS
Named after the 1974 cult classic horror film Texas CHAINSAW MASSACRE . . .
Chainsaw Massacre, “Chainsaw” is a network worm
capable of spreading on the Internet. The worm
installs itself on a targeted computer by copying its CHALMERS, Terry Leon: exonerated by DNA evidence
code to the Windows system directory (filename win- Defendant Terry Chalmers was arrested following
mine.exe) and to the root directory of the disk drive the rape and robbery of a young woman in White
currently in use (filename chainsaw.exe). Chainsaw Plains, New York, on August 18, 1986. The victim
next registers itself in the system registry, then exits first identified his photo from an array of police mug
and triggers its infection procedure during the next shots, then twice selected him as her attacker from
Windows startup. police lineups. At trial, Chalmers’s alibi remained
Once installed and activated, Chainsaw sends a uncorroborated, and the victim identified him again.
message to the “alt.horror” online news group, On June 9, 1987, he was convicted of rape, sodomy,
incorporating a tag line from the movie’s original robbery, and two counts of grand larceny, drawing a
poster and reading as follows: prison term of 12 to 24 years.
Chalmers first appealed his conviction on grounds
From: “Leatherface” <hacked.up.for@bbq.net> that the police lineups were improperly conducted.
Subject: CHAINSAWED On July 18, 1990, the New York Supreme Court’s
Newsgroups: alt.horror appellate division rejected that argument, finding
Message body: that police conduct was proper in the case, and that
WHO WILL SURVIVE the victim’s courtroom identification of Chalmers
AND WHAT WILL BE LEFT OF THEM? made the lineups superfluous. Chalmers next applied
to the CARDOZO INNOCENCE PROJECT for aid, and its
Chainsaw also attempts to send copies of itself lawyers obtained physical evidence from the case for
from the newly infected computer, seeking targets DNA testing. On July 26, 1994 those tests eliminated
vulnerable through a “backdoor” Trojan program, Chalmers as a possible donor for the semen traces
firing off corrupted messages to randomly selected recovered by authorities in August 1986. Chalmers’s
addresses in an endless loop. Those transmissions conviction was vacated, with the rape and sodomy
include a “denial-of-service” code that causes Win- charges dismissed on January 31, 1995. Authorities
dows 9x computers to crash on receipt of the stalled for three months before dropping the larceny
infected files. At the same time, Chainsaw disables charges. Terry Chalmers was released after serving
the “ZoneAlarm” Internet protection utility to facili- eight years of his undeserved sentence.
tate its attack. Newly infected remote computers may
display the following message, lifted from the open-
ing moments of The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: CHANAL, Pierre: serial murder suspect indicted by DNA
Between 1980 and 1987, eight young men either
THE FILM WHICH YOU ARE ABOUT TO SEE IS vanished or were found brutally murdered in the
AN ACCOUNT OF THE TRAGEDY WHICH Marne region of France, northeast of Paris. Several
BEFELL A GROUP OF FIVE YOUTHS. IN PARTIC- of the victims were soldiers, based at one or another
ULAR SALLY HARDESTY AND HER INVALID of three army camps located in what soon became

54
CHEMICAL & Biological Weapons

known as the “Triangle of Death.” Pierre Chanal, revealed on October 9, 2002, when the Associated
himself a senior warrant sergeant with the crack 4th Press published documents proving that U.S. military
Dragoons commando regiment, fell under suspicion forces had conducted secret testing of chemical and
in 1988, after he kidnapped and raped a Hungarian biological weapons (CBW) on some 3,000 soldiers in
hitchhiker in the same region. Convicted and sen- the 1960s. While belatedly couched in terms of “an
tenced for that crime, Chanal was free again by effort to develop defenses against such weapons,” the
August 2001, when French authorities announced illegal tests prompted critics to ask whether U.S.
their intent to charge him with multiple murders. leaders were any more responsible or trustworthy
DNA testing, unavailable to French authorities in than Iraq’s Hussein.
1988, had recently been applied to several human As suggested by its name, CBW involves two dis-
hairs discovered in Chanal’s van—the same vehicle in tinct and separate groups of elements. Chemical
which he was earlier caught red-handed, his male agents are manmade, including a wide variety of
victim trussed up in a parachute harness, while drugs and poisons, hallucinogens, defoliants, toxic
Chanal videotaped his rape and torture. Results of metals, and nerve agents (often called “nerve gases,”
those DNA tests indicated a “very strong probabil- though they may not be in gaseous form). Some
ity” that Chanal murdered three of the previous vic- applications of chemical warfare verge on slapstick
tims, including 19-year-old Trevor O’Keefe, an Irish comedy, as when the Central Intelligence Agency
tourist found strangled and buried in a shallow grave planned to spike Fidel Castro’s cigars with LSD (to
during August 1987. Five counts of murder were dis- cause him to make erratic, nonsensical speeches) or
missed on August 14, 2001, since the victims have to dust his clothes with a depilatory (thereby causing
never been found, but Chanal was ordered to stand fallout from his famous beard). At the other end of
trial for the deaths of O’Keefe and two others. At the scale are deadly serious applications, such as the
this writing, no trial date has been set. Unlike Amer- September 1957 assassination of Soviet defector
ica’s legal system, the French Napoleonic Code pre- Nikolai Khokhlov in Frankfurt. The assassin sprin-
sumes a suspect’s guilt until innocence is proved in kled Kokhlov’s food with thallium, a rare toxic
court. metal. The result is described by author John Barron
in KGB (1974).

CHEMICAL & Biological Weapons (CBW) Hideous brown stripes, dark splotches, and black-and-
Between September 18 and October 9, 2001, an blue swellings disfigured his face and body. A sticky
unknown person or persons mailed several letters secretion oozed from his eyelids, and blood seeped
from New Jersey, addressed to the U.S. Senate office through his pores; his skin felt dry, shrunken, and
building in Washington, D.C., and to media outlets aflame. At the mere touch of his hand, great tufts of
in New York and Florida. The envelopes contained hair fell out. . . . Tests on September 22 showed that
anthrax spores, which infected some two dozen vic- Kokhlov’s white corpuscles were being swiftly and
tims, six fatally. White House spokesmen linked the fatally destroyed, his bones decaying, his blood turned
mailings to the TERRORISM attacks of September 11, to plasma, and his saliva glands atrophying.
2001, but no proof of that charge was forthcoming.
FBI agents mounted a massive coast-to-coast search Biological agents, by contrast, are destructive
for the killer(s), but at this writing (in mid-October organisms found in nature—bacteria, viruses, spores,
2002) the G-men have not taken legal action against parasites—though some may be genetically altered in
any or released any trial-worthy evidence. labs to enhance their offensive application. Unlike
On the one-year anniversary of the anthrax mur- chemical weapons, biological warfare has been used
ders, President George W. Bush called for war with at least since the Middle Ages, when rotting livestock
Iraq, alleging that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein had carcasses were catapulted over castle walls to spread
illegally stockpiled “weapons of mass destruction” death and disease under siege. Some modern scholars
while scheming to launch new attacks against the also believe the “Black Death,” which claimed one-
United States. Bush’s own CIA chief disagreed, third of the known world’s population between 1347
reporting that Hussein was more likely to retaliate and 1351, may have begun as a primitive form of
for an invasion than to launch a unilateral assault, “germ warfare.” A century later, European diseases
but the real irony of the war-hawk position was began decimating aboriginal people in the Western

55
CHEMICAL & Biological Weapons

Hemisphere, and not always by accident. Cruel set-


tlers in the U.S. and Mexico sometimes resolved their
local “Indian problem” by offering Native Ameri-
cans treacherous gifts of poisoned food or smallpox-
infected blankets.
Modern chemical warfare left its mark on Europe
during World War I, with the use of toxic gas by both
sides producing results so horrific that it was banned
by the subsequent Geneva Convention. Suspicion of
CBW research by Japan and Nazi Germany
prompted the U.S. military to begin its own produc-
tion of chemical and biological weapons in 1942 and
to continue for nearly three decades beyond V-J Day
(victory over Japan, 1945). American diplomats lev-
eled charges of CBW violations against North Korea
in the early 1950s and later made similar accusations
against the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of
China. In the United States, meanwhile, military
researchers conducted a series of covert tests that are
only now coming to light, in the first decade of the
21st century. The tests revealed in October 2002
included:

“Devil Hole I”—Designed to test dispersal pat-


terns of the nerve agent sarin after release from
rockets and artillery shells in aspen and spruce
forests similar to those in the USSR, this experi-
ment was carried out in the summer of 1965 at
the Gerstle River test site near Fort Greeley,
Alaska.
“Devil Hole II”—Another test at the Gerstle River
site, this time involving the nerve agent VX, These images released by the FBI on October 23, 2001,
deployed against mannequins dressed in mili- show the envelope and letter sent to the office of former
tary uniforms, seated in U.S. Army trucks. Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle containing anthrax.
“Big Tom”—A 1965 test that involved spraying (AFP/CORBIS)
bacteria over the Hawaiian island of Oahu to
simulate a biological attack on an island com-
pound. Researchers used Bacillus globigii, a
bacterium believed harmless at the time (later ernment lies and evasions, however—beginning with
found to cause serious infections in persons the Vietnam “credibility gap” and proceeding
with weakened immune systems). through Watergate, the Church Committee hearings
on intelligence abuses (1975–76), and the Reagan
Those acknowledged tests do not include the era’s Iran-Contra scandal—some critics contend that
deliberate exposure of some 3,000 U.S. soldiers to the testing never really stopped at all. Indeed, a
CBW agents in the name of national defense, and report published in the New York Times one week
rumors persist of other tests still concealed from the before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,
public at large. Author Ed Regis reports, in The Biol- revealed that the Pentagon had conducted recent
ogy of Doom (1999), that the U.S. program CBW experiments and that its scientists had “further
employed 4,036 persons at its peak and tested vari- plans to genetically engineer a more virulent form of
ous agents on 2,000 human volunteers before “its the bacterium that causes anthrax, a deadly disease
abrupt cancellation in 1969.” After decades of gov- ideal for germ warfare.” When the anthrax mailings

56
CHEMICAL Castration

began two weeks later, FBI agents initially blamed members released phosgene gas at Yokohama’s main
Muslim extremists, but later suggested the infected railroad terminal on April 19, 1995, injuring 300
letters may have been sent by someone employed at a persons. Two days later, another 25 persons were
covert U.S. laboratory. Critics took no solace from hospitalized after a gas attack on a Yokohama shop-
claims issued by the Bush White House, that all ping mall. Cyanide canisters were retrieved from a
American CBW experiments were “completely con- Tokyo train station on July 4, 1995, disarmed before
sistent” with international treaties. they could release their deadly contents. By that time,
Another nation with an unsavory record of CBW Shoko Asahara and more than a dozen of his
experimentation was South Africa under the fallen disciples were in custody, awaiting trial on multiple
apartheid regime. According to reports aired in murder charges. Several were convicted at trial, and
1998, that country’s white-supremacist government the cult was officially disbanded by court order on
employed a renowned cardiologist, 50-year-old Dr. October 30, 1995.
Wouter Basson, to develop and deploy CBW agents
against opponents of the repressive apartheid regime.
Dubbed “Dr. Death” by his critics, Basson allegedly CHEMICAL Castration: medical control of sex offenders
sought to produce bacteria that would kill only In an age when sexual assault—and particularly sex-
blacks, along with “vaccines” to sterilize black ual abuse of minors—has become a high-profile
women. Testimony before the nation’s Truth and crime and a “hot button” issue in political debates,
Reconciliation Commission also suggested that Dr. new methods of prevention are constantly under
Basson, operating after 1983 from South Africa’s debate. Convicted offenders are subject to increas-
Roodeplaat Research Laboratories, cultivated strains ingly severe prison sentences, ranging literally into
of anthrax, cholera, and botulinum, while studying thousands of years for some multi-victim child
the use of illegal drugs like Ecstasy, THC, and LSD molesters, and experimental statutes in several Amer-
for “crowd control.” Basson’s team, dubbed “Project ican jurisdictions now permit detention of inmates
Coast,” reportedly developed covert assassination judged “sexually dangerous” to society beyond com-
tools (including a syringe disguised as a screwdriver), pletion of their statutory terms. While those laws—
concocted plans to distribute T-shirts poisoned with and corresponding statutes mandating public
hallucinogenic drugs in black townships, and broadcast of a paroled sex offender’s home address—
schemed to poison imprisoned black leader Nelson remain under heated attack by defense attorneys and
Mandela with thallium (the same toxic metal used by civil libertarians, all concerned agree that prison time
the Soviets to kill Nikolai Khokhlov in 1957). Project and subsequent registration of known sex offenders
Coast additionally is said to have produced poisoned with police do little or nothing to prevent recidivism.
beer, chocolate, cigarettes, and envelope glue. Man- Sex criminals repeat their crimes—against adult or
dela disbanded the unit upon becoming president in minor victims, male or female—because of deep-
1993. seated urges and desires. Sterilization of repeat
The only known criminal use of CBW agents to offenders, believed to be a “cure” as late as the
date occurred in Japan, in the case of the cult known 1930s in Germany, in fact does nothing but eliminate
as Aum Shinrikyo (“Supreme Truth”). The sect’s the criminal’s ability to procreate. Surgical castra-
“venerable master,” Shoko Asahara, prophesied an tion, likewise, has proved ineffective in those cases
imminent apocalypse, predicting that 90 percent of where the sexual assaults stem from rage, sadism, or
the earth’s population would die in poison gas any other cause unrelated to production of testos-
attacks by 1997, but he was finally unable to wait terone. In recent years, a less invasive but equally
for his own deadline. Seven residents of Matsumoto controversial method has been mandated in several
were killed in June 1994, with another 200 injured, states, involving “chemical castration” by means of
after cultists released sarin nerve gas in a residential medication that lowers the testosterone level, thereby
neighborhood. Nine months later, on March 20, reducing a subject’s sex drive.
1995, the incident was repeated on a Tokyo subway The drugs of choice for chemical castration are
train, leaving 12 persons dead and 5,500 in treat- Depo-Provera and Depo-Lupron (medroxyproges-
ment for nonfatal injuries. Several cultists were in terone acetate), which operate by lowering the blood
custody, captured with $7 million in cash and serum testosterone levels in males who receive the
enough sarin to kill 4 million people, when other sect injections. Sexual drive is reduced by influencing the

57
CHEMICAL Castration

hypothalamus portion of the brain that stimulates notion that progesterone is a cure-all for sex crimes.
the pituitary gland to release hormones that in turn “The notion we can give someone a shot once a
control sperm production. The drugs are alleged to week, and walk away from them and feel comfort-
reduce recidivism among serial sex offenders from 87 able,” Berlin said, “I think is a very naïve point of
percent to a mere 2 percent, but medical researchers view.”
question those statistics, noting that men subjected to Naïve or not, the notion of a quick fix instantly
the drugs can still obtain an erection, engage in sex- appealed to lawmakers in other states. Over the next
ual intercourse, and ejaculate. three years, similar statutes were enacted in Georgia,
California was the first state to impose chemical Iowa, Louisiana, Montana, Oregon, and Wisconsin.
castration as a legal penalty (or remedy) through a Alabama governor Don Siegelman sponsored legisla-
statute passed by the state legislature on August 28, tion offering a choice of chemical or surgical castra-
1996, and signed by Governor Pete Wilson on Sep- tion to any male defendant who sought probation on
tember 18. The law provides that any person con- a first-time conviction for rape, sodomy, sexual tor-
victed of specified sex offenses against a victim under ture, or first-degree sexual abuse of a victim under 13
13 years of age may be required to undergo medrox- years of age. (Female offenders, as in all other states
yprogesterone acetate treatment during parole for a so far, would be exempt and unaffected by the law.)
first offense, and all repeat offenders must receive the As of March 2000, the costs for progesterone treat-
treatment during their parole. Those treatments ment of paroled sex offenders averaged $2,400 per
would in fact begin prior to an inmate’s release from subject, per year.
prison and would continue through the term of that Aside from potential failure, medical experts point
parole unless the state department of corrections out that use of progesterone-related drugs poses a
demonstrates to the board of prison terms that the potentially lethal health risk for subjects who suffer
treatments are no longer necessary. from obesity, diabetes, pulmonary disease, or high
Immediate objections were raised by the American blood pressure—issues ignored in the statutes passed
Civil Liberties Union and its California affiliate. to date. Known side effects of the treatment in males
ACLU spokesperson Valerie Navarro told reporters, include breast enlargement, tumors, and edema.
“There are problems regarding the right to privacy, Women who have used the medication to correct
the right to procreate, the right to exercise control menstrual irregularity for two months or more,
over one’s body.” The ACLU termed chemical castra- meanwhile, report a history of malignant breast
tion “barbaric, unconstitutional and ultimately inef- tumors, venous thromboses, and an increased ten-
fective in protecting our children,” predicting that dency toward hemorrhage. Prevailing medical (as
the new law would be challenged in court. “Society opposed to public and political) opinion suggests
has an overwhelmingly important interest in keeping that use of progesterone should be evaluated on an
children safe,” Navarro said. “But this is a simplistic individual basis, rather than on mandatory terms as
and ultimately ineffective response to the problem of specified by existing state legislation. A 1991
child abuse. As medical and psychiatric experts have research report that recommended Depo-Provera
testified, the complex reasons that impel people to chiefly for use with serial rapists and homosexual
assault children cannot be eliminated by giving peo- pedophiles also added the following cautionary
ple shots. This measure is nothing more than an elec- notes:
tion year bill that won’t do anything to make it safer
for our children.” 1. Antitestosterone agents should be employed only
Dr. Michael Meek and the California Psychiatric if there is
Association raised concerns of greater import to a. substantial risk of repeated offenses in the
most Californians than the civil rights of convicted period during which behavior therapy has
child molesters. “It’s a bad law as written,” Dr. Meek been initiated but has not yet been effective or
told the press. “The classic example would be some- b. a risk that any single offense will produce
one who molests children because voices tell him to substantial harm to a victim as, for example,
molest children. Well, they’re doing it from a psy- an act of child molestation as opposed to an
chotic point of view because voices tell them. Proges- act of exhibitionism.
terone is not going to help them at all.” Dr. Fred 2. Such agents should be employed for as short a
Berlin of Johns Hopkins Hospital also derided the time as possible. Their use should be tapered once

58
CHILD Pornography and Solicitation On-line

evidence is gained that behavior therapy is million Americans visited Internet porn sites from
becoming effective. their homes in January 2001 alone, a 40 percent
3. Such agents should be given at the lowest dose increase over the next most recent survey, from Sep-
necessary to produce the required reduction in tember 2000. The Web’s premier porn site—
sexual drive. PornCity.net—scored more hits than ESPN.com or
4. Such agents should be employed in cases in which the Internet book vendor barnesandnoble.com. Since
continued monitoring of plethysmograph record- most porn sites charge visitors for any view beyond a
ings and plasma testosterone levels can occur. brief “free sample,” the profit potential is enor-
5. Such agents should not be employed as the sole mous—$970 million in 1998, according to the
therapeutic approach. research firm Datamonitor. A report from Forrester
6. Such agents should only be employed in cases in Research estimates that cyber porn sales (including
which competent consent can be obtained or in videos and other merchandise purchased on-line for
which a guardian can approve their administra- home delivery) matched overall Internet book sales
tion. in 1999 ($1.3 million) and far exceeded the $800
million spent on airline tickets. By a very conserva-
The latter point is of particular concern with tive estimate, 40,000 sex-oriented websites existed in
regard to juvenile offenders, as new research contin- March 2001, and the number was steadily rising.
ues to report disturbing side effects of chemical cas- Those figures, however, refer only to “legitimate”
tration. In addition to those already noted, recent porn sites, wherein the models (and presumably the
studies now report extreme weight gain (up to 50 visiting “surfers”) are certified adults. Despite poorly
percent of body weight) in some subjects; hyperinsu- documented complaints from church groups that
linemic response to glucose load; compromise of gas- some 200,000 Americans suffer from Internet porn
trointestinal or gall bladder functions; chills; addiction, legislative efforts to impose “decency”
phlebitis; nausea and vomiting; headaches; hypo- standards on the Web have thus far been defeated in
glycemia; leg cramps; and sleep disturbances (includ- the courts. Only in the area of child pornography has
ing bizarre nightmares). legislation been approved to punish vendors and
A report on chemical castration in the New Eng- recipients.
land Journal of Medicine (February 12, 1998) added It was not always so. While child molestation is a
support to arguments of those who believe the treat- crime in every American state (with the age of con-
ment benefits society via control of sexual offenders. sent varying from one jurisdiction to another), no
Citing a study of 30 male subjects’ recurring deviant federal ban on child pornography existed until 1977,
sexual behavior, including 25 convicted pedophiles, when the Sexual Exploitation of Children Act
the article found treatment with a new drug—trip- banned the production, interstate shipment, and
torelin—more effective than Depo-Provera in curb- advertisement of such items. Seven years later, set-
ing recidivism (and less risky in terms of medical side tling a point of persistent uncertainty, the Child Pro-
effects) when used in combination with traditional tection Act of 1984 defined as “children” any person
psychotherapy. Used primarily in Europe at the pres- below the age of 18 years. The Child Sexual Abuse
ent time, triptorelin has yet to gain widespread and Pornography Act of 1986 tightened bans on pro-
acceptance in the United States, but the news encour- duction and advertisement of child porn, without
aged proponents of chemical castration in their long- regard to interstate operations. The Child Protection
running effort to defeat skeptical challenges. Medical and Obscenity Act of 1988 made it illegal to use
effectiveness, however, still does not address the con- computers for transmission or advertisement of child
stitutional issues raised by civil libertarians, and the pornography; it also criminalized the buying, selling,
controversy will doubtless continue until finally set- or otherwise obtaining custody of children for the
tled before the U.S. Supreme Court at some future purpose of producing porn. Interstate or foreign
date. shipment of three or more child porn images by any
means (including computers) became a federal crime
in November 1990. The Telecommunications Act of
CHILD Pornography and Solicitation On-line 1996 bans use of any interstate or international com-
Pornography is big business on the World Wide Web. munications medium to solicit sexual acts from
According to one Nielsen NetRatings report, 17.5 minors. Finally and most controversially, the Child

59
CHILD Pornography and Solicitation On-line

better spent pursuing producers and vendors of child


pornography, rather than soliciting private individu-
als to break the law by purchasing a magazine or
videotape.
And to be sure, there are enough legitimate tar-
gets at large to keep any agency busy, without
attempting to seduce others. A sampling of recent
cases includes:

August 2001 Three members of a Houston,


Texas, team that searches for missing children
were indicted on federal child pornography
charges following an FBI investigation. Defen-
dants Henry Gerdes, Jason Krieg, and Thomas
McBarron were all members of the South Texas
Advanced Tactical Search and Rescue unit, a
missing-person recovery unit for which Krieg
served as the official spokesman. Police in Dick-
inson, Texas, received a tip in July 2001 that
the suspects intended to create a child porn
The logo for “Crimes Against Children,” a unit of the FBI Internet site. FBI agents joined the investigation
that incorporates “Operation Candyman,” an operation and raided the suspects’ homes on August 28,
that broke up a computer-based pornography ring that seizing computers, disks, tapes, and two vehi-
targeted children. (AP Photo/Kenneth Lambert) cles. All three defendants were charged with
sexual exploitation of a child and conspiracy to
produce child pornography; Krieg faced an
additional charge of sexually assaulting a juve-
Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 amends defini- nile. Authorities say the trio taped two teenage
tion of the term to include any simulated depiction of boys having sex and that Krieg taped himself
children having sex—even if the models are them- having sex with an underage girl. At that, police
selves legal adults or the images include only nonex- seemed satisfied that “We got them early on in
istent “virtual” children. (Artists and civil this project.”
libertarians continue to battle the latter provision in November 2001 Ronald C. Kline, a 61-year-old
court.) judge of the Orange County (California) Supe-
Despite the seeming glut of legislation and increas- rior Court, surrendered to federal agents at the
ing international cooperation between law enforce- courthouse on November 9 and was charged
ment agencies (at least in North America and with possessing child pornography, his bail set
western Europe), the lucrative trade in “kiddy” porn at $50,000. Authorities targeted Judge Kline
still thrives. Frustration over inability to capture for- after receiving tips from a private group that
eign dealers and producers has prompted certain U.S. surfs the Internet seeking child-pornography
agencies—notably the FBI and Customs Service—to traders. Apparently, an unnamed member of
initiate covert domestic “sting” operations that the group hacked into Kline’s computer and
sometimes smack of entrapment. In such cases, the reported his findings to police. According to
agency generates its own advertisements for child Kline’s attorney, “The photos were discovered
pornography, then arrests all those who attempt to when a HACKER in a remote location infected
purchase the items (generally material confiscated in [Kline’s] computer with a VIRUS and made an
previous raids). Since some of those arrested have no unauthorized copy of the entire contents of his
prior police records, the agencies involved have been hard drive.” Those contents included child
accused of “creating crime” to inflate their own lag- porn images and a private diary in which Kline
ging arrest and conviction statistics. At the very least, allegedly confessed his preoccupation with
it can be argued that their time and money would be adolescent boys. Trial on the charge was still

60
CHILD Pornography and Solicitation On-line

pending in March 2002, when Judge Kline innocent children, some as young as six months
stood unopposed for reelection in Orange old.” At the time of his arrest, Evans was on
County. Meanwhile, an alleged victim has probation for a 1999 child-porn conviction,
contacted police, claiming that Kline molested involving 6,000 illicit photographs. The arrest
him between 1976 and 1978, when the witness in that case, dating from 1996, had cost Evans
was a child and Kline was a lawyer in private his government job and prompted his wife to
practice. divorce him before he was sentenced to eight
December 2001 Authorities in Winnipeg, Mani- months in jail. Toronto authorities declared
toba, vowed to “leave no stone unturned” in their city a major hub in the global child-porn
their investigation of what they called the trade, noting that the number of cases with
province’s “largest and most sadistic Internet international links had nearly doubled—to
child-abuse case” to date. Bryan William 500—between 2000 and 2001. “It’s not an
Larsen, a 41-year-old computer programmer expansion,” said Corporal François Dore of the
and member of Manitoba’s Crocus Grove Nud- Ottawa Provincial Police, “it’s an explosion.”
ist Resort was arrested on December 13, fol- January 2002 In Vancouver, British Columbia,
lowing investigation of what police spokesmen 67-year-old retired city planner John Robin
termed a “pedophile ring.” The owners of Cro- Sharpe faced trial on two counts of possessing
cus Grove called the arrest “very disturbing” child pornography and two more of possession
and “a total shock.” Raiders seized 100,000 with intent to distribute. Initially charged in
computer images from the suspect’s home, May 1996, when police and customs officials
allegedly posted to eight different websites that raided his home to seize books and computer
the defendant operated from his apartment. disks, Sharpe had challenged Canada’s child
Also seized were a camera, binoculars, 40 pairs pornography possession statute before the
of young girls’ panties, and assorted other evi- British Columbia Supreme Court, arguing that
dence. The alleged pedophile ring was uncov- the law was too broad and therefore violated
ered through an international law enforcement free-speech provisions of the Canadian consti-
effort dubbed “Project Snowball,” intended to tution. He won that case in January 1999, with
crack down on Internet pornography world- the decision upheld by the B.C. Court of
wide. Participants included local Canadian offi- Appeal, but the Supreme Court of Canada
cers, as well as members of the Royal Canadian reversed that finding and affirmed the statute’s
Mounted Police. Aside from Larsen, Canadian constitutionality in January 2001, thus allow-
authorities report that Project Snowball has ing Sharpe’s trial to proceed.
thus far identified 406 suspects in British March 2002 Patrick Quigley, a 47-year-old for-
Columbia, 946 in Ontario, 436 in Quebec, 232 mer social worker in Charlottesville, Virginia,
in Alberta, 82 in Manitoba, 61 in Nova Scotia, pleaded guilty to distributing child pornogra-
52 in Saskatchewan, 35 in New Brunswick, 20 phy he downloaded from the Internet. At the
in the Northwest Territories, eight in New- time of his arrest, Quigley was an investigator
foundland, six on Prince Edward Island, and for Child Protective Services.
four in the sparsely settled Yukon.
January 2002 Responding to an “epidemic” of Supporters of a tough crackdown on child-porn
child pornography—which they dubbed “our purveyors and their customers note that children
hidden crime, our hidden shame”—police in injured by the traffic are not only those compelled to
Toronto, Ontario, announced the arrest of three perform for the cameras. Increasingly, it appears that
suspects, with 200 more still at large. Suspect some predatory pedophiles draw inspiration from
Blair Evans, a 51-year-old physicist formerly Internet porn, then go on to abuse children them-
involved in national defense work, was arrested selves, either for personal pleasure or as part of some
on January 18, charged with making, possess- perverse commercial enterprise. Some cases in point:
ing, and distributing child pornography. Police
raiders confiscated some 200,000 “horren- June 2001 Rev. William Cabell, a graduate of
dous” computer images at his home, said to Yale Divinity School and Princeton Theological
depict the sexual abuse of “tens of thousands of Seminary—serving since 1990 as pastor of

61
“CHOLERA”

Faith United Church of Christ in State College, Loschin waived their constitutional right to a
Pennsylvania—was jailed for crossing state speedy trial.
lines to have sex with a minor. The arrest fol- August 2001 While the Long Island case was still
lowed a protracted Internet chat-room corre- making national headlines, 43-year-old Darrell
spondence with a 14-year-old boy in New Crawford was arrested in Charlestown, Rhode
Jersey. After eight months of on-line flirtation, Island, charged with transporting a 16-year-old
Cabell drove to meet his adolescent paramour Rhode Island girl across state lines for purposes
at a restaurant in Piscataway, New Jersey, and of prostitution. FBI agents who captured Craw-
found himself confronted with an undercover ford say the case may also involve at least three
FBI agent. Cabell was released on $100,000 other juvenile victims. According to charges
bond pending trial, confined to house arrest, filed against him, Crawford met the victim in
and barred from using a computer. Critics of July 2001, on a telephone chat-line, and per-
such sting operations denounce law enforce- suaded her to work for him as a prostitute. Run-
ment for translating “harmless” fantasies into ning away from home, the girl allegedly met
criminal action, which might otherwise never Crawford and a still-unidentified female accom-
occur. plice, joining them on a trip to Boston, where
August 2001 Authorities in Nassau County, she serviced an average of five men per night
New York, arrested three suspects—identified until July 15, earning $100 for intercourse and
as James Warren, Beth Loschin, and Michael $50 for oral sex, giving all the money to Craw-
Montez—on charges of kidnapping and sexu- ford. After briefly returning home on July 16,
ally abusing a 15-year-old girl from Wrentham, the girl allegedly returned to Boston with Craw-
Massachusetts. The child disappeared from her ford 10 days later, continuing work for the pimp
home on August 3, allegedly abducted after she until her mother tracked her down and took the
struck up a friendship with defendant Warren girl to police on August 13, 2001.
on the Internet. Warren and Loschin then
allegedly held the girl for a week as their sex How common are such cases? According to a
slave, on Long Island, and “loaned” her to media report published the same month as the
Montez for two days of abuse. They were Boston and Long Island arrests, 19 percent of under-
jailed after the child escaped and telephoned age Internet users surveyed had received unwanted
police, directing officers to her kidnappers. sexual solicitations within the past year; 5 percent
Warren faced one count of kidnapping, 10 received solicitations that frightened or upset them; 3
counts of sodomy, six counts of rape and one percent received “aggressive” solicitations involving
count of sexual abuse; Loschin was charged off-line contact or attempts to stage a personal meet-
with eight counts of sodomy, six counts of rape ing; 70 percent of those solicited were using home
and one count of sexual abuse; Montez faced computers at the time; and 49 percent of those
three counts of kidnapping, plus five counts solicited kept the fact a secret. In an era when thou-
each of rape, sodomy and endangering the wel- sands of children run away from home every year,
fare of a child. The two male defendants were and suspect JOHN ROBINSON, a.k.a. “Slavemaster,”
held without bond, while Loschin was unable faces trial as the first Internet serial killer, on-line
to raise her $80,000 bail. Queens prosecutor predators seem to qualify as a serious and growing
Richard Brown ranked the crime “among the threat.
most despicable cases of sexual assault on a
minor that I have seen in my ten years as dis-
trict attorney. In addition to the utter depravity “CHOLERA”: computer worm
of this crime and the lasting damage such an Identified in September 1999, the “Cholera” com-
ordeal inflicts on a child, the fact that the vic- puter worm spreads by means of infected e-mail
tim and the Nassau defendants met in an attachments transmitted via the Internet and local
online chat room is terrifying to us all, espe- networks. It arrives as a file named setup.exe,
cially those of us who are parents.” Resolution attached to e-mails with the subject “OK” and a
of the case was postponed indefinitely on message body containing only a “smiley” face. It
August 15, 2001, when defendants Warren and derives its name from an encrypted text string in its

62
COCA-COLA Giveaway

code reading: CHOLERA—Bacterium BioCoded by Please


GryYo/29A. Christopher John Mineo Sr.
Upon initial execution when the infected attach-
ment is opened, Cholera installs itself to the Win- The attached photograph depicts a young boy of
dows directory, with the filename rpcsrv.exe, writing Hispanic appearance, true identity unknown. Aside
instructions that force Windows to run the file on its from the total lack of evidence supporting any such
next startup. In the case of a computer with multiple incident, further proof of a hoax is found in the fact
Windows installations, a copy of the virus may be that the disappearance date was altered to May 11,
found in each. Cholera conceals its activity by dis- 2001, in later versions of the e-mail.
playing a fake warning dialog box that reads:

Cannot open file: it does not appear to be a valid COAKLEY, Marion: exonerated by forensic evidence
archive. If you downloaded this file, try downloading A native of Beaufort, South Carolina, who later
the file again. moved to New York City, Marion Coakley was an
[OK] African-American day laborer with a tested IQ of 70.
On the night of October 13, 1983, while Coakley
Transmission of the virus to remote computers is attended a church prayer meeting, one of his neigh-
accomplished on the next Windows startup, when bors was raped and robbed in her home. The victim
Cholera takes control, registers itself in Windows subsequently accused Coakley and he was arrested,
memory as a hidden application, and then runs two lab tests allegedly demonstrating that his blood-type
additional routines. The first spreads Cholera matched the rapist’s. At trial, jurors ignored Coakley’s
throughout the local network, identifying network alibi witnesses and convicted him of rape and rob-
drives, scanning them for Windows directories, and bery, whereupon he received a 15-year prison term.
repeating the installation routine. The second sends Two years later, Coakley convinced attorneys
infected e-mails far and wide, employing addresses Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld of his innocence,
gleaned from disk files in the victim’s Windows direc- prompting them to launch a renewed investigation of
tory and subdirectories. Cholera sends 10 messages the case. Students from the Cardozo criminal law
during each subsequent round of activity. clinic joined in the project, attempting to arrange for
DNA tests, but the court blocked testing on grounds
that the “DNA fingerprint” results were still (in
CHRISTOPHER Mineo Jr. Disappearance: 1986) an unproven form of personal identification.
Internet hoax Instead, the defense team retested semen samples
Designed as an appeal for help in locating a missing from the crime scene and proved that Coakley’s
child, this fraudulent e-mail has been in circulation on blood-type did not, after all, match the rapist’s.
the Internet since early 2001. Investigation by the U.S. Coakley was released from prison, and the rape
Department of Energy’s HOAXBUSTERS website and oth- remains officially unsolved. Their experience in this
ers indicate that no such person has been reported case prompted Scheck and Neufeld to found the CAR-
either missing or abducted from Brooklyn or any- DOZO INNOCENCE PROJECT, which now serves as the
where else in the United States. The original plea read: last line of defense for wrongfully convicted prison-
ers in cases where scientific evidence is decisive.
I am asking you all, begging you to please, forward this
email on to anyone and everyone you know, PLEASE. I
have a 5 year old son named Christopher John Mineo COCA-COLA Giveaway: Internet hoax
Jr, nickname C.J. I am from Brooklyn N.Y. He has been Launched on the Internet in February 2000, this fake
missing since November of 98. If anyone anywhere “sales promotion” is yet another time-wasting hoax,
knows anything, seen anything, please contact the orig- unsanctioned by the company whose name it bears.
inal screen name that sent this. Which is CMINE00295 Computer-savvy readers will recognize the physical
@aol.com I am including a picture of him. impossibility of the process described. The pitch reads:
All prayers are appreciated!! It only takes 2 seconds
to forward this on, if it was your child, you would want Coca-Cola is offering four free cases of diet coke or
all the help you could get. regular coke to every person you send this to. When

63
“COCAINE”

you have finished sending this e-mail to as many people ignoring any file names that contain the letter “V” or
as you wish, a screen will come up. It will then ask any numerals. That accomplished, the virus proceeds
where you want your free coke products sent. This is a to “hook” and infect e-mail access files, in prepara-
sales promotion to get our name out to young people tion for expanding to the Internet at large.
around the world. When sending out e-mails, Cocaine first searches
We believe this project can be a success, but only archived messages for attachments to corrupt. If
with your help. So please start e-mailing and help us none are found, the virus appends its own infected
build our database. Thank you for your support! normal.dot or Windows executable files to the mes-
sages and thus perpetuates itself via the Internet. The
Always Coca-Cola, subject fields for Cocaine-infected e-mails are ran-
Mike Hill domly selected from the following list:
Director of Marketing Coca-Cola Corporation
Atlanta, Georgia Improvement to your page
www.cocacola.com Kewl page!
Secret stuff!
It is unknown how many recipients may have been You must see this . . .
duped by this fraudulent offer, but any participants Your page r0x0r!
in the mythical scheme wait in vain for their free
Coca-Cola. Analysts note that Cocaine was the first computer
virus to process Windows 2000 addresses, in addi-
tion to the more common Windows 95/98 and Win-
“COCAINE”: computer virus dows NT addresses, while searching for access to the
A polymorphic parasitic virus, discovered in July kernel32.dll image.
1999, “Cocaine” has three components. The first
attacks Windows executable files; the second infects
MicroSoft Word Normal templates; and the third “CODE Red”: computer virus
sends out e-mails with infected message attachments. The Code Red (or CodeRed) virus, alternately
Four months after infection, Cocaine delivers its pay- known as “Bady,” was initially unleashed in June
load by displaying message boxes with the header 2001, officially described for the first time in a
“W32/Wm.Cocaine” and text randomly selected Microsoft security bulletin dated June 18. Named
from the following seven variants: for a caffeinated soft drink favored by some com-
puter programmers, the virus is an Internet worm
Chop your breakfast on a mirror . . . that replicates between Windows 2000 servers run-
I will occupy, I will help you die . . . ning Microsoft’s Internet Information Services (IIS)
I will run through you, now I rule you . . . and the Microsoft Index Server 2.0 or the Windows
Master of Puppets, I’m pulling your strings . . . 2000 Indexing Service. Using a specially crafted
Taste me you will see, more is all you need . . . code string, the virus overwrites various modules
Veins that pump with fear, sucking darkest and thus forces systems to access an incorrect
clear . . . address, which reproduces 100 copies of the worm
Your life burns faster, obey your master . . . on each infected machine. Ironically, a defect in the
virus code produces thousands of copies, rather than
Cocaine’s first infection routine attacks Microsoft the 100 originally intended, thereby wasting huge
Word, if that program is installed on the host com- amounts of memory and slowing server operations
puter. Word’s virus warning protection is disabled as to a crawl.
Cocaine modifies the system, replacing the original English-language websites attacked by the Code
normal.dot template with an infected replicant, Red virus are defaced by a message reading: “Wel-
importing the main virus code from the c:\cocaine.sys come to http://www.worm.com! Hacked by Chi-
file it installed. From the infected Word template, nese!” That message sparked fears of deliberate
Cocaine jumps next to Windows. When scanning for international sabotage, with the People’s Republic of
Windows executable files to attack, Cocaine avoids China initially (but wrongly) suspected in a cyber-
antivirus programs and “bait” warning files by space version of 19th-century paranoia concerning

64
COLUMBIA House Giveaway

the so-called Yellow Peril. In order to disprove the 1980s. Blood samples were secured from Cohen for
allegation, Chinese authorities closed 8,000 cyber- the state’s DNA database. That evidence sent him
cafés in July 2001, while President Jiang Zemin called back to prison for another rape in 2001.
for stronger legislation governing use and abuse of Cohen’s second known victim was attacked in
the Internet by Chinese citizens. China’s crackdown Louisville, in April 2001. Forensic evidence from the
on Internet use by an estimated 26.5 million citizens backseat of the victim’s car was compared against
predictably spawned charges of censorship, as new samples on file. Cohen was duly arrested and con-
legislation imposed stricter licensing policies, banned victed by a jury on October 21, 2001.
cybercafés in the vicinity of public schools, and man-
dated installation of software enabling local authori-
ties to monitor websites downloaded on public “COLOMBIA”: computer virus
computers. As for Code Red itself, a spokesman for Classified by analysts as a dangerous “stealth”
China’s Office of Network Coordination and Infor- macro virus, Colombia was discovered in the wild
mation told Reuters on July 30, 2001, that the virus during April 1999. It infects the global macros of a
was too sophisticated for the average Chinese targeted computer when an infected document is
HACKER. “I’ve never heard of anything so powerful in opened, then spreads to other documents when they
China,” the officer declared. “This is not something are created, opened, or closed by the host’s user.
that an ordinary person has the skill to create.” No Colombia turns off the Word virus protection system
Code Red cases at all were reported from China, but and also disables the Tools/Macros and View/Tool-
neighboring South Korea was less fortunate, report- bars menus.
ing 13,000 computers infected during late July. “Stealth” notwithstanding, the virus reveals itself on
Predictions of a massive Code Red attack on U.S. arrival by trying to format any floppy disk in the computer’s
government computers timed for July 31, 2001, failed A drive and printing out “Linea <counter number>
to come true, as the day passed without incident. Esquema a” to the status bar. If the counter exceeds 99,
Ronald Dick, director of the U.S. National Infrastruc- Colombia automatically deletes all data on the C drive by
ture Protection Center (NIPC) told reporters on that executing the command format.com in a hidden DOS
Tuesday afternoon that 4,000 sensors around the window. As each newly infected document is closed, the
globe had failed to detect any upsurge in Code Red following message is displayed:
activity. The collective sigh of relief was premature,
however, as a new form of the virus—labeled Code Publicidad para Colombia!!
Red II— was identified “in the wild” on August 4, COLOMBIA
2001, spreading much faster than the original worm. ***Salvado por Colombia***
Unlike its predecessor, Code Red II attempts to Se salv el Diskette
“backdoor” infected systems, creating a hidden path
for outsiders to enter and sabotage websites. South
Korea, once again hard hit, reported infection of COLUMBIA House Giveaway: Internet hoax
computers at Hyundai Motors, the Ssangyong Group, Launched on the Internet in November 1999, this
and other major industrial systems. chain letter pretends to issue from the music distribu-
Systems vulnerable to the Code Red virus or Code tor Columbia House. A giveaway to the e-mail’s
Red II may be “cured” by downloading a Microsoft bogus nature is the inclusion of a website other than
patch from http://www.microsoft.com/technet/secu- that of the actual company itself—and perhaps the
rity/bulletin/MS01-033.asp. That site also includes name of its alleged author. The original reads:
detailed instructions for deleting virus codes from the
memory of an infected computer. At this writing, the Hi. My name is Richard Douche. I am the president of
author(s) of the Code Red virus and its Code Red II Cyber Productions for Columbia House. We are in a
successor remain unidentified. fierce competition with companies such as Amazon.
com and Music Blvd, among many others. Because of
this, I have been authorized to offer 10+ free cd’s of
COHEN, Earl: convicted by DNA evidence your choice to any person who participates in our pro-
A repeat sex offender in Kentucky, born in 1964, motion. We at Columbia House understand that your
Earl Cohen logged his first rape conviction in the late time is very important to you, and that you don’t want

65
“COOL Video” Promotion

to have to fill out a form and mail it in to us. With this viruses, “Cool Worm” replicates and sends itself
in mind, we have developed a simplistic way for anyone to targets found on an infected system’s address list,
who receives this email to participate. All you have to but it appears to have no other function and no
do is send this message to your friends! Yes, it is that destructive payload.
simple. Now you are wondering how many CDs you “Cool Worm” exploits a vulnerability in MSN
get, and how to get them. It all depends on how many Messenger that was recognized in December 2001,
people you send this message to. You are required to for which Microsoft created a patch in early Febru-
send this email to the address below to receive your first ary 2002. “Cool Worm,” meanwhile, had been able
10 CDs. Cyberpromotions@n2music.com In addition, to capitalize on the weakness, prompting widespread
you get another CD for every person you forward this criticism of the delay between problem recognition
to. For example, if you send this to Cyber Promotions, and remediation. Analysts warn that any Internet
along with 10 of your friends, you would receive a total messenger service is a natural target for HACKERS and
of 20 CDs. Remember to sent this to Cyber Promotions virus writers, facilitating rapid spread of new viruses
or you WON’T RECEIVE YOUR CDS!! We will email across the country and around the world.
you back promptly asking for your CD selections.
Again, thank you for your participation!!
COTTON, Ronald: exonerated by DNA evidence
Richard Douche In July 1984, two female residents of Burlington,
President, Cyber Promotions North Carolina, were attacked in separate incidents
by a serial rapist who invaded their apartments, cut
telephone lines, and afterward looted their homes of
“COOL Video” Promotion: Internet hoax cash and other valuables. Suspect Ronald Cotton
As with most Internet hoaxes, this e-mail, posted for was arrested on August 1, 1984, after one victim
the first time in May 1999, offers a reward of sorts identified his photograph, then picked him from a
for dispersing copies of the original message. In this police lineup. Charged with one of the rapes, Cotton
case, it is fair to say that the laugh is on those duped was tried in January 1985. Prosecutors noted that a
into playing the game. The message reads (with flashlight found in his home “resembled” one carried
errors uncorrected): by the rapist, and that rubber from his tennis shoes
was “consistent” with evidence found at the crime
OK here’s the deal, this works. I don’t know how . . . scene. Jurors convicted him on one count each of
but it works, you have to send it (this) to no less than rape and burglary.
11 people. Some how, from the return path generated, North Carolina’s Supreme Court overturned that
you’ll receive . . . something, and it is funny!!!! conviction on appeal, because the trial judge had
This is the coolest thing I’ve ever gotten! All you excluded testimony that the rapist’s second victim
have to do is send it to 11 people and this little video had selected a different suspect from a police lineup.
comes up on your screen and shows the funniest clip. i Prior to Cotton’s second trial, the alternative sus-
can’t tell you what it is but i was laughing so hard! So pect—already imprisoned for similar crimes—admit-
spend a few seconds to send this and you’ll be glad you ted to a cellmate that he was guilty of the Burlington
did! thanks! attacks. Cotton’s new trial judge refused to admit the
convict’s statement into evidence, and Cotton was
convicted again—of both rapes, this time—in
“COOL Worm”: computer worm virus November 1987. Cotton received a sentence of life
Initially reported in February 2002, the “Cool for the rapes, plus 54 years on two counts of bur-
Worm”—also known as “Menger” and “JS Exploit- glary. The verdict was affirmed on appeal in 1988.
Messenger”—is a computer worm virus spread New lawyers took over Cotton’s case six years
via the MSN Messenger instant messaging (IM) later, filing a motion for DNA testing that was granted
service. While not judged particularly dangerous in in October 1994. Semen samples from one victim
itself, it was viewed by analysts as a possible had deteriorated beyond the point of testing, but
precursor to more destructive worms designed to samples from the second excluded Ronald Cotton as
attack and spread through IM systems on the Inter- a suspect in May 1995, while matching samples from
net. As in the case of many other worms and the imprisoned alternative suspect found in the State

66
CREDIT Card Fraud

Bureau of Investigation’s DNA database. Cotton was selves, or else buy stolen cards from a motley collec-
released from prison on June 30, 1995, and par- tion of pickpockets, muggers, purse-snatchers, and
doned by the governor in July. The pardon made him burglars. Next, in order to use a stolen card, the
eligible for $5,000 in state compensation, based on a swindler or an accomplice was required to physically
1948 statute granting $500 for each year of wrongful present the card for purchase of merchandise, risking
incarceration up to a maximum of 10 years. His arrest if its theft had been reported to police or credit
attorneys thus far have been unsuccessful in their agencies. Today, technology has minimized those
efforts to secure passage of new legislation granting risks and made the process simpler for prospective
increased compensation. thieves. Indeed, cyberbandits no longer need to see a
credit card, much less steal it, before they launch
illicit spending sprees.
CRACKER Barrel Giveaway: Internet hoax Credit (and debit) card fraud is huge business in
Reported for the first time in November 2000, this modern America. Visa Corporation reported a $490
on-line hoax pretends to be a sales promotion for the million loss from such crimes in 1997, while report-
Cracker Barrel chain stores, but in fact has no con- ing that the rate of fraud had dropped from previous
nection to that company. Such items have become so years. Gregory Regan, special agent in charge of the
abundant on the Internet that the U.S. Department of U.S. Secret Service’s financial crimes division, calls
Energy’s HOAXBUSTERS website was moved to specu- credit card fraud “the bank robbery of the future.”
late “if these are actually hoaxes or are the latest Unlike Jesse James and John Dillinger, however,
advertising gimmick.” In either case, no such give- modern credit card thieves utilize high technology to
away program has been acknowledged or sanctioned execute their crimes from a safe distance—sometimes
by Cracker Barrel. The hoax message reads: the far side of the world.
A wide range of devices presently in use permits
My name is Junior Johnson, founder of Cracker Barrel. cyberthieves—dubbed “carders”—to steal numbers
In an attempt to get out name out to more people in the from credit cards and users they have never seen.
rural communities where we are not currently located, HACKERS penetrate Internet databases to download
we are offering a $50 gift certificate to anyone who for- credit card information on customers by the thou-
wards this email to 9 of their friends. Just send this sands, while others spy on Internet orders and lift the
email to them and you will receive an email back with a numbers in transit from nonsecure websites. Elec-
confirmation number to claim your gift certificate. tronic devices attached to telephone lines can record
and translate credit card numbers transmitted via
Sincerely, tones from touch-tone phones. At the relatively crude
Junior Johnson end of the scale, “skimmers” planted in various com-
Founder of Cracker Barrel mercial enterprises (restaurants, department stores,
gas stations, etc.) use electronic scanners to record
Hey guys, coded data from the magnetic strips of credit cards
DON’T DELETE THIS EMAIL used for legitimate purchases. Once the credit card
It really works, I tried it and got my Gift certificate number and expiration date are recorded, the data
confirmation number in 3 minutes. may be sold, traded, or simply used by individual
thieves to order merchandise on-line, without ever
The anonymous postscript notwithstanding, no presenting the card itself for examination. If all else
such gift certificates are offered for this scheme. As fails, software available on-line permits carders to
with similar hoaxes, the mechanism by which use algorithms employed by various credit compa-
Cracker Barrel might confirm the dispersal of e-mails nies to manufacture counterfeit cards in the name of
remains unexplained. fictitious customers.
Computer technology also facilitates mass trans-
actions involving thousands of credit card numbers
CREDIT Card Fraud in a single deal. Where old-fashioned thieves would
In the “old days”—that is, prior to the late 1980s have required a suitcase to carry 100,000 stolen
and the advent of Internet “e-commerce”—credit credit cards, the same number of stolen or counter-
card swindlers were required to steal cards them- feit numbers may be swiftly transmitted via e-mail,

67
CREDIT Card Fraud

or stored for future use on compact disks. “Virgin” rule applies to debit cards only if customers report a
numbers—i.e., those not previously used in fraudu- card’s loss within two business days of realizing it is
lent transactions, may demand a higher price. CAR- gone. After that, the customer’s liability increases to
LOS FELIPE SALGADO JR., a carder arrested in May $500 for the next 60 days. Any customer failing to
1997, pleaded guilty to multiple felony counts after report bogus debits beyond 60 days from the date a
attempting to sell a CD-ROM with 100,000 stolen card was lost or stolen faces potential bankruptcy, as
credit card numbers to an undercover FBI agent. At he or she may lose the full contents of the checking
that, he might have escaped law enforcement’s account, plus any overdraft line of credit in place to
attention—as many others do—if he had resisted prevent checks from bouncing. By the time a careless
the urge to boast of his ongoing scam in various customer notices the illicit withdrawals—particularly
Internet chat rooms, confessing to strangers that he if they come in small, irregular amounts—it may
had sold hundreds of credit card numbers for five already be too late. Thus far, only California has
dollars apiece. passed legislation imposing a statutory $50 cap on
Federal law in the United States limits consumer consumer liability for debit card fraud.
liability to $50 in the case of fraudulent credit card Telephone calling card numbers are stolen in the
transactions, but the rules are different for debit same manner as credit and debit card numbers, by
cards, which allow direct withdrawals from a cus- means ranging from high technology to time-hon-
tomer’s personal checking account. The $50 stop-loss ored “shoulder surfing” (peering over a caller’s

The Internet has made credit card fraud much simpler for prospective thieves, allowing them to commit their crimes
from a safe distance.

68
CRINER, Roy Wayne

shoulder as he or she dials in the number). Unlike


“phreaks” who use BLUE BOXES and other devices to
cheat telephone companies, card thieves bill their
calls to real-life customers—again, with the risk that
brief calls to “normal” numbers (as opposed to
hours-long chats with a friend in Moscow or Sri
Lanka) may go unnoticed for months on end.
The best form of security against credit or debit
card fraud is personal attention to bank statements
and monthly billings. Some credit card companies
routinely alert their customers if charges are made
from an unusual location or using a long-dormant
card, but most accept charges as genuine unless a
customer complains.

CRINER, Roy Wayne: exonerated by DNA evidence


On September 27, 1986, 16-year-old Deanna Ogg
was raped, then beaten and stabbed to death in
Montgomery County, Texas. Police initially described
the missing murder weapon as a tire tool, but the
implement was never found. An informer’s statement
led detectives to Roy Criner, a 21-year-old logger Roy Criner, left, embraces his father after his release
from New Caney. Murder charges were filed, then from the Montgomery County jail in Conroe, Texas. After
dismissed in the absence of a weapon, leaving Criner he had spent a decade behind bars, his conviction was
to face a lesser charge of aggravated sexual assault. debunked by DNA evidence. He was released in advance of
At trial in 1990, three witnesses claimed Criner an expected pardon by then-governor George W. Bush. (AP)
had boasted of raping a hitchhiker whom he threat-
ened with a screwdriver. Police now changed their
description of the murder weapon, deeming Ogg’s
wounds “consistent with” a screwdriver—but no the semen evidence was meaningless, since Criner
blood was found on a screwdriver confiscated from might have worn a condom and Ogg was “known to
Criner’s pickup truck in 1986. Tire tracks from the be promiscuous,” presumably engaging in sex with
crime scene failed to match Criner’s vehicle, and a several partners each day.
pubic hair found on Ogg’s body matched neither the That strange decision touched off a firestorm of
victim nor Criner. Still, jurors were convinced by tes- media criticism, spearheaded by the Houston Press.
timony that Criner’s blood type matched semen sam- Another DNA test was performed in 2001, on saliva
ples lifted from Ogg’s corpse. Upon conviction, recovered from a cigarette butt at the crime scene.
Criner received a 99-year prison sentence. (Criner was a nonsmoker.) DNA from the saliva
DNA testing, performed by a private laboratory in matched the semen found on Ogg’s corpse, thereby
1997, determined that Criner was not the source of eliminating any theory of consensual sex at some ear-
semen found on Ogg’s body in 1986. Montgomery lier time. Montgomery County District Attorney
County prosecutors requested a second test by the Mike McDougal recommended clemency to the
Texas Department of Public Safety’s crime lab and Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles on July 28,
obtained the same result. District Judge Michael 2001. The 18-member board voted unanimously to
Mayes sent Criner’s case to the Texas Court of Crim- approve the petition, and Governor George Bush
inal Appeals with recommendations for a new trial, announced his intent to pardon Criner on August 14,
but appellate judge Sharon Keller rejected the motion 2001. As for Ogg’s murderer, her brother James sug-
in May 1998, ruling that “overwhelming direct gested to reporters, “They ought to pull in everybody
evidence” proved Criner’s guilt. Keller cited no such [who knew Deanna] and say, ‘DNA test on every-
evidence to support her judgment, but suggested that one.’ They will find the person.” To date, no such

69
CRUZ, Rolando

effort has been undertaken in Montgomery County Dugan’s story fictitious and inadmissible on Septem-
and the case remains unsolved. ber 5, 1986—but prosecutors dismissed all charges
against Buckley six months later, releasing him on
March 5, 1987.
CRUZ, Rolando: exonerated by DNA evidence On January 19, 1988, the Illinois Supreme Court
Sometime after 1:00 P.M. on February 25, 1983, 10- overturned the convictions of Cruz and Hernandez,
year-old Jeanine Nicario was kidnapped from her ordering new and separate trials for the pair. On
home in Naperville, Illinois. Authorities found her September 2, 1989, over prosecution objections,
two days later, raped and bludgeoned to death in a Judge Edward Koval ruled the Dugan confessions
wooded area of DuPage County, four miles from her admissible at retrials of Cruz and Hernandez, but it
home. On May 8, 1983, 19-year-old Rolando Cruz made no difference. Cruz was convicted a second
approached homicide detectives to report alleged time, on February 1, 1990, and again sentenced to
“dream visions” of the murder, thereby presenting death. Jurors failed to reach a verdict on Hernandez
himself as a suspect. Cruz later claimed his state- in May 1990, but his third trial resulted in convic-
ments— which incriminated two acquaintances— tion on May 11, 1991. Instead of death, this time
were motivated by a $10,000 reward offered for Judge John Nelligan sentenced Hernandez to 80
information on the case. The plan backfired on years for murder, 20 years for kidnapping and 12
March 8, 1984, when he was arrested along with 21- years for residential burglary, making the terms con-
year-old Stephen Buckley and 20-year-old Alejandro current.
Hernandez. Held in lieu of $3 million bond, each of The Illinois Supreme Court upheld Cruz’s second
the trio faced 12 charges, including multiple counts conviction on December 4, 1992, then reversed itself
of murder, rape, deviate sexual assault, aggravated and ordered a new trial on July 14, 1994, finding
liberties with a child, aggravated kidnapping, home that the second trial court made errors in the admis-
invasion, and residential burglary. sion and exclusion of evidence. An appellate court
Detective John Sam resigned from the DuPage granted Hernandez a new trial on January 30, 1995,
County Sheriff’s Department in December 1984, citing jury misconduct and Judge Nelligan’s failure
voicing doubts about the three defendants’ guilt, but to disclose the problem. New evidence was revealed
his superiors remained confident. Prosecutors ille- on September 24, 1995, when results from a DNA
gally withheld Cruz’s “dream vision” statement from test excluded Rolando Cruz as Jeanine Nicario’s
defense attorneys, but introduced it as evidence at rapist. The same test found that Brian Dugan
trial, in January 1985. Several witnesses were called “shared DNA traits” with semen samples from the
to testify that Cruz and Hernandez had admitted prosecution’s rape kit. Cruz was acquitted on
intimate knowledge of the crime, while defense attor- November 3, 1995, after police lieutenant James
neys failed to pursue their alibis. Jurors convicted Montesano recanted his prior testimony and admit-
Cruz and Hernandez on February 22, 1985, but ted lying under oath about Cruz’s “dream vision”
failed to reach a verdict on Buckley. On March 15, statement. Charges against Hernandez were
1985, Judge Edward Koval sentenced Cruz and Her- dropped on November 17, 1995, while a special
nandez to die. prosecutor was appointed to investigate official mis-
Authorities were surprised on November 8, 1985 conduct in the case.
when confessed serial killer Brian Dugan, already DuPage County Sheriff Richard Doria announced
charged in two other Illinois murders, admitted in June 1996 that an internal investigation revealed
killing Jeanine Nicario himself, without no evidence of perjury by any of his officers, Lt.
accomplices. Eleven days later, Dugan received two Montesano’s sworn admission notwithstanding. A
consecutive life sentences for the slayings of a seven- grand jury was convened to study the case, and in
year-old girl and a 27-year-old nurse. On March 28, December 1996 it returned a 47-count indictment
1986, the Chicago Lawyer published an article against Montesano and three other detectives, along
claiming that DuPage County authorities believed with three former prosecutors. The so-called
Dugan guilty of Nicario’s murder, but the state “DuPage Seven” were acquitted on all counts in
attorney’s office denied the report, calling Dugan’s 1999, prompting critics to describe the verdict as a
confession a hoax. Judge Robert Nolan, presiding “whitewash.” The Nicario murder remains officially
over Stephen Buckley’s retrial, officially ruled unsolved today.

70
CYBERANGELS

CULT of the Dead Cow: hacker syndicate website with such screen names as “Suicidal
Reportedly organized in 1984 and based at Lubbock, Amoeba,” “Drunkfux,” “The Nightstalker,” “Deth
Texas, the HACKER syndicate known as the Cult of Vegetable,” “DilDog,” and “Myles Long.”
the Dead Cow (cDc) describes itself as “a leading
developer of Internet privacy and security tools”
whose goal is “to create and promote technologies CYBERANGELS: volunteer opponents of Internet harassment
that provide ordinary computer users with compre- Organized by Curtis Sliwa’s Guardian Angels in
hensive online privacy solutions.” Furthermore, its 1995, as a private remedy to the modern epidemic of
stated mission “is to eliminate the abuse of Internet CYBERSTALKING and Internet harassment, Cyberangels
privacy that is rampant in the United States and is a nonprofit group staffed entirely by volunteers,
throughout the world.” Critics argue that such including some 9,000 members in 74 nations. The
noble-sounding aims are simply a cover for old-fash- organization’s website receives an average of 500 to
ioned hacking, and they support their claim by not- 600 daily complaints involving on-line threats, mali-
ing the cDc’s 1998 release of a program dubbed cious rumors, and other forms of harassment. About
“BackOrifice,” which seemed to place invasive “Tro- 20 percent of those incidents involve students, rang-
jan” technology within the grasp of relatively ing from elementary school to the university level,
unskilled Internet users, permitting stealthy invasion with complaints including reference to racial slurs,
of systems running Windows 95 or Windows 98 individual death threats, and “hit lists” mimicking
technology. the Columbine High School massacre of April 1999.
The “cult,” meanwhile, pleads innocence of any In its first three years of operation, Cyberangels
sinister design. In November 2000, responding to received excellence awards from various on-line
exposure of the FBI’s Web-surfing Carnivore soft- organizations including The Widow’s Web, the Fam-
ware, the cDc offered “a helping hand in America’s ily Friendly Site, the Crete (Illinois) Police Depart-
time of need,” announcing “an ongoing effort to cre- ment, Cops Online, Skylight Productions (Award for
ate and deploy best-of-breed electronic surveillance Peace, 1997), Saving Our Children-United Mothers,
software.” Hacker “Oxblood Ruffin,” self-described the Oregon State Police, and WHOA! (Women Halt-
“foreign minister” of the cDc, declared in an Internet ing Online Abuse). At the same time, however, the
posting: “This will be better than other available group was criticized by Wired magazine for its
tools. We wish to provide infrastructure as part of a “gung-ho moralism” and alleged use of illegal
successful, multi-layered pyramidal cybercrime strat- search-and-seizure methods, including banned down-
egy. Our system will provide information to help fed- loading and trading in CHILD PORNOGRAPHY to entrap
eral prosecutors determine their legal strategy before suspected pedophiles.
anyone is tried or even indicted.” That picture changed in late 1998, when New Jer-
Satire or simple foolishness? A partial answer may sey attorney Parry Aftab took over as the volunteer
lie in yet another cDc communiqué, wherein the executive director for Cyberangels, giving the outfit a
group “declared war” on the Church of Scientology. major face-lift. Aftab described the change for Wired
That broadside read in part: News in March 2000: “Even their logo was dark and
undercover, these eyes staring out at you and funny-
We believe that El Ron Hubbard is actually none other looking wings. Now we’re all angels and hugs. Of
than Heinrich Himmler of the SS, who fled to course, meanwhile, we’re doing undercover work
Argentina and is now responsible for the stealing of with Customs to catch child pornographers.” FBI
babies from hospitals and raising them as “super-sol- spokesmen describe Aftab’s revamped Cyberangels
diers” for the purpose of overthrowing the U.S. Fed. as “an invaluable resource to law enforcement,”
Govt. in a bloody revolution. We fear plans for instrumental in the arrest and conviction of “at least
a “Fourth Reich” to be established on our home three child predators” by early 2000.
soil under the vise-like grip of oppression known as Cyberangels volunteers do not confine their
Scientology! efforts to on-line pedophiles, however. Most of the
complaints received involve cyberstalking in the form
Such antics aside, no identified members of the of threats or rumors posted by minors and targeting
cDc have been prosecuted to date. Associates of the classmates. Cyberangels specialized in stripping
group, while never publicly named, appear on its Internet stalkers of their treasured anonymity, expos-

71
CYBERCRIME

ing their real-world identities to victims, school computer crime occurred in 1966. Today, law
administrators—and to law enforcement agencies in enforcement agencies and civilian watchdog groups
areas where Internet harassment is a criminal in the U.S. alone receive yearly complaints number-
offense. Director Aftab describes cyberstalking as ing in the tens of thousands. Cybercrimes evolve as
“really a stupid thing to do.” For the record, Aftab rapidly as new technology, spurred on by the dark
notes, “People who do this all think they’re anony- side of the human imagination, but a representative
mous and they’re wrong. Everybody is traceable on- sampling would include the following offenses:
line.”
Threats of schoolyard violence in America are Hacking Whether performed by bored, preco-
taken seriously, Aftab notes: “You have to treat every cious teenage “nerds” or sophisticated gangs
threat as real and pass it on to law enforcement.” In akin to organized crime, the illicit penetration
an age when even joking about weapons may pro- of corporate or government computer systems
duce suspension or expulsion from public schools, by unauthorized outsiders today is viewed as a
Internet “jokers” of dubious taste are advised to significant threat to national and global com-
think twice before testing their right to free speech in munications infrastructures. “Idealistic” hack-
cyberspace. A collateral Cyberangels program, ers deny any interest in monetary gain and
dubbed Teen Angels, enlists local teenage volunteers insist their penetrations are designed to preserve
to counsel their peers on the dangers of posting “freedom of information,” but purely merce-
threats and rumors on-line. nary hackers—sometimes dubbed crackers to
On March 29, 2000, Cyberangels joined the emphasize their criminal motives—dedicate
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural themselves to large-scale theft of cash, confi-
Organization (UNESCO) in hosting a Kids Interna- dential information, and the like. Another
tional Summit at the New York City Police Museum. problem area, described by computer aficiona-
The all-day event launched “Wired Kids,” the official dos as “darkside hacking,” involves deliberate
website of UNESCO’s North American “Innocence cybervandalism by such perpetrators as the
in Danger” program, educating children and their “LEGION OF DOOM” and its rivals from the
parents to some of the dangers found lurking on-line. “MASTERS OF DECEPTION.”
Cyberangels may be accessed for further information Theft of cash In 1994 a Russian hacker named
or to file complaints at http://www.cyberangels.org/ VLADIMIR LEVIN stole more than $10 million
stalking/. from Citibank Corporation without ever setting
foot in the United States. Internet transfers of
cash and securities between banks and other
CYBERCRIME: computer-related crime and punishment financial institutions are routine today, subject
Rapid advances in computers since the 1980s, cou- to interference and diversion by cyberbandits
pled with the advent of the Internet, have created who invade corporate systems, steal passwords
new frontiers for lawbreakers and law enforcement and bank account numbers, and divert huge
alike. Computer-related or -assisted crimes vary sums to accounts under their own control.
widely, from personal intimidation and petty vandal- Techniques such as “lapping” (employee diver-
ism to multimillion-dollar thefts affecting giant cor- sion of incoming cash to a bogus account) and
porations and espionage on a global scale. Even “kiting” (use of normal delays in processing
murder, the ultimate crime, may be facilitated by the financial transactions to create the appearance
World Wide Web—as demonstrated in 2001 by the of assets where none exist) victimize financial
case of JOHN EDWARD ROBINSON, a.k.a. “Slavemas- institutions from within. Another form of inter-
ter,” billed in media reports as the first Internet serial nal theft, nicknamed “salami slicing,” occurs
killer. when employees shave small sums from numer-
Computer crime is not a new phenomenon, by any ous sources (as in the case of a computer opera-
means. The first record of a computer-related crime tor for a New York garment-making firm, who
dates from 1958, and 374 cases of “computer abuse” stole two cents from the federal income tax
were logged by 1976 (including four instances of withheld on each coworker’s weekly paycheck).
frustrated owners shooting their own computers, Automatic teller machines (ATMs), meanwhile,
two “fatally”). The first federal prosecution of a lose an estimated $200 million per year to vari-

72
CYBERCRIME

ous frauds. At the same time, Internet CREDIT authorities. Florida resident MICHAEL PITELIS
CARD FRAUD, involving theft or counterfeiting of was arrested in August 2000 for attempting to
credit and debit card numbers by the hundreds extort $1 million from a Massachusetts corpo-
of thousands, levies a staggering toll against ration, threatening to expose software secrets.
various financial institutions. The problem’s The same month, Kazakhstan native OLEG
gravity may be judged by Visa Corporation’s ZEZOV was charged with blackmailing the
report for 1997, listing losses of $490 million as Bloomberg financial news company for
an improvement over previous years. $200,000. In May 2001 Russian operator
“Phreaking” Akin to hackers, both in spirit and Alexei Ivanov (see VASILY GORSHKOV) faced
technique, “phreakers” are those who employ charges of victimizing firms across the U.S. with
various devices (such as the classic “BLUE BOX”) similar threats.
to cheat telephone companies on long-distance Bootlegging and piracy Lumped together by U.S.
calls. Once again, some “purists” profess to prosecutors as “intellectual property theft,”
regard their efforts as a blow for freedom of these offenses include any unauthorized dupli-
communication, while others unapologetically cation and/or distribution of copyrighted mate-
turn a profit on sale of charge-evasion devices rial. The items most often bootlegged include
and stolen calling numbers. Precise figures for computer software, motion pictures, and music,
losses from telephone fraud are unavailable, but but any material covered by U.S. or interna-
industry spokespersons suggest that long-dis- tional copyrights and patents is likewise subject
tance fraud costs the industry between $4 bil- to misappropriation. Profit motives were once
lion and $8 billion yearly; all forms of considered essential for prosecution of such
telecommunications fraud combined may top cases, but enactment of the No Electronic Theft
$15 billion per year, with wireless fraud alone (NET) Act on December 16, 1997, criminalized
exceeding $1 billion. software piracy and other forms of bootlegging
“Data diddling” Employed in a variety of set- whether the items were sold or given away as a
tings, this technique involves manipulation or “public service.”
falsification of computer data for personal Malicious programming Since the 1980s, thou-
profit or other illegal motives. One case, sands of computer VIRUSES and worms have
reported in 1997, involved crackers who pene- been unleashed upon the Internet by program-
trated the computers of maritime insurance mers around the world. Some are benign, with
companies, inserting registration data for non- no more impact on their host computers than a
existent ships and purchasing large insurance brief, amusing video display, while others—like
policies on the mythical vessels, then “sinking” “MELISSA” and the “CODE RED” virus—cause
them to collect the payoffs. global damage to corporate and personal com-
Extortion and/or blackmail As before the inven- puters estimated in the billions of dollars. Cer-
tion of computers and the Internet, these crimes tain nations seem to spawn a disproportionate
involve coercion of tribute payments to prevent number of virus writers—160 separate viruses
some threatened action by the extortionist or were traced to Bulgaria alone between 1989
blackmailer. As early 20th-century racketeers and 1993—but no part of the world is presently
sold “protection” (from themselves) to fright- immune. Almost as numerous are hoaxes, cir-
ened neighborhood merchants, so cyberthugs culated on the Web by pranksters with too
victimize individuals or corporations via e-mail much free time on their hands. While most
and the World Wide Web. On June 2, 1996, the malicious programs are broadcast at random,
Times (London) reported that various banks often in the form of infected e-mail attach-
and investment firms in the U.S. and Britain ments, some are written with more specific tar-
had “secretly paid ransom to prevent costly gets in mind. Corporate victims fall prey most
computer meltdown and a collapse in confi- often to disgruntled past or present employees,
dence among the customers.” None of the while government computer systems may be
threats—said to emanate from cyberterrorists targeted by foreign agents or domestic activists.
in America and Russia—or the payoffs (up to “Logic bombs”—destructive codes that lie dor-
£13 million per incident) had been reported to mant within a computer until triggered by a

73
CYBERCRIME

specific signal—have been found within the sys- no federal law banned production or sale of
tems of several U.S. agencies. (At that, federal child pornography prior to 1977, with “chil-
spokesmen estimate that they detect no more dren” legally defined in 1984 as any person
than 10 percent of all attempted intrusions per below the age of 18 years. Further U.S. legisla-
year.) tion has since been enacted to ban advertise-
Espionage Whether corporate or political, spying ment of child pornography (1986); use of
has been facilitated by the Internet. In 1986, a computers to transmit, sell, or receive child
systems administrator at the Lawrence Berkeley pornography (1988); possession of three or
Laboratory in California discovered that crack- more images depicting sex with children
ers from “Chaos,” a West German group, had (1990); inducement of minors to participate in
hijacked the computer account of a former child pornography (1996); and possession of
employee and used it to steal U.S. military data any image that appears to depict sex with chil-
for sale to the Soviet KGB intelligence agency. dren, even when the models are adults “mor-
Three members of “Chaos” were indicted on phed” with computer graphics to resemble
espionage charges, while a fourth died mysteri- children or where “virtual children” are
ously. The survivors were convicted at trial in depicted without use of live models (1996). The
1990, receiving prison terms of 20 months to latter provision is especially controversial fac-
five years, with fines totaling $9,000. Eight ing determined legal attacks from artists and
years later, a group calling itself the “Masters of civil libertarians who maintain that nonexistent
Downloading/2016216” claimed to have cracked children have no rights and cannot suffer harm.
the Pentagon’s communications system, stealing To date, despite prosecution of some notorious
software for a military satellite system and defendants—including teachers, ministers,
threatening its sale to terrorists, but the threat judges, and other public officials—legislation
was never realized. Worldwide, various corpora- seems largely ineffective at curbing child
tions are constantly on guard against attempts pornography, particularly that which is pro-
to penetrate computer systems and steal finan- duced outside the United States.
cial records, lists of customers, proprietary soft- “Mousetrapping” Designed to create a literal
ware, or other valuable secrets. captive audience for otherwise unwelcome
Cyberstalking Most of the crimes discussed so advertising, “mousetrapping” involves the cre-
far are financially or politically motivated, tar- ation of alluring websites with built-in snares
geting government or commercial institutions, that prevent on-line visitors from escaping once
but cyberstalking is uniquely personal. As mali- they log on to the site. While any type of adver-
cious individuals in daily life stalk celebrities, tisement may be used in mousetrapping, the
family members, ex-lovers, and former friends, more objectionable forms—especially on sites
harassing their targets with phone calls and let- that lure minors with promised images of rock
ters or worse, so their counterparts in cyber- stars or other celebrities—are those for gam-
space spew venom on-line. E-MAIL BOMBING is bling, lotteries, pornography and psychics. The
one common harassment technique, the target undisputed king of American mousetrapping,
inundated with hundreds or thousands of Pennsylvania operator JOHN ZUCCARINI, has
unwanted messages, sometimes including per- reportedly earned millions from his many web-
sonal threats. Other forms of cyberstalking may sites, while logging more than 60 lawsuits from
include posting of personal data or photos at the Federal Trade Commission. Visitors to Zuc-
large on the Web (as in the Wanted posters uti- carini’s websites (and their many copycats) are
lized by some ANTIABORTION GROUPS to intimi- unable to escape by any normal combination of
date physicians) or hacking of personal keystrokes, bombarded meanwhile by a rapid-
computers with malicious intent. CYBERANGELS, fire barrage of advertisements displayed as indi-
a civilian volunteer group committed to oppos- vidual “windows.”
ing on-line stalkers, reports an average of 650 Identity theft This offense differs from simple
complaints per day on its website year-round. credit card theft in both its scope and potential
Child pornography and solicitation While child damage to the victim. Felons who obtain suffi-
molestation is a crime in every U.S. jurisdiction, cient personal data about an intended target,

74
CYBERCRIME

whether from on-line sources or primitive prices of worthless stocks before they are sold)
“dumpster diving,” are often able to create and “cybersmear” campaigns that deflate stock
their own persona with someone else’s name, prices by attacking a company’s reputation. In
Social Security number, and other vital informa- extreme cases, such activities not only defraud
tion. While certain bizarre cases of celebrity traders and damage individual companies, but
impersonators rank among the most notorious may also affect the stock market as a whole.
incidents of identity theft—a West Indian immi- Cyberfraud allegations are heard by the Inter-
grant spent years posing as the son of comedian net Fraud Complaint Center, a joint operation
Bill Cosby—middle-class victims suffer the of the FBI and the Justice Department’s
greatest damage. In one egregious case, the ex- National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C).
convict impostor ran up more than $100,000 in
credit card debts, obtained a federal home loan, Because all law enforcement is reactive, the U.S.
and purchased high-ticket items ranging from federal response to cybercrime has naturally lagged
guns and motorcycles to houses before filing behind illicit innovations in the field. Today, most
bankruptcy, all in his victim’s name. The cases are handled by the Justice Department’s Com-
offender also tormented his victim with mock- puter Crime and Intellectual Property Section
ing telephone calls, immune from federal prose- (CCIPS), consisting of some two dozen U.S. attor-
cution since no statute then penalized identity neys who concentrate solely on cybercrime issues.
theft. The victim and his wife spent more than Founded in 1991 as the Computer Crime Unit, ele-
$15,000 to restore their credit and good names, vated to “section” status five years later, CCIPS
while the thief escaped with a brief jail term employs prosecutors with expertise in such diverse
(for giving a false name when purchasing a subjects areas as encryption, electronic privacy laws,
firearm) and paid no restitution. The case, and copyrights, e-commerce and hacking. Addressing the
others like it, inspired Congress to pass new leg- U.S. Senate on February 16, 2000, Attorney General
islation on identity theft in 1998. Janet Reno called CCIPS “the cornerstone of our
Internet fraud These crimes occur so frequently prosecutor cybercrime program. Current CCIPS
and evolve so rapidly that no detailed account- responsibilities include:
ing is feasible, but certain broad categories are
worthy of note. On-line auctions generate more Litigating cases This involves not only prosecut-
fraud complaints than any other Internet activ- ing felons charged with violation of relevant
ity, most commonly when buyers bid on some federal statutes, but also filing lawsuits against
valuable piece of merchandise and receive a corporations and organizations deemed liable
counterfeit item or nothing at all. (Losing bid- to civil penalties under prevailing federal law.
ders are also sometimes approached to buy Those penalties may include fines, reimburse-
“surplus” items that never arrive.) Shills are ment of parties damaged by some illegal action,
also frequently employed to create a false and injunctions barring further proscribed
impression of interest in some item and artifi- activities.
cially inflate its price. Retail fraud involves the Training CCIPS spearheads efforts to train local,
same basic scams, including nondelivery or state, and federal agents or prosecutors in the
bait-and-switch techniques. Business opportu- legal aspects of combating cybercrime. It does
nity fraud advertises spurious “work at home” not provide technical training in use of comput-
schemes, generating millions of “spam” e-mail ers or other high-tech devices, however,
messages daily, bilking thousands of gullible although such courses are offered to agents in
respondents for wasted “processing fees.” training at the FBI Academy.
Money laundering, while not a fraud upon the International liaison Confronted with the global
average consumer, uses financial institutions Internet, CCIPS cannot afford a parochial
(and sometimes charities) to “wash” vast sums approach to crime-fighting. Its leaders chair the
including profits from organized crime and for- G-8 Subgroup on High-tech Crime, which
bidden political contributions. Investment maintains a round-the-clock contact point for
fraud includes manipulation of securities via the mutual assistance of investigators fighting
“pump-and-dump” technique (inflating the cybercrime in 15 collaborating nations. CCIPS

75
CYBERSTALKING

also plays a leading role in the Council of delinquent’ as a matter of status, not whether he or
Europe Experts’ Committee on Cybercrime and she is guilty of committing a crime.” A finding of
participates in a similar unit for the Organiza- “delinquency” is therefore not a criminal conviction,
tion of American States in Latin America. On although it may result in confinement, mandatory
November 23, 2001, in Budapest, the U.S. and counseling, and other remedial action. Banning
29 other nations signed the Council of Europe access to computers for a fixed amount of time is
Cybercrime Convention, drafted over a four- common punishment for underage cybercriminals.
year period to facilitate international coopera- As cybercrime has spawned new regulatory agen-
tion among diverse law enforcement agencies. cies, so it has also produced a new breed of defenders
Policy and legislation While it does not have the for those accused. The on-line HACKER’S DEFENSE
final word, CCIPS is tasked with proposing fed- FOUNDATION solicits contributions for those accused
eral policy and legislation in the field of cyber- of computer penetrations, and at least a handful of
crime, accommodating needs of the private attorneys now profess to specialize in defending
sector where possible, and closing loopholes in indicted cyberoutlaws. Oscar Figueroa, a San Fran-
extant legislation, to prevent today’s felons cisco lawyer, promotes himself on-line as “a semantic
from avoiding prosecution tomorrow. warrior committed to the liberation of information,”
specifically inviting clients who are “charged with
One area of heated debate on cybercrime policy committing a computer-related criminal offense, such
involves the handling of juvenile cases. Proliferation as hacking, cracking, phreaking, identity theft, copy-
of personal computers gives millions of children free right infringement or trade of theft secrets [sic].”
access to the Internet, supervised only by parents or Given the government’s increasing preoccupation
guardians who are sometimes overworked, preoccu- with computer-related crimes, it seems unlikely that
pied, or simply negligent. The result may include Figueroa and other champions of the accused will
minors being exposed to sexually explicit material suffer from a shortage of clients in the foreseeable
and gambling websites, or it may go further, spawn- future.
ing criminal activity on the part of precocious young
felons. Stripped of face-to-face interaction with mer-
chants and other business persons, juveniles find CYBERSTALKING: on-line harassment
themselves on a level playing field where Internet In August 1999, U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno
fraud is concerned. Armed with stolen or counterfeit addressed one of America’s newer criminal problems
credit card numbers, available today at bargain in a report to Vice President Al Gore. In reference to
rates, minors can run up huge bills for merchandise. its subject, that document noted—
Telephone fraud also appeals to young “phreakers,”
and many notorious hackers have launched their Although there is no universally accepted definition of
careers during adolescence. Federal investigators cyberstalking, the term is used in this report to refer to
note that “juveniles appear to have an ethical ‘deficit’ the use of the Internet, e-mail, or other electronic com-
when it comes to computer crimes,” citing studies munications devices to stalk another person. Stalking
that reveal 34 percent of university undergraduates generally involves harassing or threatening behavior
freely admitting to software piracy, while 16 percent that an individual engages in repeatedly, such as follow-
admit illegal hacking of computer systems to gain ing a person, appearing at a person’s home or place of
desired information. business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written
Prosecution in such cases is frequently hampered messages or objects, or vandalizing a person’s property.
by statutes limiting the liability and punishment of Most stalking laws require that the perpetrator make a
minors for their crimes. While each state maintains credible threat of violence against the victim; others
its own juvenile code, federal regulations are embod- include threats against the victim’s immediate family;
ied in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preven- still others require only that the alleged stalker’s course
tion Act. Justice spokesmen note that “As a of conduct constitute an implied threat. While some
threshold matter, it is important to note that a juve- conduct involving annoying or menacing behavior
nile proceeding is not the same as a criminal prosecu- might fall short of illegal stalking, such behavior may
tion. Rather it is a proceeding in which the issue to be a prelude to stalking and violence and should be
be determined is whether the minor is a ‘juvenile treated seriously.

76
CYBERSTALKING

After reviewing the report, Vice President Gore and announcing their desire to rape her. The
told reporters, “Make no mistake: this kind of offender was finally arrested, pleading guilty in
harassment can be as frightening and as real as being April 1999 to one count of stalking and three
followed and watched in your neighborhood or in counts of soliciting a sexual assault, the com-
your home.” bined charges making him eligible for six years’
Psychologists maintain that most stalkers, whether imprisonment.
on-line or off, are motivated by a desire to control Massachusetts Prosecutors indicted a man who
their victims. As in cases of domestic violence, most used anonymous Internet remailers to harass
identified offenders are male, the majority of com- and blackmail a female coworker. The messages
plaining victims female. In many cases the parties threatened to reveal the victim’s past sexual
had a prior relationship, and harassment begins activities to her new husband unless she granted
when the victim seeks to break the link. Lack of sexual favors to the stalker. Instead of landing a
physical contact in cyberstalking cases sometimes hot date, he wound up in jail.
makes on-line harassment seem more benign than California An honors graduate from the Univer-
traditional stalking, but such is not always the case. sity of San Diego, convinced that five female
Cyberstalkers may have greater access to a victim’s students had belittled him and caused others to
personal data—with more opportunities to disrupt join in the ridicule, spent 12 months bombard-
personal and professional lives—than a prowler ing his targets with threatening e-mails, some-
dependent on lurking in shadows. At the same time, times four or five messages per victim, each day.
geographical distance is no longer a barrier to After the stalker’s arrest and prior to his guilty
harassment, with swift global access assured by the plea on cyberstalking charges, police deter-
Web. Internet anonymity encourages rash behavior mined that none of the women had ever met
from certain personality types, and as in more tradi- their unbalanced tormentor.
tional cases, cyberstalking may be a prelude to physi- Texas A 55-year-old Longview resident was
cal confrontation. arrested for criminal solicitation in June 2001,
Modern technology opens a world of new possi- after a Yahoo representative told police that
bilities for stalkers as they torment their chosen vic- someone using the suspect’s computer had
tims. Instead of buying stamps and stationery to send posted chat-room pleas for assistance in having
a dozen threatening letters, the cyberstalker can his wife “kidnapped, gang-raped, tortured and
resort to E-MAIL BOMBING, sending thousands of mes- humiliated.” In custody, the suspect confessed
sages for free, in a fraction of the time required to to that offense, citing “long-term marital prob-
scrawl one note on paper. More sophisticated offend- lems,” and also admitted to storing CHILD
ers use custom programs to send messages at regular PORNOGRAPHY on his computer. He was held in
or random intervals, without being physically pres- lieu of $200,000 bond, pending trial.
ent at a computer terminal. Third parties can be
enlisted to join the harassment via Internet chat Such incidents, unfortunately, are on the rise in
rooms or bulletin boards, as where a stalker posts America and around the world. No comprehensive
controversial or alluring messages in the victim’s records of cyberstalking exist today, but some Internet
name, complete with home address, e-mail address, service providers (ISPs) and law enforcement agencies
and/or telephone number. Cases cited in Attorney record complaints received. Nationwide, according to
General Reno’s report include the following: the U.S. Justice Department’s records, 8.2 million
women (one in every 12) and 2 million men (one in
California A 50-year-old ex-security guard in every 45) have been stalked at some time in their lives;
Los Angeles sought revenge on a 28-year-old 1 percent of all American women and .4 percent of
woman who rejected his romantic overtures. American men reported stalking incidents in 1999.
Posing as his victim, the man posted numerous That same year in the U.S., more than 80 million
on-line messages with the woman’s phone num- adults and 10 million children had access to the Inter-
ber and home address, in which “she” detailed net. Roughly applying the statistics of “normal” stalk-
fantasies of being raped. On six separate occa- ing to cyberspace, we may extrapolate nearly 1 million
sions, men inspired by the messages came to the cyberstalking victims in a given year. Indeed, the num-
woman’s home at night, knocking on her door ber may be considerably higher, since 19 percent of

77
CYBERSTALKING

juvenile Internet users surveyed in 2001 had received states had stalking statutes that explicitly cover elec-
at least one unwelcome sexual solicitation within the tronic communications, and the laws in several other
past year. The Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office states are broad enough that cyberstalking may be
reports that e-mail or other electronic communications covered, depending largely on a prosecutor’s whim.
were a factor in 20 percent of some 600 cases handled In other states, however, some kind of physical con-
by its Stalking and Threat Assessment Unit in 1998; frontation may be required for harassment to qualify
an identical percentage of cases handled by the Man- as “stalking” under legal definitions. In those areas,
hattan D.A.’s Sex Crimes Unit also involved cyber- it may be possible to prosecute cyberstalkers under
stalking. Finally, a study on sexual victimization of other statutes—including a variety of state and fed-
female college students, conducted at the University of eral laws that forbid using mail or telephone lines to
Cincinnati in 1996 and 1997, found that 13 percent of transmit threats. One unexpected stumbling block
4,446 women surveyed had experienced stalking inci- for investigators is the federal Cable Communica-
dents, with 25 percent of those offenses ranked as tions Policy Act of 1984, which prohibits disclosure
some variety of cyberstalking. of cable subscriber records to law enforcement with-
Efforts are under way to curb the problem at vari- out a court order and advance notice to the sub-
ous levels. Police need time and funding to acquire scriber. As more individuals utilize cable companies
expertise in all areas of CYBERCRIME, and many as their ISPs, authorities find it difficult (or impossi-
smaller departments are still deficient in computer ble) to secretly investigate certain offenders.
equipment and expertise. The Justice Department’s Internet anonymity poses another complication
1999 survey revealed that a majority of cyberstalking for investigators, available to potential cyberstalkers
victims do not report the harassment to authorities, in two forms. One allows individuals to create a free
often assuming that law enforcement will not take electronic mailbox through a website, and while
them seriously. And indeed, that has been the case in most servers demand identifying information from
some jurisdictions, where victims were advised to users, it is rarely (if ever) authenticated. Where pay-
simply “turn off the computer” or to return and file ment for a mailbox is required, untraceable money
a report if the on-line harassment graduated to phys- orders are gladly accepted, the signature’s validity
ical confrontation. One couple, harassed by Internet irrelevant. Cyberstalkers also use anonymous remail-
postings that offered their nine-year-old daughter for ers, special mail servers that strip identifying infor-
sex, including the family’s telephone number, filed mation and transport headers from e-mail before it is
repeated futile complaints with their local police sent. Near-perfect anonymity can be achieved by for-
department before FBI agents finally stepped in and warding a message serially through several such
arrested the stalker. G-men quickly determined that remailers, until it is effectively untraceable.
the local police had no computer expert on staff and While adult victims of cyberstalking still get short
that the detective assigned to the case had never shrift from some police departments, children are
logged onto the Internet. more aggressively protected on all levels. Federal
As with any other crime that transcends state or authorities eagerly prosecute on-line sexual predators,
national boundaries, cyberstalking creates jurisdic- as do most state and local agencies. The FBI’s Mary-
tional problems for law enforcement. Far-flung land-based initiative dubbed “Innocent Images,”
departments rarely communicate well with each launched in December 1998, secured 232 felony con-
other, and others are divided by bitter rivalry—the victions during the following year. The U.S. Customs
Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department and LAPD Service’s CyberSmuggling Center, housed at Sterling,
being prime examples. Federal intervention is like- Virginia, also has a special unit devoted to cases of
wise resented by many state or local law enforcement Internet child exploitation. In March 1998 the
agencies, who carry grudges over prior instances of National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
high-handed intrusion. If a victim in Manhattan is unveiled a new CyberTipline for leads on child
harassed by a stalker in Connecticut—much less abuse. If all else fails, the volunteer organization
London or Moscow—investigation and solution of CYBERANGELS logs an average 650 complaints of
the case becomes a burden local officers are generally cyberstalking per day on its website, giving top prior-
unequipped to bear. ity to threats against children.
Inadequate legislation is another problem in deal- Even when ill-equipped to deal with cyberstalking,
ing with cyberstalkers. At last count, 16 American most police departments strive to do their best—and

78
CYBERSTALKING

sometimes they accomplish it with irony. In April sender as 38-year-old John Germer, and turned the
2001 a cyberstalker known on-line as “Giblet tables on their nemesis in December 2001, with an e-
Gravy” began harassing the Rowlett, Texas, police mail informing Germer that a warrant had been
department with numerous e-mails. Officers ignored issued for his arrest on misdemeanor harassment
the early messages, until they became increasingly charges. Within hours, Germer’s attorney contacted
vulgar and insulting. Over time they identified the police to arrange his client’s surrender.

79
D
DABBS, Charles: exonerated by DNA evidence musician Dave Matthews to promote another sym-
In the predawn hours of August 12, 1982, a female res- pathy hoax. Veterans of Internet scams will note lan-
ident of Westchester County, New York, was attacked guage very similar to the “A LITTLE GIRL IS DYING”
while walking near her home. A man grabbed her from hoax and others. As usual, the mechanics of the pay-
behind, dragged her into a nearby alley, and shoved her off process are left unexplained, defying the limits of
down a flight of stairs. Upon regaining consciousness, modern computer technology. The message reads
the victim found herself confronted by three men, two (with errors uncorrected):
of whom held her down while the third raped her. She
identified the rapist as Charles Dabbs, a distant cousin. Hi! This is Dave Matthews from The Dave Matthews
The other two assailants were never apprehended. Band. I got America Online just a little while ago and
At trial, prosecutors relied on the victim’s my screenname will be sent to you if you pass this on. I
identification of Dabbs, including references to his get a list of the people who send this to at least another
“distinctive laugh,” and noted that the blood type of 5 people online and my secretary will send all of you
semen stains found on the victim’s clothing matched my screenname. I go online at least once a week. The
Dabbs’s Type O blood. Jurors convicted him of first- reason I am doing this is because this little girl needs
degree rape on April 10, 1984, and Dabbs received a our help and I thought that I could use my fame to
prison term of 12 to 20 years. His conviction was help out this sick little girl. Ok Listen I Just Spent 13
upheld on appeal, but the Westchester County hours Getting Screen Names Just So that I Could Help
Supreme Court granted Dabbs’s request for DNA test- a Little Girl So Read The bottom This isn’t a chain
ing of the evidence on November 21, 1990. A private letter.
laboratory concluded that Dabbs was not the source Ok you guys. . . . This isn’t a chain letter, but a
of semen found on the victim’s clothing, and the choice for all of us to save a little girl that’s dying of a
court acknowledged his innocence on July 31, 1991. serious and fatal form of cancer. Please send this to
The charges were officially dismissed three weeks everyone you know . . . or don’t know at that. This lit-
later, on August 22, 1991. Dabbs was released after tle girl has 6 months left to live, and as her dying wish,
serving seven years of his sentence. she wanted to send a chain letter telling everyone to live
their life to the fullest, since she never will. She’ll never
make it to prom, graduate from high school, or get
DAVE Matthews Chain Letter: Internet hoax married and have a family of her own. But by you send-
Circulated for the first time in September 1999, this ing this to as many people as possible, you can give her
Internet chain letter capitalizes on the fame of pop and her family a little hope, because with every name

81
“DAVINIA”

I
love
y’all!!
Love,
Dave Matthews

As expected, Matthews and his band have dis-


avowed any link to this hoax and no donations to
specific cancer victims are made in any case by the
American Cancer Society. Ironically, the authors of
these copycat hoaxes never seem to note the built-in
contradiction between their claims that “this isn’t a
chain letter” and the “dying wish” of some mythical
child to send a chain letter around the world.

“DAVINIA”: computer worm


An Internet worm virus spread through e-mail mes-
sages using Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft Word
2000, Davinia was reported for the first time in Feb-
ruary 2001. It arrives as an e-mail in HTML format,
with an empty subject line and body, but a script
embedded in the message executes automatically
when the e-mail is displayed, opening a browser
window and downloading a page from the worm’s
Internet site. That page contains another script in
turn, which opens a Microsoft Word document on
Dave Matthews, Internet hoax victim. (Matthew Mendelsohn/ the same website, disabling Microsoft Word 2000
CORBIS)
antivirus protection without the user’s knowledge.
Next, Davinia gains access to the target computer’s
Microsoft Outlook address book and sends infected
e-mails to all addresses listed there. The final pay-
that this is sent to, the American cancer society will
load is delivered after all addresses are exhausted,
donate 3 cents per name to her treatment and recovery
plan. One guy sent this to 500 people!!!! So, I know
when the worm creates a file named littledavinia.vbs
that we can sent it to at least 5 or 6. Come on you in the Windows system directory and proceeds to
guys. . . . And if you’re too damn selfish to waste 10-15 overwrite all hard disk files and installs an HTML
minutes scrolling this and forwarding it to EVERY- page. When activated, the destructive page displays
ONE, (more than one person): you’re one sick puppy, this message:
and two: just think it could be you one day . . . and it’s
not even your $money$, just your time. I know that VBScript: Onel2 - Melilla
ya’ll will impress me!!!! I love y’all!!!!! Hola, tu nombre es <name>.
Another that I am putting money towards is: Tu email es <email address>.
Tamara Martin and she has severe lung cancer due to Yo soy Onel2, y vivo en Melilla
second hand smoke. This chain was a final attempt to una ciudad del norte de Africa.
get her healthy again. Every letter sent gets 6 cents from Estoy enamorado de una chica llamada Davinia.
me. Please send this to 10 people. (by the way for those Ella es la mas guapa del mundo.
who take 2 minutes to send this, what comes around Es como una diosa.
goes around.) Igual que yo me contagie de amor
I am putting a lot of money towards this and thanks de Davinia, tus archivos se van a
to all my fans - contagiar de amor de esta pagina

82
DAYE, Frederick Rene

Davinia(chica) y Davinia(virus) rompen tim’s underwear. Both defendants maintained that


corazones y archivos. they had done nothing while the victim washed her
littledavinia version 1.1 esta en camino . . . clothing, but jurors disbelieved their story. Gerald
Davis was convicted of kidnapping and two counts
of sexual assault, while his father was found guilty of
DAVIS, Chad: hacker “Mindphasr” abduction, first-degree sexual abuse and second-
A 19-year-old resident of Green Bay, Wisconsin, degree sexual assault. Both defendants received
Chad Davis, known on-line as Mindphasr, was prison terms of 14 to 35 years, reduced to a flat 10
described by federal prosecutors as a founder of the years on appeal.
HACKER syndicate known as GLOBAL HELL. He was The defendants gained new hope in 1993, follow-
arrested by FBI agents on August 30, 1999, charged ing revelations that Zain, the police chemist, had
with hacking into a U.S. Army computer system at committed perjury and falsified test results in numer-
the Pentagon in June 1999 and maliciously interfer- ous criminal cases. West Virginia’s Superior Court
ing with military communications, modifying the granted a petition to repeat DNA tests on semen
contents of an army Web page. U.S. Attorney recovered from the victim, and those tests excluded
Thomas Schneider told reporters, “Even though the Gerald Davis as a semen donor. Prosecutors
intrusion involved an unclassified Army computer demanded a second test, this time on Davis’s sheets
network, the intruder prevented use of the system by and underpants, contending that Davis could have
Army personnel. Interference with government com- raped the victim without ejaculating. The new tests
puter systems are not just electronic vandalism, they revealed no trace of the alleged victim’s DNA, and
run the risk of compromising critical information Gerald Davis was released to home confinement on
infrastructure systems.” March 16, 1994, pending retrial. Jurors acquitted
At the time of the Pentagon hack, Davis was him on December 4, 1995, and charges against his
already a suspect in other computer intrusions. FBI father were subsequently dismissed.
agents had executed a search warrant on his Wiscon-
sin home on June 2, 1999, seeking evidence of his
connection to the Global Hell gang. He pleaded DAYE, Frederick Rene: exonerated by DNA evidence
guilty to the Pentagon intrusion on January 4, 2000, On the evening of January 10, 1984, a young
and received a six-month jail sentence on March 1, woman was attacked by two men while leaving a
2000. Davis also received three years’ probation for San Diego, California, drugstore. One assailant
his offense and was ordered to pay restitution in the forced the victim into her own car from the driver’s
amount of $8,054. side, then opened the back door for his accomplice.
Inside the car, the men rifled her purse and stole six
dollars, then removed several articles of jewelry
DAVIS, Gerald Wayne: exonerated by DNA evidence before they ripped off the victim’s clothes and raped
Police in Kanawha County, West Virginia, received a her. Afterward the two men dumped their victim on
rape complaint on February 18, 1986. The alleged a nearby residential street and fled in her car. A wit-
victim claimed she had taken some laundry to be ness to the crime identified the men as Frederick
washed at the home of Gerald Davis, a family friend, Daye and David Pringle, both soon arrested on
who attacked and raped her when she returned for charges of kidnapping, robbery, rape, and auto
the items hours later. According to her statement, theft. The victim identified Daye’s mug shot as a
Davis’s father—Dewey Davis—was also present in likeness of her rapist and picked him out of a lineup
the house but made no effort to assist her during the at police headquarters.
attack. Searching the Davis home, authorities found The defendants were tried separately, with Pringle
a shoe and jacket belonging to the victim. While both pleading the Fifth Amendment from the witness
Davis and his father claimed innocence of any stand at Daye’s trial. Blood typing on a semen stain
wrongdoing, they were jailed on charges of kidnap- from the victim’s clothing matched Daye’s Type B
ping and sexual assault. blood, and prosecutors noted that he had given
At trial, in May 1986, state police chemist FRED police a false name at the time of his arrest. Jurors
ZAIN testified that DNA tests could not exclude Gerald convicted him on August 14, 1984, after deliberating
Davis as a possible source of semen found on the vic- for nearly eight hours. Daye was sentenced to life

83
“DEADMAN”

imprisonment with possible parole on the kidnap- Program too big to fit in memory
ping charge, plus 14 years and eight months on vari- [Napoleon]
ous other counts. David Pringle was convicted in a Copyright © 1998–99 by Deadman [SOS]
later trial and likewise sentenced to prison. An appel-
late court affirmed Daye’s conviction on February
29, 1986, and California’s Supreme Court declined DEAL, Steve See FASTLANE
to review the case.
David Pringle surprised authorities with a confes-
sion to the rape and kidnapping on February 1, “DEATH Ray” Computer Virus: Internet hoax
1990, his statement exonerating Daye and naming With the plethora of computer VIRUSES identified over
another man as his accomplice. The San Diego the past decade, there would seem to be no need for
County Superior Court appointed an attorney to fabricating more out of thin air, but hoaxers still per-
investigate the claim, and while a writ of habeas cor- sist, spreading alarm across the Internet with their
pus was denied on August 11, 1992, the court ruled efforts. The so-called Death Ray virus was initially
that Daye was entitled to new representation. reported by the Weekly World News, a tabloid
Destruction of the original trial evidence was sched- known for its “creative” journalism (including photos
uled for October 1992, but last-minute motions pre- of President Bill Clinton welcoming extraterrestrial
served it for DNA testing, with a $2,000 grant to creatures to the White House). Since the original
complete the procedure. Those tests, completed on “exposure” of this nonexistent virus, thousands of
April 21, 1994, excluded Daye as a source of semen Internet users have been confronted with the follow-
collected from the victim’s clothing following the ing warning, which has no basis whatsoever in reality.
rape. Daye’s conviction was overturned on Septem-
ber 27, 1994, after he had served 10 years of his sen- A deadly new computer virus that actually causes home
tence. computers to explode in a hellish blast of glass frag-
ments and flame has injured at least 47 people since
August 15, horrifying authorities who say millions of
“DEADMAN”: computer viruses people are risking injury, blindness or death every time
The computer virus known as Deadman presently they sit down to work at their PC!
appears in two variant forms, identified respectively “Computer viruses of the past could disable your
in February and June 1999. The original virus is computer, but this virus goes a step further—and can
today known as Deadman.576, described by analysts kill you,” declared Martin Heriden, a computer expert
as a “non-dangerous nonmemory resident parasitic who specializes in identifying computer viruses. “This
virus.” It searches for executable files and writes virus doesn’t carry the usual ‘markers’ that enable it to
itself to the end of any such files discovered. If an be detected. It slips through the cracks, so to speak.
asterisk (*) appears in the file’s command line, Dead- “It is an extremely complicated process. But suffice it
man.576 freezes the infected computer and displays a to say that the virus affects the computer’s hardware, cre-
message reading: ating conditions that lead to dangerous short circuits and
power surges. The end result? Explosions—powerful
It seems to be all right. explosions. And millions of Internet users are at risk.”
*.exe The virus, nicknamed Death Ray by experts like
[FALSE] Heriden, surfaced in England on August 1. A 24-year-
Copyright © 1998–99 by Deadman old college student was permanently blinded when his
15-inch color monitor exploded in his face.
The second variant, known as Deadman.943, is “So how do you protect yourself? I wish I knew,”
described by analysts as a dangerous nonmemory- said Heriden. “You either stop using the Internet or you
resident encrypted parasitic virus. It searches out and take your chances until we can get a handle on this
attaches itself to both command and executable files, thing and get rid of it for good.”
scanning all subdirectories of the infected computer’s
hard drive. It may also erase random sectors from the Efforts to locate “Martin Heriden” are unavailing.
target computer’s C drive and typically displays the Although someone of that name may well exist,
following message: somewhere on earth, no such computer expert has

84
DESIGNER Drugs

been found to date in the United States or Europe. variations of any controlled substance, whether or
He, like the Death Ray virus itself, is presumably a not those variations had yet been imagined or manu-
figment of some practical joker’s fertile imagination. factured.
As with other outlawed drugs, of course, a legisla-
tive ban has done no more than whet the public
DENNIS, Scott D.: computer saboteur appetite while raising prices on the street. The effects
A resident of Anchorage, Alaska, Scott Dennis was of designer drugs vary widely, depending on potency
employed in 1999 as a computer system administra- and the latest recipe employed by their illicit manu-
tor for the U.S. District Court. During December of facturers. Club drugs derived from methylene-
that year, Dennis became disgruntled at a plan to let dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), frequently sold
more users access “Judsys,” a private mail list server as “Ecstasy,” produce feelings of euphoria, but
normally restricted to computer system administra- increased dosages may also generate paranoia,
tors of the U.S. courts. Rather than voice his dis- depression, irrational violence, and hallucinations
pleasure through channels, Dennis decided to launch similar to those produced by LSD. Gamma hydroxy-
a series of “mail bomb” attacks against Judsys and butyrate (GHB), once sold in health food stores as a
its host computer, operated by the U.S. District Court performance-enhancer for body builders, is a central
for the Eastern District of New York. During Decem- nervous system (CNS) depressant abused for its
ber 1999 and January 2000, Dennis flooded Judsys intoxicating effects. When taken in large doses or
with e-mail “spam” on at least five occasions, forc- combined with other CNS depressants such as alco-
ing the host computer to be taken off-line and recon- hol or sedatives, GHB can produce fatal respiratory
figured. depression. Undesirable side effects common to
Despite his efforts to remain anonymous, Dennis many club drug users include hypertension, increased
was traced by federal technicians who identified the heart rate, blurred vision, tremors and seizures,
Internet Protocol (IP) addresses for computers used impaired speech, dehydration, and progressive brain
in the attacks. On April 18, 2000, Dennis was damage. Psychological symptoms of designer drug
indicted for interfering with a government computer. abuse include confusion, irritability, amnesia, insom-
He pleaded guilty on January 19, 2001, and received nia, and severe anxiety. The confusion was evident
a three-month jail sentence, to be followed by three among four thieves at Noblesville, Indiana, on
months’ home confinement and one year of super- August 24, 2001. Intent on stealing the heroin-mimic
vised release. Dennis was also ordered to perform OxyContin from a local pharmacy, the raiders
hours of community service and agreed to let federal instead escaped with oxytocin, a drug used to induce
authorities monitor his computer activity. In addition labor in pregnant women. “I don’t know if they used
to his jail time and probation, Dennis paid $5,300 in any,” Detective Todd Uhrick told reporters. “They
restitution to the New York federal court and ISP were all pretty dumb.”
Internet Alaska. As with any other deviant subculture, designer
drug users apply various street names to their chemi-
cals of choice. Among them are the following:
DESIGNER Drugs
Also widely known as “club” drugs for their preva- MDMA Adam, B-bombs, Bean, Blue kisses, Blue
lence at trendy nightclubs and teenage “rave” par- lips, Crystal, Clarity, Cloud nine, Dead road,
ties, designer drugs are synthetic substances created Debs, Decadence, Dex, Diamonds, Disco bis-
by changing the molecular structure of existing cuits, Doctor, Dolls, Driver, Ecstasy, Essence,
drugs—normally amphetamines or methampheta- Eve, Exiticity, Gaggler, Go, Greenies, Gum
mines, PCP, and fentanyl—to create new drugs with opium, Happy drug, Herbal bliss, Kleenex,
similar or enhanced pharmacological effects. Love drug, Mini beans, Morning shot, Nine-
Designer drugs initially came into vogue as an teen, Rave energy, Ritual spirit, Scooby snacks,
attempt to circumvent the Controlled Substance Act Speed for lovers, Strawberry shortcake, Sweet-
of 1970, which strictly regulated various psychoac- ies, Ultimate Xphoria, Wafers, West Coast turn-
tive drugs (including LSD, amphetamines, and arounds, Wheels, Whiffledust
methamphetamines). A 1986 amendment to that law Fentanyl Apache, China girl, China town, Dance
banned all existing designer drugs and all possible fever, Friend, Goodfellas, Great bear, He-man,

85
DESKTOP Sales, Inc.

Designer drugs are synthetic substances created by changing the molecular structure of existing drugs—normally
amphetamines or methamphetamines, PCP and fentanyl—to create new drugs with similar or enhanced
pharmacological effects.

Jackpot, King ivory, Murder 8, Poison, Tango Nexus (4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenethylamine)


& Cash, TNT Bromo, MFT, Spectrum, Toonies, Venus
Dimethyltryptamine AMT, Businessman’s LSD, Rohypnol Forget me drug, La rocha, Lunch
Businessman’s special, Businessman’s trip, DET, money drug, Mexican Valium, Pingus, R-2,
DMT, Fantasia, 45-minute psychosis Reynolds, Roaches, Roachies, Roofies, Rope,
Alpha-ethyltryptamine Alpha-ET, ET, Love Row-shay, Ruffies, Ruffles, Wolfies
pearls, Love pills, Trip
Methcathinone Bathtub speed, Cadillac express,
Cat, Gaggers, Go-fast, Goob, Qat, Slick super- DESKTOP Sales, Inc.: computer trademark pirates
speed, Somali tea, Star, Stat, The C, Tweeker, A computer hardware firm based in the Chicago sub-
Wild cat, Wonder star urb of Gurnee, Illinois, Desktop Sales pleaded guilty
Ketamine Cat valium, Honey oil, Jet, Ket, Kit on November 19, 1998, to violating federal trade-
kat, Purple, Special “K,” Super acid, Super C, mark laws by distributing computer memory boards
Vitamin K in counterfeit International Business Machine Corp.
GHB Georgia home boy, Grievous bodily harm, (IBM) boxes. As outlined in the federal complaint
Liquid ecstasy, Scoop and plea agreement, Desktop purchased inexpensive

86
DIEKMAN, Jason Allen

computer memory chips and modules used to ject line “Deeyenda,” DO NOT read the message,
upgrade the memory capacity of personal computers, DELETE it immediately!
then packaged them in fake IBM boxes for resale at Some miscreant is sending email under the title
premium prices. Between January 1991 and May “Deeyenda” nationwide, if you get anything like this
1993, Desktop sold approximately 30,000 of the DON’T DOWNLOAD THE FILE! It has a virus that
mislabeled units, earning $11.1 million—a net profit rewrites your hard drive, obliterates anything on it.
of $1.1 million over and above the price obtainable Please be careful and forward this e-mail to anyone you
without counterfeit packaging. care about.
Following acceptance of the guilty plea, U.S. Dis- Please read the message below.
trict Judge Robert Gettleman imposed the maximum
fine on Desktop Sales—a total of $3.3 million, or Alex
triple the firm’s illegitimate profit from sales of the
counterfeit products. U.S. Attorney Scott Lassar ------------
afterward told reporters, “The resolution of this case
ensures that IBM will be made whole for the viola- ----FCC WARNING!!!!!----
tion of its trademark and that the defendant will pay DEEYENDA PLAGUES INTERNET
the maximum fine for illegally infringing that trade-
mark.” IBM vice president and assistant general The Internet community has again been plagued by
counsel D. J. Rosenberg added his vote of confidence another computer virus. This message is being spread
for the prosecution, declaring that “IBM greatly throughout the Internet, including USENET posting,
appreciates the outstanding job done by the Depart- EMAIL, and other Internet activities. The reason for all
ment of Justice in this case. This type of action by the the attention is because of the nature of this virus and
Department is extremely valuable in protecting the potential security risk it makes. Instead of a destruc-
IBM’s trademarks which represent the high quality tive Trojan virus (like most viruses!), this virus referred
and reliability our customers have come to expect.” to as Deeyenda Maddick, performs a comprehensive
By the time its guilty plea was filed in federal court, search on your computer, looking for valuable informa-
Desktop Sales had been reborn as VisionTek. tion, such as email and login passwords, credit cards,
personal inf., etc.
The Deeyenda virus also has the capability to stay
“DEEYENDA” Computer Virus: Internet hoax memory resident while running a host of applications
Yet another mythical virus described in hyperbolic e- and operation systems, such as Windows 3.11 and Win-
mail warnings is “Deeyenda,” said (falsely) to oblit- dows 95. What this means to Internet users is that
erate all files on the hard drive of any infected when a login and password are send to the server, this
computer. The hoax warning’s language is similar to virus can copy this information and SEND IT TO UN
equally spurious alerts broadcast in relation to the UNKNOWN ADDRESS (varies).
nonexistent “GOOD TIMES” virus, suggesting the work The reason for this warning is because the Deeyenda
of a determined joker or a rather unimaginative virus is virtually undetectable. Once attacked your
copycat. Knowledgeable Internet users will be aware computer will be unsecure. Although it can attack any
that the Federal Communications Commission O/S this virus is most likely to attach those users view-
(FCC) does not broadcast computer virus warnings ing Java enhanced Web Pages (Netscape 2.0+ and
and has no responsibility to do so. The usual Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0+ which are running
Deeyenda warning reads as follows (misspellings in under Windows 95). Researchers at Princeton Univer-
the original): sity have found this virus on a number of World Wide
Web pages and fear its spread.
**********VIRUS ALERT********** Please pass this on, for we must alert the general
public at the security risks.
VERY IMPORTANT INFORMATION,
PLEASE READ!
DIEKMAN, Jason Allen: hacker “Shadow Knight”
There is a computer virus that is being sent around the A resident of Mission Viejo, California, 18-year-old
Internet. If you receive an email message with the sub- Jason Diekman launched a series of illegal computer

87
“DIESEL”

intrusions from his home in 1998. His targets expert analysts. Upon infecting a computer, it
included NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in searches system directories and subdirectories for
nearby Pasadena, another NASA computer at Stan- Linux executable files, then writes itself into the mid-
ford University, and “hundreds, maybe thousands” of dle of each file located, thus increasing the file’s size.
computers on university campuses across the United That done, it restores control to the host. Diesel con-
States. At the same time, Diekman used the Internet tains the following text string:
to capture an estimated 500 credit card numbers,
which he used to purchase more than $6,000 worth /home root sbin bin opt
of computer equipment, stereo speakers and clothing. [Diesel: Oil, Heavy Petroleum Fraction Used In Diesel
The operation that blew Diekman’s cover was a Engines]
relatively amateurish tap on a local cable television
provider. Orange County authorities traced Diekman
and charged him with grand theft in that case, but “DION”: computer virus
the charges were expanded when he failed to appear Rated “non-dangerous” by analysts, this memory-
for a July 2000 court hearing. Federal authorities resident, encrypted, parasitic virus was initially dis-
had traced him in the meantime, and he was indicted covered in June 2001. It infects Windows systems,
for his HACKER exploits on July 26, 2000. Local lurking in memory as a hidden service process, and
police nabbed him again August 20, 2000, and Diek- waits to infect various applications as they are run.
man pleaded guilty on charges of theft and failure to As files are infected, Dion creates a .DLL “dropper”
appear, accepting a 75-day jail sentence. He was file in the Windows system directory, identified by a
transferred to federal custody on September 21, name with eight random digits (e.g., 23895741.DLL,
2000, facing felony charges that carried a maximum 09563512.DLL, and so forth). On the 20th day of
sentence of 26 years in prison and a $750,000 fine. each month thereafter, at 8:10 P.M., Dion presents
On November 6, 2000, Diekman pleaded guilty itself with video effects. The first display, at center-
on two hacking charges and one count of using
screen, appears as
unauthorized access devices (the stolen credit card
numbers) to make illegal purchases. As part of that
..::[MUSIC IS LIFE]::..
guilty plea, he admitted causing $17,000 worth of
damages to various NASA computers. The charges
Moments later, a brightly colored “DION” text
carried a maximum sentence of 16 years in federal
appears on the desktop, moving from left to right,
prison. While free on $100,000 bond in that case
border to border, until that text fills the monitor’s
and awaiting sentencing, Diekman involved himself
screen.
in another Internet fraud, inducing three accomplices
to make wire transfers of cash to Diekman via West-
ern Union, charging the amounts to stolen credit
card numbers. FBI agents arrested Diekman on April DIONNE, Diane: software pirate
18, 2001, slapping him with multiple charges of A resident of West Palm Beach, Florida, born April
hacking and wire fraud. On August 1, 2001, he 11, 1961, Diane Dionne was one of 17 defendants
pleaded guilty to one count of wire fraud and one indicted by U.S. authorities for software piracy on
count of obtaining information from a protected May 4, 2000. Prosecutors identified her as a member
computer. Diekman was held without bond pending of the HACKERS’ syndicate known as PIRATES WITH
sentencing in federal court. He was scheduled for ATTITUDE, responsible for stealing and illegally dis-
sentencing on October 15, 2001, but his court tributing more than 5,000 computer software pro-
appearance was indefinitely postponed in the wake grams via a covert Internet website based on a
of September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York Canadian university campus. Those indicted for con-
City and Washington, D.C. spiracy to infringe U.S. copyrights included 12 mem-
bers of Pirates with Attitude and five employees of
Intel Corporation, the latter charged with supplying
“DIESEL”: computer virus computer hardware and software valued in excess of
Discovered in April 2000, “Diesel” is a nonmemory- $1 million. Dionne was among 13 defendants who
resident parasitic virus rated “non-dangerous” by pleaded guilty as charged in 2001.

88
DNA Evidence

DISNEY Giveaway Offer: Internet hoax identity. In fact, while human beings have 23 million
In August 1998 an e-mail variant of the BILL GATES pairs of chromosomes containing DNA, only 3 mil-
GIVEAWAY fraud began to make the Internet rounds, lion pairs—13 percent of a subject’s entire genome—
this one invoking the name of the Walt Disney Com- varies from person to person. (Half of each pair is
pany. As in other, similar cases, Disney bears no drawn from the subject’s father and half from the
responsibility for the offer and has publicly repudi- mother.) The key to analyzing DNA evidence lies in
ated it, noting that the firm has no interest whatso- comparison of genetic material found at a crime
ever in alleged e-mail tracking devices. The message scene with a suspect’s DNA in those segments that
reads: differ.
Two different kinds of “polymorphic regions”—
Hello Disney fans, areas with great diversity in DNA—are found within
And thank you for signing up for Bill Gates’ Beta Email each genome, respectively dubbed sequence polymor-
Tracking. My name is Walt Disney Jr. Here at Disney phisms and length polymorphisms. Sequence poly-
we are working with Microsoft which has just compiled morphisms, or simple substitutions of bases within
an e-mail tracing program that tracks everyone to genes, are generally of little value in criminal cases.
whom this message is forwarded to. It does this Length polymorphisms, by contrast, are variations in
through an unique IP (Internet Protocol) address log the physical length of a DNA molecule. Forensic
book database. DNA evidence uses length polymorphism found in
We are experimenting with this and need your help. “non-coding” DNA (the portions which do not
Forward this to everyone you know and if it reaches transmit genetic codes) by examining unique varia-
13,000 people, 1,300 of the people on the list will tions in repeat sequences of DNA. Because a specific
receive $5,000, and the rest will receive a free trip for sequence may be repeated from one to 30 times in a
two to Disney World for one week during the summer row, those regions are dubbed “variable number tan-
of 1999 at our expense. Enjoy. dem repeats” (VNTRs). The number of VNTRs
Note: Duplicate entries will not be counted. You determines a DNA fragment’s length, and the num-
will be notified by email with further instructions once ber found at specific places in the DNA chain (loci) is
this email has reached 13,000 people. unique to a specific individual (again, excluding
identical twins).
Your friends, The scientific procedure used to isolate a subject’s
Walt Disney Jr., Disney, Bill Gates & DNA profile is called restriction fragment length
The Microsoft Development Team. polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, developed in the
1980s by Britain’s Dr. Alec Jeffries. In essence, it sim-
ply means that analysts count the number of VNTR
DNA Evidence repeats at various distinctive loci to determine a sub-
Often described as the basic building block of life on ject’s statistically unique DNA “fingerprint.” Micro-
earth, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the substance scopic comparison of a known subject’s DNA profile
that transmits genetic traits. Discovered by scientists with the same information from an anonymous evi-
James Watson and Francis Crick, DNA was admitted dence sample should reveal if the genetic material
as legal evidence for the first time in 1985 and sent a lifted from a crime scene was produced by the sus-
criminal suspect—British serial killer COLIN PITCH- pect in custody. Comparison proceeds through sev-
FORK—to prison for the first time in January 1988. eral steps, including:
Since then, the science of DNA analysis and compar-
ison—sometimes dubbed “DNA fingerprinting”— 1. Isolation of the DNA. Genetic material found at
has assumed strategic importance in many criminal crime scenes is frequently contaminated by con-
trials where conviction or acquittal hinges on traces tact with soil or other extraneous materials, com-
of blood, semen, hair, or other evidence containing mingling of bodily fluids from two or more
genetic material. subjects, and so forth. Thus, before analysis can
To the best of modern scientific knowledge, only proceed, the DNA must be cleaned and isolated
identical twins display precisely the same DNA, but for study. Failure to perform this step correctly
all human DNA has certain traits in common and a leaves the evidence open to serious challenge by a
relatively small percentage of it is used to determine suspect’s defense team.

89
DNA Evidence

2. Reduction of the large genome to manageable 4. Isolation of specific DNA strands. DNA frag-
fragments. This step is accomplished by applica- ments separated by gel electrophoresis begin to
tion of “restriction enzymes”—bacterial enzymes disintegrate within a day or two. Permanent
that recognize specific four-to-six-base sequences preservation is achieved via the “Southern Blot”
and cut the DNA at predictable base pairs. technique, which isolates single strands for more
Human DNA is thus broken down into millions detailed examination. To accomplish this end,
of fragments ranging from 100 base pairs to DNA is first denatured from its original double
longer segments in the tens of thousands. Distinc- helix into a single strand, thus freeing nucleotides
tive VNTR loci may then be more conveniently to base-pair with DNA probes in the final step
examined. (described below). A positively charged nylon
3. Arrangement of the DNA fragments by size via membrane is used to lift negatively charged DNA
gel electrophoresis. In this step, DNA is placed from the agarose gel (the “blot”). Since DNA
into a slab of agarose (a gel derived from sea- remains invisible at this stage, one more step is
weed, used to solidify various culture media) required to permit visual comparison.
and exposed to an electric field. Since DNA is 5. Imprinting of the DNA on film. Specific VNTR
negatively charged, it will be drawn toward the sequences on a DNA strand are located by means
field’s positive electrode, with smaller frag- of a “DNA probe,” created from a sequence com-
ments moving through the agarose more plementary to that of a known VNTR locus,
quickly than larger ones. The relative size of which binds to matching sequences on the nylon
each fragment is determined by how far it membrane. The probe includes a radioactive
moves through the agarose within a specific compound which allows it to be located and to
time frame. produce a picture of the DNA strand via direct

Model of DNA double helix structure. (PhotoDisc)

90
DNA Evidence

At the FBI National Laboratory in Boston, DNA analysis is carried out to find evidence in certain criminal cases.
(Amy Toensing/CORBIS SYGMA)

contact with special X-ray film. The final DNA same profile at more than one in 100 billion. Since
photograph displays dark bands at each point the entire population of Earth is less than 7 billion
where the DNA probe has bound itself to the sus- (in 2002), DNA “fingerprint” identification may
pect sample. fairly be labeled conclusive.
As a new form of evidence in the 1980s and early
Mathematics finally determines identity when 1990s, DNA faced challenges from courts and attor-
DNA strands are compared. A match on one VNTR neys who questioned the value of the testing as posi-
locus is no more significant than a single digit lifted tive evidence. Most jurors still have only a vague
from a suspect’s street address, where millions of understanding of DNA analysis and require a crash
addresses may contain, for example, the number course in the testing procedure at trial, before they
“3.” Comparison of many loci found on different can reach an informed verdict. Even then, prosecutors
chromosomes, however, tell a very different story. and defense attorneys have no recourse against jurors
Each VNTR locus has about 30 length variants who misunderstand the evidence or simply refuse to
(alleles), each of which occurs at a known fre- consider it. A prime example was the case of Orenthal
quency within the human population. When these James (O. J.) SIMPSON, acquitted of double murder in
are multiplied, using four loci, the odds of replicat- 1995 despite damning DNA evidence from the crime
ing a particular allele combination are approxi- scene. In the wake of Simpson’s acquittal, one juror
mately one in 5 million. The FBI typically tests 13 told reporters: “I didn’t understand the DNA stuff at
loci, with 26 different DNA bands, pegging the all. To me it was just a waste of time. It was way out
odds of two unrelated individuals matching the there and carried absolutely no weight with me.”

91
DNA Evidence

Various improvements in DNA analysis have ing three old rape cases solved in one day). A dis-
made the identification of subjects more streamlined turbing case in point from the U.S. is that of DENNIS
and more precise since testing was initiated. RFLP FRITZ, where belated DNA testing identified the per-
analysis requires large amounts of relatively high- petrator of an Oklahoma rape-murder as one of the
quality DNA, so that small or contaminated samples chief prosecution witnesses used to convict an inno-
often yield inconclusive results. In 1983, California cent defendant at trial.
scientist Kary Mullins developed an alternative, the Even DNA from pets may be useful in solving a
polymerase chain reaction (PRC) system, which per- criminal case. The men who murdered Elizabeth Bal-
mits amplification of very small DNA samples. (The lard in 1998, planting her corpse in the New Mexico
procedure earned a Nobel Prize in chemistry for desert, were captured after police recovered a single
Mullins in 1993.) With the PCR system, a tiny dog hair from the victim’s body, and later matched it
amount of specific DNA can be replicated exponen- via DNA testing to a pit bull owned by one of the
tially within hours, thus making the test sample vir- killers. Blood from a Seattle dog helped convict the
tually unlimited. gang members who murdered its owners. Traces of
Aside from capability of testing smaller samples, dog feces on another suspect’s shoe sent him to
science has also devised new ways of extracting DNA prison for an Indiana triple murder. Dog urine
from sources formerly too difficult or too contami- sprayed on a truck tire in Iowa identified the pickup’s
nated for use as evidence. Several nations, including driver as a prime suspect in the dog owner’s death.
Britain and the United States, have built extensive Beth Davis, speaking for a veterinary genetics lab in
DNA databases, collecting unique profiles by the Davis, California, told the press in 2001: “A lot of
hundreds of thousands from military personnel, con- the technology is a fallout from the human genome
victed felons, government employees, and voluntary project. We just applied that to animals.”
submissions from the general public at large. Crime Encouraged by such cases, police have eagerly
labs have improved training of technicians and have applied DNA technology to their backlog of
established formal protocols for handling DNA evi- unsolved crimes. Texas became the first state to
dence, thus reducing contamination of samples. The indict an unknown rapist solely on the basis of DNA
most common forensic uses of DNA evidence today evidence, in August 2001. The offender remains
are proving guilt, exonerating innocent suspects, unknown today, but his “John Doe” indictment pre-
establishing paternity, and identifying anonymous vents a five-year statute of limitations from protect-
human remains. ing him in the event that he is ultimately captured.
Conviction of criminals who leave genetic mate- New Hampshire police used DNA to convict 40-
rial at a crime scene is vastly simpler today than 20 year-old Joseph Whittey of murder in 2001, 20 years
years ago, when blood type and hairs were merely after he killed and sexually assaulted an elderly
deemed “consistent” between a suspect and recov- widow, and they now hope DNA may help them
ered crime scene evidence. A suspect with a com- solve 26 more slayings from the 1990s.
mon blood type might be convicted of rape or some DNA evidence is especially helpful in linking serial
other serious crime, when the only other evidence offenses, when rapists or killers often travel widely to
against him is a mistaken eyewitness identifica- avoid detection, counting on a lack of communica-
tion—and indeed, many U.S. prison inmates con- tion between police departments to cover their
victed on precisely such evidence had been tracks. In Fort Collins, Colorado, analysis of DNA
exonerated since the advent of DNA testing. Com- samples from an unknown subject who raped five
parison of suspect samples with a database of women between May and September 2001 linked the
known offenders often surprises investigators. offender to six more rapes and a murder committed
British police, for example, report that their data- in Pennsylvania between July 1997 and August
base of 360,000 DNA profiles from repeat offend- 1999. Without DNA profiles, police departments
ers scores more than 500 positive matches in separated by some 1,750 miles would have no clue
outstanding cases per week. The U.S. lags behind that they were seeking the same predator. August
that impressive total, with Virginia authorities 2001 saw authorities in Michigan use DNA to link
reporting 10 cases solved per week by DNA, while crimes committed between 1986 and 1990, though
detectives in Washington state cleared five “cold” the killer still remains at large. Washington state
cases with the new technology in July 2001 (includ- detectives believed one serial killer was responsible

92
DNA Evidence

for 11 murders of women on the Yakima Indian of Ellis Wayne Felker, in Georgia. Felker was con-
reservation, until DNA evidence linked imprisoned demned for the 1981 rape slaying of 19-year-old Eve-
convict John Bill Fletcher Jr. with two of the slayings, lyn Ludlam. His case made national headlines when
while clearing him of nine others. In Vancouver, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review it on an
British Columbia, where 50 prostitutes are missing expedited basis, examining his challenge of a new
and presumed murdered since the 1980s, detectives statute curtailing federal appeals. The court refused
scoured a farm for evidence in February 2002 and to delay Felker’s execution on grounds that new evi-
used DNA samples from kin of the victims to indict dence of his innocence had not been discovered, and
suspect Robert William Pickton on two counts of he was electrocuted on November 15, 1996. Today,
first-degree murder. though private attorneys pursue posthumous DNA
Exoneration of those falsely accused or impris- testing in Felker’s case, his prosecutors scorn the
oned is perhaps the greatest public service performed effort as “a total waste of time.”
by DNA analysts, since it remedies injustice and The new vogue in DNA testing has created a
informs authorities (if they were not already con- vast backlog of cases awaiting disposition. By July
scious of the fact) that unknown criminals remain at 2000, evidence from 180,000 American rape cases
large. DNA cleared its first innocent suspect, a was stored in various labs around the country, each
British citizen accused of two rape-murders, in 1985. item waiting its turn while trials are placed on
Since the late 1980s, more than 100 U.S. prison hold, justice delayed for victims and defendants
inmates have been liberated after DNA analysis alike. Aside from cases still awaiting trial, more
proved they were innocent of murder, rape, or other than 1 million American convicts have petitioned
heinous crimes. Ten have been freed from death row, for DNA tests in their various cases. If only 5 per-
condemned for the crimes of others, and those cent are truly innocent—versus the FBI’s prevailing
cases—including several deliberate frame-ups by cor- 30 percent—it means some 50,000 innocent per-
rupt authorities—have sparked new debates over sons are caged in the United States for crimes they
capital punishment in America. Illinois governor did not commit.
George Ryan declared a moratorium on executions Thousands of persons—some sources say hun-
in January 2000, after learning that 13 inmates dreds of thousands—disappear without a trace each
had been wrongfully sentenced to death. Nation- year in the United States. At the same time, authori-
wide, FBI analysts report, DNA analysis of crime ties discover the remains of hundreds who may never
scene evidence exonerates primary suspects in 30 be identified. Decomposition may obscure not only a
percent of all cases examined. That statistic alone corpse’s identity, but also cause of death, leaving the
offers cause for concern, with its implication that question of natural death versus accident or homi-
nearly one-third of all inmates convicted on less pre- cide forever unanswered. Nationwide, thousands of
cise evidence—blood type alone, “consistent” hairs, families seek closure, mourning the unexplained loss
etc.—may indeed be innocent. of their children, siblings, parents, or spouses.
Exoneration of the innocent—or confirmation of Prior to the advent of DNA testing, “John Doe”
guilt, in some cases—is not inexpensive. In July or “Jane Doe” remains were sometimes identified via
2000 San Diego, California authorities began a dental records, skeletal abnormalities, or (if flesh
review of 560 convictions obtained prior to 1992, remained) by means of scars, tattoos, and birth-
when DNA testing became routine. The tab: $5,000 marks. Today, bone fragments or a single strand of
per case. Prosecutors in other jurisdictions refuse hair may be sufficient for identification, provided
to perform the tests themselves, leaving defendants that DNA is found within the sample. Where known
to raise the money by any means available. Organi- DNA from a missing person is available—as from
zations like the CARDOZO INNOCENCE PROJECT do blood or tissue samples—a positive match can nor-
their part, but they are perpetually short of funds, mally be made. If no samples exist from the subject
fighting time and official intransigence on behalf of himself, technicians can still use the methods applied
penniless defendants. in paternity testing to see if the deceased was related
State opposition to DNA review is particularly to members of a particular family, thereby resolving
strident in cases where inmates have already been the issue in most cases.
executed, while maintaining their innocence to the In September 2001, after several nationally publi-
bitter end. A case in point, now under review, is that cized cases of babies switched at birth in hospital

93
DNA Evidence

maternity wards, a Wisconsin company called Innov- York’s World Trade Center were too badly damaged
ative Control Systems announced development of a for simple identification by visual means. DNA test-
new “Surelink” DNA kit, designed to prevent such ing was employed in the worst cases, using samples
mistakes. The kit screens DNA from blood found in obtained from toothbrushes, hairbrushes, and other
the infant’s umbilical cord and a sample from the known belongings of those trapped in the rubble. By
mother, both collected in the delivery room. The October 24, 2001, eight victims had been identified
samples are placed in a tamper-proof pouch and filed using DNA evidence exclusively. As Marion DeBlase
in a secure location, where the DNA material told reporters, following identification of her hus-
allegedly remains intact and testable for at least a band, James, “You have to come to some kind of clo-
decade. If questions of maternity arise within that sure somehow, as each day goes by, but it’s very
time, the genetic evidence is available to resolve all difficult to come to terms with it when you have
doubts. nothing to hold on to.” With initial estimates of
More common by far than switched infants is the 4,339 missing (later reduced to under 3,000), police
threat of child abduction in America. Authorities dis- had collected some 2,600 DNA samples from family
agree on the frequency of such incidents, but recent members by late October.
FBI estimates claim an average of 300 “stranger On the very day of the New York terrorist attacks,
abductions” per year, for an average of one kidnap- media reports noted the emergence of DNA evidence
ping every 29 hours. Some of those victims are recov- in another famous case. In 1975, ex-convict James
ered without injury; others are molested or Riddle Hoffa was fighting to regain control of the
murdered; some are never seen again. In a few Teamsters Union, lost when he was imprisoned for
bizarre cases, pedophiles or other mentally unstable bribery and jury-tampering in the 1960s. Although
individuals have held children captive for years on granted clemency by President Richard Nixon in
end, imposing new identities that override a child’s 1972, Hoffa was barred for a decade from partici-
initial memories of home and family. When children pating in union affairs—a ruling he bitterly con-
are found dead, as in the notorious Lindbergh case tested, described by some reporters as part of a
from 1932, decomposition may retard identification corrupt bargain between Nixon and reigning Team-
or obscure cause of death. ster president Frank Fitzsimmons. Hoffa disappeared
Authorities in various states hope DNA testing on July 30, 1975, when he left home to keep a lunch
may remedy some of those problems. Science cannot date with union and underworld acquaintances at a
protect children from predators, but at least it can Michigan restaurant. The presumed victim of a gang-
attempt to verify identity when they are found at last, land murder “contract,” Hoffa remains missing
alive or dead. In August 2001, Indiana State Police
today, while theories abound as to where and how
officers began distributing kits that allow parents to
his remains were concealed.
collect and store DNA samples from their children, On September 11, 2001, FBI spokesmen
with 1,000 kits passed out in Evansville alone by announced that DNA tests had identified samples of
January 2002. Presumably the kits would replace Hoffa’s hair recovered from a car driven by Charles
more traditional fingerprint cards, especially for chil- (“Chuckie”) O’Brien on the day of Hoffa’s disap-
dren under seven years of age, whose fingerprints are pearance. O’Brien, 66 years old in 2001 and retired
often indistinct and difficult to read. The kits require to Florida, was raised in Hoffa’s home but never for-
no blood samples, instead relying on swabs taken mally adopted by the family. For more than a quar-
from a child’s mouth. Commercial kits typically cost ter-century he denied Hoffa’s presence in the vehicle
between $25 and $75, but authorities note that par- the day he disappeared, but federal agents now refute
ents can achieve the same result by keeping a child’s that claim. No charges have been filed to date, and
used toothbrush, along with hair samples (roots Hoffa’s daughter, St. Louis municipal judge Barbara
included), and storing the items in a freezer against Crancer, remains skeptical that the murder will ever
future need. be solved. “Unless they can break Chuckie down,”
DNA testing is sometimes useful in famous crimi- she told USA Today, “I don’t see it moving forward.”
nal cases, as well as the obscure. Following the East Crancer’s brother, James P. Hoffa, is the current
Coast terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many Teamsters Union president and has urged investiga-
victims killed in the explosion and collapse of New tors to pursue the case aggressively. The “new” evi-

94
DNA Evidence

dence was revealed only after the Detroit Free Press States have adopted various methods in their
filed a lawsuit under the Freedom of Information efforts to compile useful DNA databases. Some
Act, forcing the FBI to open its files on the Hoffa states make sample contribution mandatory for
case. Assistant U.S. Attorney Keith Corbett told convicted criminals, with jailers in Maine and New
reporters the obvious: “This is a 26-year-old case. York empowered to place reluctant donors in soli-
There are a lot of hurdles to get over in bringing a tary confinement, there extracting the samples by
case after this long.” force if necessary. California’s legislature adopted a
With the advance of DNA testing, new legislation different approach, assigning misdemeanor penal-
has evolved to control its application in criminal ties to inmates who withhold DNA samples, but
cases. The U.S. House of Representatives, on Octo- requiring prison officials to obtain separate court
ber 2, 2000, passed a law to provide individual states orders for each sample forcibly obtained. About 40
with federal grants to expedite testing of evidence percent of California’s prison inmates are presently
collected from crime scenes and from convicted “required” to donate DNA samples, but the misde-
offenders. The money was expected to benefit states meanor statute carries no weight with those serving
like Michigan, where 15,000 blood samples from long terms—particularly inmates jailed for life or
known sex offenders had been collected since 1991, condemned to death row. Compared to the risk of
with barely 500 samples analyzed and catalogued indictment for additional sex crimes or murders,
during the next nine years. The bill was introduced the threat of misdemeanor punishment—a maxi-
by Rep. Bart Stupak, who told reporters, “Right mum of one year’s confinement in county jail—is no
now, state and local police departments cannot deal threat at all. To date, California has collected DNA
with the number of DNA samples from convicted profiles on 200,000 inmates convicted of qualifying
offenders and unsolved crimes. States simply do not felonies, but hundreds more resist and fight costly
have enough time, money or resources to test and delaying actions in the courts. Inmate Fred Clark,
record these samples.” serving 20 years at Vacaville’s state medical facility,
At the same time, juvenile offenders in Kentucky spoke for many other California inmates when he
were exempted from providing DNA samples for a challenged authorities, saying, “If I don’t submit,
newly established database on sexual offenders. what are you going to do? Put me in jail? I tell you
That decision was announced on August 21, 2001, what. When I die, you can have all the DNA you
by the Kentucky Court of Appeals. Acting in the want.”
case of a juvenile sex offender identified only as The reaction of local prosecutors to DNA testing
“J.D.K.,” convicted of molesting and sodomizing varies from one location to the next. All are happy to
his nine-year-old sister and an eight-year-old use the new technology in pursuing convictions, but
friend, the court unanimously ruled that juveniles many resist application of testing to cases already
could not be required to contribute DNA samples resolved. San Diego provides a welcome change from
for state police files, where DNA profiles of 3,200 official obstructionism, prosecutors volunteering in
adult sex offenders already reside. Critics of the July 2000 to offer free DNA testing for any inmates
decision noted that many repeat offenders (includ- claiming the results would set them free. Texas, by
ing serial killers) commit their first sexual assaults contrast, leads all other states in executions and in
in adolescence, thus granting opportunity for swift fighting to the last ditch against reviews of evidence
identification in later cases if samples are pre- in old cases. A state law enacted in April 2001 per-
served, but the Kentucky judges felt themselves mits Texas inmates to seek post-conviction DNA
constrained by state law. As Judge Sara Combs analysis, but prosecutors in some jurisdictions seek
declared from the bench, “By employing the words to undermine the law by disposing of evidence before
‘convicted’ and ‘felony’—words which the legisla- it can be tested. In December 2001, eight months
ture itself has expressly defined and to which it has after the statute took effect, the Houston Press
given technical meaning—it is plainly intended that reported that Harris County prosecutors were busily
juveniles adjudicated in district court not be destroying rape kits, bloody clothing, semen swabs
included in the DNA database.” (In Kentucky and and other items of biological evidence from sexual
most other jurisdictions, felonies are those offenses assault cases. A prior statute permits county clerks to
punishable by confinement for one year or more in destroy trial evidence two years after conviction in
state prison.) noncapital felonies where a defendant is sentenced to

95
DONATIONS for Cartridges Offer

more than five years, thus rendering DNA tests Several weeks ago, President Bill Clinton and Bob
impossible in many cases. A spokesperson for the Dole announced their involvement in a project called
Harris County district attorney reported that 2,740 the Families of Freedom fund. The goal of the fund is to
pounds of evidence had been destroyed in October raise $100 million in order to establish scholarship
and December 2001. money for the children of those tragically killed in the
Under President Bill Clinton, the U.S. Justice terrorist attacks.
Department set aside $750,000 for DNA testing of IQ Inkjets is trying to help.
convicted felons, to resolve doubt in dubious cases, For every empty inkjet cartridge you send to us, we
but Republican attorney general John Ashcroft scut- donate $1 to the fund. With your help, we will collect
tled the program in December 2001, announcing that one million empty cartridges in the next six months and
the money would be used instead for identification of donate $1 million to the fund. We are proud to be a
World Trade Center victims killed in the September part of this great charity drive and thank you for your
11 terrorist attacks. Justice spokesman Charles efforts in helping us.
Miller assured reporters that “there’s nothing sinister Please CLICK HERE to go to our collection website
here,” but some defense attorneys claimed to see a and send us your empty inkjet cartridges. Or, you can
pattern in the new administration’s disregard for civil send your empties to:
rights (and President George W. Bush’s record of
excusing slipshod prosecution tactics during his stint IQ Inkjet Products
as governor of Texas). John Pray, a professor at the Suite 1009
University of Wisconsin Law School in Madison, 2944 Prosperity Avenue
opined, “It’s safe to say that if you take away Fairfax, VA 22031
$750,000 that was earmarked, there’s going to be
some people who would have taken the test that Thanks for your support. We look forward to receiving
would have proved them innocent.” Virginia defense your empty cartridges soon.
attorney Jerry Lyell was more direct, telling the press
in response to Ashcroft’s announcement, “It sounds a Intrigued by this message, a member of the U.S.
little fishy. To hear them cutting back, especially such Department of Energy’s HOAXBUSTERS team launched
a small amount comparatively . . . might suggest that an investigation of IQ Inkjet Products. Whereas the
their hearts weren’t in the right place in the first Families of Freedom Scholarship Fund is a recog-
place.” nized charity, the Web page linked to the IQ appeal
proved to emanate from a website in Taiwan, whose
contents were hidden. From there, the link led to
DONATIONS for Cartridges Offer: Internet scam another site in San Diego, California—and then to
A strange and apparently pointless Internet scam was the Philippines, where IQ Inkjet has its headquarters.
launched in October 2001, with circulation of a mes- That firm’s legitimate website, in turn, carried no
sage promising charitable donations in return for information concerning any appeal for old cartridges
used inkjet printer cartridges. The message reads as or charitable donations deriving therefrom. Finally,
follows: Hoaxbusters turned to the mailing address in Fair-
fax, Virginia, which houses a truck rental and stor-
Subject: Don’t throw out your empty inkjet cartridges. age yard, with no connection to IQ Inkjet. At this
Now you can help. . . . writing, the cartridge donation appeal seems to be an
elaborate and fruitless practical joke.
Help us raise $1 million for the Families of Freedom
Scholarship fund by sending us your trash!
Every day, over one million empty inkjet cartridges DOTSON, Gary: exonerated by DNA evidence
are thrown out, ending up in our landfills. Now, if you On the night of July 9, 1977, a Chicago woman told
send us your empty inkjet cartridges instead of throw- police she had been kidnapped and raped by two men
ing them away, we will donate money to a great charity while walking near her home. The attackers allegedly
that is trying to raise $100 million dollars to aid fami- forced her into a car and assaulted her there, one man
lies affected by the terrorist attack of September 11, afterward trying to scratch words on her stomach
2001. with a broken beer bottle. Composite sketches of the

96
DRAPER, John T.

two men were prepared, and the woman later identi- C:\windows\system\dragonball.vbs
fied suspect Gary Dotson from a police mug book, C:\windows\system\dragonball.cab
then picked him out of a lineup. Semen stains from
the woman’s underpants matched Dotson’s blood In the next phase of its attack, DragonBall
type, and a pubic hair recovered from her clothing changes keys in the system registry and the win.ini
was deemed “similar” to Dotson’s. Convicted of rape file, creating two new keys and altering others. Next,
and aggravated kidnapping in July 1979, Gary Dot- the worm opens Microsoft Outlook’s address book
son received a prison term of 25 to 50 years. and creates and sends an infected message to each
The case began to unravel in March 1985, when address found, reading:
the alleged victim recanted her testimony, reporting
that she had lied to conceal a consensual act of sex Subject: Hello ;]
with her boyfriend. Dotson’s judge refused to order a
new trial, insisting that the “victim’s” original testi- Body: Hi, check out this game that I sent you (funny
mony was more believable than her new statement, game from the net ;]).
eight years after the fact. The governor of Illinois
likewise refused to accept the woman’s revised state- Attach: dragonball.vbs
ment and denied Dotson’s petition for a pardon, but
on March 12, 1985, he did commute Dotson’s sen- Once again, the worm’s built-in bugs prevent it
tence to time served, pending good behavior. That from spreading via e-mail, but the following dialogue
parole was revoked in 1987, after Dotson’s wife box is displayed:
accused him of domestic violence, and the Appellate
Court of Illinois affirmed Dotson’s rape conviction Dragon Ball Z by YuP
on November 12, 1987. The governor granted Thank you, and bye bye DragonWorld!!!
Dotson a “last chance parole” on December 24, [OK]
1987, but an arrest for barroom brawling two days
later sent Dotson back to prison once more. When the user closes that dialogue box, Drag-
In 1988 Dotson’s new lawyer submitted the origi- onBall seizes control of the computer’s keyboard and
nal trial evidence for DNA testing, unknown at the mouse, running MediaPlayer with a file downloaded
time of conviction nine years earlier. Those tests from the Internet, displaying the following text:
excluded Dotson as a donor of semen samples from
the victim’s clothing, and a new trial was ordered by @ECHO ON
the Cook County Criminal Court. In light of the ECHO DraGon Ball [Z] by YuP
DNA evidence and their “victim’s” shaky credibility, ECHO Thank you and bye bye dragon world!!
prosecutors declined to retry the case. Dotson’s con-
viction was overturned on August 14, 1989, after he
had served a total of eight years in prison. DRAPER, John T.: hacker “Cap’n Crunch”
New Jersey native John Draper was one of the pre-
mier American “phreakers”—hackers who experi-
“DRAGONBALL”: computer worm ment with different means of swindling telephone
Identified for the first time in February 2001, this companies on long-distance charges. He is generally
Internet worm virus is written in Visual Basic Script acknowledged as the inventor of the “BLUE BOX,”
(VBS) and spreads via e-mails using Microsoft Out- though Draper credits the original technique to oth-
look and IRC. Ironically, internal errors prevent ers in his published memoirs. In either case, he ranks
DragonBall from operating correctly, but it still has among the first hackers involved in phone line
the potential to infect computers. When the script manipulation and as one of the first imprisoned for
runs initially, it replicates itself in the following sys- wire fraud in the cyberage.
tem directories: Draper’s first “experiments” with telephone fraud
date back to his teenage years, when—as described
C:\windows\winsock.vbs by one anonymous admirer—he tried “to convince
C:\windows\sysdir.vbs pay phones to return his coin and put through his
C:\windows\system\millioner.vbs calls.” In 1969, a year after his honorable discharge

97
“DRILLER”

from the U.S. Air Force with service in Vietnam, wherein they allegedly used CIA codes to access Pres-
Draper met a blind teenage “phreaker” and aspiring ident Richard Nixon directly, warning him that “Los
radio disc jockey. According to Draper, his new Angeles is out of toilet paper!”
acquaintance and another friend pioneered the trick Back in the free world for good, Draper contin-
of using high-frequency tones to complete long-dis- ued his computer experiments in a legitimate vein,
tance calls without payment. Musical instruments creating the EasyWriter word processing program
were initially used, and Draper derived his “Cap’n for the Apple II computer. In a nod to the old free-
Crunch” nickname by using the plastic whistle from spirit days, Draper named the program after the
a cereal box to produce 2600-herz tones in pursuit of 1969 film Easy Rider, starring Peter Fonda and
free phone calls. Among other tricks, he discovered a Dennis Hopper.
“secret” number in Vancouver, British Columbia
that, when accessed, permitted free conference calls
for an unlimited number of callers. “DRILLER”: computer virus
Draper and company were satisfied to keep a low Discovered in October 2000, “Driller” is a memory-
profile, enjoying their own “experiments” in private, resident, parasitic, polymorphic virus that infects
but others soon caught on to the blue box technique Windows executable files with .exe, .scr and .cpl file-
and its derivatives. In early 1971 the San Jose Mer- name extensions. Driller also lingers in the system
cury broke a story concerning the use of blue boxes memory as a component of the infected Windows
by members of organized crime, provoking a swift program, accessing and corrupting 15 different ker-
reaction from federal authorities. The heat increased nel functions as it spreads. When a file is infected,
in October 1971, after Esquire magazine published Driller encrypts its code and writes it to the end of
an article titled “The Secret of the Little Blue Box,” the file, concealing it within an 8K segment of the
including a sampler of “phreaking” techniques. target file. Internal bugs sometimes disrupt the infec-
Against his better judgment, Draper had consented tion process and present a Windows “error” message
to an interview for the piece, and he was arrested in when the application is run. Thereafter, on Fridays,
early 1972. Driller replaces the startup page of Microsoft Inter-
Convicted of wire fraud and sentenced to a mini- net Explorer and Netscape Navigator with a link to
mum-security prison five months after his arrest, the website found at http://www.thehungersite.com
Draper quickly purchased a radio and modified it to and displays the following copyright text:
pick up the frequency of walkie-talkies carried by his
guards. He also modified a prison pay phone to [Virus TUAREG by The Mental Driller|29A]
make “collect” calls without any charge to the recip- -This virus has been designed for carrying the
ient. In his spare time, Draper instructed fellow TUAREG engine-
inmates in the fine points of “phreaking” and con-
structing their own blue boxes. In return for those
tutorials, he was protected by more physical inmates DUNKIN Donuts Boycott: Internet smear campaign
from the rigors of extortion, sexual assault, and Soon after the terrorist attacks of September 11,
other perils of incarceration. Draper recalls that it 2001, some anonymous Internet hoaxer launched a
was “quite a challenge” teaching prisoners—includ- malicious smear campaign against the Dunkin
ing many virtual illiterates—to invade the telephone Donuts snack shop chain, attempting to incite a
system and construct “cheese boxes” for free receipt national boycott over the false claim that the com-
of incoming toll calls. pany had sympathy with Arab terrorists. The mes-
Released on five years’ probation, Draper was sage reads:
arrested once more in April 1974, after letting a
friend use his computer to “modify” commercial Attention all Americans:
telephone service. Draper later claimed the plan was Boycott Dunkin Donuts!!
“practically shoved down [his] throat,” but federal
prosecutors took a different view and he was sent In Cedar Grove, NJ, a customer saw the owner of a
back to jail for violating his probation. Prior to his Dunkin Donuts store burn the U.S. flag. In another
second arrest, Draper and another hacker comrade Dunkin Donuts store in Little Falls, a customer saw a
also pulled “the White House toilet paper prank,” U.S. flag on the floor with Arabic writing all over it.

98
DURHAM, Timothy Edward

We are starting a nationwide boycott of all Dunkin the hoax e-mail were more intelligent than its
Donuts. Please make sure this gets passed on to all fel- author.
low Americans during this time of tragedy. We Ameri-
cans need to stick together and make these horrible
people understand what country they are living in and DURHAM, Timothy Edward: exonerated by DNA evidence
how good they used to have it when we supported An Oklahoma college student, Timothy Durham was
them. Numerous fastfood companies are at Ground accused of molesting an 11-year-old Tulsa County
Zero, giving away free food to volunteers. Where is girl in 1991. At trial in 1993, 11 alibi witnesses testi-
Dunkin Donuts in all of this? fied that Durham was 300 miles away from Tulsa
Boycott Dunkin Donuts!!!!!! Pass it on. . . . when the crime occurred, but jurors convicted him
regardless, and the court imposed a stunning sen-
No evidence exists that either of the incidents tence of 3,120 years in prison. DNA tests performed
described above ever took place, nor has the in 1997 proved Durham innocent, and he was subse-
Dunkin Donuts chain felt any impact from the quently released from prison. The crime remains
anonymous call to arms. Apparently, recipients of unsolved today.

99
E
EASTMAN, Richard Mark: indicted on DNA evidence ELF Bowling/Frogapult: Internet virus hoaxes
Police in Peel, Ontario, were baffled by the murder of Since December 1999 the Internet game distributor
63-year-old Muriel Holland, raped and strangled to Nstorm (http://www.nstorm.com) has been victim-
death at a local senior’s home on August 27, 1991. ized by malicious e-mail chain letters falsely claiming
Eleven years and four months elapsed before they that two of its games are infected with an unidenti-
finally broke the case, as a result of Canadian legisla- fied virus. The games singled out for attack are “Elf
tion requiring all defendants convicted of serious Bowling” and “Frogapult.” To date, no infected
offenses to provide blood samples for a national DNA copies of the game have been documented, and no
data bank. Richard Eastman was serving time for an fault has been found with Nstorm’s website, though
unrelated felony when lab technicians matched his future discovery of games infected by some third
DNA to semen samples lifted from the Holland party naturally cannot be ruled out. Nick
Schoeneberger, developer of the games for Nvision
crime scene in 1991. Authorities charged him with
Design Inc., has issued the following statement in
first-degree murder in January 2002, evoking public
regard to Nstorm’s products.
expressions of gratitude from Holland’s family. East-
man denies involvement in the murder, and his trial
Our company has produced a number of freely emailed
has not been held thus far. He is presumed innocent and downloadable computer games which have been
until convicted by a jury of his peers. the subject of a hoax virus warning. We have contacted
Symantec (makers of Norton Anti-Virus) and they have
certified all of our games virus-free on this web page:
“ECLIPSE”: computer virus http://www.symantec.com/avcenter/venc/data/y2kgame.
Discovered in February 1990, the “Eclipse” com- hoax.html
puter virus is a nonmemory-resident companion
virus which targets Windows executable files,
renames them with a .bin extension, and copies itself ELFASSY, Raphael: accused of telemarketing fraud
to the infected file. On August 11 the virus displays A 21-year-old resident of Pierrefonds, Quebec,
this message: Raphael Elfassy was one of three defendants arrested
on July 24, 2001, charged with conspiracy, fraud in
[Eclipse] virus excess of $5,000, and theft of communications via
11 August 1999: a day I will never forget! CELL PHONE CLONING. The arrests resulted from a
by Black Jack/LineZer0/Metaphase joint international investigation dubbed “PROJECT

101
E-MAIL “Bombing”

COLT,” including collaboration of the Royal Cana- system in action. As of January 2002 it offers 76
dian Mounted Police, Sûreté du Québec, the Mon- daily or bi-weekly newsletters, replete with “spam”
treal Urban Community Police Department, the FBI, advertising, to which unwitting targets may be sub-
U.S. Customs Service and U.S. Postal Service. scribed by an enemy, with no attempt to verify the
Prosecutors said Elfassy and his two alleged subscriber’s address or identity. Once the flood of
accomplices, 24-year-old Ross Taylor and 28-year- “spam” begins, victims are forced to “unsubscribe”
old Atiba Thomas, had run a telemarketing boiler from each list individually—a process often ham-
room for six months prior to their arrest, placing free pered by apparent glitches in the system, wherein
calls to the United States on cloned cell phones and victims are informed erroneously that they “are not
swindling gullible victims with offers of a bogus tax subscribed” to the list in question, even as the mes-
scheme. The three allegedly posed as attorneys, sages keep pouring in. Shagmail administrators,
announcing to prospective victims that they (the tar- meanwhile, stolidly ignore complaints and insist
gets) had won $50,000. In order to receive their that their advertising-driven enterprise is “just for
mythical prize, each victim was required to pay a 10 fun.”
percent “tax” out of pocket. Worthless checks in the One unexpected venue of e-mail bombing during
amount of $10,000 were mailed to victims as a show recent years has been the corporate battleground,
of “good faith,” found to be fraudulent only after where firms have secured their computer systems
the American dupes had written checks of their own, against outside attack but often overlook the threat
ranging from $2,000 to $5,000. Investigators identi- from disgruntled employees within. A 1997 survey
fied 16 victims who were swindled of an average of conducted by the FBI and the Computer Security
$5,000 each over six months. Trial of the defendants Institute disclosed that 80 percent of 562 organiza-
is pending. tions polled saw employees as more likely sources of
computer attack and sabotage than outside HACKERS.
Of the firms surveyed, 43 percent reported one to
E-MAIL “Bombing”: Internet harassment technique five internal computer attacks in the previous year.
E-mail bombing (or “flooding”) is defined as the Even governments are vulnerable to disgruntled key-
malicious sending of numerous, often identical mes- board saboteurs, as demonstrated by the cases of
sages to a particular recipient with the intent of caus- CLAUDE CARPENTER II and SCOTT DENNIS.
ing aggravation or, in extreme cases, disabling the Most e-mail servers now provide some sort of
target’s mail server. Depending on the target—pro- screening software or a “killfile” capability for weed-
tected government and corporate computer systems, ing out unwanted correspondents, but the weakness
for example—the harassment may be criminal, leav- lies in their technology. Even the best can only weed
ing the “bomber” liable to fines or prison time. E- out “spam” with certain words or codes displayed in
mail bombing is generally distinguished from the the subject line—naming an advertisement or a prod-
annoyance of “mass mailer” computer VIRUSES by the uct, for example—and the mechanism is simply
fact that (a) one target is singled out for flooding; (b) avoided by altering titles or subjects. Furthermore,
target selection is not typically random or haphaz- since many victims of e-mail bombing are listed as
ard; and (c) mail bombing generally does not infect willing subscribers to the newsletters that flood their
or damage targeted computers aside from consuming systems, the mass mailings do not qualify as spam.
memory or bandwidth. One provider with an answer to the problem is
Because e-mail harassment and other forms of PrimeMail, whose “PrimeShield” system allows sub-
CYBERSTALKING are now prosecuted with increasing scribers to set a daily e-mail limit, beyond which all
frequency, e-mail bombers seek refuge in anonymity. incoming messages are discarded before reaching the
One method of concealing their identity is through customer’s in-box. One obvious drawback to the sys-
the use of anonymous remailers, widely available on tem is the impossibility of predicting how many legit-
the Internet. Another and more popular method is imate messages may be received on a given day. Even
for the bomber to visit an Internet mailing service— with PrimeShield, an e-mail bomber striking early in
such as Lyris or Shagmail—and subscribe to dozens the day could jam the target’s mailbox and prompt
(or hundreds) of e-mail “newsletters” via the target’s the system to discard all later messages, regardless of
address. Shagmail provides a prime example of the their source.

102
“EPSILON”

E-MAIL Tax Plan: Internet hoax (March 6th 1999 Editorial) Don’t sit by and watch your
Since May 1999 a message circulated on the Internet freedoms erode away! Send this email to all Americans
has warned subscribers of an impending tax on e- on your list and tell your friends and relatives to write
mail. This warning described a nonexistent congres- their congressman and say “No!” to Bill 602P Kate
sional bill, allegedly proposed for the benefit of the Turner assistant to Richard Stepp Berger, Stepp and Gor-
U.S. Postal Service. No such legislation has in fact man Attorneys at Law 21 Concorde Street, Vienna, VA.
been submitted to Congress, and the Postal Service ********
publicly denies any attempt to recoup its losses from
e-mail traffic via taxation. The original message
reads (with errors intact): “EMPEROR”: computer virus
First identified in May 1999, this memory-resident,
******** polymorphic, multipartite virus is rated “extremely
Dear Internet Subscriber: Please read the following care- dangerous” by computer analysts. It infects DOS
fully if you intend to stay online and continue using e- .com and .exe files by writing its code to the end of
mail: The last few months have revealed an alarming the infected files. “Emperor” also overwrites the
trend in the Government of the United States attempting hard drive’s Master Boot Record (MBR) and the
to quietly push through legislation that will affect your boot sector of infected floppy disks with its own
use of the Internet. Under proposed legislation (Bill loading routing, thereby installing the virus into sys-
602P) the U.S. Postal service will be attempting to bilk tem memory on rebooting. Emperor also contains
email users out of “alternative postage fees”. Bill 602P numerous debugging routines and is adept at bypass-
will permit the Federal Govt. to charge 5 cents surcharge ing antivirus protection on the computers it attacks.
on every email delivered, by billing Internet Service At the same time, internal bugs sometimes cause the
Providers at source. The consumer would then be billed target system to freeze when infected programs are
inturn by the ISP. Washington D.C. lawyer Richard executed. While infecting the MBR or floppy disk
Stepp is working without pay to prevent this legislation boot sector, Emperor erases substantial blocks of
from becoming law. The U.S. Postal Service is claiming memory. A more destructive routine involves erasure
that lost revenue due to the proliferation of email is cost- of data on the target computer’s hard drive, coupled
ing nearly $230,000,000 in revenue per year. You may with display of the following message:
have noticed the recent ad campaign “There is nothing
like a letter”. Since the average citizen received about 10 EMPEROR
pieces of email per day in 1998, the cost to the typical
individual would be an additional 50 cents per day, or I will grind my hatred upon the loved ones. Despair will
over $180 per year, above and beyond their regular Inter- be brought upon the hoping childs of happiness. Wher-
net costs. Note that this would be money paid directly to ever there is joy the hordes of the eclipse will pollute
the U.S. Postal Service for a service they do not even pro- sadness and hate under the reign of fear. In the name of
vide. The whole point of the Internet is democracy and the almighty Emperor. . . .
non- interference. If the Federal Govt. is permitted to
tamper with our liberties by adding a surcharge to e- This routine is executed any time the infected
mail, who knows where it will end. You are already pay- system is rebooted between 5:00 A.M. and 10:00
ing an exorbitant price for snail mail because of A.M., accompanied by display of a further text string
bureaucratic inefficiency. It currently takes up to 6 days reading:
for a letter to be delivered from New York to Buffalo. If
the U.S. Postal Service is allowed to tinker with email, it the EMPEROR virus
will mark the end of the ‘free’ Internet in the United written by Lucrezia Borgia
States. One congressman, Tony Schnell (R) has even sug- In Colombia, 1999
gested a “twenty to forty dollar per month surcharge on
all Internet service” above and beyond the government’s
proposed email charges. Note that most of the major “EPSILON”: computer viruses
newspapers have ignored the story, the only exception Initially discovered in September 1996, the Epsilon
being the Washingtonian which called the idea of email computer virus exists in two forms, both rated as
surcharge “a useful concept whose time has come” dangerous memory-resident companion viruses.

103
ERDMANN, Ralph

“Epsilon.513” contains bugs that disrupt its function were forced to dismiss murder charges after Erd-
and often freeze the infected system, while displaying mann lost the victim’s head, including with it the
the text string: Epsilon 1.0 © 15.3.1995 B.T.Pir8. fatal bullet wound. In another he claimed to have
The “Epsilon.1498” variant overwrites various hard examined a victim’s brain, but exhumation revealed
disk sectors with the following text: no cranial incisions. Yet another case found Erd-
mann mixing organs from two bodies in the same
Epsilon 1.9 © 27.4.1995 B.T.Pir8 * This virus was container and offering false testimony on the cause
written in the city of Brno, Czechoslovakia (4Ever!), of death. Turner’s investigation disclosed that Erd-
Europe (No such bloody America!). Drink only Tuzem- mann sometimes allowed his 13-year-old son to
sky Rum and fuck only Slovak girls! * A word to AEC, probe wounds during autopsies, and on several
especially BBS Sysop and Mrnutstik & comp.: You are occasions his wife sold bones removed from murder
bloody fucked idiots! I’ll destroy your dirty sickening victims.
BBS. Get ready, stupid idiotic lunatics! Get ready for It should not be supposed that Erdmann always
WAR!!! * Message to Grisoft: Your AVG 3.3 is nice but ruled defendants guilty, though: if police believed a
not very successful on Epsilon, I’m afraid. death was accidental, he could skew the evidence in
that direction just as well. One such case involved
14-month-old Anthony Culifer, smothered with a
ERDMANN, Ralph: pathologist who falsified medical evidence pillow by his mother’s live-in boyfriend. Erdmann
In Texas, where he plied his trade as a circuit-riding blamed the child’s death on pneumonia, his finding
medical examiner, Dr. Ralph Erdmann was nick- reversed by a second autopsy nine years later. In a
named “Dr. Death.” He won the moniker from similar case, a woman found by Erdmann to have
prison inmates and defense attorneys, based on the choked on her own vomit was in fact murdered by a
consistency with which Erdmann provided testimony violent ex-boyfriend. The killer was eventually sen-
in felony cases, sending dozens of accused murderers tenced to life imprisonment, while Erdmann was
to death row. Apparently a tireless civil servant, Dr. ordered to pay the victim’s family $250,000. It was
Erdmann operated in 40 of the Lone Star State’s 47 Erdmann’s testimony in capital cases that made him
counties, once charging prosecutors $171,000 for most dangerous, though, with at least four defen-
400 autopsies in a single year. His medical verdicts dants executed on his word alone. At least 20 more
invariably supported police theories in the cases he condemned inmates in Texas have appealed their ver-
examined—so dependably, in fact, that one investiga- dicts since Erdmann’s misconduct was revealed.
tor later told reporters, “If the prosecution theory In 1992 Dr. Erdmann appeared before a judge in
was that death was caused by a Martian death ray, Randall County, pleading guilty to seven felony
then that was what Dr. Erdmann reported.” counts of perjury and falsifying autopsy results. It
And therein lay the problem. was merely the tip of the iceberg, as civil suits began
Erdmann’s reputation began to unravel in 1992, to multiply across Texas, but authorities seemed sat-
when relatives of one deceased man obtained a copy isfied. As part of the plea bargain, Erdmann was
of Erdmann’s autopsy report, noting the weight of a stripped of his medical license, sentenced to 10 years’
spleen surgically removed years earlier. The body was probation with 200 hours of community service, and
exhumed, revealing that no autopsy had been per- ordered to repay $17,000 in autopsy fees. He moved
formed. Lubbock attorney Tommy Turner was to Seattle, Washington, where police found him with
appointed as a special prosecutor to review Erd- a cache of weapons in June 1995, thereby violating
mann’s work. In the process, he examined 100 terms of his probation. Texas hauled Erdmann back
autopsies and found “good reason to believe at least to serve his time, and while he was eligible for parole
30 were false.” In fact, as one judge noted, police after serving 30 months, public protests scuttled his
sometimes refrained from sending bodies to Erd- first parole bid in March 1997.
mann because “he wouldn’t do the work. He would (See also: GILCHRIST, JOYCE; ZAIN, FRED).
ask what was the police theory and recite results to
coincide with their theories.”
When Erdmann did operate, he made bizarre and ERICSSON/NOKIA Telephone Giveaway: Internet hoax
disturbing mistakes which prosecutors managed to In late 1999 a fraudulent e-mail began to circulate on
conceal from jurors. In one case, Odessa prosecutors the Internet, offering free Nokia telephones to any

104
“ETHAN”

participants in a familiar chain letter scheme. Curi- a Ericsson T18. If you forward it to 20 friends, you will
ously, that hoax prompted another, as the competing receive the brand new Ericsson R320 WAP-phone. Just
Ericsson company was targeted by a similar hoax in remember to send a copy to Anna.Swelund@ericsson.
April 2000. Neither firm is responsible for the e- com—that is the only way we can see, that you for-
mails sent out in its name, and no free phones will be warded the message.
forthcoming to those duped by the scheme. The Eric-
sson message reads: Best of luck
Anna Swelund
----- Executive Promotion Manager for Ericsson Marketing

Dear customer Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.
Reproduction, transfer, distribution or storage of part
Our main competitor, Nokia, is giving free mobile or all of the contents in any form without the prior
phones away on the Internet. Here at Ericsson we want written permission of Ericsson is prohibited except in
to counter this offer. So we are giving our newest WAP- accordance with the following terms. Ericsson consents
phones away as well. They are specially developed for to you browsing Ericsson World Wide Web pages on
Internet happy customers who value cutting edge tech- your computer or WAP-phone and printing copies of
nology. By giving free phones away, we get valuable these pages for private use only.
customer feedback and a great Word-of-Mouth effect.
All you have to do, is to forward this message to 8 This doubtless ranks as the first time recipients of
friends. After two weeks delivery time, you will receive a chain letter were both encouraged to send it on and
legally forbidden to do so, but the warning had no
effect in any case, as Ericsson repudiated the message
in its entirety.

“ESMERALDA”: computer virus


Initially catalogued in January 2000, “Esmeralda” is
a memory-resident, parasitic virus that targets Win-
dows 95 systems. Upon the opening of .exe files,
Esmeralda writes itself to the end of the infected file,
thereafter randomly erasing sectors on the infected
computer’s C drive. While active, it displays the fol-
lowing text:

ESMERALDA
para Esmeralda Vera Vera
Bucaramanga, Colombia, 1999

“ETHAN”: computer virus


Discovered in 1998, the “Ethan” computer virus
draws its name from Edith Wharton’s classic novel
Ethan Frome (1911). It is a Word macro virus that
replicates within Word 97 programs, corrupting
Word’s normal.dot documents and template. On first
contact, Ethan replicates by creating a file named
“c:\ethan.__” and thereafter strikes randomly, chang-
A fraudulent e-mail circulated in 1999 offered free Nokia ing the properties of various Word documents as
phones in a familiar chain-letter scheme. A similar hoax they are opened. Typical changes include alteration
followed offering free Ericsson phones. (Nokia) of a document’s title to “Ethan Frome,” change of

105
“ETHAN”

author’s name to “EW/LN/CB,” and change of a or oil, or electricity, the wood stove is a great way of
company’s name to “Foo Bar Industries, Inc.” (“Foo reducing your heating bills. And if there is a problem,
Bar” is a variant spelling of the slang term “fubar”— you will be comfortable in your own heated home,
an acronym for “fucked up beyond all recognition.”) unlike your unprepared neighbors (remember the Cana-
In addition to tampering with documents, Ethan was dian ice storm last year!) That’s it for this month. See
also designed to deliver another payload on the first you next month!
workday of each month between April and Decem-
ber 1999. On the relevant dates it displayed the fol- On July 2—
lowing messages (presented with errors as shown in
the original): Did you get the stove?
Last month I recommend purchasing a gas stove to
On April 1— help heart your home in the event that your supply of
electricity, gas, or oil was interrupted. This month I
Y2K! Spread the word would like to suggest that you purchase a portable gen-
This is not an April fools joke. I wish it were! The erator and enough gas cans to store gas to power the
year 2000 is fast approaching, and the word still needs generator. The generator can be used to power lighting
to be spread about the implications and dangers of the and small electrical appliances should the power be dis-
millennium bug commonly referred to as the Y2K bug. rupted. That’s it for this month. See you next month!
The virus that has infected this word document was
written to help spread the word about the Y2K bug, On August 2—
and educate you so you can prepare yourself and your
family for Saturday January 1, 2000. Today until Janu- Getting back to basics
ary 1, 2000, on the first business day of each month, I In this installment, I would like to suggest that you
will give you a lesson in Y2K preparation. Spread the consider purchasing candles, matches, flashlights, and
word. Knowledge is power! batteries. These items will be invaluable during those
cold, dark nights should the power companies fail in
On May 3— their Y2K conversion. Don’t plan on relying on the
banks or credit/debit cards. Start each month, and stash
Hello again! away enough money to last you at least 2 months. This
Lets start our first lesson to help prepare you for the money should include enough money to pay the rent/
millennium bug. Although I don’t personally believe mortgage, utilities, FOOD, etc. Remember cold hard
there will be food shortages, power shortages, gas cash is accept EVERYWHERE. That’s it for this month.
shortages as a result of the computer bug, there will be See you next month!
food, power and gas shortages by hoarding nitwits that
fear the millennium bug. As a result, I highly recom- On September 1—
mend that you begin to stockpile bottled water (1-
month supply), canned food (1-month supply), and as A Limerick
much gas as you can store (keep your vehicle gas tank The millennium’s not far away Get onto your cod-
always topped up starting December 1st). That’s it for ing today Fix it or fudge it The boss won’t begrudge it
this month. See you next month! If everything works on the day! That’s it for this month.
See you next month!
On June 1—
On October 1—
How’s the weather?
Right now it’s pretty warm out, so you are probably Three months to go
not thinking much about the winter. But remember the Getting nervous? If you’ve followed my advice over
millennium bug is expected to hit in the middle of win- the past months, there should be nothing for you to
ter. If you’re in a northern climate, like the Great White worry about. We will survive the Y2K bug, but prepara-
North (Canada), I suggest you consider purchasing a tion will insure that if there is any Y2K crisis, it will
good airtight wood stove, and at least a face cord of only be small bump in the road, not a major pothole for
wood. Even if there are no disruptions in natural gas, you. That’s it for this month. See you next month!

106
“EVERYTHING You Never Wanted to Know” Survey

On November 1— In action, EICAR seeks to operate as a “Cyber


Defense Alliance” (CDA), defined by organization
Two months to go spokesmen as “a framework of support that endeav-
Personally, I don’t believe that there will be a major, ours to create a ‘User Friendly Information Soci-
global Y2K crisis. I trust the banks with my money. I ety.’” Reaching beyond the bounds of Europe, the
trust MOST of the industrial sector, and I trust the CDA is envisioned as “a global initiative that
power and water agencies to provide me with power includes legal frameworks, research, technical meas-
and water over the infamous weekend. I even trust the ures, and organisational co-operations in support
Russians and there nuclear arms! BUT you can never be of the objective.” More specifically, that objective
too careful. Take care. Be prepared. Use common sense. includes:
That’s it for this month. See you next month!
• Global cooperation with other security and
On December 1— antivirus organizations
• Support for the European Commission’s Conven-
Good Luck (30 days to go) tion on Cyber Crime
Well, this will be the final installment in the Y2K • Support for the EC’s Research Technology Devel-
preparation lessons. If you have followed my advice opment Information Security Technology Program
over the past few months, you will be in excellent shape • Warning, verification, and reporting of new com-
to bring in the New Year. May the New Year bring you puter viruses
health and happiness. Best wishes. Bye! • Compilation of a central database on malicious
codes
• Establishment of a unified convention for naming
EUROPEAN Institute for Computer Anti-Virus new viruses
Research • Certification and licensing of antivirus researchers
An unofficial organization devoted to combating
with standard recognized requirements
computer VIRUSES in Europe and beyond, the Euro-
• Support for antivirus research and enhancement of
pean Institute for Computer Anti-Virus Research
defense mechanisms
(EICAR) recruits members from leading universities,
• Improved public education and awareness of the
industry, government, the military and law enforce-
problem
ment, while cooperating with the media and privacy
advocates “to unite efforts against writing and pro-
By 2001, various EICAR task forces were involved
liferation of malicious code like computer viruses or
Trojan Horses, and, against computer crime, fraud in debate on the issues listed here, developing policy
and the misuse of computers or networks, inclusive statements while actively continuing research on
[of] malicious exploitation of privacy data.” computer viruses at a more practical level. Constant
With that broad mission in mind, members of networking is maintained with similar groups, such
EICAR are pledged to uphold a particular code of as the Asian Anti-Virus Research Association.
conduct that includes the following strictures:

1. “Total abstinence” from any publications or “EVERYTHING You Never Wanted to Know”
other activity that could promote panic at large— Survey: Internet scam
“i.e., no ‘trading on people’s fears’.” The following Internet message poses as a means for
2. “Abstaining from the loud and vociferous subscribers to make new friends, but in fact it gives
superlatives and factually untenable statements in the anonymous author access to personal informa-
advertising, e.g., ‘all known and unknown viruses tion on anyone foolish enough to respond. A rela-
will be recognised’.” tively “innocent” use of that information might be its
3. Withholding any information suited to develop- sale to some Internet advertising consortium. On the
ment of viruses from unauthorized third parties. other hand, it could as easily be used in CYBERSTALK-
Exchange of data between serious researchers ING for malicious purposes. The message reads:
and/or research institutions is permitted when all
have passed inspection and accept the EICAR Everything you never wanted to know and were afraid
code of conduct. to ask

107
“EXEHEADER”

Here’s what you’re supposed to do. Copy this entire SAY ONE NICE THING ABOUT THE PERSON
e-mail and change all the answers so they apply to you. WHO SENT THIS TO YOU:
Then send it to everyone you know, INCLUDING me. PERSON YOU SENT THIS TO, WHO IS LEAST
So you should get back a lot of get-to-know-you e- LIKELY TO RESPOND:
mails. You’ll learn a lot about your friends that you
maybe didn’t know. Please take 5 minutes of your day
to do this. “EXEHEADER”: computer viruses
First noted in July 1996, this family of parasitic com-
FULL NAME: puter viruses includes at least 13 variants. All write
NICKNAME(s): themselves into the free space (or “cave”) found in
HOMETOWN: .exe headers, thereby concealing themselves since the
BORN: file size does not increase. “ExeHeader” viruses con-
CURRENT RESIDENCE: tain the following text strings:
CROUTONS OR BACON BITS:
FAVORITE SALAD DRESSING: “Bane.256”: [Bane]
DO YOU DRINK: “Bosco.a”: BOSCO
SHAMPOO & CONDITIONER OR “Bosco.b,d:” BOSCO D’SOUZA
JUST CONDITIONER: “Bosco.c”: ROYDEN D’SOUZA
HAVE YOU EVER GONE SKINNY DIPPING:
“Dina.271”: Dina v4.4r
DO YOU MAKE FUN OF PEOPLE:
“Dina.283”: Dina v4.2r
FAVORITE COLORS:
“Dragon.400”: DRAGON-2 Anti
HAVE YOU EVER BEEN CONVICTED OF
“HeaderBug.324”:C:\DOS\SMARTDRV.EXE=Header-
A CRIME:
Bug=
BEST ON-LINE FRIENDS:
“Hobbit.416”: HOBBIT
ONE PILLOW OR TWO:
“Mike.252”: (c) MIKE.
PETS:
“Morality”: MORALITY
FAVORITE TYPES OF MUSIC:
“Mz1”: Mz1 Copyright (c) 1992 by Ç ñ á
DREAM CAR:
“Renegade.416”: Renegade
TYPE OF CAR YOU DRIVE NOW:
“Retro”: [Dying_Oath] by Retro
WHAT TYPE OF CAR WAS YOUR FIRST CAR:
“Vlad.337”: [Serrelinda], Rhince/VLAD
TOOTHPASTE:
FAVORITE FOOD: “XAM.278”: XAM
DO YOU GET ALONG WITH YOUR PARENTS:
FAVORITE ICE CREAM: Variations of the ExeHeader virus perform in dif-
FAVORITE SOFT DRINK: ferent ways upon invading a target computer. They
FAVORITE TYPE OF FAMILY GAME TO PLAY: include:
WHAT IS YOUR BAD TIME OF DAY:
FAVORITE TIME OF YEAR: ExeHeader.396 A dangerous virus that infects
ADIDAS, NIKE, OR REEBOK: files as they are executed, converting .exe files
FAVORITE PERFUME OR COLOGNE: to the .com format. After successfully corrupt-
FAVORITE WEBSITE: ing 256 files, the virus begins to erase large disk
FAVORITE SUBJECT IN SCHOOL: sectors.
FAVORITE MOVIE YOU HAVE SEEN RECENTLY ExeHeader.440 Another dangerous virus, infect-
OR FAVORITE TYPE OF MOVIE: ing both .exe and .com files. In some cases the
LEAST FAVORITE SUBJECT: virus then manifests itself with a video display.
FAVORITE ALCOHOLIC DRINK: ExeHeader.AntiArj Designed to corrupt only sec-
FAVORITE SPORT TO WATCH: tors that contain the header of ARJ archives (a
MOST HUMILIATING MOMENT: protected archive system named for its creator,
CRAZIEST OR SILLIEST PERSON YOU KNOW: Robert Jones).
WHAT DO YOU LOOK FOR IN ExeHeader.Clust An encrypted cluster virus that
THE OPPOSITE SEX: contains the following test strings:

108
EXPLODING Gel Candles Warning

“Clust.a”: [Clust2] JT/Trident computer’s keyboard, checking system buffers


“Clust.b”: [Clust2B] for .exe file headers and copying itself into any
“Clust.c”: [Clust2C] such headers located.

ExeHeader Bosco A virus that searches out and


deletes .chk files (“chunks” of data collected EXPLODING Gel Candles Warning: Internet hoax
for future repair and saved to a computer’s root Beginning in June 2001 the Internet was flooded
directory when Windows 95/98 runs its Scan- with alerts announcing an alleged recall of gel can-
disk program, following any malfunction). dles, peculiar (and futile) in that it names no specific
ExeHeader.Dragon.400 A stealth virus that brand, recalling firm or other agency. The U.S.
installs itself as a device driver, thereafter inter- Department of Energy’s HOAXBUSTERS team investi-
cepting the “write” and “read” commands to gated the gel candle safety issue and was able to doc-
legitimate device drivers. If the accessed data ument one recall, in June 1998, of Glade brand
contain .exe headers, the virus inserts itself candles that were found to burn a bit too intensely.
automatically. No further recalls have been ordered on any brand of
ExeHeader.Joan A stealth virus that installs itself candles since that time, and no explosions have ever
into an infected computer’s High Memory been recorded. The hoax message reads:
Area. It contains the text string:
Subject: IMPORTANT INFORMATION—Gel candles
>Joan v1.2 by KiKo NoMo of T.N.T. Taipei/Taiwan
1995/08 Thought you all should read this for your own safety

ExeHeader.Ming While corrupting files, this virus Hi all, My former secretary had a terrible thing hap-
sometimes (but not always) displays the message: pen to her and her family last week, and I wanted to
share it with all of you so that you could be warned
Written By Crazy Lord (Ming) and warn your friends and family as well. She had a
Made in Hong Kong gel candle burning in her bathroom . . . it exploded
and caught her house on fire . . . the house burned
ExeHeader.Olya A dangerous stealth virus that down and they have lost everything. The fire marshal
overwrites disk sectors with the text “Olya Kib- told her that this is not the first incident where a gel
ina” on the 26th day of April. candle has exploded and caused a fire. He said that
ExeHeader.Pure Similar in operation to Exe- the gel builds up a gas, and often times it explodes and
Header.Joan, this variant is another stealth sets fire to the room it is in, which is what happened
virus that attaches itself to a computer’s High to her. The fire was so hot it melted the smoke alarm,
Memory Area. and they didn’t discover the fire until there was an
ExeHeader.SkidRow Triggered whenever the explosion, which was her toilet blowing up, and then
month and date share the same numerical it was too late . . . the entire upstairs was engulfed in
value—1 January, 2 February, and so forth— flames. Smoke damage and water damage have
this virus displays the following messages: destroyed what wasn’t destroyed by fire. I know that
there are roomies and friends that I don’t have on this
“ExeHeader.SkidRow.415,427”: list because I can’t remember how to spell their screen
This is Skid-Row Virus names . . . please pass this along to anyone I missed. I
Written by Dark Slayer wouldn’t want this to happen to anyone else. Her fam-
* in Keelung. Taiwan * ily is devastated. All their mementos and everything of
“ExeHeader.SkidRow.432”: value and meaning are gone. I’m not trying to scare
This is Skid-Row Virus anyone . . . just a friendly warning to all of you about
Written by Dark Slayer the use of gel candles left unattended. Thanks and
% in Keelung. Taiwan % take care.

ExeHeader.XMA.278 After installing itself, this NOTE: Marty and I know a lady who loved the gel
variant attaches to each tap on the infected candles. She had one burning on her mantle and it

109
EXPLODING Gel Candles Warning

caught fire just like in the message above. She was at to her hand and 3 fingers! Please, if you or anyone you
home at the time and saw it happen and grabbed the know have these candles, don’t light them, they are
candle to keep it from setting her home on fire and it dangerous. Please, pass this on.
came apart in her hand. She suffered third degree burns

110
F
FAIN, Charles: exonerated by DNA evidence sistent” to Fain’s. Convicted of first-degree murder,
Nine-year-old Daralyn Johnson was kidnapped on kidnapping and rape, Fain was sentenced to death in
February 24, 1982, while walking to school in February 1984. Still maintaining his innocence, he
Nampa, Idaho. School administrators assumed she converted to Christianity in prison and joined fellow
was absent due to illness, and Daralyn’s parents inmates in a legal contest for the right to hold religious
knew nothing of her disappearance until she failed to services on death row (victorious in 1989).
return home that afternoon. Police soon learned that DNA analysis was unknown at the time of Fain’s
she had never reached the school. Her corpse was conviction and death sentence, but science caught up
found three days later, in a ditch near the Snake with his case in 2001, after he had served more than
River. Autopsy results showed that Daralyn had been 17 years in prison. “Overall,” he told reporters, “I
raped, then drowned. Pubic hairs from an unknown believed I was going to get out because I was inno-
subject were retrieved from her underpants and one cent. When this DNA stuff started coming on the
stocking. news, something just told me it was going to be part
Seven months after the murder, an informant of this case.” Indeed, testing proved beyond doubt
directed police to sanitation worker Charles Fain. that the pubic hairs found on Daralyn Johnson’s
Detectives noted that his light-brown hair appeared body in 1984 were not Fain’s, a result confirmed by
to match the hairs recovered from Daralyn’s body. independent prosecution testing on June 28, 2001.
Fain also resided one block from Daralyn’s home in One week later, Idaho attorney general Al Lance
September 1982, but at the time of the murder he joined defense attorneys in petitioning a federal court
had lived 360 miles away, in Redmond, Oregon. At to grant Fain a writ of habeas corpus. U.S. District
his second interrogation, in October 1982, Fain Judge B. Lynn Winmill voided Fain’s conviction on
agreed to a polygraph examination and passed it, the July 6, 2001, and remanded his case to the original
examiner reporting that Fain told the truth when he trial court for further action.
denied participation in Daralyn’s rape and murder. Attorney General Lance, while cooperative to a
Still, local prosecutors charged him with the crime point, still declared, “It is important to the interests
and held Fain for trial in 1983. The polygraph results of justice that there be no misunderstanding as to the
were inadmissible in court, and while an Oregon meaning of this announcement. DNA testing was not
librarian testified on Fain’s behalf, describing him as a available at the time of Fain’s trial and conviction. It
regular customer around the time of the Idaho murder, is available today and, appropriately, has been used
jurors chose to believe an FBI technician who in this case. While this new evidence does show the
described the crime scene hairs as “similar” and “con- need for further review, it would be wrong to say

111
“FAMILY Pictures” Computer Virus

that it proves Fain’s innocence. The DNA testing ning in the year 2000, the virus delivers a payload
proves only one thing. It proves that the pubic hairs on March 5 of each successive year, overwriting
found on the victim’s clothing did not belong to boot sectors of the infected computer’s hard drive
Charles Fain. That fact in itself does not mean that with a Trojan program that displays the following
Fain did not commit these crimes. This evidence does text:
not exonerate Mr. Fain.”
And yet, despite such face-saving pronounce- Internal Error
ments, it did precisely that. Fain was released from Virus FANTASMA. Mexico 1996
custody on August 24, 2001, after prosecutors
declined to retry the case against him. formally dis-
missing the charges. Fain expressed no bitterness at “FASTLANE”: alleged software pirate gang
the system that had falsely imprisoned him, telling On February 15, 2001, the U.S. Justice Department
journalists, “I gave that up a long time ago. That is indicted nine defendants, alleged members of a gang
the one thing I know I can do: forgive.” To date, the known to its members as Fastlane, for stealing more
murder of Daralyn Johnson remains unsolved. than $1 million in copyrighted computer software,
games, and movies via nonpublic Internet sites.
Those charged in the nine-count indictment included
“FAMILY Pictures” Computer Virus: Internet hoax 36-year-old Steve Deal (a.k.a. “Doobie”), of Char-
Beginning in March 2001, bogus warnings of yet lotte, North Carolina, and Trenton, New Jersey; 31-
another nonexistent computer virus began to circu- year-old Tony Walker (a.k.a. “SyS”), of San Diego,
late on the Internet. A spokesman for the U.S. California; 26-year-old Ryan Breding (a.k.a.
Department of Energy’s HOAXBUSTERS website sug- “river”), from Oklahoma City; 25-year-old Glendon
gests, with wry humor, that this fraud may have been Martin (a.k.a. “TeRRiFiC”), of Garland, Texas; 22-
perpetrated by someone fed up with browsing year-old Shane McIntyre (a.k.a. “Crypto”), from
through photo albums. The original warning reads Boynton Beach, Florida; 20-year-old Bjorn Schneider
(with original errors): (a.k.a. “airwalker”), of Falmouth, Massachusetts;
19-year-old James Milne (a.k.a. “lordchaos”), from
Subject: Virus to look out for Shawnee, Kansas; 19-year-old Tae Yuan Wang (a.k.a.
“Prometh”), of Bellevue, Washington; and 19-year-
DO NOT OPEN “NEW PICTURES OF FAMILY” It old Kevin Vaughn (a.k.a. “DaBoo”), from Raleigh,
is a virus that will erase your whole “C” drive. It will North Carolina.
come to you in the form of an E-mail from a familiar According to government spokesmen, the gang
person. I repeat a friend sent it to me, but called & was broken when an FBI undercover agent infiltrated
warned me before I opened it. He was not so lucky and its ranks and was asked to provide a computer for
now he can’t even start his computer! Forward this to one of Fastlane’s Internet websites, for illicit distribu-
everyone in your address book. I would rather receive tion of stolen software. The agent agreed and there-
this 25 times than not at all. after monitored the gang’s operations via that
computer, spying from within. Prosecutors tracked
Also: Intel announced that a new and very destructive illegal downloads and distribution of copyrighted
virus was discovered recently. If you receive an e-mail software between January and September 2000,
called “FAMILY PICTURES,” do not open it. Delete when Steve Deal was arrested and released on
it right away! This virus removes all dynamic link $10,000 bond. Eight of the defendants were charged
from your computer. Your computer will not be able to with multiple counts of copyright infringement and
boot up. conspiracy, while Vaughn was indicted for conspir-
acy alone.
As detailed in the charges, Fastlane was founded
“FANTASMA”: computer virus in November 1999, with members inside the U.S.
Identified for the first time in October 1996, “Fan- and abroad. Defendants Deal, McIntyre, Schneider,
tasma” is a dangerous, memory-resident, parasitic and Wang were the managing brains behind Fast-
virus that attaches itself to the end of .com and lane. Martin, Milne, and Vaughn allegedly operated
.exe files when they are opened or executed. Begin- the gang’s computers and websites, where stolen

112
FBI Computer Crimes Unit

software—dubbed “warez” by the pirates—was fication, no concerted effort toward tracking crimi-
stored. Breding and Walker allegedly provided nals in cyberspace was made in Washington before
hardware in return for free access to the stolen soft- the late 1990s. The first such unit was apparently
ware, games, and movies. Fastlane websites based in the Cleveland field office, spawned by an
included the “Super Dimensional Fortress Macros” executive order from President Bill Clinton that cre-
(SDFM) site operated by an FBI undercover agent ated a new Infrastructure Protection Task Force. By
between January 7, 2000, and September 20, 2000. year’s end, similar units were operating from FBI
Defendants Deal, Schneider, McIntyre, and Wang field offices in New York City, San Francisco, and
also reportedly participated in management of the Washington, D.C. On February 25, 1997, the
SDFM site, downloading thousands of copyrighted bureau announced that a similar unit would soon
programs that included operating systems, utilities, be operational in its Los Angeles field office, coor-
word processing software, data analysis and dinating efforts across the country. Supervisory spe-
spreadsheet applications, communications pro- cial agent John McClurg told reporters, “A number
grams, graphics, desktop publishing, and games. of other cities are actually on the verge of reaching
During nine months of operation, the SDFM site that point in which they have the expertise [in
alone downloaded more than 1,900 gigabytes and tracking cybercriminals] that is certifiable. Los
distributed more than 697 gigabytes of software, Angeles is very close. Teams are being formed
including Microsoft Office 2000, Microsoft Win- across the U.S. in the field offices.”
dows Millennium, Adobe Framemaker v6.0, Corel As described in FBI press releases, the computer
Custom Photo SE, Symantec PCAny-where, and crime unit was designed to bridge a gap between
McAfee VirusScan—collectively valued in excess of domestic criminal investigations and the bureau’s
$1 million. national security function, operating internation-
Other sites affiliated with Fastlane included ally if evidence led investigators beyond the conti-
Sacred Halls (SH), maintained by defendant Milne at nental United States. Still, it was July 1999 before
a university in Kansas and remotely accessed from the FBI formally announced its “war” on computer
his Shawnee home; The Good News, maintained by criminals, in a press release from the Seattle field
defendant Martin in Ohio and remotely accessed office. There, 10 agents were assigned to cyber-
from Texas; and 4:20, maintained by defendant crime full-time, assisted by two assistant U.S. attor-
Vaughn at a university in North Carolina. FBI agents neys. Cases specifically earmarked for handling by
were assisted in their investigation by agents of the the unit included CHILD PORNOGRAPHY, drug deal-
Interactive Digital Software Association, the Business ing, or financial crime, and intrusion into com-
Software Alliance, the Software and Information puter networks by disgruntled employees or
Industry Association, and the Motion Picture Associ- recreational “HACKERS.” In April 2000, Washing-
ation of America. ton spokesmen felt confident enough to announce
No trial has yet been scheduled for the Fastlane creation of a new InfraGuard program, described
defendants as of January 2002. Justice Department as “just one portion of a larger plan to tackle com-
spokesmen remind the public that indictments con- puter crimes as networks become more valuable to
tain only charges and are not proof of guilt. If con- international commerce and carry more important
victed, defendants charged with conspiracy to information.” By that time, FBI computer squads
infringe copyright face a maximum sentence of five were collaborating full time with other agencies,
years in prison and a $250,000 fine on each count. via the Justice Department’s National Infrastruc-
Copyright infringement carries a maximum sentence ture Protection Center and its Internet Fraud Com-
of three years in prison and a $250,000 fine on each plaint Center.
count. Financial restitution is mandatory in the event Ted Jackson, special agent in charge of the
of conviction. Atlanta field office, told reporters that the FBI con-
siders computer crime “the new form of terrorism.
Someone involved in attacking your system can
FBI Computer Crimes Unit cause more problems than bombs.” The bureau was
Although the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) determined to root out cybercriminals, Jackson
has used computers for decades, for all manner of insisted. “When you’re at your computer and do
tasks including data storage and FINGERPRINT identi- something illegal, and you affect commerce or gov-

113
FCC Religion Broadcasting Ban

ernment, we’re going to do everything in our power from time to time. The original (with errors uncor-
to bring you before the bars of justice.” rected) reads:
FBI investigators recognize two basic kinds of
computer crime: (1) crimes facilitated by comput- Please chare this with everyone! We don’t need to sit
ers, as money laundering, transmission of pornog- back and be passive on this one. This is really scary
raphy, or different kinds of fraud; and (2) crimes and once you read it you’ll realize that CBS would
where a computer itself is the target of intrusion, even be forced to discontinue “Touched By An Angel”
data theft, or sabotage. Federal investigators derive because they use the word “God” in every program.
their authority from computer crimes legislation Madeline Murray O’Hare, an atheist, successfully
passed by Congress, including some statutes—wire eliminated the use of Bible reading and prayer from
fraud, interstate transmission of threats or ransom schools fifteen years ago. Her organization has now
demands, and so forth—enacted long before the been granted a Federal Hearing on the same subject by
first computer was invented. In theory, the FBI the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in
investigates a case only when federal statutes have Washington, DC. Their petition, No. 2493, would ulti-
been violated, and the U.S. attorney’s office sup- mately pave the way to stop the reading of the Gospel
ports investigation with an agreement to prosecute of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, on the airwaves of
if federal violations are substantiated. Under pre- America. They took this petition with 287,000 signa-
vailing law, unless a subject voluntarily discloses tures to back their stand. If this attempt is successful,
information, FBI agents may only gather evidence all Sunday Worship services being broadcast either by
pursuant to a search warrant, court order, or a fed- radio or television will stop. This group is also cam-
eral grand jury subpoena. paigning to remove all Christmas Programs, Christmas
Those are the rules, but civil libertarians remind songs and Christmas carols from public schools. You
us of the FBI’s history, including numerous illegal can help! We need one million signed letters. This
break-ins, wiretaps, and all manner of criminal would defeat their effort and show that there are many
harassment against minority groups spanning the Christians alive, well and concerned in our country.
better part of a century, from the bureau’s creation in Please print this letter then cut off and sign the form
1908 through (at least) the early 1990s. Voices of below. PLEASE DO NOT SIGN JOINTLY, such as
concern were raised with the unveiling of the FBI’s “Mr. & Mrs.” Each person should sign one letter sepa-
Carnivore program, a software tool designed to scan rately, and mail it in separate envelopes. Be sure to put
the Internet at large (some say illegally, at random) “Petition 2495” ON THE ENVELOPE when you
for evidence of crime in cyberspace, and bureau mail the letter. This has to go out regular mail. It’s
explanations of the software’s “surgical” precision important that you do it right away. Please e-mail this
did little to pacify outspoken critics. Likewise, the letter to all your friends and relatives and to anyone
passage of sweeping new search-and-surveillance leg- else you feel led to. Or photo copy it and mail it. Chris-
islation in the wake of September 2001’s terrorist tians must unite on this. Please do not take this lightly.
attacks on New York City and the Pentagon sug- You don’t have to be a “Bible Thumper” to realize the
gested broad potential for abuse. It remains to be significance of the disappearance of another good
seen how federal agents and prosecutors will influence in our lives, and of particular concern, that of
use their new powers, or whether they will once the next generation’s lives. We did once and lost prayer
more exceed their authority in the name of “national in schools and in offices across the nation. We cannot
security.” let this attempt succeed. Below is a sample letter that
you can copy and send, or draft your own personal
message to voice your concern.
FCC Religion Broadcasting Ban: Internet hoax
Since February 2000 a series of fraudulent e-mails Send letter to:
have circulated on the Internet, claiming that the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is plot- Date: January __, 2000
ting to eradicate religious programming in America.
Despite FCC repudiation of the lie—and the fact that Federal Communications Commission
religious broadcasts seem to increase in number with Washington, DC 20054
each passing month—the hoax lives on in cyberspace
and still apparently wins the odd gullible convert Re: Petition 2493

114
FINGERPRINTS

Dear Sirs; end of executable files. Each time an infected file is


executed, the virus takes control, switches to Win-
I am an American and am very thankful for my dows kernel mode, and replicates itself in memory as
American Heritage. Our forefathers founded this a driver. In the process of infection, Filth corrupts var-
country under the premise of a strong belief and ious file access functions, including the “Find File”
faith in God and His principles. I am also very and “Read File” commands. In some cases, a bug in
much aware of the role that our Christian faith has the virus damages Windows to the extent that it can-
played in the freedom that we Americans now not be restarted. Filth presents the following text:
enjoy. Therefore, I protest any effort to remove
from radio or television, programs designed to Cradle of Filth
nurture faith in God, or to remove Christmas pro- krad
grams, Christmas songs and Christmas carols from
public airwaves, schools, office buildings, etc.
FINGERPRINTS
Sincerely. Fingerprints have been used as a form of identifica-
Name: tion for at least 4,000 years, the first known record
Address: dating from ancient Babylonia, where several cap-
City: tured army deserters were forced to leave marks of
State & Zip Code: their fingers and thumbs as a permanent record. Two
thousand years ago, the Chinese used thumbprints as
FCC spokespersons insist that there is no Petition seals for official documents, and the next millennium
2493 (or 2495, for that matter) and that if such a saw Chinese river pirates compelled to provide ink
petition were submitted the commission would ignore prints of their thumbs. Fingerprints made their first
it. Likewise, the FCC has no jurisdiction over what is appearance in a criminal trial in pre-Christian Rome,
done, said, or broadcast in “schools, office buildings, after a senator was murdered and his killer left
etc.” Finally, while televangelists frequently harp on bloody handprints on the wall. Shape and size, rather
the theme, the late activist Madalyn Murray O’Hair than ridge detail, acquitted the prime suspect in that
left no “organization” behind at the time of her death case and later convicted the senator’s wife.
to continue working for the strict separation of “Modern” fingerprint identification dates from
church and state. The alleged conspiracy against reli- 1788, when German analyst J. C. A. Mayer declared
gious broadcasting simply does not exist—except in for the first time that each fingerprint is unique.
the imaginations of certain doomsday preachers who Mark Twain and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle made fic-
find it useful as a fund-raising ploy. tional references to fingerprint identification in the
19th century, but practical identification waited for
the near-simultaneous work (in 1892) of William
“FIASKO”: computer virus Herschel in India, Henry Faulds in Japan, and Fran-
Described by analysts as a harmless, nonmemory-res- cis Galton in England. It was Galton who first pro-
ident, parasitic, polymorphic virus, “Fiasko” was posed a practical system of fingerprint classification
first reported in January 2000. It attacks Windows and filing, improved and expanded by Sir Edward
systems exclusively, searching out executable files Henry in 1899–1900. Meanwhile, in Argentina dur-
and infecting the first two found in each directory, ing 1891, a competing classification system was
writing itself to the end of each file. Its innocuous developed by Juan Vucetich, still used in most Span-
payload is delivered in the following display: ish-speaking countries. Official fingerprinting made
its way to the United States in 1902, when New York
mort’s virus state adopted the technique to eliminate fraud on
FIASKO ’99—10x 4 nothing . . . civil service tests. By 1908 the U.S. armed forces had
adopted universal fingerprinting of all personnel, and
America witnessed its first criminal conviction based
“FILTH”: computer virus on fingerprints three years later. J. Edgar Hoover
Discovered in February 2000, “Filth” is classified as a often boasted of the FBI’s vast fingerprint collection,
dangerous, memory-resident, parasitic, stealth virus including not only convicted criminals and military
that attacks Windows systems, writing itself to the personnel, but also persons printed for a wide variety

115
FINGERPRINTS

Ironically, just when fingerprint scanning became


nearly effortless, the very use of fingerprints them-
selves was called into question at a murder trial in
Philadelphia. Defendants Carlos Llera-Plaza, Wil-
fredo Acosta, and Victor Rodriguez faced possible
execution if convicted of running a Pennsylvania nar-
cotics syndicate that committed at least four murders
between 1996 and 1998. Defense attorneys for the
trio challenged the scientific validity of fingerprint
evidence, winning a decision from U.S. District Judge
Louis Pollak on January 7, 2002, that barred finger-
print experts from linking crime scene prints to spe-
cific defendants. Acting in response to a 1993 U.S.
Supreme Court decision requiring federal judges to
take a more active role in weighing the admissibility
of scientific evidence, Pollak ruled that experts may
testify about similarities between “latent” crime
scene prints and “rolled” fingerprints on file, but
they may not claim specific latent prints positively
match a criminal suspect. Judge Pollak found that,
unlike DNA evidence, the error rate of fingerprint
data has never been calculated, that the evidence
itself has never been scientifically tested, and that no
universal standards exist for a “match.”
Prosecutors filed an immediate appeal of Judge
Pollak’s decision, noting that his ruling “would
deprive the government of vital evidence in this case,
in which latent fingerprints directly link defendants
Fingerprints are classified based on eight basic patterns. to heinous murders. If carried to its logical conclu-
(Kathleen O. Arries) sion, the court’s reasoning would virtually eliminate
any expert opinion on the myriad subjects on which
subjective expert opinion has always been welcomed
in the federal courts.”
of government positions, driver’s licenses and so At a February hearing on Judge Pollak’s decision,
forth. (Even casual tourists visiting FBI Headquarters FBI fingerprint analyst Stephen Meagher cited the
were invited to donate fingerprints, purportedly to bureau’s proficiency test as sufficient grounds for Pol-
help identify victims of future natural disasters.) lak to trust expert testimony. British fingerprint
With billions of fingerprints from millions of per- expert Allan Bayle, appearing for the defense, noted
sons on file, each subject with his or her separate that FBI tests used the same sample prints for three
fingerprint card, identifying anonymous prints from years in a row and branded the bureau’s six-week
a specific crime scene might require weeks of eye- training program “a joke.” Of the final proficiency
straining effort. Even reducing the field to a smaller test, Bayle said, “They’re not testing their ability, and
subset—e.g., convicted burglars or kidnappers— they’re not testing their expertise. If I gave my experts
still left technicians with thousands of cards to this test they would fall about laughing.” Further-
examine, each bearing 10 fingerprints. Today, the more, Bayle noted, there were no international stan-
process is greatly streamlined by an Automated dards for fingerprint comparison and identification:
Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), capable British courts required 16 specific “Galton points” of
of scanning and rejecting hundreds of prints per identity, Australian authorities demanded 12, and FBI
hour. Recent improvements in software also “clean experts often made do with 10 matching points.
up” smudged prints and facilitate identification of Meagher, recalled to the stand by Judge Pollack,
partials. reluctantly acknowledged that “there certainly have

116
FLETCHER, John Bill Jr.

been erroneous [fingerprint] identifications testified The FDA has been reluctant to issue a country wide
to in the United States,” but denied that the FBI had warning because of fear nationwide panic. They have
ever made such a mistake. Coming hard on the heels secretly admitted that they feel upwards of 15,000
of sweeping scandals in the FBI’s crime laboratory Americans will be affected by this but that these are
and reports that G-men had framed various innocent acceptable numbers.
persons on murder charges across the United States, Please forward this to as many people you care
leaving three to sit in prison for 25 to 30 years each, about as possible as we do not feel 15,000 people is an
Meagher’s blanket endorsement of FBI methods was acceptable number.
less than compelling.
Manheim Research Institute
Center for Disease Control
FLESH-EATING Bananas: Internet panic attack Atlanta Georgia
First circulated on-line in February 2000, this
fraudulent warning purports to emanate from the It should go without saying that no responsible
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). It has been physician or medical researcher advises patients to
publicly repudiated by both the CDC and the Food burn themselves as an antidote to any known disease
and Drug Administration but still continues to or infection. The CDC’s official response to this false
surface periodically. The original message reads rumor reads:
(with errors preserved):
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Subject: URGENT warning National Center for Infectious Diseases states that the
current email rumor circulating about Costa Rican
Dear Friend, bananas causing the disease ‘necrotizing fasciitis’ is false.
We have not heard any reports of cases of necrotiz-
Please forward to everyone you love!! This is ing fasciitis associated with bananas. There is no evi-
VALIDATED FROM THE CDC. (center for disease dence that necrotizing fasciitis is transmitted by food.
control in atlanta georgia) The bacteria which most commonly cause necrotizing
fasciitis live in the human body. The usual route of
Warning: transmission for these bacteria is from person to person.

Several shipments of bananas from Costa Rica have


been infected with necrotizing fasciitis, otherwise known FLETCHER, John Bill Jr.: indicted by DNA evidence
as flesh eating bacteria. Recently this disease has deci- Convicted of multiple felony charges in 1987,
mated the monkey population in Costa Rica. We are 45-year-old John Bill Fletcher Jr. was serving a 43-
now just learning that the disease has been able to graft year sentence at the Washington State Penitentiary in
itself to the skin of fruits in the region, most notably the Walla Walla when he received some bad news in
Banana which is Costa Rica’s largest export. December 2001. While DNA test results were being
Until this finding scientist were not sure how the used to free wrongfully convicted inmates all over
infection was being transmitted. It is advised not to the country, more than 100 at last count, the same
purchase Bananas for the next three weeks as this is the tests had a dramatically different impact on
period of time for which bananas that have been Fletcher’s case. Far from liberating Fletcher, DNA
shipped to the US with the possibility of carrying this profiling had linked him to an unsolved murder that
disease. If you have eaten a banana in the last 2-3 days would keep him in prison for the rest of his life.
and come down with a fever followed by a skin infec- Fletcher was on parole from Texas, after serving
tion seek “Medical Attention”!!! seven years of a 20-year aggravated rape conviction,
The skin infection from necrotizing fasciitis is very when he moved to Washington’s Yakima County in
painful and eats two to three centimeters of flesh per October 1986. Old habits die hard for a sociopath,
hour. Amputation is likely, death is possible. and Fletcher was jailed in August 1987, after his lat-
If you are more than an hour from a medical center est rape victim identified him. Fletcher had kid-
burning the flesh ahead of the infected area is advised to napped the woman, raped her and stabbed her 16
help slow the spread of the infection. times before she escaped, after disarming Fletcher

117
FLICK, Kevin

and stabbing him in the leg with his own knife. A forms send themselves throughout the Internet as e-
second victim came forward after Fletcher’s arrest, mails with file attachments; upon infecting a new
leading to his ultimate conviction on two counts of host, they report back to an IRC (Internet Relay
first-degree rape, plus one count each of robbery and Chat) channel with information about the infected
assault. At the time, he was also suspected in the computer. A backdoor system is then activated,
rape-slayings of Theresa Branscomb (stabbed to granting remote access to the computer and permit-
death in February 1987) and Bertha Cantu (killed the ting a distant saboteur to inflict further damage.
same way, five months later), but scientific evidence The first Fog variant—Fog.a, also known as
was inconclusive. Apbot—displays the following message box when an
“It was extremely frustrating at the time,” investi- infected file is opened:
gator Jim Hall told the press. “It was one of those
things where you knew what was going on but Explorer
couldn’t prove it. Technology has finally caught up i reb00t
with him.” Bloodstains from Fletcher’s station [OK]
wagon matched Branscomb’s DNA, and Fletcher
confessed to both slayings after he received assur- When the “OK” button is pressed, Fog automati-
ances that prosecutors would not seek the death cally copies itself into the Windows system directory
penalty. He was formally charged with two counts of and the Windows fonts directory, using the names
first-degree murder on December 10, 2001. “AntiVirus.exe” and “Times New Roman.exe,”
respectively. Fog also checks the infected computer’s
in-box for any e-mails with file attachments and
FLICK, Kevin: satellite TV pirate replies to each with an infected message reading:
A 43-year-old resident of Petersburgh, Ohio, Kevin
Flick was arrested by federal agents on August 18, Subject: I think you sent me a virus . . . heres a cleaner
2000, charged with selling and distributing elec- Message: I took my computer to the shop and they ran
tronic devices primarily used for unauthorized this, and told me to sent it to you.. hope this helps.
decryption of direct-to-home satellite television Attachment: AntiVirus.exe
transmissions. According to details of the indict-
ment, between January 1, 1998, and June 30, 1999, At the same time, Fog searches out and attempts
Flick sold and installed television satellite dish sys- to erase the following processes, including antivirus
tems for at least 125 clients in northern Ohio and applications:
western Pennsylvania. At the same time, he provided
those customers with access cards illegally altered to ANTI-TROJAN.EXE
permit free reception and decryption of “premium” ANTS.EXE
channels such as HBO, Showtime, and Cinemax, APLICA32.EXE
normally offered for a monthly fee by DirecTV. AVCONSOL.EXE
Prosecutors estimated that his illegal operation cost AVP.EXE
DirecTV a total of $250,000, for an average of AVPCC.EXE
$2,000 per hacked access card. Flick pleaded guilty AVPM.EXE
to one felony count on September 5, 2000, as part of AVP32.EXE
a bargain with federal prosecutors. On November BLACKD.EXE
16, 2000, U.S. District Judge Patricia Gaughan sen- BLACKICE.EXE
tenced Flick to six months in jail and three years’ CFIADMIN.EXE
supervised probation, plus $250,000 restitution to CFAUDIT.EXE
DirecTV and a $100 levy for a federal Crime CFINET.EXE
Victims’ Fund. CFINET32.EXE
CLEANER3.EXE
IAMAPP.EXE
“FOG”: computer worm IAMSERV.EXE
Catalogued for the first time in June 2001, Fog is an ICLOAD95.EXE
e-mail worm with two significant variants. Both ICLAODNT.EXE

118
“FORD Heights Four”

ICMON.EXE been raped and both victims were killed with close-
ICSUP95.EXE range gunshots to the head.
ICSUPNT.EXE Authorities had no leads in the case until an
IFACE.EXE anonymous telephone call sent them looking for five
LOCKDOWN2000.EXE young blacks on May 17. Those arrested were Ken-
MINILOG.EXE neth Adams, Paula Gray, Verneal Jimerson, William
MOONLIVE.EXE Rainge, and Dennis Williams. On the day of his
NAVAP32.EXE arrest, Williams recalls, a white officer warned him,
PCWallIcom.EXE “Nigger, you’re gonna fry.” While investigators jug-
SAFEWEB.EXE gled evidence—and buried testimony pointing to
SPHINX.EXE four other suspects—the sole female defendant was
TCA.EXE offered a bargain she could not refuse. In exchange
TDS2-98.EXE for testimony against her supposed accomplices,
TDS2-NT.EXE Paula Gray would receive immunity from prosecu-
VSECOMP.EXE tion. Fearing for her life, Gray readily agreed.
VSHWIN32.EXE In light of local sentiment and official malfea-
WEBSCANX.EXE sance, the result was predictable. Adams, Jimerson,
WRADMIN.EXE Rainge, and Williams were convicted on all charges:
WRCTRL.EXE Jimerson and Williams were sentenced to die for the
ZONEALARM.EXE murders; Rainge was sentenced to life imprisonment;
Adams received a 75-year prison term. The four
Fog.a also includes the following copyright text: maintained their innocence, and their convictions
were overturned on appeal in 1983, but all four were
[Fist of God] convicted again in a 1985 retrial, with Williams once
[Remote DDoS] again sentenced to die. There the matter rested until
[v2.7b] May 1995, when condemned killer Girvies Davis—
hours away from his own execution—urged a friend,
“Fog.b” confuses the issue, inasmuch as it is also journalism professor David Protess, to investigate the
sometimes known as Apbot. Like Fog.a, it deletes Ford Heights case. Preliminary research showed gap-
files and terminates applications including those ing holes in the prosecution’s case, and Protess
listed above, while sending itself to new host assigned some of his students from Northwestern
machines via infected e-mail attachments. The mes- University to find the truth. What they uncovered
sage dispatched by Fog.b reads as follows: was a frame-up fueled in equal parts by racism and
the desire to clear a shocking case at any cost.
Subject: Virus Alert! Paula Gray, the state’s “star” witness with a tested
Message: Businesses of all kinds have suffered today as IQ of 55, freely admitted lying under oath to save
a virus has been unleashed, please find the attached herself from prison. Worse yet, the students discov-
cleaner and run it. You cannot tell if you have this virus ered that another informant had named four other
until you run the cleaner. suspects on May 17, 1978—suspects ignored by the
Attachment: regsrv32.exe police in their single-minded zeal to convict the “Ford
Heights Four” already charged. One of those sus-
pects, Ira Johnson, was serving 74 years for a separate
“FORD Heights Four”: inmates exonerated by DNA evidence murder when Protess found him in prison. Johnson
Described in a Chicago Tribune report as “almost signed an affidavit naming his deceased brother Den-
certainly the largest single, proven miscarriage of jus- nis as Carol Schmal’s killer, further admitting that he
tice in Illinois history,” the case of the “Ford Heights and two other gunmen—Arthur Robinson and Juan
Four” began at 2:15 A.M. on May 11, 1978, when Rodriguez—killed Larry Lionberg.
28-year-old Larry Lionberg and his fiancée, 23-year- Police and prosecutors dismissed the new evi-
old Carol Schmal, were kidnapped from a Home- dence as fraudulent, but the Illinois Supreme Court
wood gas station. Police later discovered them in an felt otherwise, overturning Verneal Jimerson’s con-
abandoned Ford Heights townhouse: Schmal had viction and death sentence on grounds that Paula

119
“FREEZER”

Gray had lied under oath at his trial. Freed on bond evidence including hairs and semen, deemed “con-
pending retrial, Jimerson worked with the journalis- sistent” with their own by methods common prior
tic team to free his friends. That freedom came in to the advent of DNA testing. At trial, in April 1988,
June 1996, when DNA test results positively the prosecution also relied heavily on testimony
excluded all four defendants as participants in Carol from jailhouse “snitches,” including one Glen Gore,
Schmal’s rape. Ira Johnson, Arthur Robinson, and who claimed the defendants had confessed the
Juan Rodriguez were indicted on July 3, 1996, sub- crime in private conversations. Upon conviction,
sequently convicted and sentenced for the Ford Williamson was sentenced to die, while Fritz
Heights double slaying. received a life prison term. Williamson successfully
No police officers were charged with any crime in appealed his conviction and won a new trial, but he
the Ford Heights frame-up, but state authorities was convicted again and once more sentenced to
offered to pay the four exonerated inmates $35,000 die. At one point in his death row odyssey,
each for their 18 years in prison. Understandably Williamson came within nine days of execution,
reluctant to accept that low-ball offer, the Ford summoned to the warden’s office to discuss disposal
Heights Four sued Cook County, its sheriff’s depart- of his corpse.
ment and various individual officers for false impris- A stay of execution saved his life on that occasion,
onment. In March 1999 the case was settled out of and Williamson remained persistent, winning
court, for a reported $36 million. A gag order was another appeal in 1998. This time, before convening
imposed to suppress details of the settlement. Dennis a third trial, prosecutors agreed to DNA testing of
Williams, still embittered and distrustful, reportedly evidence found at the Carter crime scene. Fritz’s
still telephones a friend or relative each time he lawyers, including Barry Scheck from the CARDOZO
leaves his home, to have an iron-clad alibi prepared INNOCENCE PROJECT, joined that effort and the tests
in case authorities come after him again with more exonerated both men of involvement in the crime.
false charges. They were released from prison on April 15, 1999.
Prosecution witness Glen Gore, meanwhile, was
implicated by DNA testing as Carter’s actual slayer, a
“FREEZER”: computer virus disclosure that prompted him to stage a jailbreak
A dangerous, memory-resident, parasitic virus, first from the Lexington Correctional Center one day
identified in September 1996, “Freezer” is known in before Fritz and Williamson were liberated. Gore
two variants, labeled “Freezer.830” and “Freezer. surrendered to police on April 20, 1999.
980.” The latter is encrypted, but both perform in On June 12, 2000, Dennis Fritz appeared before
identical fashion, writing themselves to the end of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee in Washington,
.com and .exe files as the files are opened. Thereafter, D.C., to describe his ordeal. Appearing in support of
both versions erase the infected computer’s CMOS proposed legislation to mandate DNA testing in rele-
(complementary metal oxide semiconductor) mem- vant cases, Fritz told his audience:
ory sectors, which hold the time, date and system
setup parameters. Both viruses contain the text string At the time of my conviction in 1988, DNA testing
“I am Freezer,” with the 980 variant adding “V2.0” had just been accepted by the scientific community.
to the message. For years while in prison, I repeatedly petitioned the
courts to allow me to get my DNA tested. I was flat
out denied by one court after another. By the time I
FRITZ, Dennis and Williamson, Ronald: got in touch with Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld, I
exonerated by DNA had lost seven court decisions, and I had just about
Authorities in Ada, Oklahoma, labored for five lost hope. . . .
years to solve the 1982 rape-murder of 21-year-old The refusal of the state of Oklahoma to compare my
Debra Sue Carter. In May 1987 they arrested two DNA with the crime scene evidence was only one of the
suspects: 34-year-old Ronald Williamson and 37- reasons why I lost all those years of my life. The other
year-old Dennis Fritz, a respected junior high reason was my trial attorney’s ineffectiveness. First, he
school teacher and neighbor of the victim. Both had no real incentive to defend me since he had only
men denied involvement in the crime, but they were received $500 for representing me in a capital murder
charged and held for trial on the basis of forensic case. And besides that, he had never handled a murder

120
“FUXX”

case in his life. In fact, he had never handled any type of sting. Five of the 11 Smartcard defendants have
criminal case whatsoever, due to the fact that he was a pleaded guilty to date (as of January 2002), while
civil liabilities lawyer. . . . felony charges are pending against Frost and five
It is more than past time to put an end to these others. Prosecutors stress that indictments are merely
unmerciful travesties of injustice that occur when the accusations and are not proof of guilt.
truth is hidden or disregarded. I appeal to you, the mem-
bers of this committee, to enact the necessary laws to
fully assure that no human being will ever have to suffer “FUXX”: computer virus
unjustly for something of which they are totally innocent. This “flooder” virus, initially recognized in Septem-
ber 2000, is designed to attack mobile telephones
rather than personal computers. It accomplishes that
FROST, Ray: alleged Internet swindler function by dispatching a blizzard of SMS (short
A resident of Syracuse, Indiana, Ray Frost was one message service) text messages, similar to those
of 11 defendants arrested by federal investigators received by a pager. SMS gateways typically
during a sting operation dubbed OPERATION SMART- employed for such attacks include:
CARD.NET. The targets were purveyors and pur-
chasers of counterfeit “smart cards” used to steal sms.link.btn.de
pay-per-view programming from DirecTV, a satellite www.free-sms.com
television company. The investigation began in Sep- www.lycos.de
tember 1998 and continued for 22 months, with U.S. www.mobidig.net
Customs agents selling counterfeit access cards www.nm-info.de
through a website established specifically for the www.pcteam.de

121
G
“GALICIA”: computer viruses seems to be a variation on the fraudulent BILL GATES
Described by analysts as a nondangerous, nonmem- GIVEAWAY scam and has no validity whatsoever. The
ory-resident, parasitic virus, “Galicia” was initially original message (complete with errors) read:
discovered in November 1996, with a variant form
identified in August 1997. The original form is now Subject: FW: FREE clothes from GAP
designated “Galicia.a” or “Galicia.800,” while the
newer variant is dubbed “Galicia.b” or “Gali- Everyone loves free stuff!
cia.840.” Both forms write themselves to the begin-
ning of .com files on an infected computer. In the Abercrombie & Fitch have recently merged to form the
“odd” months—January, March, May, July, Septem- largest hottie outfitter company in the world! In an
ber and November—both viruses write themselves to effort to remain at pace with this giant, the GAP has
the MBR (master boot record) of the infected com- introduced a new email tracking system to determine
puter’s hard drive. Galicia.a contains the text string who has the most loyal followers. This email is a beta
“Galicia contra telefonica!” while its variant presents test of the new clothing line and GAP has generously
the text “Antitelefónica Galicia!” offered to compensate those who participate in testing
process. For each person you send this e-mail to, you
will be given a pair of cargo pants. For every person
“GALLERY”: computer virus they give it to, you will be given an additional Hawai-
First identified in September 1997, “Gallery” is ian print T-shirt, for every person they send it to, you
defined by expert analysts as a harmless, memory- will receive a fishermans hat!
resident, parasitic virus, which writes itself to the end GAP will tally all the emails produced under your
of .com files as they are executed by an infected com- name over a two week period and then email you with
puter. There is no payload or outward manifestation more instructions. This beta test is only for Microsoft
of the virus. It contains the text string “Art Windows users because the email tracking device that
Gallery++.” contacts GAP is embedded into the code of Windows
95 and 98. Is you wish to speed up the “clothes receiv-
ing process” then you can email the GAP’s P.R. rep for
GAP Giveaway Offers: Internet hoaxes a free list of email addresses to try, at. . . .
In May 1999 the following giveaway offer made its gollygap@yahoo.com
first appearance on the Internet, claiming to emanate
from the popular GAP clothing chain. In fact, it (this was forwarded to me, it’s not me saying this . . .) I

123
GEISSBERGER, John

know you guys hate forwards, but I started this a site in Quebec. The Intel employees were compen-
month ago. sated for their role in the conspiracy with free access
A week ago, I got an email from the GAP asking me to software programs stolen by members of the
for my address I gave it to them yesterday and got a larger gang.
load of merchandise in the mail from the GAP!!!!! It As described by prosecutors, Geissberger and his
really works! I wanted you to get a piece of the action, coworkers made their arrangement with the hacker
you won’t regret it gang in December 1998, shipping sophisticated hard-
ware to Canada at Intel’s expense, but without the
Six months later, in November 1999, a new ver- firm’s knowledge or approval. Geissberger’s specific
sion of the GAP giveaway hoax began to circulate role in the plot involved clearance of the illegal ship-
on-line, this one purportedly signed by the com- ment through Canadian Customs. Within a year of
pany’s founder. Again, it is presented with various their arrest, Geissberger and his four Intel cohorts all
errors intact. pleaded guilty to the charges filed against them.
Eight PWA members also struck plea bargains, while
Subject: FREE Gap gift certificates a ninth was convicted at trial. At this writing (in Jan-
uary 2002), two members of the gang remain fugi-
Hi! My name is Janelle McCann, Founder of the Gap. tives in Europe.
You have probably heard about the e-mail from Aber-
crombie and Fitch offering twenty five-dollar gift cer-
tificates to every five people you sent that letter to. GHOST.EXE Trojan Virus: Internet hoax
My question is: DID IT WORK? Most of you who The “Ghost.exe” computer program was initially
tried it will probably say NO. But this letter is NOT a distributed as a free screen saver, including advertise-
prank like others you have experienced. I am offering ments for the Access Softek software firm. It displays
thirty-five dollar gift certificates to every seven people a Halloween background with ghosts flying around
you send this to. When you have finished sending the monitor screen, but the flight pattern changes on
this letter to as many people as you wish, a screen will any Friday the 13th to let ghosts emerge from the
come up. screen saver’s window and pursue a wider flight
It will tell you how much you have earned in Gap path. Whether the deviation frightened some nervous
gift certificates. Print that screen out and bring it to user or not is unknown, but messages circulated on
your local Gap store. The sales clerk will give you your the Internet soon began to warn that Ghost.exe con-
certificates and you can SHOP BABY! This is a sales tained a Trojan program damaging to host comput-
promotion to get our name out to young people around ers. That tale grew in the telling, until panicky
the world. e-mails alleged the screen saver’s nonexistent virus
We believe this project can be a success, but only could erase computer hard drives. The program’s
with your help. Thank you for your support! developers were then deluged with angry calls and
nervous queries, having included their names and
Sincerely, telephone numbers in the program’s “About” box.
Janelle McCan Individual reassurance seems to have no effect on the
Founder of the Gap tide of rumor, however, and Internet warnings about
Ghost.exe are now probably more numerous than
computers displaying the screen saver itself.
GEISSBERGER, John: software pirate
A resident of Columbia, South Carolina, born May
15, 1962, John Geissberger was one of 17 defendants GILCHRIST, Joyce: forensic chemist linked to frauds
indicted for software piracy by federal authorities on An African-American native of Oklahoma City,
May 4, 2000. Twelve of the 17 charged were identi- Joyce Gilchrist was drawn to the mysteries of police
fied as members of a HACKER syndicate known to its work while still a student at the University of Central
members as “PIRATES WITH ATTITUDE” (PWA). Geiss- Oklahoma. By 1980, when she obtained her degree
berger and four others were employees of Intel Cor- in forensic chemistry, Gilchrist was already employed
poration, charged with illegally furnishing computer in the Oklahoma City Police Department’s crime lab,
hardware used by the gang to maintain a covert web- working on some 3,000 cases between 1980 and

124
GILCHRIST, Joyce

1993. In 1985 she was named the Oklahoma City Such disclosures notwithstanding, Gilchrist was
Police Department’s “civilian employee of the year.” promoted to supervisor of the Oklahoma City crime
Gilchrist made a compelling witness at trial, invari- lab in 1994 and continued to testify in criminal cases
ably supporting prosecution theories with the kind of through the remainder of the decade. It was only in
scientific evidence guaranteed to make a jury sit up August 1999, after her rebuke by federal judge Ralph
and take notice. Legendary Oklahoma City district Thompson, that her career began to implode. At
attorney Bob Macy was especially enamored of issue was the rape-murder conviction of Alfred Brian
Gilchrist’s technique, and police dubbed her “Black Mitchell, sentenced to death largely on the strength
Magic” for her startling conviction rate. “It was in of Gilchrist’s scientific testimony. Specifically,
reference to a homicide case,” Gilchrist later told 60 Gilchrist had testified that tests performed on semen
Minutes II, “where the defense attorney referred to samples in the case were “inconclusive,” when she
me in his closing argument as a sorcerer . . . and knew defendant Mitchell should have been excluded
stated that I seemed to be able to do things with evi- as a suspect by the test results. Judge Thompson
dence that nobody else was able to do.” bluntly labeled her testimony “untrue” and over-
And that, in fact, was the problem. turned Mitchell’s rape conviction. (The murder con-
In 1987 another forensic chemist, John T. Wilson viction was allowed to stand, but Mitchell’s death
of Kansas City, wrote an angry letter to the South- sentence was later overturned by the 10th Circuit
western Association of Forensic Scientists (SAFS), Court of Appeals.)
asserting that Gilchrist offered “scientific opinions As a result of Judge Thompson’s ruling and criti-
from the witness stand which in effect positively cism arising from similar cases, police removed
identify the defendant based on the slightest bit of Gilchrist from the crime lab in March 2000 and
circumstantial evidence.” Wilson took the unusual assigned her to an administrative post. Seven months
step of criticizing a colleague after several Okla- later, the Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction
homa defense attorneys asked him to review expelled Gilchrist for offering sworn testimony
Gilchrist’s testimony from preliminary hearings. that misrepresented evidence. On April 25, 2001,
Convinced that Gilchrist had presented false evi- Oklahoma Attorney General Drew Edmondson
dence in court, Wilson ultimately testified against announced that his office would review several death
her in three separate murder cases. Although he “got penalty cases that hinged on Gilchrist’s testimony,
major heat” for siding with the defense in those further requesting that the Oklahoma State Bureau
cases, Wilson told interviewers that he “felt I had an of Investigation review Gilchrist’s work in search of
ethical obligation” to do so. “When I read the tran- possible criminal violations. An FBI report, pub-
scripts and saw what she was saying, I was really lished on the same date, alleged that Gilchrist
shocked. She was positively identifying hair, and misidentified hairs and fibers or gave testimony
there’s no way in the world you can do that without “beyond the limits of forensic science” in at least
DNA.” eight felony cases. Most ominous was the reported
As a result of Wilson’s letter, the SAFS conducted fact that Gilchrist’s testimony had sent 23 defendants
its own investigation and determined that Gilchrist to death row, with 11 of those inmates subsequently
had violated the group’s code of ethics, resulting in executed.
a formal censure. In 1988 the Oklahoma Criminal Defense attorney David Autry, counsel for sev-
Court of Appeals overturned Curtis Edward eral defendants convicted with help from Gilchrist,
McCarty’s murder conviction, based on the fact that told reporters, “It was common knowledge within
Joyce Gilchrist gave the court “personal opinions the defense bar and should have been to the DA’s
beyond the scope of scientific capabilities.” (A new office that she was incompetent and malicious. She
trial was ordered, resulting in a second conviction survived because she made close cases for the prose-
and death sentence for McCarty, but the evidence cutors and secured convictions in particularly
from his case remained under scientific review in heinous crimes.” One of those she convicted,
2001.) In 1989 the same appellate court overturned alleged rapist Jeffrey Todd Pierce, was released
another murder conviction, finding that Gilchrist from prison on May 7, 2001, after serving 15 years,
had improperly used hair analysis to testify that when DNA tests proved him innocent of the crime.
James Lucas Abels had been “in very close and possi- Following that reversal, Governor Frank Keating
bly even violent contact” with the victim. ordered a sweeping review of some 1,200 cases

125
“GINGER”

involving Gilchrist. On September 25, 2001, To date, no charges have been filed against Joyce
Gilchrist was formally dismissed from her job, Gilchrist for perjury or any other criminal offense.
Police Chief M.T. Berry citing “laboratory misman- A review of her various cases continues, with all
agement, criticism from court challenges and sides pledged to the pursuit of truth (although
flawed casework analysis.” Gilchrist’s attorney authorities in Oklahoma doggedly resist new
tried to put a bold face on the situation, claiming DNA testing in any case where inmates have been
that his client was “totally and completely a scape- executed on the basis of Gilchrist’s “scientific”
goat” for other, unnamed wrongdoers. testimony). Regardless of whether she faces prose-
In October 2001 a federal grand jury subpoenaed cution at some future date, cases like that of Joyce
all evidence from 10 of Gilchrist’s murder cases, Gilchrist, RALPH ERDMANN, and FRED ZAIN have
including nine wherein defendants had been executed shaken the faith of many Americans in the modern
and one in which the accused was serving life with- system of capital punishment.
out parole. By November 2001, Oklahoma investiga-
tors had isolated 165 Gilchrist cases which they
deemed deserving of further study in depth, reporting “GINGER”: computer virus
that another year or more would be required to com- Ranked as a “harmless,” memory-resident, stealth
plete that review. The Oklahoma Indigent Defense multipartite virus, initially discovered in October
System (OIDS), spearheading renewed DNA testing 1996, “Ginger” now exists in at least three variants,
in various Gilchrist cases, issued a statement that, dubbed “Ginger.2774,” “Ginger.2782,” and “Gin-
“whether it was intentional or just negligence, the ger.Orsam.2624.” All infect the master boot record
fact is that her testimony was used to secure death
(MBR) sector of a target computer’s hard drive,
sentences in cases where these people might have
slightly altering the address of the Active Boot Sector
been sentenced to life. If just one of these people
from which DOS is loaded. Subsequently, while load-
would have been sentenced to life without her testi-
ing from an infected sector, the viruses also write
mony, the entire criminal justice system has been
themselves to the end of any .com and .exe files
undermined.”
accessed. Ginger.2774 and Ginger.2782 contain the
Despite the insistence of Oklahoma attorney gen-
eral Edmondson that “I am personally satisfied that following text strings:
no innocent person was executed,” grave doubts
You can’t catch the Gingerbread Man!!
remain. An example of the danger posed by
Gilchrist’s malfeasance is demonstrated in the case of Bad Seed—Made in Oz
Malcolm Rent Johnson, executed in January 2000 COMSPEC=\COMMAND.COM
for the 1981 rape-murder of a woman in Oklahoma CHKDSK MEM
City. Johnson proclaimed his innocence to the end, 10/23/92
despite Gilchrist’s testimony that semen found on the
victim’s bed was “consistent” with Johnson’s blood Ginger.Orsam.2624 contains the text strings:
type. Police and prosecutors blocked all attempts at
DNA testing while Johnson was alive, but a July Orsam—Made in Oz
2001 memo obtained by the media seems to indicate You can’t catch the Gingerbread Man!!
that Gilchrist lied under oath at Johnson’s trial: COMMAND
specifically, the document states that no sperm was
found in semen samples from the crime scene, while
Gilchrist testified to the opposite result. In his sum- “GLITTER”: computer viruses
mation at the 1981 proceedings, D.A. Bob Macy First noted in September 1996, the “Glitter” family
called Gilchrist’s testimony “damning, it’s condemn- of nonmemory-resident, encrypted, parasitic com-
ing, it’s conclusive.” Today, the state has done a curi- puter viruses are ranked “not dangerous” by expert
ous turnabout, claiming that Johnson would have analysts. Two variants are known thus far, identified
been convicted and condemned on the basis of eye- as “Glitter.1207” and “Glitter.1462.” Both search
witness testimony alone, without Gilchrist’s contri- out .com and .sys files on an infected computer, then
bution to the case. write themselves to the ends of any such files located.
One version or the other must be false. Glitter.1207 includes the following text:

126
“GLOBAL Hell”

Glitter ver 1.0, Coded by Siddharth Department websites. Their message of defiance read:
SID IS IN YOUR RAM CHIPS “FBI declared war by raiding lots of gH members.
Greetings from Siddharth Bombay-92 Now, it’s our turn to hit them where it hurts . . . by
going after every computer on the Net with a .gov
Glitter 14.62 includes the text: prefix [sic]. We’ll keep hitting them until they get
down on their knees and beg.” In response to that
Glitter ver 1.03, Coded by DDISARTHH, attack, G-men announced that federal arrest warrants
Hi Avi Guess Who? had been issued for 16 hackers, climaxing a yearlong
Greetings from Siddharth, Mumbai 400 092 investigation of illegal on-line activity. One of those
named was Wisconsin teenager CHAD DAVIS, identified
On May 8, July 4, September 3 and November 5 in court documents as a founder of Global Hell.
the Glitter.1462 variant also displays the following Threats notwithstanding, the gang remained aggres-
message: sively defiant. Three weeks after the FBI search of his
home, on the night of June 26–27, Davis hacked into a
Wish you a Happy Birthday computer at the Pentagon and replaced the U.S. Army’s
Love Guess Who? standard Web page with a message reading: “Global
Hell is alive. Global Hell will not die.” G-men arrested
Davis for that hack on August 30, 1999, and he pleaded
“GLOBAL Hell”: hackers’ syndicate guilty on January 4, 2000, receiving a six-month jail
Described by federal prosecutors as “a real gang, just term and three years’ probation. Eric Burns pleaded
like the Crips and Bloods,” the hackers’ organization guilty to his charges on September 7, 1999, sentenced to
known as Global Hell (gH) surfaced on May 2 1999, 15 months in prison and three years’ probation, plus an
with an attack of cybervandalism on the White order to pay $36,240 in restitution to his victims.
House website, based in Washington, D.C. Six days Despite their high-level hacks, federal spokesmen
later, FBI agents arrested gH member ERIC BURNS for denigrated gH members as mediocre operators. “It is
that incident and other attacks on U.S. government not that these are super whiz kids,” one anonymous
websites spanning the period from August 1998 FBI agent told reporters. “It is the technology that
through January 1999. One day after Burns was gives them the ability to cover their tracks enough that
arrested, hackers defaced the White House website a you can have a hard time making a criminal case
second time, launching additional attacks against against them.” As for motives, computer analyst Drew
sites maintained by the FBI, various Cabinet depart- Williams told the Washington Post, “They are into
ments, and the U.S. Information Agency. The FBI bragging rights. They are vandals who are into it for
and White House websites were shut down for 24 the sense of chaos.” David Remnitz, chief executive of
hours, while the damage was repaired and new secu- a New York-based computer security firm, told the
rity firewalls were installed. A subsequent copycat Post, “The Global Hell types may have shown a skill
attack on the U.S. Senate website claimed credit for for self-promotion, but not the kind of sophistication
another group, calling itself the “Masters of Down- that you see in truly dangerous computer criminals of
loading,” and included insults describing members of the sort who penetrate systems to steal proprietary
Global Hell as “a group of special-ed students.” information.” That disclaimer aside, U.S. Attorney
The FBI struck back on May 26, 1999, with raids Thomas Schneider said of the gang, “Interference with
targeting eight homes in California, Washington, and government computer systems [is] not just electronic
Texas. During one Houston raid, G-men seized a vandalism. They run the risk of compromising critical
computer from the home of teenage suspect PATRICK information infrastructure systems.”
GREGORY, who told reporters afterward that his par- Patrick Gregory was the third gH member to face
ents were “really mad. . . . The computer had all retribution in court, named as a leader of the gang
their financial information and stuff on it.” None of and charged with one count of conspiracy for hack-
the suspects were arrested in those raids, but federal ing and telecommunications fraud. Described by FBI
analysts used information from the confiscated com- agents as “a known street gang member in the Hous-
puters to build a series of indictments. ton area,” Gregory reportedly had turned to comput-
Global Hell retaliated for the raids on Thursday, ers as “his way out” of trouble but found only more
May 27, with new attacks on the FBI and Interior of the same. On April 12, 2000, he pleaded guilty as

127
GODSCHALK, Bruce

charged; on September 6, 2000, Gregory received a ments were coerced by police. Convicted of rape in
26-month prison term, plus three years’ probation 1987, he received a 10- to 20-year prison sentence.
and an order to pay more than $154,000 in restitu- In 1993 Godschalk filed a motion for DNA testing
tion to parties he had damaged. of forensic evidence in the case, but two state courts
Even on his way to prison, Gregory failed to grasp rejected the bid. Seven years later, supported by attor-
the significance of Global Hell’s actions. “I don’t neys from the CARDOZO INNOCENCE PROJECT, God-
understand why they look at us as such bad people,” schalk filed a federal lawsuit to compel DNA testing
he told an interviewer from the television program on March 22, 2000. Montgomery County prosecu-
“20/20.” Assistant U.S. Attorney Matthew tors again resisted the effort, but on March 27, 2001
Yarbrough had an answer to that question ready and a federal judge overruled state objections, finding that
waiting. “If you deface a website of a company that Godschalk was not constitutionally barred from seek-
is making $18 million a day, you are committing a ing new tests of the evidence. Those tests, financed by
pretty serious crime,” he told reporters. “We can’t money from his late mother’s estate, excluded God-
treat this problem as if it’s just kids. Everyone has to schalk as a source of the semen recovered from the
start taking this very seriously.” crime scenes. He was released on February 14, 2002,
The latest gH member to face charges is 17-year-old after serving 15 years of his sentence.
Rhode Island resident DENNIS MORAN, known on-line Montgomery County District Attorney Bruce Cas-
as “Coolio.” Moran’s computer was seized in a Febru- tor Jr. still appeared to have his doubts about the
ary 2000 raid by FBI agents, seeking evidence to link case as Godschalk was released, although he agreed
him with the May 1999 government website attacks. to dismiss all charges in the case. “This is one of
Investigators also sought to blame “Coolio” for more those situations where I can’t tell you what the truth
recent incidents, including “denial of service” attacks is,” Castor told reporters. “As a prosecutor, I have to
on some of the Internet’s largest commercial websites: be sure. And we’re not sure. It’s frustrating because I
Yahoo, eBay, E-Trade, and Amazon.com. Other tar- think the evidence is compelling that he’s guilty, and
gets allegedly included an anti-drug organization the evidence is compelling that he’s innocent. I don’t
(D.A.R.E.), an Internet security firm (RSA Security), like uncertainty. We can’t prove it beyond a reason-
and the U.S. government’s Chemical Weapons Con- able doubt, so we let him go. I am not convinced that
vention website. “Coolio” reportedly left the image of Bruce Godschalk was innocent. What I am convinced
Walt Disney cartoon characters on websites he of is that he cannot be proven innocent [sic] beyond
attacked, according to investigators on the case. a reasonable doubt. And in this business, a tie goes to
Moran pleaded guilty to three misdemeanor counts the defendant.”
on January 2, 2001, agreeing to accept a jail term of Godschalk’s reaction to that strange declaration
nine months to one year, plus payment of $15,000 was terse and direct: “He’s insane.”
restitution to his victims.

“GOLDFISH”: computer virus


GODSCHALK, Bruce: exonerated by DNA evidence An encrypted virus reported for the first time in Sep-
In July and September 1986, two women were raped tember 1996, “GoldFish” contains two macros:
at the Kingswood Apartments in King of Prussia, AutoOpen and AutoClose. It infects files on opening
Pennsylvania. One victim was unable to describe her or closing, and depending on the nature of the system
attacker, but the other glimpsed his face reflected in a infected it may display the following dialogue box:
bedroom mirror and gave police a vague description,
including a reference to his distinctive shirt and GoldFish
sneakers. Bruce Godschalk, a 26-year-old unem- I am the GoldFish,
ployed landscaper from Radnor, was later arrested I am hungry, feed me.
for the crimes. Police found no clothing similar to the
rapist’s in Godschalk’s apartment, but one victim The virus then waits for its unwilling host to select
identified him as her attacker and a fellow inmate one of the choices offered: “fishfood,” “worms,”
claimed Godschalk had talked about the rapes in jail. “worm pryme,” or “core.” No specific damage to
More to the point, Godschalk himself confessed in infected systems is reported, marking GoldFish as a
custody, but soon recanted, claiming that his state- minor annoyance, rather than a danger.

128
“GOOD Times” Computer Virus

puter virus face prospective five-year prison terms,


while the maximum sentence for juveniles is 30
months. Still, it appeared that mere confessions might
not be enough to make the case against Goner’s cre-
ators. “After five days,” Zohar told reporters, “they
will be released unless we find something.”

“GOOD Times” Computer Virus: Internet hoax


Since November 1994 a variety of Internet warnings
have been circulated, warning recipients of a com-
puter virus called “Good Times” which does not
exist in fact. The U.S. Department of Energy’s HOAX-
BUSTERS website has exposed the fraud repeatedly,
but still it lives on, outpacing denials and alarming
recipients with predictions of dire consequences
should they encounter the mythical virus. The initial
warning, circulated in November and December
1994, read:
GONDA, Arthur See BAKER, JAKE
Here is some important information. Beware of a file
called Goodtimes. Happy Chanukah everyone, and be
“GONER”: computer worm careful out there. There is a virus on America Online
On December 3, 2001, analysts employed by the being sent by E-mail. If you get anything called “Good
McAfee computer security firm reported thousands Times,” DON’T read it or download it. It is a virus
of their clients had received copies of a new com- that will erase your hard drive. Forward this to all your
puter worm virus, dubbed Goner. The worm is trans- friends. It may help them a lot.
mitted by e-mail with a subject line reading “Hi” and
text asking the recipient to view an attached screen- While experts were busily debunking the original
saver program. Infection occurs when the attachment hoax, a second Good Times warning began to make
is opened, whereupon Goner sends copies of itself to its rounds on the Internet. This one included claims
all e-mail addresses listed in the victim’s Microsoft that the Federal Communications Commission
Outlook address book, or through the ICQ instant (FCC) had issued an alert against the virus—when, in
messaging system. At the same time, Goner attempts fact, that organization has no part in detecting com-
to delete any security or antivirus programs installed puter viruses or Trojans and has never issued any
on the newly infected computer. such warning. The second bogus message reads as
McAfee spokesmen placed Goner on “outbreak” follows:
status, a high-alert warning last employed when the
“LOVELETTER” virus caused global damage measured The FCC released a warning last Wednesday concern-
in billions of dollars. The first samples of Goner ing a matter of major importance to any regular user of
were identified in Europe, principally France and the InterNet. Apparently, a new computer virus has
Germany. By December 4, 2001, security firms been engineered by a user of America Online that is
including McAfee and Symantec had released unparalleled in its destructive capability. Other, more
updates of their antivirus software to detect and well-known viruses such as Stoned, Airwolf and
defeat Goner infections. Michaelangelo pale in comparison to the prospects of
One week after Goner surfaced, its creators were this newest creation by a warped mentality.
arrested in Jerusalem. Meir Zohar, chief of the Israeli What makes this virus so terrifying, said the FCC, is
police computer crimes squad, identified the culprits the fact that no program needs to be exchanged for a
as four teenage HACKERS, placed under house arrest new computer to be infected. It can be spread through
after confessing their role in creating and sending the the existing e-mail systems of the InterNet. Once a
worm. Israeli adults convicted of generating a com- computer is infected, one of several things can happen.

129
GORSHKOV,Vasily, and Ivanov,Alexei

If the computer contains a hard drive, that most likely ing this message to everyone in the world. Tell your
will be destroyed. If the program is not stopped, the friends, tell your family. If anyone else sends me
computer’s processor will be placed in an nth-complex- another E-mail about this fake Goodtimes Virus, I will
ity infinite binary loop—which can severely damage the turn hunting them into a religion. I will do things to
processor if left running that way too long. Unfortu- them that would make a horsehead in your bed look
nately, most novice computer users will not realize what like Easter Sunday brunch.
is happening until it is far too late.

Two years after the original Good Times hoax was GORSHKOV, Vasily, and Ivanov, Alexei:
circulated, a humorous spoof of the hoax itself indicted hackers
appeared on the Internet, proving that even hoaxers In a world largely deprived of boundaries by the
may not have the last laugh. Internet, law enforcement officers and private secu-
rity agents employed to solve CYBERCRIME must con-
December 1996 cern themselves not only with thieves and vandals in
READ THIS: their own vicinity, but also with conspirators around
the world. One particular source of vexation for
Goodtimes will re-write your hard drive. Not only that, American authorities in the 21st century has been
but it will scramble any disks that are even close to your Russia, where hackers dwelling (theoretically, at
computer. It will recalibrate your refrigerator’s coolness least) beyond the FBI’s long reach have plagued com-
setting so all your ice cream goes melty. It will demag- mercial institutions. In January 2000 a Russian oper-
netize the strips on all your credit cards, screw up the ator known only as “Max” stole 300,000 credit card
tracking on your television and use subspace field har- numbers from CD Universe, in an extortion bid.
monics to scratch any CD’s you try to play. Nine months later, a penetration of Microsoft’s high-
It will give your ex-girlfriend your new phone num- security network was traced to a still unidentified
ber. It will mix Kool-aid into your fishtank. It will hacker in St. Petersburg. VLADIMIR LEVIN, a Russian
drink all your beer and leave its socks out on the coffee living in America, was convicted and imprisoned in
table when there’s company coming over. It will put a 1999 for using his computer to steal $12 million
dead kitten in the back pocket of your good suit pants from Citibank.
and hide your car keys when you are late for work. Even those operations, however, paled beside the
Goodtimes will make you fall in love with a pen- efforts of 25-year-old Vasily Gorshkov and 20-year-
guin. It will give you nightmares about circus midgets. old Alexei Ivanov, two Chelyabinsk natives who set-
It will pour sugar in your gas tank and shave off both tled in Washington state and there launched a
your eyebrows while daring your girlfriend behind your computer hacking and extortion scheme so massive
back and billing the dinner and hotel room to your that FBI spokesmen took the unprecedented step of
Discover card. warning the public before their investigation was
It will seduce your grandmother. It does not matter completed. That press release, issued in March 2001,
if she is dead, such is the power of Goodtimes, it warned American consumers that organized hackers
reaches out beyond the grave to sully those things we based in Russia and Ukraine had stolen more than 1
hold most dear. million credit card numbers nationwide, while
It moves your car randomly around parking lots so attacking the computer networks of more than 40
you can’t find it. It will kick your dog. It will leave libidi- businesses scattered across 20 states. Eight months
nous messages on your boss’s voice mail in your voice! It later, on November 10, 2001, the G-men had two
is insidious and subtle. It is dangerous and terrifying to alleged prime movers of the global plot in custody.
behold. It is also a rather interesting shade of mauve. According to a federal indictment issued in Seattle,
Goodtimes will give you Dutch Elm disease. It will Gorshkov and Ivanov spent two years victimizing
leave the toilet seat up. It will make a batch of various corporations, banks, and school districts,
Methanphedime [sic] in your bathtub and then leave spawning 20 counts of computer-related theft, extor-
bacon cooking on the stove while it goes out to chase tion, and fraud. The charges allege that Gorshkov
gradeschoolers with your new snowblower. and Ivanov stole credit card numbers by the tens of
Listen to me. Goodtimes does not exist. thousands, along with other sensitive information
It cannot do anything to you. But I can. I am send- downloaded from targets that included PayPal (the

130
GRAY, Anthony

world’s largest on-line payment company) and the “GOTCHA”: computer viruses
Central National Bank of Waco, Texas. In a high- Reported in four variants since November 1996,
tech variation on the age-old “protection” racket, the the “Gotcha” memory-resident-parasitic viruses are
defendants purportedly downloaded sensitive files rated “harmless” by analysts who have evaluated
from an intended target’s computer, then demanded them. “Gotcha.605” and “Gotcha.607” write
employment as “security consultants” to keep the themselves to the ends of .com files only, while the
stolen data secret, at fees ranging from $15,000 to variants “Gotcha.666” and “Gotcha.1781” may
$100,000. In one case, federal investigators claim, infect either .com or .exe files. All forms contain the
Gorshkov and Ivanov published the secret informa- following text strings:
tion even after they were “hired” to maintain its
security. EXECOM
Lacking jurisdiction to arrest the suspects in Rus- E=mc2 GOTCHA!
sia, FBI agents mounted an elaborate sting opera-
tion to lure them stateside. In June 2000 the bureau Gotcha.666 includes the text: “E=mc2 MULAT-
established a bogus security firm dubbed “Invita,”
TOED YA THROUGH THE WHITE GOYIM
leasing office space in Seattle, and then contacted
SHIKSES!” Gotcha.1781 displays the message
Ivanov with an offer of employment as a hacker. To
“LEGALIZE CANNABIS” with a picture of a green
demonstrate his skill, Ivanov hacked into Invita’s
marijuana leaf, while presenting the following text:
computer system, whereupon FBI agents invited
him and his partner Gorshkov to visit Seattle in per-
Do you think Cannabis should be legalized? (Y/N)
son. On arrival for their November 10, 2001, “job
I’m glad you agree with me!
interview,” the Russians were asked for further
And what about Alcohol, should that be illegal too?
demonstrations of their hacking prowess. While
establishing a link to their home server in (Y/N)
Chelyabinsk (on an FBI computer equipped with a Hmm, I don’t agree, but I respect your opinion.
“sniffer” program that recorded every keystroke), You are a HYPOCRITE!!!
the suspects allegedly boasted of their prior activi-
ties and promised the assembled undercover agents
that “the FBI could not get them in Russia.” “GRAVEYARD”: computer virus
Seattle was another story, though, and the pair Initially reported in August 1997, “Graveyard” is
soon found themselves in custody, confronted with a dangerous, memory-resident, encrypted, parasitic
charges that could keep them out of circulation and virus that writes itself to the end of .com files as they
off the Internet for years to come. With the assis- are executed by an infected computer. Debugging any
tance of their sniffer program, federal agents down- program thereafter results in crashing the system
loaded 1.5 gigabytes of incriminating material from with potential loss of valued data. This virus includes
the remote server in Chelyabinsk—so much data, in the text string “Graveyard!”
fact, that Seattle court recorders estimate it could
require 1 million pages to print out a hard copy of
the evidence. Ken Kanev, a Seattle attorney retained GRAY, Anthony: exonerated by DNA evidence
to defend Vasily Gorshkov, has challenged the Maryland native Anthony Gray was arrested in
admissibility of that evidence, but the issue remains 1991, accused of raping and murdering a woman at
unresolved at this writing (in February 2002). As Chesapeake Beach. Although innocent of the crime,
for the defendants, they retain a presumption of he was intimidated by police into confessing. Gray
innocence until their case is tried—and they seem to pleaded guilty in October 1991, convinced that he
have achieved martyr status in Russia, where the would be convicted and executed if he went to trial
website for Khaker Magazine includes a message before a jury. As part of the plea bargain, Gray
board filled with recriminations for U.S. authori- received a double life sentence and subsequent
ties. One anonymous poster warned: “Watch out appeals based on his limited intellect were rejected.
Russian hackers! You see what kind of low-life tac- DNA tests finally identified the true killer, but despite
tics the Americans are capable of, so work more that suspect’s guilty plea in 1997, Gray remained in
carefully!” prison. More testing proved that Gray had not been

131
GRAY, Joseph

present at the crime scene, resulting in his belated second woman, attacked at the same place on August
release on February 9, 1999. 5, fought her way clear without being raped. Based
on physical descriptions offered by the two victims,
Washington police later arrested suspect Edward
GRAY, Joseph: satellite TV pirate Green in the vicinity of the attacks. The first victim
A 71-year-old resident of Rantoul, Illinois, Joseph picked his photograph from among several others
Gray was one of 17 American defendants indicted displayed by police; both women also selected Green
during 2001 as a result of the federal sting opera- from lineups at police headquarters and identified
tion dubbed OPERATION SMARTCARD.NET. Those him as their assailant at trial. Forensic experts testi-
arrested were accused of purchasing or selling fied that Green’s blood type was “consistent” with
counterfeit access cards, which allowed unautho- the rapist’s, based on semen samples recovered from
rized reception and decryption of satellite television the first victim. Jurors deliberated three hours before
services offered by the firm DirecTV. FBI agents convicting Green of rape but acquitting him of
estimated that DirecTV lost $6.2 million in revenue assault on the second victim.
from the fraud between 1998 and 2000, when the Prior to sentencing, Green’s lawyer filed a motion
sting operation began producing arrests. Gray pur- for postponement pending completion of a DNA test
chased 30 counterfeit satellite access cards from FBI on the state’s forensic evidence. Prosecutors opposed
undercover agents and traded his own merchandise several delays, but time was granted by the judge. A
for another 60 of the bogus “Euro” cards, which he final report, issued in February 1990, excluded
then re-sold to other individuals. Gray pleaded Edward Green as a source of the semen found on the
guilty as charged on June 14, 2001. He faced a first victim’s clothing. Green’s attorney used that
maximum sentence of five years’ imprisonment and finding as the basis for a motion for a new trial,
a $500,000 fine. granted at a special hearing on March 19, 1990. The
U.S. attorney’s office agreed to dismissal of the rape
charge, while Green remained incarcerated for an
GREEHEY, Kevin: alleged satellite TV pirate unrelated drug violation.
Another defendant snared by OPERATION SMART-
CARD.NET, Kevin Greehey was a resident of Sara-
sota, Florida, when federal agents arrested him in GREEN, Kevin Lee: exonerated by DNA evidence
August 2000. With nine others, Greehey faced A Marine Corps corporal stationed in southern Cali-
felony charges of buying and selling counterfeit fornia, Kevin Green went out for a late-night cheese-
access cards, which permitted their users to illegally burger on September 30, 1979, and returned to find
receive and decrypt satellite television transmissions that his 20-year-old pregnant wife had been
without paying TV providers their normal monthly assaulted in their home, raped, and severely beaten.
fees. One provider, DirecTV, lost an estimated $6.2 Dianna Green survived the beating but her unborn
million before federal agents intervened, duping child, already two weeks overdue, did not. Emerging
would-be dealers and pirates with counterfeit from a coma in October, with brain damage and
“Euro” cards. Four of those indicted with Greehey memory loss, Dianna named her husband as her
pleaded guilty as charged, but Greehey and four attacker and he was arrested on March 25, 1980,
more defendants were still awaiting trial at last later convicted of sexual assault, attempted murder
report (in January 2002). All are presumed inno- (of his wife), and second degree murder (of their
cent unless they are convicted at trial. In that event, child). He received a prison term of 15 years to life.
each felony count filed against them carries a maxi- DNA testing was unknown at the time Green went
mum penalty of five years in prison and a $500,000 to prison, and by the time he learned about it in the
fine. early 1990s he could not afford the $10,000 required
for tests on the prosecution’s evidence from his case.
As luck would have it, in 1996 a DNA test per-
GREEN, Edward: exonerated by DNA evidence formed on serial killer Gerald Parker linked him to
In July and August 1987, a serial rapist terrorized the rape of Dianna Green, and Parker later confessed
women in Washington, D.C. The predator claimed to the crime. Kevin Green by then had survived
his first victim on July 3, near a local high school; a inmate attacks and suicide attempts in prison and

132
“GREEN River Killer”

gone on to earn a college degree in social sciences. process, described by Dr. Beverly Himick of the
Upon his release after DNA testing exonerated him, Washington State Patrol Crime Lab as “a chemical
state legislators discovered that California had no photocopier.” In essence, PCR processing takes a
legal mechanism for compensating wrongfully con- microscopic DNA sample and generates multiple
victed persons. A special bill, passed in 1999, copies at high speed, thereby providing forensic sci-
awarded Green $100 for each day he was incarcer- entists with sufficient material to complete their var-
ated. Today he lives in Missouri and travels widely as ied tests. Semen recovered from three of the Green
a public speaker. River victims was tested, the DNA compared with
evidence collected over time from various suspects
and known sex offenders in Washington state. In
“GREEN River Killer”: cold case solved via DNA early October 2001, Detective Jensen presented Sher-
Beginning in January 1982, an unknown predator iff Reichert with three DNA printouts: two samples
killed at least 40 women around Seattle and were obtained from victims Marcia Chapman and
Tacoma, Washington; nine more listed as missing Opal Mills, murdered in 1982; the third—a saliva
are also presumed to be dead. Many of the victims sample—had been taken from a suspect by police in
were prostitutes, working along the infamous 1987.
“Sea-Tac Strip.” A few were runaways or hitchhik- All three matched.
ers. While skeletal remains were found as late as On November 30, 2001, King County detectives
1988, authorities have not confirmed another slay- arrested 52-year-old truck painter Gary Lee Ridgway
ing in the series since October 1984. The killer’s at his place of business, charging him with first-
favorite dumping ground led journalists to christen
him the Green River Killer.
While theories and suspects abounded in the
haunting case, police were unable to solve it. Public
interest waned and funds ran out. Nearly two
decades after the last confirmed murder, it seemed
the case would remain an eternal mystery—like the
identity of London’s Jack the Ripper or the elusive
New Orleans Ax Man—but modern science inter-
vened to shed new light on the murky affair.
DNA evidence lay beyond the reach of American
police in 1984. Its first use in a murder trial, against
British serial slayer COLIN PITCHFORK, would not
make headlines until 1986. The trail in Washington
was cold by then, but DNA has an advantage over
witnesses and other transitory evidence: if undis-
turbed by man or nature, it remains to tell its story
years, decades, even centuries after the fact.
So it was in the Green River case. One of the orig-
inal manhunters, King County sheriff Dave Reichert,
announced formation of a new task force in June
2001, to test skin cells recovered from materials used
to strangle some of the murderer’s victims. Most,
predictably, would belong to the victims—but
Reichert hoped some might be traced to the killer
himself. As detective Tom Jensen told reporters, “It’s
too bad we didn’t have this technology back when it
was going on, because the case would have been bet- DNA evidence directly linked Gary Ridgway to numerous
ter handled, probably solved.” murders in the Green River killings that haunted
The best hope for working with 19-year-old evi- Washington State in the 1980s. (Reuters NewMedia
dence lay in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Inc./CORBIS)

133
GREGORY, Patrick W.

degree murder in four of the 49 Green River cases. sole evidence in this case.” Indeed, for some that
According to prosecution press releases, DNA sam- raised a question as to why Ridgway was not
ples obtained from the corpse of 21-year-old Carol arrested earlier. Harold Coleman, chief executive
Christensen (killed in May 1983) matched Ridgway’s officer for a Seattle-based DNA testing firm, told
DNA so precisely that “it can be estimated that not journalists that PCR testing “has been widely avail-
more than one individual (excluding identical twins) able since 1996,” performed by his own lab under
in the world’s population would exhibit this DNA contract for the Indiana State Police and other law
profile.” Semen retrieved from 31-year-old Marcia enforcement agencies. The Washington State Patrol’s
Chapman’s body was degraded, displaying only nine crime lab remained “woefully underfunded,” unable
of 13 possible DNA markers, but all nine matched to perform PCR tests before mid-1999, and Green
Ridgway’s. Experts placed the odds of another white River fell through the cracks, with new cases
male matching all nine markers at one in 645 mil- assigned top priority. As Coleman suggests, “The
lion—more than double the entire U.S. population. DNA was just sitting there in the evidence locker. I
Sperm from at least two men was found with the think they just didn’t think to send it out for some-
body of 16-year-old Opal Mills, and while DNA body else to do it.”
results were inconclusive, tests did not exclude Ridg- Delays notwithstanding, King County authorities
way as a possible donor. No foreign DNA was found maintain that the Green River case is now closed. It
on 17-year-old Cynthia Hinds, but Ridgway was remains to be seen if a jury will agree, or if new mur-
charged in her case because Hinds was discovered der charges will be added to those already filed
with Chapman and Mills on August 15, 1982. Both against defendant Gary Ridgway.
she and Chapman were pinned underwater with
heavy rocks, and small stones were inserted by the
killer into their vaginas. GREGORY, Patrick W.: hacker “MostHateD”
With Ridgway in custody, police revealed that A 19-year-old resident of Houston, Texas, Patrick
they had considered him a suspect in the Green River Gregory was a member of the “Total-Kaos” HACKER
murders since February 1983, when a Seattle prosti- syndicate from 1997 through May 1999; he also
tute accused him of violent behavior. Two months joined CHAD DAVIS (a.k.a. “Mindphasr”) to create a
later, a pimp watched hooker Marie Malvar climb second gang in February 1998, dubbed “GLOBAL
into a pickup truck with her “trick.” When she failed HELL.” While active in both groups, Gregory used
to turn up the next day, her pimp traced the pickup stolen access devices—including telephone numbers,
to Ridgway’s house and alerted police, but Ridgway Personal Identification Numbers (PINs), and credit
denied any knowledge of the incident. Questioned card numbers—to access teleconference facilities pro-
again in April 1984, Ridgway admitted frequent con- vided by AT&T, MCI, Sprint, Latitude Communica-
tact with prostitutes—a fact confirmed by sporadic tions, and various other telephone companies.
surveillance—but again denied any other wrongdo- Members of “total-kaOs” and “Global Hell” staged
ing. In November 1984 a prostitute informed detec- daily conference calls lasting six hours or longer, to
tives that Ridgway had tried to strangle her during discuss and plan their invasions of protected com-
sex, before she broke free and escaped. Ridgway puter networks across America and around the
acknowledged that attack but claimed the woman bit world.
him first, and no charges were filed. In 1985, Ridg- In addition to illegally obtaining free telephone
way allegedly told detectives that he was obsessed service worth thousands of dollars, Gregory admit-
with prostitutes and that they “affect him as strongly ted using various access devices to eavesdrop on
as alcohol does an alcoholic.” A saliva sample was third-party conference calls and to disrupt opera-
obtained from Ridgway in 1987, then routinely filed tions of the several companies he victimized. In
away for 14 years, until Sheriff Reichert launched a June 1998 he billed $4,200 to an innocent third
fresh investigation of the case. party for teleconferences conducted with his fellow
Authorities seemed confident of Ridgway’s guilt. conspirators. Four months later, Gregory disrupted
“DNA is sort of the physical last link,” one investi- teleconference classes at Dallas (Texas) Community
gator told reporters on December 5, 2001, “but it College, resulting in charges of $18,500 to the
does nothing more than verify what our circumstan- school. He further admitted to sharing stolen com-
tial evidence has said before. It’s nowhere close to the puter passwords and credit card numbers with

134
GREGORY, Patrick W.

other members of “total-kaOs” and “Global Hell,” commit telecommunications fraud. On April 12,
while joining his cronies in criminal penetration of 2000, Gregory pleaded guilty before U.S. District
numerous computer systems around the globe. Typ- Judge Jorge Solis. Five months later, on September 6,
ically, the gangs replaced corporate Web pages with 2000, Gregory was sentenced to 26 months’ impris-
cybergraffiti advertising their own syndicates; on onment followed by three years’ supervised proba-
other occasions, whole systems were crashed as a tion, and was ordered to pay his victims
prank. In April 1999, with other “Global Hell” $154,529.86 in restitution. U.S. Attorney Paul
hackers, Gregory invaded computer systems oper- Coggins afterward told reporters, “I’m proud of
ated by the White House, the U.S. Army, the sophisticated investigative work done by the
Ameritech, U.S. Cellular and several other compa- newly established North Texas Regional Computer
nies, causing damage estimated between $1.5 Forensic Lab and the collaborative efforts of local,
million and $2.5 million. state and federal agencies working together to
Investigation by the FBI ultimately terminated aggressively crack down on the explosion of CYBER-
Gregory’s Internet crime spree, resulting in federal CRIMES and cybercrooks.”
charges of computer hacking and conspiracy to

135
H
HACKERS and Hacking executes unauthorized penetration of other (usually
Wherever the subject of CYBERCRIME is raised, hacking protected) computer systems. Whether the goal is
immediately comes to mind and lingers as the fore- simple snooping for the thrill of it, political dissent in
most example of lawlessness linked to computers. It cyberspace, bank robbery, or global espionage, all
was not always so, however, and some purists— hackers stand together in the media spotlight—and
including the original hackers, now in their 50s and in court, if they are captured, since federal statutes
60s—complain that the term has been grossly abused, passed in the 1990s make any such penetration a
its original meaning long since forgotten. criminal act.
The original self-described “hackers” were a Old-school hackers resent the blanket condemna-
group of 1960s students at the Massachusetts Insti- tion, insisting that cybercriminals be dubbed “crack-
tute of Technology, obsessed with computers and ers” or “darkside hackers” to distinguish their greed
programming in the days before desktop or laptop and malice from the pure motives of the alleged
computers existed, vying for precious time on MIT’s majority. Apologists such as hacker-turned-on-line-
bulky mainframes. A small, insular clique, they wore columnist Douglas Thomas maintain that the origi-
the hacker label proudly and lived to explore the nal “elegant” hacker ethic still survives. “Most
expanding realm of cyberspace. Believing that all hackers,” Thomas wrote in 1998, “consider two
knowledge and computer software should be freely things taboo: destroying information and making
shared, the in-crowd bitterly resented patents, copy- money off a hack. Those two things are enough to
rights, and other roadblocks to what they described get you shunned in most hacker circles, or at least
as “freedom of communication.” Still, the pioneers give you a very bad reputation.” At the same time,
insist, their small society had “strict unwritten rules” countless pro-hacker websites and newsletters praise
against malicious mischief or using their skills for “phreakers” who defraud long-distance carriers of
personal profit. millions of dollars every year, and defend hackers
Such rules, whether unwritten or inscribed in who vandalize corporate or government websites in
statute books, never succeed in curbing lawlessness the name of “freedom.”
for very long. With passing time, as access to com- As for police and prosecutors, they refuse to let
puters grew more common, so hackers multiplied their hunt for cybercriminals bog down in a swamp
exponentially—and their self-definition changed rad- of semantics. Their attitude: Whether a burglar
ically in the process. As now used in the media—and, breaks into a gallery to steal paintings or simply to
frankly, among many hackers themselves—the term admire them, he is still a burglar and should pay the
now applies to anyone, regardless of motive, who penalty prescribed by law.

137
HACKERS and Hacking

Vowing to prosecute is one thing, but arresting work, knocking out the town’s telephone serv-
disembodied criminals in cyberspace is something ice and disrupting radio transmissions at a
else entirely. Many police departments lack the nearby airport.
expertise to identify anonymous hackers, crackers, January 2000 A Russian hacker known only as
thieves, and cyberstalkers. When offenders are iden- Maxus stole more than 300,000 credit card
tified, some of the cases present investigators with a numbers from CD Universe in an attempted
jurisdictional labyrinth: thieves in Hong Kong or extortion scheme. The plot failed, but the
Moscow using computers based in London or Singa- offender remains unidentified.
pore to rob banks in New York or Los Angeles. The February 2000 Computer vandals attacked Yahoo,
pursuit requires training, equipment, and funding the world’s most popular website, shutting it
that some law enforcement agencies do not possess. down for three hours in what authorities called
Successful prosecution demands collaboration in a the most serious incident of organized Internet
field where rivalry between agencies is sometimes sabotage to date. The “denial of service” (DOS)
more bitter than the animosity between police and attack flooded Yahoo’s data centers with mock
criminals. requests for information, clogging the system’s
FBI Director Louis Freeh, testifying before the U.S. routers and forcing a shutdown. Other attacks
Senate in February 2000, frankly admitted that G- the same month disabled the eBay on-line auc-
men were no match for savvy cybercriminals. “Even tion service and Amazon.com’s book dealer-
though we have markedly improved our capabilities ship.
to fight cyberintrusions,” he said, “the problem is October 2000 A sustained penetration of Micro-
growing even faster and we are falling further soft’s high-security networks was traced to a
behind.” Among the countless incidents that trouble Russian internet service provider (ISP), but the
law enforcement: culprit was not apprehended.
February 2001 Hackers incensed by school
June 1991 KEVIN POULSEN’s arrest by FBI agents dress codes in Salem, Oregon, invaded the
capped an eight-year hacking spree that com- school district’s computer system and vandal-
promised government laboratories and military ized its website.
computers, while invading the privacy of vari- March 2001 An FBI press release blamed organ-
ous civilians (including Hollywood celebrities). ized hacker syndicates in eastern Europe—pri-
In custody, Poulsen claimed the “hacker ethic” marily Russia and Ukraine—for stealing more
had “dictated his every act”—including manip- than 1 million credit card numbers and invad-
ulation of radio giveaway contests that graced ing the computer networks of more than 40
him with $22,000 in cash, two free trips to businesses in 20 U.S. states.
Hawaii, and two $50,000 sports cars. September 2001 In the wake of massive terrorist
July 1994 Russian hacker VLADIMIR LEVIN organ- attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pen-
ized a plot to steal more than $10 million from tagon, American hackers debated launching a
Citibank, transferring the money to foreign cyber-vigilante campaign against computer sys-
accounts. tems in Afghanistan and other nations per-
February 1995 FBI agents arrested hacker KEVIN ceived as terrorist havens. Calling themselves
MITNICK, climaxing a series of corporate and the Dispatchers, composed of 60-odd self-styled
government computer intrusions dating from “computer security enthusiasts,” the group
the 1970s, when Mitnick was 13 years old. His chose as its spokesman a hacker known only as
sixth (and so far last) conviction, in March the Rev. The announced declaration of war was
1999, earned Mitnick a 46-month prison term instantly denounced by a German hackers’ syn-
plus a court-ordered ban on any use of comput- dicate, the Chaos Computer Club, while the
ers for another four years after his release. FBI’s National Infrastructure Protection Center
March 1997 A teenage hacker known on-line as issued an advisory to warn global corporations
Jester penetrated the NYNEX phone system of possible accelerated hacking in the name of
(now Bell Atlantic) in Worcester, Massachu- “patriotism.” No evidence exists that the pro-
setts. His “innocent” meddling disabled the net- posed attacks ever occurred.

138
“HAIKU”

January 2002 A man who discovered a security HACKER’S Defense Foundation


breach in a website maintained by the Poteau Organized as the Hacker’s Defense Fund in 1994,
(Oklahoma) Daily News & Sun and reported it this organization—if such it may be called—adopted
to the newspaper’s publisher received a sentence its present name in December 1997. According to the
of three years’ probation and a $1,000 fine “mission statement” published on its website, the
after confessing that he also downloaded pro- Hacker’s Defense Foundation (HDF), led by presi-
tected files from the site. dent Michael Roadancer, “does not condone, sup-
January 2002 Hackers invaded and defaced the port, or defend blatant criminal acts.” Rather, the
website of the Texas state lottery. No data or official line proclaims:
financial losses were reported by authorities.
The offenders remain unidentified. The Hacker’s Defense Foundation is a Not-for-Profit
foundation dedicated and committed to the advance-
While law enforcement struggles to keep up with ment of the hacking community, through education, of
cybercriminals, producers and vendors of security- the social, political, and legal implications of the uses of
related software welcome the Internet crime wave. technology, and seeks to enlighten the public and law
American corporations spent $4.2 billion on security enforcement about hacking community [sic], through
software in 1999 alone, and the February 2000 DOS education, that hackers are not the lawless goons that
attacks described above sparked another spending law enforcement, the news media, and Hollywood por-
spree, with an additional $200 million shelled out for tray them as.
updates and new systems, with security spending
expected to top $7.4 billion in 2002. Security ana- The HDF’s “educational” function is apparently
lysts blame haphazard network construction for fulfilled via brief website editorials. No advice is
most of the breaches, careless cyber architects mak- offered on how to join the HDF, no donations are
ing things easy for hackers and crackers. In the wake solicited, and no evidence presently exists that the
of the Yahoo shutdown, Network Associates adver- group has actually defended any indicted hackers. As
tised “the first and only service that can detect and to what the HDF has done since 1997, President
remove the denial-of-service attack agent!” Sales by Roadancer reports: “To be blunt: not a whole hell of
Seattle-based WatchGuard Technologies rose more a lot on the outside. We have had some meetings,
than 60 percent in one week following the February drawn up a lot of paperwork, and I spoke at
2000 attacks, while SonicWALL of Silicon Valley con[vention]s very sporadically. Hackerz.org’s web-
posted a 513 percent revenue hike in the subsequent server got hacked and trashed by a member of the
quarter. High on the list of hot new devices were community and we lost about a years [sic] hard
“zombie” scanners, built to identify remote comput- work.”
ers used as hack-attack conduits. Still, for all their Apparently, “the community” has yet to be prop-
good intentions, new systems themselves are typi- erly educated concerning respect for its own, much
cally cracked within days or weeks of release to the less the prevailing laws of the land.
public sector.
Though none will admit it, several computer secu-
rity firms are widely suspected of hiring “darkside” “HAIKU”: computer worm
hackers—also known as “black hats”—to advise Identified in February 2000, “Haiku” is a worm
them on little-known tricks of the trade. Such allega- virus spread on the Internet, in the form of a Win-
tions raise concerns about which side the black hats dows executable file. It is recognizable by its e-mail
really serve, and the various security firms take pains attachments, labeled haiku.exe. When such a mes-
to insist that any “former” darkside hackers on their sage is received and the attachment opened, Haiku
payroll are reformed, confirmed “white hats” who installs itself in the system and lies in wait for the
have abandoned—some say returned to—the host computer to restart, at which time it sends out
“hacker ethic.” The only certainty in cyberspace is copies of itself attached to e-mails, targeting
that intrusions will continue, with prosecutions lag- addresses from the host’s address book. Upon
ging behind security firms racing one another to cash installing itself, Haiku displays a dialogue box like
in on America’s latest crime wave. the following:

139
HAMMOND, Ricky

Haiku Generator DO YOU WANT TO COMPOSE YOUR OWN


HAIKUS?
Reflected light
Wind garden flurry silence Now you can! it is very easy to get started in this old
Flashing rainbow silence poetry art. Attached to this e-mail you will find a copy
[OK] of a simple haiku generator. It will help you in order to
understand the basics of the metric, rhyme and subjects
The “poem” offered here is one of countless varia- which should be used when composing a real haiku . . .
tions generated from a random mass of 198 nouns, just check it out! it’s freeware and you can use and
verbs, adjectives and adverbs available to the worm. spread it as long as you want!
The verse produced is not a haiku poem, incidentally,
since the randomly generated lines ignore the classic Subsequently, in one case of every 16 infections,
structure: five syllables in the first and third lines, the Haiku worm automatically connects to a remote
with seven in the second. Internet server and retrieves a “/haiku_wav/Haiku
To spread itself abroad, Haiku scans the infected .wav” file which displays the following message:
host’s Explorer personal folder, extracting e-mail
addresses from any .doc, .htm, .html, .rtf or .txt files [I-Worm.Haiku, by Mister Sandman]
located. Next, the worm connects to the Internet
using SMTP (simple mail transfer protocol) technol- Did you know
ogy and sends a copy of itself to each address The smallest box may hold
retrieved. That task accomplished, Haiku removes The biggest treasure?
itself from Windows memory on the original infected
host. Its message appears as follows:
HAMMOND, Ricky: exonerated by DNA evidence
Subject: Fw: Compose your own haikus! In the early evening of November 20, 1987, a female
Message: :)) resident of Hartford, Connecticut, was snatched from
a city sidewalk, forced into a waiting car by a
——Original Message—— stranger who drove her to a rural area outside of
town and there sexually assaulted her. After the
“Old pond . . . attack, the kidnapper drove his victim to an unfamil-
a frog leaps in iar neighborhood and left her with a warning that she
water’s sound.” would be killed if she reported the incident. She told
—Matsuo Basho. police nonetheless, but arrest of a suspect was delayed
since the victim had no clue to her rapist’s identity.
Ricky Hammond was subsequently charged with
DO YOU WANT TO COMPOSE YOUR OWN the attack, after the victim identified his photograph
HAIKUS? and accurately described certain details of his car,
including the make and model, scratches in the paint,
Haiku is a small poetry with oriental metric that a torn child’s seat, and a wristwatch hanging from
appeared in the XVI century and is being very popular, the gearshift. Forensic tests on hair retrieved from
mainly in Japan and the USA. Hammond’s car found it consistent with the victim’s
It’s done to transcend the limitation imposed by the hair. Prosecutors hit an apparent snag when tests per-
usual language and the linear/scientific thinking that formed on semen from the victim’s clothes excluded
treat the nature and the human being as a machine. Hammond, as to both blood type and DNA, but a
It usually has 3 lines and 17 syllables distributed in court accepted the district attorney’s argument that
5, 7 and 5. It must register or indicate a moment, the evidence must have been “contaminated,” since
sensation, impression or drama of a specific fact of the victim’s testimony was so detailed and persua-
nature. It’s almost like a photo of some specific sive. Jurors bought the same story, convicting Ham-
moment of nature. mond of kidnapping and sexual assault in March
More than inspiration, what you need in order to 1990, whereupon he received a 25-year prison sen-
compose a real haiku is meditation, effort and perception. tence. Hammond’s motions for a new trial and more

140
HARRY Potter Warning

detailed forensic testing on available evidence were While the infection of various files is in progress,
routinely denied. HappyTime also modifies the registry values of
Hammond appealed his conviction on three Microsoft Outlook Express, forcing the program to
grounds: (1) that the trial court erred in denying his create messages in HTML format with its stationery
motion for a new trial based on exculpatory blood tool. Each of those messages in turn contains the
and DNA analysis; (2) that the court also erred in HappyTime viral code. When the worm’s program
rejecting his motion for further DNA testing; and (3) has been executed 366 times by the infected host
that the prosecution made improper statements to computer, HappyTime launches one of two variant
the jury, thus infringing on his right to a fair trial. On spreading routines. The first raids MS Outlook’s
February 25, 1992, Connecticut’s Supreme Court address book and sends infected messages to every
overturned his conviction and remanded the case for address found there, while the second sends infected
further proceedings, noting that the trial judge had “replies” to any messages found in the system’s in-
ignored or misunderstood “the logical inconsisten- box. The infected messages have no text, but carry
cies in the prosecution’s case, the evidence suggesting an attached file labeled “Untitled.htm.”
that the chemical alteration of the assailant’s DNA A final twist is delivered by HappyTime when the
was physically impossible, or the absence of any evi- sum of the month and date equal 13—as on March
dence that the defendant’s scientific tests were unreli- 10, August 5, and so forth. On those dates, the worm
able.” After serving two years of his sentence, seeks out and erases all .exe and .dll files found on
Hammond was acquitted at his second trial and the infected host computer’s hard drive.
released from custody.

HARIRI, Fred See ANTARAMIAN, MICHAEL


“HAPPYTIME”: computer worm
Initially discovered in May 2001, the “HappyTime”
worm virus is written in VBS (Virtual Basic Script) HARRIS, William: exonerated by DNA evidence
language and spreads via e-mails using Microsoft A state champion athlete from Rand, West Virginia,
Outlook Express or the MSMAPI (Myrinet Synchro- 17-year-old William Harris was looking forward to
nized Multichannel Application Programming Inter- college with scholarships in hand when a neighbor
face) system. HappyTime first appears as an e-mail was raped near her home in December 1984. Jailed
message, either presented in HTML format or with on the basis of a shaky eyewitness identification,
an HTML-formatted attachment. If the e-mail itself is Harris was later convicted after state serologist FRED
in HTML format, the virus code within its body exe- ZAIN testified that his blood type matched that of the
cutes automatically upon the message being opened; rapist. Harris received a 10- to 20-year prison sen-
otherwise, the HTML attachment must be opened tence and was still incarcerated a decade later, when
with a double click to achieve the same effect. West Virginia authorities discovered that Zain had
On activation, HappyTime first replaces the tar- presented false evidence in various felony cases. DNA
get computer’s desktop wallpaper with a new tests were performed on the semen smears recovered
HTML file containing the worm’s viral code. In by police in Rand, and Harris was cleared of all
most cases, this change is not visible to the host’s charges. The exoneration came too late to salvage his
user, as any background picture displayed on-screen athletic and scholastic careers, however. It was small
will remain unaltered. Infection of the desktop wall- consolation when Zain, disgraced, was charged with
paper allows HappyTime to seize control each time perjury in West Virginia and Texas.
the desktop is displayed, whether on startup or
when other applications are closed down. Once
basic infection is achieved, HappyTime invades all HARRY Potter Warning: Internet hoax
HTM files found in the Windows WEB subfolder, Lifted more or less intact from The Onion, a satirical
thereby insuring that the worm code is activated magazine, this hoax “warning” began to circulate on
each time an infected file or folder is opened. Those the Internet in September 2000. Ironically, although
activations, in turn, free the worm to locate and its author(s) apparently had nothing more than fun
infect all other files with extensions .htm, .html, in mind, the views expressed precisely echo the
.asp, or .vbs. actual complaints of various right-wing Christian

141
HATE Groups On-line

groups across America, which have condemned the MA. “An organization like ours thrives on new blood—
popular series of novels (and in several cases no pun intended—and we’ve had more applicants than
demanded its removal from libraries) on specious we can handle lately. And, of course, practically all of
grounds that the books “promote witchcraft” or them are virgins, which is gravy.” [Since 1995, open
even “teach Satanism.” The original hoax warning applicants to Satan worship have increased from
reads (with errors preserved): around 100,000 to now . . . 14 MILLION children and
young adults!]
This is the most evil thing I have laid my eyes on in 10 It makes me physically ill, people! But, I think I can
years . . . and no one seems to understand its threat. offer you an explanation of why this is happening. Chil-
The Harry Potter books are THE NUMBER ONE sell- dren have been bombarded with action, adventure,
ing children’s books in our nation today. Just look at thrills and scares to the point Hollywood can produce
any Barns & Noble or Waldenbooks storefront. Go to nothing new to give them the next ‘high.’ Parents have
Amazon.com and read the reviews. Hear the touting by neglected to see what their children are reading and
educators and even Christian teachers about how “It’s doing, and simply seem satisfied that ‘Little Johnny is
great to see the youth so eagerly embracing the reading interested in reading.’ AND . . . educators and the NEA
experience!” Harry Potter is the creation of a former are PUSHING this with NO WARNING as to the
UK English teacher who promotes witchcraft and effects or the contents. Still not convinced? I will leave
Satanism. Harry is a 13 year old ‘wizard.’ Her creation you with something to let you make up your own mind.
openly blasphemes Jesus and God and promotes sor- And finally, a quote from the author herself, J.K.
cery, seeking revenge upon anyone who upsets them by Rowling, describing the objections of Christian reviewers
giving you examples (even the sources with authors and to her writings: “I think it is absolute rubbish to protest
titles) of spells, rituals, and demonic powers. I think the children’s books on the grounds that they are luring chil-
problem is that parents have not reviewed the material. dren to Satan,” Rowling told a London Times reporter in
The name seems harmless enough . . . Harry Potter. But a July 17 interview. “People should be praising them for
that is where it all ends. Let me give you a few quotes that! These books guide children to an understanding
from some of the influenced readers themselves: “The that the weak, idiotic Son of God is a living hoax who
Harry Potter books are cool, ’cause they teach you all will be humiliated when the rain of fire comes, . . . while
about magic and how you can use it to control people we, his faithful servants, laugh and cavort in victory.”
and get revenge on you enemies,” said Hartland, WI, My hope is that you will see fit to become involved in
10-year-old Craig Nowell, a recent convert to the New getting the word out about this garbage. Please FWD to
Satanic Order of the Black Circle. “I want to learn the every pastor, teacher, and parent you know. This author
Cruciatus Curse, to make my muggle science teacher has now published FOUR BOOKS in less than 2 years
suffer for giving me a D.” [A ‘muggle’ is an unbeliever of this ‘encyclopedia of Satanism’ and is surely going to
of magic.] write more. I also ask all Christians to please pray for
Or how about the REALLY young and innocent this lost woman’s soul. Pray also for the Holy Spirit to
impressionable mind of a 6 year old when asked about work in the young minds of those who are reading this
her favorite character: “Hermione is my favorite, garbage that they may be delivered from its harm.
because she’s smart and has a kitty,” said 6-year-old
Jessica Lehman of Easley, S.C. “Jesus died because He A later variant of the Potter hoax claimed (falsely)
was weak and stupid.” to originate with the American Family Foundation,
And here is dear Ashley, a 9 year old, the typical whose spokespersons have publicly repudiated the
average reader of Harry Potter: “I used to believe fraud.
what they taught us at Sunday School,” said Ashley,
conjuring up an ancient spell to summon Cerebus, the
three-headed hound of hell. “But the Harry Potter HATE Groups On-line
books showed me that magic is real, something I can American and European racist groups discovered
learn and use right now, and that the Bible is nothing cyberspace in the 1980s, communicating internation-
but Boring lies.” ally on bulletin board services (BBSs) such as the
DOES THIS GET YOUR ATTENTION!! If not, Aryan Nations Net and the Chicago Liberty Net.
how about a quote from a High Priest of Satanism: The Aryan Nations Net was created by “Pastor”
“Harry is an absolute godsend for our cause,” said Richard Butler (of the Aryan Nations cult based at
High Priest Egan of the First Church of Satan in Salem, Hayden Lake, Idaho) and Louis Beam, a rootless

142
HATE Groups On-line

Above, Racist groups like the Ku Klux Klan maintain numerous Internet websites. (Southern Poverty Law Center)
Below, Neo-Nazi activists Louis Beam (in white suit) and Richard Butler (with bullhorn) were among the pioneers of
Internet racist propaganda. (Southern Poverty Law Center)

143
HAWAIIAN Good Luck Totem

member of the Ku Klux Klan who also briefly graced to 263 in 2000, but the next year saw that movement
the FBI’s “Ten Most Wanted” list, pursued on on the wane, membership in various pseudo-militias
charges of sedition. (He was acquitted, with other plummeting along with the number of Web links. By
defendants in that case, in April 1988.) the end of 2001, the number of Internet sites main-
While never specifically threatening criminal tained by militiamen and their allies had dwindled to
action, the Butler-Beam BBS participated in the same 155 and was steadily declining.
tough talk traditionally beloved by Klansmen and By the start of the 21st century, “white power
Nazis, including thinly veiled threats toward specific rock”—a brand of violent music imported from
enemies. Referring to the leader of the Southern Britain in the mid-1980s—had become one of the
Poverty Law Center (SPLC), whose civil lawsuits racist right’s most powerful recruiting tools, speaking
bankrupted various racist groups (and finally the to the anger and frustration felt by most skinheads.
Aryan Nations itself), Beam wrote: “According to The lyrics, typified by those of lead singer George
the word of our God, Morris Dees has earned two Burdia from the band “Rahowa!” (short for Racial
(2) death sentences. . . . Thy will be done on earth as Holy War) illustrate why neo-Nazi skinheads have
it is in heaven.” When such rhetoric was combined surpassed all other factions in arrests for hate crimes
with instructions on bomb making and an unstable in America and Western Europe.
readership, acts of criminal violence were sure to
follow, as when Klansmen set fire to the SPLC’s You kill all the niggers and you gas all the Jews
Montgomery, Alabama, office on July 28, 1983. Kill a gypsy and a commie too.
The first Internet website devoted to white You just killed a kike, don’t it feel right?
Goodness gracious, Third Reich!
supremacist dogma was launched in March 1995 by
Don Black, a former Alabama Klansman lately
paroled from a three-year term in federal prison.
Resettled in Florida, Black recognized the magic of HAWAIIAN Good Luck Totem: Internet hoax
the Web. “There’s a potential here to reach millions,” A common example of an Internet chain letter, the
Hawaiian totem message disavows any intent to
he told reporters. “I think it’s a major break-
profit from gullible readers, yet preys on their super-
through.”
stition for the purpose of an apparent practical joke.
Black’s latest tiny group would not prosper, but
It is replicated on the World Wide Web—with or
others swiftly followed his example. In 1998 the
without artwork—in thousands of variations, con-
SPLC counted 163 “hate” sites on the Internet,
tributing to the junk mail (or “spam”) that drives
increasing to 254 in 1999, 305 in 2000, and 366 in
many Internet subscribers to distraction.
2001. Most were operated by various KKK factions,
neo-Nazi groups, racist skinhead gangs, and “Christ- Hawaiian GOOD LUCK TOTEM
ian Identity” cultists (members of a sect believing
that Jews and nonwhite “mud people” were \ \ \ | | | / / /
spawned in the Garden of Eden, after Eve had sex =========
with Satan in reptile form). Those groups and web- ^ | O O |
sites listed by SPLC as “other” still had obvious # \ /\ /
racist or neo-Nazi roots. They included Louis Beam # \ @' /
himself, with organizations calling themselves the # _| |_
National Association for the Advancement of White ( # ) ( )
People; Jew Watch; Nigger Watch; White Power Cen- # \ / / | * * |\ \
tral; and Jew Grinder 88 (the numerals a veiled refer- # \ / ( * ) /
ence to the eighth letter of the alphabet—i.e., # =======
“HH”—as an abbreviation of “Heil Hitler!”). # ( \ | / )
The advent of extremist “patriot militias” in Amer- # | | | |
ica after 1995 added new firepower to the far right, # .- -' | | ' ---.
and many (if not most) of those groups maintained # ' - - -' ' - - -'
close ties to older, more traditional racist movements
like the Klan and Aryan Nations. By 1998, SPLC This totem has been sent to you for good luck. It has
counted 248 “patriot” sites on the Internet, increased been sent around the world ten times so far. You will

144
HEART Attack Survival Technique

receive good luck within four days of relaying this Mississippi, and was hired to drive a city dump
totem. Send copies to people you think need good luck. truck, caring for horses at a local amusement park in
Don’t send money as fate has no price. Do not keep this his spare time. The rape-murder of Pamela Albertson
message. The totem must leave your hands in 96 hours. remains unsolved today.
Send ten copies and see what happens in four days.
You will get a surprise. This is true, even if you are not
superstitious. HEART Attack Survival Technique: Internet hoax
Good luck, but please remember: 10 copies of this Circulated sporadically on the Internet since July
message must leave your hands in 96 hours . . . 1999, this hoax appears innocuous but may have
tragic results for a gullible reader in isolated cases.
Specifically, the solo heart-attack remedy recom-
HAWKINS, Frank C. Jr.: satellite TV pirate mended in the e-mail message does not work.
A 53-year-old police lieutenant in Canton, Ohio, Spokesmen for the American Red Cross and the
Frank Hawkins Jr. was indicted by a federal grand American Heart Association agree that heart attack
jury on October 18, 2000, charged with selling and victims typically lose consciousness within a matter
distributing mechanical devices for unauthorized of seconds, and those who do not are in no need of
decryption of satellite cable television programming cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The bottom
and direct-to-home satellite services. As charged in line: Anyone who feels him/herself in the early stages
the indictment, Hawkins accepted $750 between of a heart attack should dial 911 for medical assis-
April 12 and April 17, 2000, for the illegal alteration tance, rather than experimenting with futile home
of five DirecTV access cards. Suspended without pay remedies. The bogus warning reads:
following his indictment, Hawkins retired from the
Canton Police Department in January 2001. A Subject: Heart Attack Information
month later, on February 23, 2001, he pleaded guilty
before U.S. District Judge James Gwin and received a For your information. This will also be posted on the
sentence of one year’s probation, plus a $2,000 fine Health & Wellness portion of the intra-net.
payable within 30 days.
HOW TO SURVIVE A HEART ATTACK WHEN
ALONE
HAYES, Robert: exonerated by DNA evidence
A 35-year-old resident of Broward County, Florida, A person, of any age, can have a heart attack. Without
Robert Hayes was employed as a groom at the Pom- help the person whose heart stops beating properly and
pano Harness Track when a female coworker, who begins to feel faint, has only about 10 seconds left
Pamela Albertson, was raped and strangled to death before losing consciousness. However, these victims can
in 1990. Albertson was found clutching several hairs help themselves by coughing repeatedly and very vigor-
in her hand, believed to come from her assailant, and ously. A deep breath should be taken before each
prosecutors claimed that DNA tests performed on the cough, and the cough must be deep and prolonged, as
hairs proved they belonged to Hayes. Convicted of when producing sputum from deep inside the chest. A
murder in 1991, he was sentenced to a term of life breath and a cough must be repeated about every two
imprisonment. seconds without let up until help arrives, or until the
On appeal, Hayes’s lawyers demonstrated that heart is felt to be beating normally again.
while Hayes is an African American, the hairs Deep breaths get oxygen into the lungs and coughing
retrieved from Albertson’s hand in 1990 belonged to movements squeeze the heart and keep the blood circu-
a white man. They also provided expert testimony lating. The squeezing pressure on the heart also helps it
that DNA extracted from the suspect hairs had been regain normal rhythm. In this way, heart attack victims
contaminated during testing and did not in fact link can get to a phone and, between breaths, call for help.
Hayes to the crime. Florida’s Supreme Court over- Tell as many other people as possible about this, it
turned the conviction in 1995 and remanded the case could save their lives!
to Broward County for retrial, where Hayes was
acquitted of all charges in July 1997. Leaving prison —from Health Cares, Rochester General Hospital via
penniless, Hayes returned to his native Canton, Chapter 240’s newsletter AND THE BEAT GOES

145
HELSINGIUS, Johan

ON . . . (reprint from The Mended Hearts, Inc. publica- response to the complaint, and a Finnish court ulti-
tion, Heart Response) mately ruled that Helsingius must reveal the sub-
scriber’s true e-mail address. Rather than violate the
confidentiality of his customers, Helsingius scrapped
HELSINGIUS, Johan: Internet privacy advocate the service and retired on August 30, 1996. As he
A native of Helsinki, Finland, Johan Helsingius— told reporters when announcing his decision, “I will
known on-line as “Julf”—operated the Internet’s close down the remailer for the time being because
most popular anonymous remailer (penet.fi) until the legal issues governing the whole Internet in Fin-
1996, when he was driven out of business by a flurry land are yet undefined. The legal protection of the
of unfounded allegations suggesting involvement in users needs to be clarified. At the moment the pri-
criminal activity. None of the charges were substanti- vacy of Internet messages is judicially unclear.”
ated, but the aggravation proved too much and Worse lay in store for Helsingius after The
Helsingius retired from the trade, leaving other Observer, a British Sunday tabloid newspaper,
anonymous remailers to provide bashful Internet claimed that penet.fi had been used to transmit CHILD
subscribers with the illusion of complete security PORNOGRAPHY around the world. Finnish police
from prying eyes. investigated that claim, as well, and pronounced it
Helsingius hit his first snag with the law in 1995, false. Sergeant Kaj Malmberg of the Helsinki Police
when the Church of Scientology claimed some Crime Squad told reporters that Helsingius had lim-
unknown penet.fi subscriber was posting cult secrets ited his service in early 1995, so that the remailer
on the Internet. Police raided Helsingius’s office in could not transmit photographs. “The true amount
of child pornography in [the] Internet is difficult to
assess,” Malmberg said, “but one thing is clear: We
have not found any cases where child porn pictures
were transmitted from Finland.”
Helsingius, meanwhile, seemed unwilling to give
up entirely on the Internet privacy issue. As he told
an interviewer in September 1996, “I will try to set
up a task force which will include Internet experts
together with representatives of civic organizations
and authorities. The task force could take a stand on
issues such as the network’s practical operation
methods and the misuse of the network. I hope that
the results of this task force will support the develop-
ment of the network.”
As for the importance of Internet privacy,
Helsingius said, “It’s important to be able to express
certain views without everyone knowing who you
are. One of the best examples was the great debate
about Caller ID on phones. People were really upset
that the person at the receiving end would know who
was calling. On things like telephones, people take
for granted the fact that they can be anonymous if
they want to and they get really upset if people take
that away. I think the same thing applies for e-mail.”
As for specific examples, Helsingius noted, “It’s
clear that for things like the Usenet groups on sexual
abuse, people need to be able to discuss their own
Finnish private computer consultant Johan Helsingius experience without everyone knowing who they are.
operated a re-mailer of electronic messages until he was Where you’re dealing with minorities—racial, politi-
forced to shut down his server because of claims he was cal, sexual, whatever—you always find cases in
relaying child pornography on the Internet. (AP) which people belonging to a minority would like to

146
“HIDER”

discuss things that are important to them without Hicks was placed in a lineup, whereupon the victim
having to identify who they are.” identified him as her assailant. Hicks passed two
To date, no task force as imagined by Helsingius polygraph tests, suggesting he was innocent, but the
has been organized and the issue of anonymous e- test results were inadmissible in court.
mails remains controversial, but advances in com- At trial, prosecutors introduced certain pubic
puter technology enable law enforcement agencies to hairs found at the crime scene, identified as “consis-
trace most messages without undue difficulty. tent” with samples taken from Hicks. The Wisconsin
state crime lab had no DNA testing facility at the time,
and while defense attorney Willie Nunnery employed
HERNANDEZ, Alejandro See CRUZ, ROLANDO a private analyst to test the hairs, the samples proved
too small for conclusive testing under the restricted
fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis sys-
HERR, Adrian Frederick: software pirate tem most commonly used. Nunnery learned that a
A 30-year-old resident of Laguna Hills, California, more efficient method of DNA testing—the poly-
Adrian Herr was a prolific software pirate who oper- merase chain reaction (PCR) method—was available
ated from his home, advertising on the Internet and from a lab in California, but he elected to skip those
in computer magazines. According to the federal tests and used a Chicago expert to contest the prose-
investigators who arrested him in 2000, Herr made cution’s findings of “consistency” between the hairs.
between $20,000 and $30,000 selling bootleg copies Jurors convicted Hicks in December 1991 and he
of Microsoft software, including the popular Win- received a 19-year prison term.
dows 98, Windows 2000, Office 2000 and Publisher More advanced DNA testing, under the PCR
2000 programs. He produced counterfeit CDs him- system, was performed on the evidence in 1993,
self and used false Microsoft labels to make them whereupon Hicks was excluded as a suspect in the
appear legitimate. rape. Wisconsin’s Court of Appeals reversed Hicks’s
Authorities reached a tentative agreement with conviction and ordered a new trial, that decision
Herr in April 2000, whereby he promised to quit the affirmed by the state supreme court “in the interest
bootleg software business in return for waiver of of justice” when prosecutors appealed. Hicks was
prosecution on pending felony charges, but within a released in 1996, after spending four and a half years
few weeks Herr resumed posting ads on the Internet in prison. (His alleged victim, meanwhile, stands by
and hawking his wares through Recycler magazine. her identification to the present day, insisting she
He was then arrested and slapped with two felony picked the right man.)
charges of copyright infringement. Herr pleaded Upon his release, Hicks sued attorney Nunnery for
guilty on February 26, 2001, before U.S. District malpractice in failing to pursue the PCR tests in
Judge Alicemarie Stoler. He faced a maximum sen- 1991. Jurors in that civil case believed the test would
tence of 10 years in prison and a $500,000 fine for almost certainly have resulted in acquittal for Hicks.
reneging on his initial bargain with the feds. They found Nunnery negligent and ordered him to
pay Hicks $2.6 million for the time that he was
wrongfully imprisoned. Nunnery, outraged, told
HICKS, Anthony: exonerated by DNA evidence reporters, “I think it was totally unfair and unprece-
In November 1990 a female resident of Madison, dented. I was doing all I could to provide aid and
Wisconsin, told police she had been raped by an assistance to my client. I think I will be vindicated.
unknown black man who knocked on her apartment This, too, shall pass.”
door, then forced his way inside, twice assaulting her
before he fled the scene. The 26-year-old victim saw
her attacker’s face briefly, when he barged into the “HIDER”: computer viruses
flat, but was not permitted to see him again for the Classified as dangerous, nonmemory-resident,
duration of her ordeal. Anthony Hicks was subse- encrypted parasitic viruses, the “Hider” variants
quently jailed for a traffic offense in Madison, were first catalogued in May 1998. Three forms are
whereupon a police dispatcher examined a compos- presently recognized, all of which infect .exe and
ite sketch of the rape suspect and told detectives, .com files (except command.com) by writing them-
“That looks like that black guy we just brought in.” selves to the ends of the respective files. The viruses

147
“HIV”

deliver their payloads on the 13th of each month. Message: Please check out this XML presentation and send
“Hider.1782” displays the following message: us your opinion. If you have any questions about XML
presentation, write us.
Anston Rant is back for more! Thank you.
Whoa, looks like you be missin some files there, Bud! The XML development team, Microsoft Corp.
Attached file: press.txt
The variants identified as “Hider.2143” and
“Hider.2169,” meanwhile, display this message: The attachment, of course, contains HIV’s viral
code and proceeds to infect the new host when the
Anston Rant Returns! Miss me, folks? press.txt file is opened, thus perpetuating the routine.
I’d trash some data, but my medication kicked in!

HOAXBUSTERS: Internet debunking site


“HIV”: computer virus Maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy’s
Identified for the first time in October 2000, “HIV” Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC), the
is ranked by analysts as a dangerous, memory-resi- Hoaxbusters website is dedicated to exposing Internet
dent virus targeting Windows executable files and hoaxes and thereby minimizing their potential dam-
MSI (Medium Scale Integration) archives. The virus age, ranging from simple aggravation to swindles and
further utilizes “entry point obscuring” methods to loss of commerce precipitated by fraudulent “warn-
conceal itself within infected files, a process assisted ings” about mythical defects in various legitimate
by its small size (about 6KB in length). HIV is also products or services. Such hoaxes circulate about the
armed with anti-debugging techniques, freezing the Internet with other junk e-mail (“spam”), but are
infected host system if debugging programs are often couched in terms that make them resemble
encountered. In Windows 98 systems, HIV disables public service announcements or other worthwhile
file protection safeguards by overwriting the communications. Some deliver attachments infected
default.sfc file with empty data. A similar technique with computer VIRUSES and thereby deliver a payload
employed against sfcfiles.dll on Windows 2000 is more damaging than simple anxiety.
defeated as Windows blocks access or automatically The Hoaxbusters website divides hoaxes into 11
restores deleted files from its backup. broad categories. They include:
When infecting MSI archives, the HIV strain
searches for executable files and overwrites their 1. Malicious code warnings related to viruses, Tro-
program entry routines with a code that displays the jan programs, and other Internet menaces
following message when the program is run: allegedly found “in the wild,” which do not in
fact exist.
[Win32.HIV] by Benny/29A 2. Urban myths, including reports and warnings of
This cell has been infected by HIV virus. dire events which never took place in reality,
sometimes calculated to produce fearful reac-
Another angle of attack for HIV involves replace- tions in their target audience.
ment of HTML files in the current directory with 3. Bogus giveaways, typically claiming that cash or
XML files, achieved by writing an xml suffix to the some other valuable prize has been offered by a
existing filename. That done, HIV contrives to hide major corporation, inviting readers to partici-
the modified files by setting a Windows registry key pate in mythical contests or similar time-wasting
to conceal extensions for XML files. Finally, HIV activities.
opens the Windows Address Book (WAB) database, 4. Inconsequential warnings that propagate anxi-
retrieves any e-mail addresses found there, and dis- ety concerning real-life matters that are either
patches infected messages to each. Those messages obsolete (in that the problem has long since been
read: solved) or that were virtually harmless in the
first place.
From: press@microsoft.com 5. Sympathy letters and requests for help on behalf
Sent: 2010/06/06 22:00 of some allegedly needy person, often the victim
Subject: XML presentation of an accident or illness. In hoax cases, the person

148
HONAKER, Edward

allegedly requesting aid either does not exist or encrypted parasitic virus which copies itself to the
else has no such problem and has not broadcast infected host’s Interrupt Vectors Table. It also
appeals for help. Such pleas may constitute a searches out .com files in the current directory and
form of CYBERSTALKING when they generate vol- writes itself to the end of each one located. No pay-
umes of unwanted e-mail or other contact with load is delivered and no manifestations present them-
the allegedly needy person. selves thereafter. Hobo contains the following text:
6. Traditional chain letters, typically threatening
bad luck if the recipient does not forward dupli- *.com
cates or—in cases of Internet fraud—send ‘Hobo’ Created by Sozer
money to a list of persons named in the message.
7. Threatening chain letters, including malicious
threats of harm against the recipient, his prop- HOLDREN, Larry: exonerated by DNA evidence
erty, or some third party if the chain is not per- In December 1982 a female resident of Charleston,
petuated. West Virginia, was attacked while jogging, dragged
8. Scam chain letters, presented as communica- into a highway culvert, and there repeatedly raped.
tions from a legitimate firm, which in fact are Charleston resident Larry Holdren was identified by
designed to swindle the recipients in some way. both the victim and an off-duty FBI agent, who testi-
9. Scare chain letters that warn random recipients fied under oath that he observed Holdren walking
of impending danger to others, frequently nam- near the crime scene on the day of the attack. Con-
ing women as the endangered parties. victed at trial on six counts of sexual assault, Hol-
10. Jokes couched in terms of fanciful warnings refer- dren received a sentence of 30 to 60 years in state
ring to improbable events or disasters, such as the prison. He served 15 years of that term before DNA
end of the world or some regional catastrophe. testing—unavailable at the time of his trial—conclu-
11. “True legends,” defined by the Hoaxbusters web- sively excluded him as the source of semen recovered
site as “real stories and messages that are not from the victim and the crime scene.
hoaxes but are still making the rounds of the
Internet.” No criminal or malicious intent gener-
ally lies behind such messages, but they still add HONAKER, Edward: exonerated by DNA evidence
to the recipient’s daily load of time-wasting spam. In the predawn hours of June 23, 1984, Samuel
Dempsey and his girlfriend, Angela Nichols, were
Hoaxbusters advises recipients of any hoax mes- sleeping in their car, parked beside a rural Virginia
sages to ignore them and/or to employ any available highway, when a stranger woke them, brandishing
e-mail filter programs that may screen such items out a pistol and identifying himself as a police officer.
upon delivery. In no case should chain letters be per- The man ordered Dempsey out of his car and into
petuated, nor should cash or any other item be sent the nearby woods. He then dragged Nichols to a
to strangers in response to e-mail requests. Attach- nearby pickup truck and drove her to a more
ments to unwanted e-mails and those sent by secluded area, where she was raped and sodomized
strangers are best left unopened, as they may contain repeatedly. Authorities prepared a sketch of the
damaging virus codes. Any threats received should be suspect from descriptions offered by Dempsey and
reported to law enforcement agencies or to some pri- Nichols, including his military-style camouflage
vate organization such as CYBERANGELS, which is fatigues.
equipped to trace the offending messages. E-mails Authorities still had no leads in the case when a
that solicit cash or other valuables may also be second woman was raped, 100 miles from the scene
reported to the U.S. Justice Department’s Internet of the original crime. That victim said her rapist
Fraud Complaint Center, at <http://www.fbi.gov/ resembled a neighbor, 40-year-old Edward Honaker,
interagency/ifcc/ifccoverview.htm>. but Honaker had an airtight alibi and was never
charged with the crime. He was photographed by
detectives, however, and that photo made its way to
“HOBO”: computer virus Nelson County, where Dempsey and Nichols identi-
Initially discovered in January 1998, “Hobo” is fied Honaker as their assailant of June 23. Honaker
rated as a harmless, memory-resident, partly owned a pickup resembling the kidnapper’s vehicle,

149
HONDA Giveaway

and a search of his home turned up camouflage Virginia statutes forbid introduction of new evi-
clothing similar to the rapist’s. dence more than 21 days after trial, regardless of the
There were problems with the prosecution’s case circumstances, so Honaker was forced to seek a par-
from the beginning. First, Honaker once again had don from Governor George Allen. Lawyers filed a
an alibi corroborated by four witnesses. Nichols clemency petition on June 29, 1994, and Allen offi-
described her rapist as left-handed, whereas Honaker cially pardoned Honaker on October 21, 1994, free-
was not. The rapist’s semen contained motile sperm, ing him after he had served 10 years in prison. “It’s
while Honaker had undergone a vasectomy eight mind-boggling what our system can do,” Honaker
years earlier. Although the rapist had disrobed and told reporters at the prison gates. “What happened
forced Nichols to perform oral sex, she did not recall to me can happen to any man alive. DNA was my
a large surgical scar across Honaker’s stomach. salvation.” Governor Allen refused financial com-
Finally, while the kidnapper had ranted at length pensation on grounds that all officials involved in the
about his Vietnam war experience, Honaker had no case “acted in complete accordance with the law.”
such military record.
Nelson County prosecutors forged ahead despite
those stumbling blocks. At trial, they dismissed the HONDA Giveaway: Internet fraud
corroboration of Honaker’s alibi as “a put-up job” Another Internet giveaway hoax, this one targeting
concocted by friends and relatives to deceive the Honda Motors with fraudulent claims of free vehi-
court. Honaker’s vasectomy was dismissed with a cles offered in return for circulating chain letters on-
claim that sperm found on vaginal swabs came from line, was first reported in September 1999. As with
Sam Dempsey. Dempsey and Nichols testified against the BILL GATES hoax, the GAP giveaway fraud, and
Honaker, identifying him under oath as their others, this offer has no validity and has been pub-
assailant. Finally, a state forensic expert told jurors licly repudiated by Honda. The original message
that hair found on Nichols’s clothing after the rape reads (with errors uncorrected):
“was unlikely to match anyone” other than
Honaker. Convicted on seven counts of rape, Subject: FW: New Wheels! Please forward this . . . (fwd)
sodomy and sexual assault, Honaker received three
life terms in prison plus 34 years. First off, I just want everyone to know this is the real
In the wake of that crushing verdict, Honaker thing. I forwarded this message to everyone I know
contacted CENTURION MINISTRIES for help in appealing about 6 months ago and last week a Honda employee
his conviction. Investigators soon discovered that showed up at my house with my brand new 1999 Civic
Nichols’s first description of the rapist was inconsis- EX!!! It is so funny because I never believed these
tent with Honaker and that some of Dempsey’s testi- things worked and actually sent this one as a joke to all
mony was induced via hypnosis. Centurion my friends. But they forwarded the message too and
Ministries then joined forces with the CARDOZO now I have received a new car!!!
INNOCENCE PROJECT to pursue DNA testing of evidence My best friend actually hasn’t gotten his car yet but
collected by police. Prosecutors reluctantly furnished he checked the balance of his Honda Account and it has
the evidence, and a lab report of January 13, 1994, reached nearly $11,000!!! If you like Honda’s or you
identified two different seminal deposits in the sam- just want a new car, please forward this message it is
ples preserved, mismatched between the vaginal the real thing.
swab and a stain found on Nichols’s shorts. DNA
results positively excluded Edward Honaker as a Bob Stanley, Denver Colorado
source of either sample. A second report, dated
March 15, 1994, concluded that while Samuel Friends,
Dempsey could not be excluded as a source of the
clothing stain, he likewise had not produced the Look I know this sounds too good to be true, and that’s
semen swabbed from Nichols’s vagina. In June 1994 what I thought too. But I called Honda’s headquarters
Nichols admitted an affair with a third party in Japan and spoke to an American representative
unknown to Dempsey, but the secret lover was also myself and it really is true! They assured me that this
excluded by DNA tests as a source for the vaginal the real thing! I still wasn’t convinced but I called three
samples. The June 1984 rapist remains unidentified. weeks later and my Honda account balance has reached

150
HOWLAND, Gregory

the unbelievable sum of $12,500!!! So even if you don’t land was 39 years old in 1998, when he began selling
believe this, forward it anyway so my account will con- bootlegged computer software on the Internet. Doing
tinue to grow until I get my brand new Prelude!!! business as Howland Enterprises Inc. and Middle-
march Networks, Howland advertised copies of
Steve Kelly, Minneapolis Minnessota Apple software on various Internet newsgroups,
including Mac OSX server, WebObjects 4, OpenStep
Dear valued customers: 4.2 User, and OpenStep 4.2 Developer. The least
expensive versions of these programs, in the aggre-
Here at Honda we have been well known for over 20 gate, still retailed for more than $6,000, while How-
years for providing the best in reliabillity, comfort, and land offered his copies for a fraction of that price.
style. Over the years we have risen to be one of the top In September 1998 Howland sold copies of Open-
auto industries here in Japan. But that isn’t enough. We Step 4.2 User and OpenStep 4.2 Developer for $170
want to be number one in the US. Now our twentieth to a Denver company, Black Hole Inc. After receiving
anniversary for making cars is here!!! This is the perfect the software, a Black Hole representative advised
opportunity for you and us here at Honda to celebrate Howland that he was selling bootlegged programs
our 20 years of excellent service. We have been trying to and advised him to “stop this practice immediately
think of ideas to get more people to know about our before you wind up busted by the man.” Howland
cars. And with technology and e-mail being the wave of agreed and refunded Black Hole’s money, but the
the future, we want to jump on this opportunity. So we business was too lucrative for him to simply walk
have set up a rewards system to repay those who help away. A short time later Apple representatives
us spread the word about Honda. Our marketing staff learned of the Black Hole transaction and a Boston
has designed a special program that traces this message member of the firm contacted Howland via e-mail in
as it travels across the US. Anyone who forwards this e- February 1999, using the name “Alex Lamb” as he
mail, will immediately have an account at their local sought to purchase bootleg programs. Howland
Honda dealer opened in their name. This account will readily agreed to sell “Lamb” copies of the OpenStep
initially be opened with a credit of $1,000 toward any programs for $100 plus $15 shipping. He mailed the
new or used vehicle at their participating dealership. package from his home address on February 22,
For each person you forward this e-mail to, the amount 1999.
of $200 will be added to your account. If the recipients FBI agents entered the case at that point, main-
of this e-mail forward it you will be rewarded an addi- taining the “Alex Lamb” façade while they negoti-
tional $100 for each person it reaches and if they for- ated further illegal transactions. Between April and
ward it your account continues to grow in $100 June 1999, Howland sold the feds 39 CDs contain-
increments. You can log onto our website at ing illegal bootleg copies of various Apple programs,
http://www.Honda.com to check the balance of your charging $2,060 for software valued in excess of
account. If things go well and everyone participates you $60,000 at legitimate retail prices. The FBI never
should see your account grow quite quickly. Follow the paid Howland for those disks, arresting him instead,
on screen instructions to order the specific make and but he admitted selling 25 to 50 copies to other Inter-
model of Honda you want to buy with your account. net customers at $50 each, for an alleged total profit
We hope that this is a rewarding experience for you and of $1,250 to $2,500. The price charged to Black
us. Our goal is to reach over 1 million computers by the Hole Inc. in September 1998 suggests Howland may
year 2000. have understated his profits in the case by $3,000 to
I thank you for your time and business. $6,000, assuming he was truthful concerning the
number of CDs sold.
Sincerely, Howland pleaded guilty to one count of willful
Kageyama Hironobu copyright infringement on June 13, 2001, facing a
Senior Honda Marketing Advisor maximum sentence of five years in prison and a
$250,000 fine. Stephen Schenning, U.S. attorney for
the district of Maryland, told reporters, “This office
HOWLAND, Gregory: software pirate and law enforcement agencies recognize the signifi-
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate cance of intellectual property to our nation’s economy
and resident of Bethesda, Maryland, Gregory Hol- and will aggressively prosecute people committing

151
HSU, Eugene You Tsai

these crimes.” Schenning described Howland’s prose- Columbia, Maryland, to ask the retail price of KIV-
cution as part of the U.S. Justice Department’s nation- 7HS units. A Mykotronx security officer thereafter
wide Intellectual Property Initiative, launched in July informed federal agents of the overture, since the
1999 under provisions of the federal No Electronic KIV-7HS is restricted to U.S. government use. Cus-
Theft (NET) Act. toms asked Mykotronx to tell Hsu that all future dis-
cussions would be conducted through an
intermediary import/export firm in Maryland—in
HSU, Eugene You Tsai: accused cyber-spy fact, a Customs front staffed by the agency’s under-
A naturalized U.S. citizen residing in Blue Springs, cover officers. Between May 2, 2001, and August 18,
Missouri, Eugene Hsu was arrested by Customs Ser- 2001, a Customs agent recorded various telephone
vice officers on August 30, 2001, charged with con- conversations with Hsu, David Yang, and Charlson
spiring to sell advanced military encryption devices to Ho in Singapore (who planned to buy the units for
the People’s Republic of China. Arrested at the same resale in China). Those conversations, and Hsu’s
time was David Tzu Wvi Yang, a Taiwan native and alleged willingness to violate federal law, formed the
permanent resident alien living in Temple, California. basis of charges filed against Hsu and Yang.
According to spokesmen for the U.S. Customs Ser- Spokesmen for the U.S. Justice Department stress
vice, the arrests climaxed a four-month investigation that indictments are simply accusations of criminal
centered in Baltimore. Hsu and Yang reportedly con- activity and are not in themselves proof of guilt. All
tracted with an undercover Customs officer to sell criminal defendants are presumed innocent until they
and transport KIV-7HS encryption devices, deemed are convicted by a jury or agree to a plea bargain
so advanced and sensitive that special approval from with their prosecutors. Hsu’s attorney has informed
the National Security Agency is required before the reporters that his client had no part in “a deeper Chi-
equipment can be exported. In fact, according to nese government conspiracy and had no idea what he
Allan Doody, Customs special agent in charge for was getting into.” If convicted on the charges filed,
Baltimore, the KIV-7HS device is listed among “the Eugene Hsu and David Yang face a maximum
most sensitive items on the U.S. munitions list.” penalty of 10 years in federal prison and a $1 million
According to its developer, Rainbow Technologies, fine.
the device provides “high-speed cryptographic func-
tions in Time Division Multiple Access architectures
to provide secure high-bandwidth, wide-area, net- HU, Jinsong: accused cyberstalker (exonerated)
worked data exchange via satellite over a broad A 26-year-old doctoral candidate at California State
range of data rates.” Polytechnic University in Pomona, Jinsong Hu was
Customs agents pursued their investigation with considered a promising student until early 1995,
help from Mykotronx, a Rainbow Technologies sub- when a former girlfriend accused him of sexually
sidiary and supplier of the KIV-7HS. The agents harassing her via e-mail. Initially charged under Cali-
posed as middlemen who could facilitate export of fornia’s stalking law, Hu spent six months in the
the devices to a third party, one Charlson Ho, affili- Orange County jail before jurors acquitted him in
ated with a Singapore company called Wei Soon June 1995. Although Jiajun Wen also accused Hu of
Long. According to the charges filed, Eugene Hsu verbal and written harassment, the bulk of prosecu-
pursued the transaction even after Customs agents tion evidence against him consisted of e-mails which
informed him that no export license would be Hu denied writing, blaming the barrage of messages
approved for export of the KIV-7HS devices to China on a still-unidentified impostor. A university com-
and that such export would violate the federal Arms puter expert testified that she had traced the offend-
Control Export Act. Hsu’s alleged partner in the ing e-mails back to Hu’s account. Hu countered that
scheme, David Yang, reportedly told agents on Wen knew his password and numerous others had
August 24 that the units were ready for transport access to his e-mail server. Jurors accepted his claim
from Los Angeles to Singapore via Taipei, and from that most of the harassing e-mails were fraudulent,
Singapore on to China. No KIV-7HS units actually and that some he did send had been altered by per-
changed hands before the suspects were arrested. sons unknown, but the Caltech administration was
Customs was alerted to the pending transaction in unmoved by Hu’s acquittal, expelling him in October
May 2001, when Hsu contacted Mykotronx in 1995.

152
“HYDRA”

Hu’s expulsion polarized the Caltech faculty and HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Win-


student body, while reports of e-mail harassment and dows\CurrentVersion\RunServices
CYBERSTALKING increased dramatically on campuses
across the nation. Investigators conceded that e-mails HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Win-
were easily altered (or “spoofed”), and at least one dows\CurrentVersion\Run
message sent to Jiajun Wen was later traced to an
acquaintance of her new boyfriend, living in Salt HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Win-
Lake City, but the expulsion order remained in force. dows\CurrentVersion\RunServics
Caltech geology professor Yuk Yung told the Los
Angeles Times, “E-mail is the bread and butter of an Hydra lingers in Windows memory as a hidden
institution like this. But it is very hard to prove that application and spreads itself further on the Internet
the person whose name is on it indeed sent it, and by connecting to Microsoft Outlook, where it regis-
that it has not been tampered with—especially here, ters itself as Outlook’s “NewMail” and “ItemSend”
where these kids all have extraordinary computing events handler. Under “NewMail,” when a message is
ability.” Jinsong Hu was one year from completion received, Hydra scans the e-mail for its own infection
of his studies when he was expelled, described by his (and deletes it if a virus code is found), then opens
faculty adviser as a brilliant scholar who scored first clean messages and scans them for .exe attachments
among nearly 1 million students taking the Chinese (deleting those, as well). For “ItemSend,” Hydra
equivalent of the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) searches outgoing e-mails for any attached files and
prior to entering Caltech. replaces those found with its own infected .exe
Hu’s case hinged on four specific e-mail messages, attachment. If outgoing messages have no attach-
the first allegedly sent to Wen when they broke up in ments, Hydra creates one to further spread the infec-
August 1994, three others sent to Wen’s new tion. E-mails sent between 1:00 and 2:00 P.M. on any
boyfriend in January 1995. The latter messages Friday the 13th are further modified with the follow-
included references to sexual encounters between Hu ing text added to the beginning of each message:
and Wen and a warning: “If you are beginning to
suffer now, tell Jiajun about it. She knows what it [I-Worm.Hydra] . . . by gl_st0rm of [mions]
means.” Hu maintains that he knew nothing of the
messages until a later date in January 1995, when he Hydra conceals itself in several ways, first deleting
found his e-mail account disabled by a Caltech com- the msconfig.exe file from the Windows system
puter administrator. His expulsion was ordered by a directory, then searching out and terminating the fol-
three-member panel, apparently ignoring the trial lowing antivirus applications as found:
court’s finding in Hu’s criminal case. While conced-
ing that Hu had an alibi for the time when two e- Amon
mails were sent, the panel decided that he could have AntiVir
written a program to make his computer send mes- AVG
sages while he was not at the terminal. AVP Monitor
Dr. Web
File Monitor
“HYDRA”: computer worm F-Secure
An Internet worm written in Visual Basic and spread F-STOPW
via e-mails with an attached .exe file, “Hydra” was InoculateIT
noted for the first time in June 2001. When a recipi- Iomon98
ent clicks on the attachment, Hydra copies itself to Kaspersky Anti-Virus
the Windows directory under the name msserv.exe navpw32
and logs that file in the Windows registry auto-run NOD32
keys as follow: Norman Virus Control
Norton AntiVirus
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Win- Registry Editor
dows\CurrentVersion\Run Registry Monitor

153
“HYDRA”

Task Master ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/pub/setiathome/setiathome-3.


Trend PC-cillin 03.i386-winnt-cmdline.exe
vettray ftp://ftp.let.uu.nl/pub/software/winnt/setiathome-3.
Vshwin 03.i386-winnt-cmdline.exe
ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/.2/setiathome/setiathome-3.
Curiously, Hydra also installs and activates SETI 03.i386-winnt-cmdline.exe
(Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) software on ftp://alien.ssl.berkeley.edu/pub/setiathome-3.
infected host computers, downloaded to the Win- 03.i386-winnt-cmdline.exe
dows directory as MSSETI.EXE from one of the fol- ftp://setidata.ssl.berkeley.edu/pub/setiathome-3.
lowing websites: 03.i386-winnt-cmdline.exe

154
I
IBM Giveaway: Internet hoax and 19” monitor is sitting on your doorstep! You must
In June 1999 another variant of the BILL GATES GIVE- hurry, because the offer ends July 31 of this year.
AWAY began circulating on the Internet, this one Here’s the catch, though. Each of your friends must
promising free computer hardware to participants in send this to at least 5 people or you won’t be eligible, so
a mythical e-mail promotion. As with the other give- choose your friends wisely! Remember, a true friend
away schemes that surface periodically, this one is a will send this along for you! That’s all it takes, no
fraud and has been publicly repudiated by IBM strings attached! No purchase necessary!!! You don’t
spokespersons. The original message read (with even have to have previously purchased a computer
errors intact): from IBM! They want to earn or keep your future busi-
ness, and they’re willing to pay for it!!!
Subject: Free Computer Equipment!!!
Date: Monday, June 28, 1999 6:35 PM
“ICECUBES”: computer worm
Reported for the first time in November 2000, “Ice-
Hey, I just wanted to let you guys know about this great
cubes” is an Internet worm VIRUS in the form of a
new PC I just got from IBM!
Windows executable file, spread via infected e-mail
Hewlett-Packard and Gateway have just merged to
attachments. When the attachment is opened, Ice-
form the biggest computer supplier in the world! Bigger
cubes automatically installs itself into the new host
than Dell, bigger than IBM, bigger than them all! In
system and delivers its payload with a giggle, pre-
response to this amazing merger, IBM has set aside
senting a humorous dialogue box that appears to
250,000 free computers to reward and keep it’s most “configure” a Windows Icecubes program. That box
loyal and trusted customers! I’ve already got mine, read includes “manufacturer’s default settings (not to be
on to see how you can get yours!!! edited)” which instruct the computer to—
This email has a special encoding which will let IBM
know every time you send it to one of your friends or • “Crash every 2 days”
relatives. The first 250,000 people who send this to at • “Crash after 5000 bytes of un-saved changes”
least 15 of their friends will receive a brand new IBM • “Create incredibly large files”
computer! After you sent this to your friends, and qual- • “Fail AutoRecovery at 17 percent”
ify, IBM will contact you via email, and get your ship- • “Decrease boot speed by 70 percent”
ping address. Send them your address, and in a couple • “Annoy me with that sodding paperclip when I
of days, a brand new computer, complete with printer, least expect it”

155
IDENTITY Theft

During installation, Icecubes copies itself to the numbers may be obtained by thieves in a variety of
Windows system directory under the filename ways, ranging from purse-snatching, “dumpster div-
wsock2.dll (not to be confused with legitimate files ing,” and “shoulder surfing” at pay phones or auto-
wsock32.dll or wsock2.vxd). Thereafter, the worm matic teller machines to purchase through illegal
moves on to infect the original wsock32.dll Windows channels. And in today’s world, the vendors of stolen
library, normally locked against writing, by using a personal data operate primarily on the Internet.
“rename” command that replaces the original Experts on identify theft warn consumers against
wsock32.dll file with an infected one upon the sys- responding to “spam” e-mail that requests personal
tem’s next restart. Once having infected WSOCK32. information in return for some illusory prize or
DLL, Icecubes monitors all outgoing data. When a reward. Likewise, circumspection must be used when
message is sent, the worm automatically prepares a making on-line credit card purchases or when relay-
duplicate with its own infected attachment and text ing personal data on the telephone. Cellular phones
reading: are more risky than traditional land lines, since con-
versations can be intercepted—literally plucked from
Subject: Windows Icecubes! the air—without resort to clumsy (and illegal) wire
Text: I almost forgot. Look at what I found on the web. tapping equipment.
This tool scans your system for hidden Windows set- Identity theft became a federal crime in 1998,
tings, better known as -Windows Icecubes-. These set- with passage of the Identity Theft and Assumption
tings were built in by the Windows programmers. I Deterrence Act, imposing a maximum sentence of
think you might want to change them a little, just take a 15 years’ imprisonment, plus a fine and forfeiture
look! :) of any personal property used to commit the
offense. Separate federal statutes impose additional
On July 1 Icecubes displays the following message penalties for various collateral offenses, including
on all infected computers: identification fraud, credit card fraud, computer
fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, or financial institu-
W9x.Icecubes / f0re [1z0] tion fraud. Each of these federal offenses are
Windows detected icecubes on your harddrive. felonies that carry substantial penalties, in some
This may cause the system to stop responding. cases as high as 30 years’ imprisonment, fines, and
Do you want Windows to remove all icecubes? criminal forfeiture of property. The U.S. Justice
Department accepts on-line complaints via its Inter-
net Fraud Complaint Center, at http://www1.ifc-
IDENTITY Theft cfbi.gov/index.asp.
Identity theft is the blanket term for any type of Examples of identity theft range from the trivial
crime wherein the offender uses another individual’s to the fantastic. A nursing home employee in
legitimate personal information to commit acts of Elkhart, Indiana, was arrested on March 9, 2002,
fraud or deception, typically (though not exclu- for stealing an 87-year-old Alzheimer’s patient’s
sively) for illicit financial gain. The criminal activity Social Security number. The object: to restore the
extends beyond mere CREDIT CARD FRAUD, for exam- offender’s telephone service after she fell behind on
ple, since offenders literally assume the victim’s her monthly payments. In Oregon, meanwhile,
identity, often using the assumed name to purchase police raiders seized 85 computer disks from a
cars and houses, rent apartments, take out loans, fraud suspect’s home, revealing personal data col-
book travel reservations. The assumed identity may lected on every holder of a state driver’s license. The
also be employed for outright criminal activity and disk labeled “B” contained names, home addresses,
furnished to authorities when the offender is birth dates, and driver’s license numbers for
arrested, posts bond, and so forth. If unchecked, the 269,889 individuals. Also recovered in the raid
impact on a victim may be devastating, both emo- were credit cards, death certificates, Social Security
tionally and financially. cards, and applications for medical residency at
Unlike DNA or FINGERPRINTS, personal data in Oregon Health and Science University Hospital.
modern society consists mainly of numbers—particu- The suspect was initially held on $1,000 bond, then
larly Social Security, credit card, bank account, and released a day later due to overcrowding at the
telephone calling card numbers. Any or all of those local jail.

156
IDENTITY Theft

Prosecutors and financial institutions offer the fol- minimize financial loss and to preserve your reputa-
lowing tips for self-defense in the new age of ram- tion. The following contacts can provide assistance:
pant identity theft:
1. The Federal Trade Commission. Report viola-
1. Keep personal information on a strict “need to tions by telephone (toll-free) at 1-877-ID THEFT
know” basis. Banks and credit card companies (877-438-4338) or by mail to Consumer
already have your information on file. They do Response Center, FTC, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue,
not telephone to request or “verify” such data. N.W., Washington, DC 20580.
When unknown callers offer prizes, “major credit 2. The Postal Inspection Service. For cases of sus-
cards,” and so forth in return for personal infor- pected mail fraud or illicit misdirection of mail,
mation, demand a written application form—or contact the nearest post office for telephone num-
better still, hang up. Keep your Social Security bers and complaint forms.
card in a safe place; do not carry it with you or 3. The Social Security Administration. Report mis-
have the number printed on checks. Defeat use of Social Security numbers by telephone to 1-
“dumpster divers” by shredding or burning cru- 800-269-0271.
cial documents before they are discarded. Abstain 4. The Internal Revenue Service. Report theft of
from posting personal information on the Inter- information from tax records or misuse of per-
net—to genealogical or class reunion sites, chat sonal data to commit tax violations by telephone
rooms, or questionable vendors. When traveling, to 1-800-829-0433.
have mail held at your local post office until you 5. The three principal credit reporting agencies.
return, thus preventing theft of credit card state- Their fraud units may be contacted at the follow-
ments and other critical documents from your ing numbers and addresses:
mailbox. When using public telephones or ATMs, a Equifax: call 1-800-525-6285 or write to P.O.
be wary of eavesdroppers and “shoulder surfers.” Box 740250, Atlanta, GA 30374-0250.
Give out no vital information on a cell phone b Experian (formerly TRW): call 1-888-397-3742
anywhere, at any time. or write to P.O. Box 1017, Allen, TX 75013.
2. Check financial information regularly and thor- c Trans Union: call 1-800-680-7289 or write to
oughly. Bank and credit card accounts issue P.O. Box 6790, Fullerton, CA 92634.
monthly statements. If yours do not arrive on 6. All creditors with whom your name or personal
time, call the institution(s) and inquire. If state- data has been fraudulently used. This may
ments have been mailed to an unauthorized include long-distance telephone companies, as
address, report the fraud immediately and well as banks, credit card companies, automobile
demand copies of all missing statements. Examine dealerships, etc.
monthly statements in detail, confirming all 7. All financial institutions where you have
charges and/or debits as legitimate. Report imme- accounts. Whether an identity thief has tampered
diately any unauthorized activity on the accounts. with the accounts or not, the institutions must be
3. Periodically request copies of credit reports. warned of a fraud in progress to prevent further
These should list all bank and financial accounts losses and assist in apprehending the offenders.
under a subject’s name, including loans and mort- 8. Major check verification companies. These con-
gages. Report any unauthorized activity to the tacts are useful if checks have been stolen or
proper authorities. bogus checking accounts established in a victim’s
4. Maintain detailed records of banking and finan- name. If any merchant has received bad checks in
cial accounts for at least one year. Financial your name, contact the merchant’s verification
institutions are required by law to maintain company. The major firms and their phone num-
copies of checks, debits and other transactions bers are:
for five years, but customers without records of
their own may have no way to dispute unautho- CheckRite: (800) 766-2748
rized charges or signatures. ChexSystems: (800) 428-9623 [for closed
accounts]
If, despite these precautions, you still become a CrossCheck: (800) 552-1900
victim of identity theft, swift action is required to Equifax: (800) 437-5120

157
“IDIOT”

National Processing Co.: (800) 526-5380 IFFIH, Ikenna: convicted Internet hacker
SCAN: (800) 262-7771 A 28-year-old resident of Boston, Massachusetts,
TeleCheck: (800) 710-9898 Ikenna Iffih was indicted by federal prosecutors on
February 23, 2000, for hacking into various govern-
For sheer audacity—or comic relief—23-year-old ment and corporate computer systems, interfering
identity thief Thomas Seitz takes the prize. A New Jer- with their operations for malicious personal amuse-
sey computer buff, Seitz blamed the U.S. Security and ment. According to the charges filed, Iffih obtained
Exchange Commission (SEC) for seducing him into a unauthorized access to a corporate Internet account
life of cybercrime. After all, he told authorities, if the in April 1999, using that account to illegally pene-
SEC did not post thousands of names and Social Secu- trate a computer operated by the U.S. Defense Logis-
rity numbers on its public website, Seitz would not tics Agency. Next, he used a “telnet proxy” service to
have taken out car loans in 14 of the listed names— disguise his actual computer address, making it
and he would not stand convicted of bank fraud appear that his address was that of the government’s
today. It was simply too tempting, Seitz maintained. computer. He then invaded the website of Zebra
Granted, his first 12 on-line loan applications under Marketing Online Services (ZMOS), an Internet
various pseudonyms were rejected, but he received service provider that hosts corporate Web pages and
$15,000 on his 13th attempt. Next, using the stolen provides other Internet services for corporate clients.
identity of a 57-year-old electronics executive in Salt Iffih’s attack on the ZMOS website damaged the
Lake City, Seitz obtained a $44,000 auto loan, an on- firm’s main computer, in Washington state, and
line insurance quote and two credit cards to pay for caused the company a significant loss of revenue.
the policy. When it came to obtaining fake ID in his Still not satisfied, between May and August 1999
victim’s name, Seitz found that he had 300 websites to Iffih devoted himself to invading a Maryland com-
choose from. “I knew I did something illegal,” Seitz puter research project Web server maintained by the
admitted, “but I always came out of a situation pretty National Aeronautics and Space Administration
much better than I anticipated.” That is, until a car (NASA). At one point he seized control of the NASA
dealer tried to register his newly purchased vehicle and system, allowing Iffih to read, modify, or delete any
Seitz was arrested for using a counterfeit driver’s files found therein. At the same time, he installed a
license. At that point, he admitted, “I had no defense.” “sniffer” program to intercept and record passwords
of legitimate users transmitted over the NASA net-
work, archiving the data for later personal use. Next,
“IDIOT”: computer viruses using the captive NASA computer as a launching
Initially reported in May 1997, the “Idiot” computer pad, Iffih defaced the U.S. Interior Department’s Web
virus now exists in two variants, known as page with cyber graffiti and invaded various comput-
“Idiot.2032” and “Idiot.2592.” Both are ranked by ers operated by Northeastern University in Boston,
analysts as dangerous, memory-resident, parasitic illegally copying files that contained personal infor-
viruses, containing the text string: =\/\= IDIOT VUL- mation on many students, alumni, administrators,
TURE =/\/=. Idiot.2032 is encrypted, while its later and faculty members. FBI agents, collaborating with
variant is not. members of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization
Both versions of the Idiot virus operate in the Service, arrested Iffih before he could put that private
same manner, seizing control when an infected file is data to personal use.
executed, whereupon they infect the following files: Iffih’s indictment included three charges: (1) inten-
c:\dos\fdisk.exe, c:\dos\undelete.exe, c:\dos\mem.exe, tionally intercepting and endeavoring to intercept
and c:\dos\expand.exe. Idiot then infects any files login names and passwords transmitted to and
that are executed, opened, or accessed with the through a NASA computer; (2) intentionally and ille-
Get/Set File Attribute, using a complex technique to gally accessing the ZMOS website used for interstate
insert themselves into the middle of each target file. and foreign commerce, causing significant damage;
The virus thus appears to have no entry point and so and (3) willfully and maliciously interfering with a
becomes more difficult to locate. “Bugs” in the virus U.S. government communication system, thereby
may deliver an additional destructive payload, cor- hindering and delaying transmission of communica-
rupting the files that are infected and thereby render- tions. If convicted on all counts at trial, Iffih faced a
ing them useless. maximum 10-year prison sentence and a $250,000

158
INSTANT Message Discontinuation

fine. To avoid that punishment, he pleaded guilty on Indonga.2062—


June 29, 2000, and was sentenced to two years’ pro-
bation, plus forfeiture of all personal computer PINDONGA Virus V1.4 (Hecho en ARGENTINA)
equipment and payment of $5,000 restitution to Programado por: OTTO (16/9/77)
Zebra Marketing Online Services. Saludos a: MAQ-MARIANO-SERGIO-ERNESTRO-
COSTRA
PD: Alguien mate a Bill Gates (EL WINDOWS SE
“ILLUSION”: computer virus family CUELGA)
Now recognized in several variants, the first “Illu-
sion” virus was reported in July 1998. Researchers Indonga.2125—
classify the whole family as “very dangerous,” mem-
ory-resident, parasitic viruses, which write them- PINDONGA Virus. (Hecho en ARGENTINA)
selves to the ends of executed .com files. Bugs within Programado por: Otto (16/9/77)
the several viruses produce erratic behavior, ranging Saludos a: MAQ-MARIANO-SERGIO-ERNESTRO-
from sporadic self-replication to crashing an infected COSTRA
system. Idiot viruses consistently delete the following PD: Alguien mate a Bill Gates (El WINDOWS SE
antivirus files from infected hosts: CUELGA)

anti-vir.dat Indonga.3652 and 4010 infect all accessed .com


avp.crc and .exe files (including command.com), with
chklist.ms Indonga.3652 erasing disk sectors on February 25,
March 21, August 27 and September 16, while dis-
chklist.tav
playing the following message:
ivb.ntz
smartchk.cps
PINDONGA Virus V5.6 (Hecho en ARGENTINA)
Programado por Otto (16977)
On July 4 and any Friday falling on the second of
Saludos a MAQ-MARIANO-SERGIO-ERNESTRO-
a month, Illusion erases selected hard drive sectors
COSTRA-PABLIN
and displays the following message on-screen: PD: Alguien mate a Bill Gates (EL WINDOWS SE
CUELGA)
—IlluSioN viRus coded by ThE_WiZArD in Spain (1997) — PINDONGA Virus (Programado por OTTO en
ARGENTINA) 16977.
When you know your time is close at hand
Maybe then you will begin to understand
Life down there is just a strange Illusion . . . “INFINITE”: computer virus
Logged initially in August 2000, “Infinite” is a non-
memory-resident, encrypted parasitic virus which
“INDONGA”: computer viruses searches for Windows executable files in the Win-
Found on the Internet today in four variants, the dows system and current directory, infecting and cor-
“Indonga” computer virus was initially logged in rupting all it finds. Infection occurs when the virus
June 1997. Its current forms are variously known as finds a “cave”—unused code or data—in the body of
“Indonga.2062,” “Indonga.2125,” “Indonga.3652” a file and implants itself there. “Infinite” contains a
and “Indonga.4010.” All four are classified by text string reading: “Win32.Infinite (c) 2000 Billy
expert analysts as “very dangerous,” memory-resi- Belcebu/iKX”.
dent, encrypted parasitic viruses that write them-
selves to the ends of .com and .exe files. Damage
inflicted on host computers is determined by the INSTANT Message Discontinuation: Internet hoax
virus variant involved and by the host system’s date. In June 1999 a warning circulated on the Internet,
Indonga.2062 and 2125 infect executed .com files advising recipients that America Online’s Instant
(with the exception of command.com), erasing disk Message service would be discontinued the follow-
sectors on September 22 and 24, while displaying the ing month. Subscribers were urged to petition for
following messages on-screen: continuation of the service—which, in fact, was not

159
“INTEGRATOR”

endangered in the first place. The message was yet with their promises for fear of facing an multimillion
another hoax, one of many aimed at AOL during dollar class action suit similar to the one filed by
the 1990s. The original warning read (with errors Pepsico against General Electric not too long ago. I’ll
uncorrected): be damned if we’re all going to help them out with their
e-mail beta test without getting a little something for
Dear America Online and Instant Message users, our time.
My brother’s girlfriend got in on this a few months
Our America Online staff is planning to take away our ago. When I went to visit him for the Baylor/UT game
Instant messages by July 14, 1999. If you want to keep she showed me her check. It was for the sum of
your Instant Messages free of charge, sent this mail to $4,324.44 and was stamped “Paid In Full”.
everyone you know. It will be used as a petition. Each Like I said before, I know the law, and this is for
person you send this to, counts as one “signature.” If real. If you don’t believe me you can e-mail her at jpilt-
this petition gets 100,000 “signatures,” our Instant man@baylor.edu. She’s eager to answer any questions
Messages will still be available at no extra charge. If you guys might have.
America Online does not receive 100,000 “signatures,” This is not a joke. I am forwarding this because the
Instant Messages will still be available, but only to
person who sent it to me is a good friend and does not
those who bay an extra 15.00 dollars a month. If you
send me junk. Intel and AOL are now discussing a
do not care about getting any further Instant Messages,
merger which would make them the largest Internet
please send this for the sake of those who want to keep
company and in an effort make sure that AOL remains
their Instant Messages free of charge. Thank you for
the most widely used program, Intel and AOL are run-
your time and consideration.
ning an e-mail beta test. When you forward this e-mail
Robert McDoggan to friends, Intel can and will track it (if you are a
America Online Microsoft Windows user) for a two week time period.
Assistance Director For every person that you forward this e-mail to,
Microsoft will pay you $203.15, for every person that
you sent it to that forwards it on, Microsoft will pay
“INTEGRATOR”: computer virus you $156.29 and for every third person that receives it,
Ranked by analysts as a dangerous, nonmemory-resi- you will be paid $17.65. Within two weeks, Intel will
dent, encrypted parasitic virus, Integrator was reported contact you for your address and then send you a
for the first time in July 1998. Upon invading a new check. I thought this was a scam myself, but a friend of
host computer it searches for .com files and writes itself my good friend’s Aunt Patricia, who works at Intel
to the end of each one located. On November 20 it actually got a check for $4543.23 by forwarding this e-
freezes the infected system. This virus contains the text mail.
string: “Black Crow Integrator v1.00.” Try it, what have you got to lose????

INTEL/AOL Merger: Internet hoax INTERNET Access Charges: cyberhoax


This hoax, circulated on the Internet in December Beginning on November 6, 1998, a scare message
1999, appears to combine elements of a classic hoax
circulated on the Internet warned users of an
and E-MAIL BOMBING. The message itself describes a
impending financial charge for on-line access. Early
nonexistent merger of two cyberspace giants, unac-
countably resulting in a mythical cash giveaway. The versions of the warning blamed the Federal Commu-
punch line is delivered with inclusion of an e-mail nications Commission (FCC) for the mythical tax,
address for the author’s “brother’s girlfriend”—who while later variants simply fingered “the govern-
presumably was flooded with inquiries at the time. ment” or “Congress.” In any case, the warning was a
The original message read (errors intact): fraud, as revealed by a formal FCC statement that
the commission “has no intention of assessing per-
Subject: Real money minute charges on Internet traffic or of making any
changes in the way consumers obtain and pay for
I’m an attorney, and I know the law. This thing is for access to the Internet.” The most common version of
real. Rest assured AOL and Intel will follow through the warning read (errors preserved):

160
IVANOV,Alexei

Date: Wednesday, January 06, 1999 10:03 PM In order to protect your valuable data from deletion
we ask that you do the following:
Looks Like Congress has found another way to tax us.
There is a new bill in US Congress that will be 1. Disconnect all terminals and local area networks
affecting all Internet users. You might want to read this from their Internet connections.
and pass it on. CNN stated that the government would 2. Shut down all Internet servers, or disconnect them
in two weeks time decide to allow or not allow a charge from the Internet.
to your (OUR) phone bill each time you access the 3. Disconnect all disks and hard drives from any con-
internet. nections to the Internet.
Please visit the following URL and fill out the 4. Refrain from connecting any computer to the Inter-
necessary form! net in any way.
The address is http://www.house.gov/writerep/
If EACH one of us, forward this message on to oth- We understand the inconvenience that this may cause
ers in a hurry, we may be able to prevent this from hap- some Internet users, and we apologize. However, we are
pening! (Maybe we CAN fight the phone company!) certain that any inconvenience will be more than made
up for by the increased speed and efficiency of the Inter-
Various hoax indicators include the facts that (a) net, once it has been cleared of electronic flotsam and
“Congress” does not vote as a single unit on any bill; jetsam.
(b) without a particular bill number protests have no We thank you for your cooperation.
impact; and (c) this particular “alert” was circulated
while the 105th Congress was adjourned.
“IRINA” Computer Virus: Internet hoax
The “Irina” virus hoax began as a publicity stunt,
INTERNET Cleanup Day: Internet hoax launched by Guy Gadney, (former) head of elec-
This e-mail warning, circulated in various forms on tronic publishing for Penguin Books in London.
the Internet, is another hoax concocted by some prac- The hoax was designed to generate advance public-
tical joker. There is, needless to say, no such thing as ity for an interactive book titled Irina, but created a
“Internet Cleanup Day,” and the process described global Internet panic instead. Condemned by
would dismantle the Internet, not “clean” it. The antivirus experts as “extremely irresponsible and
original hoax message reads (with errors intact): dangerous,” the stunt brought a formal apology
from Penguin. The original message, including ref-
Subj: Internet Cleanup Day erence to a nonexistent college and professor, read
(with errors preserved):
THIS MESSAGE WILL AGAIN BE REPEATED IN
MID FEBRUARY. FYI

***Attention*** There is a computer virus that is being sent across the


Internet. If you receive an e-mail message with the sub-
It’s that time again! ject line “Irina”, DONOT read the message. DELETE
As many of you know, each year the Internet must it immediately. Some miscreant is sending people files
be shut down for 24 hours in order to allow us to clean under the title “Irina”. If you receive this mail or file,
it. The cleaning process, which eliminates dead email do not download it. It has a virus that rewrites your
and inactive ftp, www and gopher sites, allows for a hard drive, obliterating anything on it. Please be careful
better working and faster Internet. and forward this mail to anyone you care about.
This year, the cleaning process will take place from
12:01 a.m.. GMT on February 27 until 12:01 a.m. (Information received from the Professor Edward
GMT on February 28 (the time least likely to interfere Prideaux, College of Slavonic Studies, London).
with ongoing work). During that 24-hour period, five
powerful Internet search engines situated around the
world will search the Internet and delete any data they IVANOV, Alexei See GORSHKOV, VASILY
can find.

161
J
“JACKAL”: computer viruses C:\Program Files\Command Software\F-PROT95\
The “Jackal” title is presently worn by two distinct *.exe
and separate computer viruses. The first, initially C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan95\Scan.dat
detected in May 1996, is described by analysts as a C:\Program Files\McAfee\VirusScan\Scan.dat
dangerous, memory-resident, multipartite virus. It C:\Program Files\Norton AntiVirus\Viruscan.dat
attacks the master boot record (MBR) of an C:\Program Files\Symantec\Symevnt.386
infected host and changes the address of the active C:\Program Files\FindVirus\Findviru.drv
boot sector, writing itself to the new address. Upon C:\Program Files\Cheyenne\AntiVirus\*.dll
booting the host system, “Jackal” is then executed C:\Program Files\Cheyenne\Common\Cshell.dll
in lieu of the original boot sector. Thereafter, the C:\TBAVW95\Tbscan.sig
virus writes itself to the end of .com and .exe files C:\Tbavw95\Tb*.*
that are accessed by the host. “Jackal” also sporad- C:\VS95\*.dll
ically reformats sectors of the infected host’s hard
drive. On the first day of any month, Jackal inserts its
The second Jackal variant, identified in March own name as a password in various documents. On
1998, is a macro virus which replicates itself as vari- the 27th of each month it inserts the password
ous files on the host computer are opened or saved “ULTRAS.” Throughout May and on the fifth,
with new names. At the same time, it erases the fol- ninth, 17th and 25th of other months it displays the
lowing popular antivirus applications as they are following message:
located.
Microsoft Office 97
C:\eSafe\Protect\*.dll Error, is necessary will update files
C:\f-macro\f-macro.exe
C:\PC-Cillin 95\Lpt$vpn.* Jackal then attaches the following disk format com-
C:\PC-Cillin 95\Scan32.dll mands to the infected host’s c:\autoexec.bat file:
C:\PC-Cillin 97\Lpt$vpn.*
C:\PC-Cillin 97\Scan32.dll @ECHO OFF
C:\Program Files\AntiViral Toolkit Pro\Avp32.exe CLS
C:\Program Files\AntiViral Toolkit Pro\*.avc ECHO Microsoft Corp. 1983–1997 All rights reserved
C:\Program Files\Command Software\F-PROT95\ ECHO Goes preparation to renovation of your system files
*.dll ECHO Please wait this can occupy several minutes

163
“JACKWILD”

FORMAT C: /U /C /S /AUTOTEST > NUL mounted that offensive on June 29–30, 1999, down-
ECHO. loading NASA proprietary International Space Sta-
ECHO. tion software valued at some $1.7 million. As a result
ECHO. of that intrusion and theft, NASA computers were
ECHO Error at renovations of files shut down for three weeks in July 1999, costing the
agency $41,000 in labor and hardware replacement
On the 15th and 30th of each month Jackal expenses.
deletes the following files: No previous juvenile hacker had ever served time
in America, but the Justice and Defense Depart-
c:\*.* ments were determined to make an example of
c:\windows\*.* James. On September 21, 2000, after pleading guilty
c:\windows\system\*.* on two counts of juvenile delinquency, he was sen-
tenced to six months’ confinement and ordered to
write letters of apology to NASA and the Defense
“JACKWILD”: computer virus Department. As U.S. Attorney Guy Lewis told
A macro virus of Polish origin rated “dangerous” by reporters in Miami, “This case should send a clear
computer analysts, “JackWild” was initially reported message to our community that, given the appropri-
from Poznan, Poland, in April 1998. Its 11 encrypted ate case, we will aggressively prosecute to the full
macros include AutoClose, AutoExec, AutoNew, extent of the law.”
AutoOpen, FileExit, FileNew, FileSave, FileSaveAs,
FileTemplates, ToolsMacro, and Utils. The most
immediate and obvious symptom of a JackWild J. Crew Giveaway: Internet hoax
infection is an alteration of colors seen in many Win- In November 1999 a new chain letter appeared on
dows elements, coupled with a display reading: the Internet, claiming (falsely) that the J. Crew cloth-
“Colors 95 modified by Jack Wild.” ing retail chain was offering gift certificates to all
participants in an e-mail advertising scheme. The
hoax is reminiscent of others and refers specifically
JAMES, Jonathan: first incarcerated juvenile hacker to similar false messages targeting GAP stores. The
A Miami, Florida, HACKER whose name was initially message read (with grammatical errors intact):
withheld from the media due to his age, 15-year-old
Jonathan James—a.k.a. “c0mrade”—made a series Hello readers!
of computer intrusions between August 23, 1999,
and October 27, 1999, penetrating a military com- My name is Robert Crensman. I am sure you are all
puter network used by the Defense Threat Reduction well aware of the free offerings made from Gap and the
Agency (DTRA). The DTRA, as its name suggests, is free gift certificates offered from Abercrombie and
a Defense Department agency charged with reducing Fitch. I am the Senior President of J. Crew, and I am
the threat of various attacks on the United States, offering a great deal in compliance to these other great
including any assault with nuclear, biological, or offers.
chemical weapons. As he later confessed to authori- For every ten people you forward this two, your
ties, James gained unauthorized access to a computer AOL screen name will receive an online J. Crew gift
server in Dulles, Virginia, and installed a “backdoor” certificate worth fifty dollars. There is no limit on how
program that intercepted more than 3,300 messages many people you can sent this to. This is simply an
sent to and from members of the DTRA staff. The online promotion to increase the usage of our internet
program also captured 19 user names and passwords website. We appreciate your help in passing on this let-
of DTRA employees’ computer accounts, including ter. Thank you for your support!
10 on military computers. Feel free to visit our online store at
A previous intrusion, later linked to James, had http://www.jcrew.com
targeted 13 computers of the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA), housed at the Sincerely,
Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Robert Crensman
Using two different Internet service providers, James Senior President of J. Crew

164
“JESSICA”

JENKINS, Vincent H.: exonerated by DNA evidence That would be the trace presumably of her husband.
An African-American resident of Buffalo, New She is still married to that gentleman. And when the
York, born in 1939, Vincent Jenkins had a long knowns were tested, it turned out that the trace
record of arrests and convictions. By age 43, he had amount of DNA did not come back and match her
already spent a total of 28 years behind bars for var- husband. At that point, despite . . . requests to the
ious offenses. He was, in short, one of the “usual prosecutor that they really didn’t want to do it to
suspects” questioned often by Buffalo police when these people, because going back and saying to her,
they had crimes to solve, his photo displayed in mug well, you know, of course she was insisting the tests
books for victims who did not recognize their were wrong, but . . . I think that is highly unlikely,
assailants. because it was cross validated with victim samples and
One such incident occurred in 1982, when a everything else. We have prosecutors coming into
woman strolling through the Tiffts Farm nature court and saying, well, what really happened in this
preserve was assaulted and raped. Before fleeing, case is that there were three rapists, you know, there
her attacker said, “The liquor made me do it.” was this defendant, who didn’t ejaculate, and she did-
Vaginal and cervical swabs, taken at a local hospital, n’t notice that two other people raped her in the park
revealed semen traces from two different donors. The that afternoon.
victim told police that she had performed consensual
sex with her husband several hours before the rape. With results of the DNA tests in hand, Buffalo
She scanned mug books in vain, unable to identify prosecutors agreed not to oppose a motion in state
her assailant, but provided police with a vague court to vacate Jenkins’s conviction, but they fought
description. Scheck’s efforts to have a federal court declare Jenk-
Four weeks after the attack, Vincent Jenkins was ins innocent. Vincent Jenkins, a prison convert to
arrested and exhibited to the victim. Despite watching Islam now known as Warith Habib Abdal, was
him for 25 minutes, she refused to name Jenkins as the finally released from custody on September 11, 1999.
rapist. Police next ordered Jenkins to speak, but the
victim also failed to identify his voice. She changed her
mind only after detectives and agents of the prosecu- “JESSICA”: computer virus
tor’s office convinced her that Jenkins “must be” the Currently recognized in two variants, called “Jes-
rapist, because of his criminal record. Jenkins was sica.1234” and “Jessica.1345,” the original strain of
convicted at trial and received a life sentence. this virus was initially logged in June 1997. It is a
Attorney Barry Scheck and the CARDOZO INNO- memory-resident, parasitic virus deemed “not dan-
CENCE PROJECT finally rescued Jenkins from prison, gerous” by analysts who have studied its effects.
after he had served more than 16 years on his latest Both variants write themselves to the ends of exe-
conviction. DNA tests performed in 1999 conclusively cuted .com and .exe files on an infected host com-
excluded Jenkins as the source of either semen sam- puter, thereafter erasing the antivirus programs
ple recovered from the alleged rape victim in 1982. chklist.cps and chklist.ms if either is found in the sys-
Oddly, the woman’s husband was also excluded as a tem. On August 10 each variant displays an on-
donor of both samples, which placed the prosecution screen message:
in a precarious position. Barry Scheck described
what happened next, in a televised interview. Jessica.1234—

When the testing was completed, [the victim] had Dear Jessica:
indicated at the time of the sexual assault that her hus- I love you!!!
band had had prior consensual sex with her 24 hours Wanderer V1.2
earlier. The DNA testing showed, very interestingly—
it was done blindly—that Jenkins did not match either Jessica.1345—
of the two DNA patterns, either the predominant pat-
tern that was found on the vaginal swab and on the Dear Jessica: This is to commemorate our pure and
cervical swab, and a trace amount of male DNA that deep friendship which began in R405,PUDY,1992. My
was found on the cervical swab, which is exactly . . . wanderlust comes from the love of freedom . . .
what you would expect from prior consensual sex. Wanderer V1.1 NT

165
JIMERSON,Verneal

JIMERSON, Verneal See FORD HEIGHTS FOUR

“JINDRA”: computer viruses


Two variants of the “Jindra” virus are presently
known, both identified for the first time in February
1998. Expert analysts rank both as “very danger-
ous,” although they operate in different ways. The
original virus, now labeled “Jindra.2049,” is classed
as a “very dangerous,” nonmemory-resident, para-
sitic polymorphic virus which searches infected hosts
for .com files (excluding command.com) and writes
itself to the end of each one located. It also erases the
following antivirus programs if found within the
host system:

C:\AGUARD.DAT
C:\AVG*.GRS
C:\DOS\VSAFE.COM
CHKLIST.MS

On the 21st and 22nd of any month, Jindra.2049


erases the system’s CMOS (complimentary metal
oxide semiconductor) disk sectors and displays the fol- Calvin Johnson Jr., right, and his attorney Peter Neufeld
lowing message on-screen: “Jindra&Pastika je zde!!!” leave the courtroom after a judge freed him from prison.
Depending on the system’s time, Jindra.2049 may also Johnson, who spent 16 years behind bars for a brutal
insert its variant, known as “JindraBoot.” This is a rape, was cleared after DNA evidence proved another
memory-resident boot virus that writes itself to boot man was responsible for the crime. (AP)
sectors of floppy disks and the infected host’s C drive.
Upon infecting its 101st file, JindraBoot erases the
host’s CMOS and other disk sectors, thereby com-
pounding the damage begun by Jindra.2049. burglary in the later case. On the day he was sen-
tenced to life imprisonment, Johnson told the court,
“With God as my witness, I have been falsely accused
JOHNSON, Calvin Crawford, Jr.: exonerated by DNA of these crimes. I’m an innocent man, and I pray in
evidence the name of Jesus Christ that the truth will eventually
One night in early 1983, a female resident of Clayton be brought out.”
County, Georgia, woke to find a prowler straddling Legal appeals proved fruitless, but Johnson
her back as she lay face down in bed. The man choked finally received assistance from the CARDOZO INNO-
her unconscious with a belt, then waited for her to CENCE PROJECT, committed to reexamining cases
revive before he wrapped a towel around her head, where DNA evidence may cast new light on dubious
raping and sodomizing her before he fled the scene. convictions. Semen samples preserved from the
The victim, a white woman, had briefly glimpsed her original case were tested in November 1998 and
African-American attacker’s face and subsequently proved conclusively that Johnson was innocent of
viewed police mug books. She identified Calvin John- the crime for which he stood convicted. After vari-
son Jr., a 25-year-old mail carrier with a 1981 bur- ous administrative delays, Judge Matthew Simmons
glary conviction, as her assailant and Johnson was ordered a new trial for Johnson and he was released
arrested, charged with both the rape in question and from custody in June 1999, after District Attorney
another sexual assault committed two days earlier. Bob Keller formally dropped the charges. Keller,
At trial, in November 1983, jurors acquitted him who had prosecuted Johnson 16 years earlier, told
of the first assault but convicted him of rape and reporters, “I didn’t feel he should spend one more

166
JONES, Joe C.

day in prison.” Still, despite shaking Johnson’s once, they sat talking between the two vehicles for
hand for the news cameras, Keller insisted, “I don’t several minutes and were thus engaged when a man
think this was a miscarriage or a failure of the sys- armed with a pistol suddenly appeared, moving
tem. It points out the tremendous advantages of between the cars and ordering one woman to step
new testing that we didn’t have in 1983. It is a out. He dragged the woman to another vehicle
tragedy when a person spends so much time in nearby, forced her inside, and drove to a different
prison, and I’m sorry for that.” part of town where she was raped.
Johnson, for his part, told the press, “I had faith Joe Jones, a homosexual, was present at the
that in some way, some day, the truth would come nightclub on the date of the attack. The two eyewit-
out, and I kept the faith.” Johnson’s 70-year-old nesses identified him as the kidnapper, and while his
father, meanwhile, saw no cause for celebration in his alleged victim initially picked another assailant
son’s belated release. “I don’t celebrate tragedies,” he from police mug shots, she later changed her story
declared. “It’s something that should’ve happened 16 and likewise fingered Jones. When police searched
years ago, so I’m not going to celebrate now. It’s as Jones’s home, they found a pair of pants resembling
simple as that.” those the rapist wore. At trial, a Topeka shopkeeper
testified that Jones was in his store at the time of
the assault, dressed in different clothing, but jurors
“JOIN the Crew” Computer Virus: Internet hoax disregarded the statement. Evidence of Jones’s
One of the more pervasive Internet hoaxes is a warn- homosexuality was deemed inadmissible by the
ing of a VIRUS transmitted by e-mail messages titled court. On February 13, 1986, he was convicted of
“Join the Crew.” At the time this hoax first appeared rape, aggravated kidnapping, and aggravated
and was exposed as fraudulent, no virus had yet been assault, sentenced to life imprisonment on the kid-
created which could infect a target computer simply napping charge with shorter concurrent prison
by opening an e-mail message. Today such viruses do terms on the other two counts.
exist—BUBBLEBOY was the first identified—but vari- On February 2, 1987 Jones filed a motion of
ous experts (including the otherwise reliable HOAX- remand with the Kansas Supreme Court, seeking a
BUSTERS website maintained by the U.S. Department new trial on the basis of ineffective legal counsel and
of Energy) still maintain that viruses can only be newly discovered evidence. Since his conviction, Jones
transmitted via extraction and execution of infected had learned of another defendant’s conviction for sex-
e-mail attachments. The original hoax message read: ual assaults with an identical modus operandi, and
psychologists were called to testify that Jones was a
IMPORTANT—VIRUS Alert!!! victim of “unconscious transference,” the victim and
witnesses recalling his face after previously glimpsing
Take note! him at the nightclub. The motion for remand was
granted on February 13, 1987, but only for the pur-
Someone got an email, titled as JOIN THE CREW. pose of examining the other suspect. A hearing was
It has erased his hard drive. convened, at which the other inmate naturally denied
Do not open up any mail that has this title. committing any additional assaults, and prosecutors
It will erase your whole hard drive. noted that the second suspect’s photograph had been
This is a new email virus and not a lot of people know examined by the witnesses before they identified
about it, just let everyone know, so they won’t be a Jones. The motion for a new trial was denied.
victim. Next, Jones’s attorney filed another appeal to the
state supreme court, on grounds that Jones’s sexual
Please e-mail this to everyone you know!!! orientation should have been allowed as evidence at
Remember the title: JOIN THE CREW trial, and that the trial court wrongfully excluded
evidence pointing to another suspect. That motion
was denied on March 3, 1989.
JONES, Joe C.: exonerated by DNA evidence In 1991, as news of DNA testing reached the
In the early morning hours of August 24, 1985, three defense team, Jones’s lawyers were granted permis-
women left a Topeka, Kansas, nightclub and walked sion to test forensic evidence recovered in the case.
to their cars in the parking lot. Instead of leaving at After some difficulty and the transfer of the evidence

167
JONES, Ronald

to a second laboratory, test results determined on Five years later, in 1994, attorney Richard Cun-
October 25, 1991, that Jones could not have pro- ningham asked Judge Morrissey to permit DNA testing
duced semen samples recovered from the victim in on the forensic evidence, but Morrissey twice refused.
1985. Jones’s attorneys moved for a new trial on Reminded that prosecutors had claimed the semen
December 18, 1991, but the prosecution stalled, was Jones’s, Morrissey sneered from the bench, “Save
demanding repetition of the DNA tests. A second arguments like that for the press. They love it. I
round of testing produced identical results on April don’t.” On appeal of those decisions, the Illinois
13, 1992, and the DNA evidence was ruled admissi- Supreme Court overruled Morrissey and ordered the
ble on June 17, 1992. Jones’s conviction was DNA tests to proceed in 1997. The results conclu-
vacated, with an order for a new trial, but the prose- sively excluded Ronald Jones as a source of the
cution declined to refile charges and Jones was semen, but prosecutors still refused to acknowledge
released from prison the same day, after serving six his innocence. More tests were ordered by the state,
and one-half years of his undeserved sentence. with the same result. Finally, after 22 months of
“reinvestigating the case,” state’s attorneys dropped
all charges when confronted with an order for a
JONES, Ronald: exonerated by DNA evidence retrial. He was released from custody, belatedly, on
An African-American native of Chicago, born July 6, May 17, 1999. The murder case remains unsolved
1950, Ronald Jones provides another example of the today.
grave injustice that has prompted many Illinois resi-
dents to demand an overview of the state’s justice
system and application of capital punishment “JORGITO”: computer viruses
statutes. His wrongful conviction and death sentence First identified in June 1996, the “Jorgito” computer
is scarcely more alarming than the malicious attitude virus now exists in two variants, dubbed “Jor-
of prosecutors who blocked his release from prison gito.636” and “Jorgito.730.” Both are memory-resi-
for nearly two years after Jones was proved innocent dent, parasitic viruses, rated nondangerous by
of any crime. computer analysts. Both write themselves to the ends
On March 10, 1985, a 28-year-old mother of of executed .exe files on the infected host computer,
three was raped and murdered at an abandoned thereafter delivering slightly different payloads. On
motel on Chicago’s South Side. Seven months March 14 of any year after 1998, both display a mes-
elapsed before police detectives extracted a confes- sage reading “Jorgit_ Was Here.” The newer version,
sion from Jones, a 34-year-old alcoholic who lived Jorgito.730, also adds text reading:
in the same neighborhood. Authorities insisted the
confession was voluntary, but Jones claimed he had Córdoba
signed it only after he was beaten by Detectives Argentina
Steven Hood and John Markham. According to
Jones’s sworn testimony, Hood struck him several
times across the head with a blackjack, before JOYANES, Francisco Javier Arjona: software pirate
Markham said, “Don’t hit him like this because he A 23-year-old Spanish citizen residing in Los Angeles,
will bruise,” and then proceeded to punch Jones California, Francisco Joyanes teamed with a fellow
repeatedly in the stomach. Spaniard, 31-year-old Maria Yolanda Sola Lirola, to
Voluntary or otherwise, the confession was dubi- operate an Internet website known as Software-
ous. Jones described the murder victim as a prosti- Inc.com in March 1998. The operation began in
tute, when in fact she had no record of prostitution. Spain, but moved to the United States in November
Still, Judge John Morrissey admitted the confession 1998. According to incorporation papers for the
as evidence and disregarded Jones’s testimony of enterprise, Software-Inc.com had its main office in the
police brutality. At trial in 1989, prosecutors argued Bahamas, with a branch office in Spain, but it oper-
that semen recovered from the victim belonged to ated primarily from a storefront on Wilshire Boule-
Jones, even though the samples were too small for a vard in Los Angeles. Between March 1998 and
conclusive blood test using then-current technology. October 2000, Joyanes and Lirola manufactured
Jones was convicted by a jury and Judge Morrissey bootleg copies of various commercial software
sentenced him to die. programs and offered them for sale on their website

168
“JUICE”

without permission from the original vendors, thereby of computer and electronic equipment. On August 7,
amassing an estimated $900,000 in illicit revenue. 2001, both defendants received 21-month prison
U.S. Customs Service agents were alerted to the terms, followed by three years’ supervised parole and
bootleg operation by private investigators from an order to pay $900,000 in restitution to their cor-
Adobe Systems Inc., Autodesk Inc. and Macromedia, porate victims.
three California software companies victimized by
the scam artists. A year-long federal investigation
was launched, climaxed with the filing of criminal “JUICE”: computer virus
charges on October 16, 2000. Joyanes and Lirola Rated “harmless” by computer analysts who have
were each charged with one count of copyright studied its effects, “Juice” is a nonmemory-resident,
infringement, one count of conspiracy to commit parasitic virus initially logged in June 1996. Upon
wire fraud, and one count of criminal forfeiture. The invading a new host, it searches out .com files and
maximum penalty at law for each count is five years’ writes itself to the end of each one found. No out-
imprisonment, plus three years’ supervised release ward manifestation of the virus has been noted. It
and a $250,000 fine. Both defendants pleaded guilty contains the following text strings:
as charged on January 5, 2001, their pleas including
an agreement to forfeit ownership of the Software- Found cunt juice in C:\WINDOWS\MSD.EXE
Inc.com domain name, $900,000 in cash, a 2000 Clean, Drink, Abort
Chevrolet Corvette convertible, and a large quantity *.COM

169
K
“KALIOSTRO”: computer virus new domain name, thereby evoking angry protests
Noted for the first time in September 1997, throughout cyberspace.
“Kaliostro” is rated by computer analysts as a “non- Eugene Kashpureff, a resident of Belfair, Washing-
dangerous,” memory-resident, partly encrypted virus ton, born in 1965, offered another avenue of regis-
which writes itself to the end of opened or executed tration via his AlterNIC system, but since InterNIC
.exe files. Three .exe files thus far immune to its enjoyed a monopoly on “.com” domains he was
effects are ading.exe, dos4gw.exe and drweb.exe. In forced to rely on alternatives such as “.ltd” and
some cases, Kaliostro also interferes with modem “.sex.” Tired of playing second fiddle by 1996, Kash-
function, transmitting a message in Russian that pureff used his computer expertise to launch “Opera-
translates as “password ok.” Kaliostro contains the tion DNS Storm,” conceived as a stealth attack on
following text string: InterNIC’s on-line monopoly. After a year of effort,
Kashpureff was ready. For nine days in July 1997—
òá òá òá. . . . I am Kaliostro 3.0 (c) Dred between July 10 and 14, and again between July 21
and 24—thousands of Internet users logging on to
InterNIC were involuntarily rerouted to AlterNIC’s
KASHPUREFF, Eugene E.: convicted hacker website, thus impeding registration of their domain
In 1993 the National Science Foundation designated names. He might have escaped detection, but ego
the cyber-firm Network Solutions (a.k.a. InterNIC) won out over caution and Kashpureff boasted of his
as the exclusive registrar of all Internet domain campaign to the media, claiming that he could hijack
names containing the generic abbreviations “.com” e-mail sent to any website in the world—or any
(for commercial entities), “.edu” (for educational nation, for that matter.
institutions), “.gov” (for government entities), “.net” A criminal complaint and arrest warrant were
(for computer networks and Internet service issued against Kashpureff on September 12, 1997, by
providers) and “.org” (for nonprofit organizations). which time he had absconded to Canada. Extradi-
By the end of the decade, InterNIC administered tion procedures were initiated, and Kashpureff was
more than 1.2 million domain names and its Internet jailed for nearly two months in Toronto, pending res-
website logged an average 1 million visits per day. olution of his case. Finally, on December 24, 1997,
InterNIC also administers the popular “WHOIS” he waived extradition and Canadian authorities
directory that identifies names and addresses used on delivered him to the FBI for arraignment in Brook-
the Internet. Registration via InterNIC was free until lyn, New York. On March 19, 1998 Kashpureff
1995, when the firm began to charge $100 for each pleaded guilty to one count of computer fraud before

171
“KEEPER”

U.S. District Judge Allyne Ross. He faced a maxi- which copy themselves to the top of an infected host’s
mum sentence of five years in prison and a $250,000 system memory but do not correct the computer’s
fine, but was sentenced in August 1998 to a mere memory control block (MCB), making the system
two years’ probation and a token $100 fine. vulnerable to a crash. Keeper.Fly searches out and
overwrites the following antivirus files:

“KEEPER”: computer viruses clean.exe


Logged for the first time in January 1995, the cpav.exe
“Keeper” virus now appears on the Internet in at flushot3.com
least nine variant forms, all classified by analysts as f-prot.exe
memory-resident, parasitic viruses. The variants nav.exe
include “Keeper.Acid.694,” “Keeper.China.777,” scan.exe
“Keeper.Eleet.726,” “Keeper.Enemy.644,” “Keeper. tbscan.exe
Fly.1036,” “Keeper.Joker.1080,” “Keeper.Lurker
.546,” “Keeper.Massacre.742,” and “Keeper.Mas- If any of those files is executed it displays the
sacre.775.” All write themselves to the ends of target message:
files, after which their actions vary. All contain a text
string crediting their authorship to an otherwise Not enough memory.
anonymous “Crypt Keeper,” hence the family’s [The Fly] Version 1.00 by Crypt Keeper
generic name. Be afraid . . . Be very afraid . . .
Keeper.Acid.694, Keeper.Eleet.726 and Keeper.
Enemy.644 write themselves to the ends of .exe files Keeper.Joker, true to its name, displays one of the
and infect the files as they are executed, whereupon following messages each time an infected file is exe-
Keeper.Acid displays the following message: cuted on the host system:

Your PC is on an [Acid Trip] . . . Try again later. . . . You have the Joker ]I[ virus by Crypt Keeper [Joker 3]
Please insert tractor-feed toilet paper into printer
The two Keeper.Massacre variants attach them- Impotence error causing erection at port address 3E2
selves to both .com and .exe files, then delete the files IRQ 5 This program requires Microsoft Windows.
rather than simply infecting them, when they are exe-
cuted. Keeper.China.777, ranked as a dangerous, Computer hungry: Insert 5-1/4 inch HAMBURGER in
nonmemory-resident virus, searches for .com files drive A:
(excluding only command.com) and writes itself to
the beginning of each file located, erasing the perti- Missing Light Magenta/Olive ribbon in printer.
nent disk sectors next time the host computer’s clock
strikes 1:00 P.M. It also contains the following text Not enough memory.
strings:
Packed file corrupt.
*.COM
Bad command or file name
COMMAND.COM
Bad or missing command interpreter.
The China Syndrome Version 1.00a Written by: Crypt
Keeper
KELSEY Brook Jones Alert: Internet hoax
Well, I guess you found the sectors . . . You got a warn- Circulated for the first time in October 1999, this
ing . . . This program was written in the city of Cincin- plea for help in recovering a missing child refers to
nati. Non-destructive version -!- 182 d00d. an actual case, but the girl in question was found safe
at a neighbor’s house within hours of being lost. She
Keeper.Fly.1036 and Keeper.Joker.1080 are ranked was not abducted or harmed, she is not still missing,
as dangerous, memory-resident, parasitic viruses and the Internet message did not originate with her

172
“KERPLUNK”

parents. The point of the ongoing hoax is anyone’s conspiracy to commit wire fraud. If convicted on all
guess, but recipients are urged to break the chain and counts, he faced a maximum of six years in prison
simply delete it. The message reads (with errors pre- and $270,000 in fines. A March 1995 plea bargain
served): spared him from that punishment, resulting in a sen-
tence of six months’ home confinement and two
Subject: PLEASE KEEP THIS GOING years of supervised probation.

I am asking you all, begging you to please forward this


email on to anyone and everyone. As most all of you KENNEDY, Thomas: satellite TV pirate
know, I have a 5 years old daughter named Kelsey A 46-year-old resident of Cranston, Rhode Island,
Brooke Jones. We are from Southern Minnesota. She Thomas Kennedy was one of 17 defendants arrested
has been missing since 4pm Oct. 11, 1999. The police during a U.S. Customs Service sting known as OPERA-
were notified shortly after. If anyone anywhere knows TION SMARTCARD.NET. According to the federal
anything, sees anything, please contact me if you have charges filed against him, Kennedy purchased 166
my number. The police don’t recommend I put my counterfeit satellite access cards from undercover
number online, but you can contact the Police, a miss- Customs agents between November 1998 and June
ing person report has been filed. I am including a pic- 1999, afterward reselling them to third parties who
ture of her. All prayers are appreciated!! I hope I have thereby avoided paying monthly fees to legitimate
covered enough East Coast, Midwest, and West Coast service providers. Kennedy pleaded guilty in Novem-
people to spread out the search for this little girl. It only ber 2000 to one count of illegally selling an elec-
takes 2 seconds to “forward” this on, if it was your tronic device. Noting his record of prior convictions
child, you would want all the help you can get. for similar offenses, U.S. District Judge Mary Lisi
sentenced him to 14 months in federal prison on
February 15, 2001.
KENADEK, Richard D.: software pirate
A 46-year-old resident of Millbury, Massachusetts,
Richard Kenadek operated a computer bulletin “KERPLUNK”: computer virus
board service (BBS) known as Davey Jones’s Locker, Recognized initially in July 1998, “Kerplunk” is
with subscribers in 36 U.S. states and 11 foreign described as a dangerous, memory-resident, oligo-
countries. For a yearly fee of $99 (or $49 for three morphic and stealth parasitic virus, which intercepts
months) those subscribers were permitted to down- 23 separate DOS functions of file accessing, search-
load bootleg copies of commercial software pro- ing, memory allocation, and other procedures. Ker-
grams without paying the normal retail charges. FBI plunk writes itself to the end of .com and .exe files as
agents armed with a criminal search warrant raided they are accessed on the host computer system. In an
Kenadek’s home on June 10, 1992, seizing several effort to conceal itself, the virus temporarily deacti-
computers, six modems, and a list of Kenadek’s sub- vates its stealth routines when any of the following
scribers. Kenadek was not arrested at the time, but antivirus or other programs are executed: ARJ,
his bulletin board was eradicated. Spokesmen for the BACKUP, CHKDSK, DEFRAG, HIT, MSBACKUP,
Software Publishers Association (SPA) claimed that PKZIP, SPEEDISK, TELIX, and UC.
Davey Jones’s Locker had illegally distributed more If Kerplunk locates a Novell internetwork packet
than $675,000 worth of bootleg software before it exchange (IXP) driver on the host system, it auto-
was closed. matically accesses the Novell Network and produces
Ilene Rosenthal, the SPA’s director of litigation, network faults that hamper operation. If the user’s
told reporters, “This is one of the first instances that name is Supervisor, Kerplunk contacts Novell Net-
we are aware of where the FBI has shut down a pri- ware to execute the following functions at different
vate bulletin board for distributing copyrighted soft- times:
ware. It clearly demonstrates a trend that the
government is recognizing the seriousness of soft- 1. From the first through the fourth day of any
ware copyright violation.” Still, it was August 31, month, it disables all Supervisor privileges.
1994 before federal agents got around to arresting 2. On any Sunday it cancels the host computer’s
Kenadek, charging him with software piracy and login procedure.

173
“KEYPRESS”

3. On any Monday it sets Supervisor privileges to The U F O Club


allow for Guest logins. UFO-4 By Faisal-Andre-Akhmad Kip Gading Jakarta
4. If the time is prior to 9:00 A.M. Kerplunk reboots Utara
the host’s server.
5. If the time is between 9:00 A.M. and 2:00 P.M., it
randomly cancels network connections. “KHIZHNJAK”: computer viruses
First reported from “the wild” in June 1996, the
If, on the other hand, the user’s name is not Super- tongue-twisting “Khizhnjak” computer virus now
visor, Kerplunk clears the screen on Novell’s server exists in at least eight variant forms. All are classi-
and presents the following message: “Permanent sys- fied as nonmemory-resident, parasitic viruses that
tem error. Please hit the computer NOW!” search for .com files on the host computer’s current
directory and write themselves to the end of any
such files located. Some variants of Khizhnjak
“KEYPRESS”: computer viruses search both the A and C drives in their quest for files
At least 12 variants of the “Keypress” virus, first to infect. Some of the Khizhnjak versions are consid-
noted in July 1996, are now reported at large on the ered harmless, while others erase infected files and
Internet. All but one are classed by analysts as dan- disk sectors. Different variants display the following
gerous, memory-resident, parasitic viruses that write messages on-screen:
themselves to the ends of .com and .exe files as they
are opened or executed. In the case of .com files, the Khizhnjak.834: Mason Hardkiller (c) 1995, (XAPïA-
viruses then overwrite the first 16 bytes of data with HOB-âÇä) . . .
their own routines. “Keypress.935” and “Key-
press.1000” both erase the disk sectors they infect, Khizhnjak.Areg: (c) 1993 AREG Soft
while “Keypress.1199” causes the host computer to
reboot erratically, at unexpected times. “Keypress. Khizhnjak.ASV: Alexander S. Virus! “SUKA ver 1.0
BBS.1258” intercepts the Open File function, and if
the name of that file should be user.bbs, it overwrites Khizhnjak.DeathLord.752: Death Lord. So I dub thee
the file with data providing login information and unforgiven
maximum privileges for a new, unknown user. The
remaining dangerous versions of Keypress signal Khizhnjak.DeathLord.933: Created by Death Lord
their activity with monitor displays as follows:
Khizhnjak.Genesis: !!!GENESIS THE BEST BAND IN
Keypress.1216.b and Keypress.1216ß—SAMSOFT THE WORLD!!!

Keypress.1216.d— Khizhnjak.Hallo: Hallo! I have got a virus for you!


FREDDY_SOFT_FREDDY_SOFT_FREDDY_SOFT
Khizhnjak.Happy: “Don’t worry, be happy!”
Keypress.1236—SADDAM, the inferiority of the chaos

Keypress.1250 and Keypress.1479—Mubark is caw KIDNEY Harvest Warnings: Internet hoax


A classic hoax that has passed into the realm of
Keypress.1600—HELLO SHSHTAYY urban legend, the kidney harvest warning—some-
GOODBYE AMIN times with other organs featured on the menu—has
OO ZAGAZIG UNIVER found its way into novels and Hollywood films. The
c