You are on page 1of 3

Experiment No.

Diode Approximation
Bulabos, John Kenneth A.
Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering
Electronics Engineering Department, University of Perpetual Help System Dalta
Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona, Las Pinas, Metro Manila, Philippines 1740

Submitted to: Engr. Ronnie S. Concepcion II, MSc.

Abstract— Bridges are unarguably one key components of the an ideal diode, but it can be seen as a good approximation for
transportation infrastructure in modern days. Due to natural a real diode.
disasters and environmental conditions, the bridges get damage
and it causes loss of connectivity, loss of lives, excessive repairs at A diode is simply a pn junction with the
times. Inexpensive and efficient Bridge Structural Health
following characteristics:
Monitoring utilizing Wireless Sensor Network is helping to
facilitate the selection of the bridges that require maintenance. 1.Under forward bias, it needs a small voltage to conduct. This
Wireless sensors are low-cost data acquisition nodes that voltage drop is maintained
collocate communication and computing functionality with the during conduction.
sensor transducer. This paper will present the experiences with 2.The maximum forward current is limited by heat-dissipation
the research and development of wireless sensors designed for ability of the diode. Usually
structural health monitoring of bridges. it is around 1000 mA.
3.There is a small reverse current.
Index Terms— Wireless sensor Network, Structural health
monitoring, Monitoring Sensors, Bridge, Autonomous Data
1.Connect the circuit of Fig. 3 – 1a. Adjust the source to set up
To study the characteristics and applications of silicon diodes.
a current of 10 mA through the diode. Estimate the diode
voltage V and record in Table 3 – 1.


1 – Power Supply: adjustable approximately 0 – 15 V
1 – DC Ammeter (0 – 50 mA)
1(set) – Connecting Wires
3 Resistors – 2 (220Ω), 1 (470Ω)
1 – Connecting circuit board
1 – Diode (1N4001)
A diode is a dispositive made of a semiconductor material,
which has two terminals or electrodes
(diode), that act like an on-off switch. When the diode is “on”, 2.Measure the diode voltage V and record in Table 3 – 1
it acts as a short circuit and passes all current. When it is
“off”, it behaves like an open circuit and passes no current.
The two terminals are different and are marked as plus and
minus. If the polarity of the applied voltage matches that of
the diode is called the forward bias, then the diode turns “on”.
When the applied voltage polarity is opposite is called reverse
bias, it turns “off”. Of course this is the theoretical behavior of
1.The knee voltage is the voltage of the diode, which is equal
to 0.7 for silicon

2.Bulk resistance -
approximate resistance across the terminals of the diode when
a forward voltage and current are applied across the diode.

3.The DC resistance of a silicon diode for a current of 10 mA

is closest to:

4.In Fig. 2 – 1b, the power dissipated by the diode for a

current of 10 mA is closest to:
3.Adjust the source to get 50 mA. Estimate the diode voltage
and record in Table 3 – 1. Measure and record diode voltage 5.Suppose the diode of Fig.2 – 1b has an IF ( max ) of 500
V. mA. To avoid diode damage, the source voltage can be no
more than:
b.50 V

6.The steeper the diode curve, the smaller bulk resistance.

Explain why this is true.

the bulk resistance represents the resistance of the p and n

materials of the p-n junction of the diode. the bulk resistance
is not a fixed resistance but a dynamic one. it changes
according to the amount of forward voltage and current going
through the diode at any particular time, According to the
formula: rB= △V/ △I

4.In this experiment, we will let the knee voltage be the

measured diode voltage for a diode current of 10 mA. Record ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
the knee voltage in Table 3 – 1. ( It should be in the vicinity of The analysis of research conducted shows that despite the
0.7 V ). disadvantages of having an issue in battery and power
shortages, WSN produces an ample size of leverage in
5.Calculate the bulk resistance using; monitoring bridges. This includes real time update in data and
rB= △V/ △I analysis regarding the ability of the structure to continue to
where △V and △I are the changes in measure voltage and perform, information about sudden changes in bridges, used
current in Table 3 – 1. Record rB in Table 3 – 2. for rapid condition screening in light of earthquakes or
unanticipated explosion.
6.Calculate the diode current in Fig. 3 – 1b as follows:
Tab.1 Summary of Findings of RC Coupled Amplifier
thevenize the circuit left of the AB terminals. Then calculate Without Base and Collector Capacitors
the diode current with the idea, second, and third
approximation (Use the Vknee and rB of Table 3 – 2). Record
(Hz) (V) (V) GAIN (Hz)
your answer in Table 3 – 3.

7.Connect the circuit of Fig. 3 – 1b. measure and record the

diode current ( Table 3 - ).


8.Using the second approximation in Fig. 3- 2, select values

for resistor and source voltage to produce a diode current of
approximately 8.9 mA. (Use the same resistance values as Fig.
3 - 1b, although you can move the values.) Connect your
design and measure the diode current. Record all data in Table
3 – 4.
Fig.2 Normal Probability Plot of Specimen 1 of 21 days curing with
liquid metal antenna embedded 3” from the top surface

The first approximation is not used for real-life
situations but just as general approximations when preciseness
isn't needed. In the second approximation, the diode is seen as
as a diode that needs voltage in order to turn on.

For a silicon diode, the diode needs about 0.7V in order to turn
on. When the voltage fed into the diode forward biased is
0.7V or greater, the diode switches on. When the voltage is
less than 0.7V, the diode turns off.

In the third approximation, the diode is seen as a diode that

consumes 0.7V and voltage across the internal bulk
resistance of the diode.

So when the resistance is so small, the bulk resistance has to

be taken into effect. If the load resistance is fairly large
(several ohms or greater), then the bulk resistance is not as

The researcher takes this opportunity to express gratitude to
the people who have been instrumental in the successful
completion of this project. Especially, to those who laid time
and effort in conceptualizing this project. He would also like
to show his greatest appreciation to his adviser, Engr. Ronn
Conception II. For the support, advices and assistance
throughout the research project. Without his encouragement
and guidance this project would not have materialized.