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Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599

13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13,
14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland

Modelling supported development of oxy-CFB combustion
Kari Myöhänena,*, Ruth Diegob, Reijo Kuivalainenc, Timo Hyppänena
a
Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT School of Energy Systems, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851, Lappeenranta, Finland
b
Fundación Ciudad de la Energía, Avenida Segunda, (Compostilla), 24404 Ponferrada, (León), Spain
c
Amec Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, P.O. Box 201, FI-78200 Varkaus, Finland

Abstract

Oxygen-fired combustion in circulating fluidized bed has been extensively studied during the last decade in different experimental
scales from small laboratory devices to large pilot units. The development and scaling up of a new combustion technology require
both experimental and modelling work. This paper summarizes the tests carried out at CIUDEN’s 30 MWth oxy-CFB facility. The
test data has been applied to validate a semi-empirical three-dimensional process model of the furnace. The 3D-model has been
applied for predicting the performance of full scale oxy-CFB units: first a 300 MWe Flexi-Burn® CFB operated in air-fired and
oxygen-fired modes and then a 600 MWe oxy-CFB with 40%-vol inlet oxygen concentration. Based on the experience of oxy-CFB
tests at CIUDEN and model results of commercial scale units, there are no technological barriers which would prevent application
of oxy-CFB based carbon capture and storage.

©
© 2017
2017TheTheAuthors. Published
Authors. by Elsevier
Published Ltd. Ltd.
by Elsevier This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of GHGT-13.
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of GHGT-13.
Keywords: oxyfuel; oxygen fired combustion; circulating fluidized bed; three-dimensional model; CCS

1. Introduction

New energy production methods are needed to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions and to limit the climate change.
Oxygen-fired combustion is considered as one of the leading technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants [1].

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +358-40-548-4482.
E-mail address: kari.myohanen@lut.fi
Flexi-Burn is a trademark of Amec Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, registered in the US, EU, Finland.

1876-6102 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of GHGT-13.
doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1201

the concentrations of emissions (e. With higher inlet oxygen concentration. [1] The first published oxy-CFB tests were performed at Zhejiang University in 2003 using a 30 kWth unit with bottled gases of O2. the flue gas consists mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapour. Moreover. SOx and NOx) inside the furnace tend to increase due to recirculation of flue gas. good mixing of solids. in-furnace sulphur capture. Canada [3] and at VTT. such as ability to use a large variation of solid fuels including biomass and waste derived fuels. CO2 and N2 [2]. At low inlet oxygen. the oxy-CFB offers benefits.590 Kari Myöhänen et al. 1). most of them applying wet or dry flue gas recirculation (Fig. The updated and validated model has been used to simulate commercial scale oxy-CFB units. The tests at CIUDEN CFB have included studies at low (<30%-vol) and high (up to 40%-vol) inlet oxygen concentration. which then improves the net efficiency of the power plant. the high thermal capacity of the circulating solids. . See Table 4 in reference [1] for more data of different facilities. The flue gas recycle (FGR) can be either wet or dry depending whether the flue gas has been extracted before or after the condensing of moisture in flue gas. Oxy-CFB test facilities.g. which means that the furnace size can be smaller. Thus. In a real oxy-CFB process. Due to absence of atmospheric nitrogen in the inlet gases. The first successful oxy-CFB tests with FGR were carried out in 2007 at CanmetENERGY. During the last decade. 1. and the possibility of using external heat exchangers in solids recycle system allow better control of furnace temperatures and thus enable higher inlet oxygen concentrations without large effects on heat fluxes or metal temperatures of the heat transfer surfaces. IET-CAS Yonsei Zhejiang (30 kWth) 10 1 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Year of commissioning Fig. the oxy-CFB combustion has been studied at different pilot scale units. and low NOx emissions due to low combustion temperature. from which it is possible to separate the CO 2 and compress it for storage and thus avoid the CO2 emissions to atmosphere. For a commercial oxy-CFB boiler. The world’s largest oxy-CFB test facility is found at CIUDEN’s Technology Development Centre in Spain. Finland [4]. / Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 In oxygen-fired CFB combustion. the auxiliary power consumption is smaller due to smaller fans. which are characteristic for a CFB. the power plant can be operated smoothly between air-fired and oxygen-fired mode. Compared with oxygen-fired pulverized coal combustion. the tests should be carried out with flue gas recirculation. increasing the inlet oxygen concentration by reducing the recycled flue gas ratio is lucrative because it allows to reduce the capital and operating costs of the plant. This paper summarizes the tests carried out at CIUDEN oxy-CFB. No FGR CIUDEN (30 MWth) Dry FGR 10000 Wet FGR Valmet (4 MWth) ALSTOM (3 MWth) Thermal capacity (kWth) 1000 IET-CAS (1 MWth) Canmet (800 kWth) Utah VTT Vienna Stuttgart 100 Canmet IET-CAS Czestochowa Southeast Univ. to simulate the real process in terms of formation and reduction of emissions. Moreover. The maximum thermal load of the unit is about 30 MWth. the fuel is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas in a circulating fluidized bed furnace. The measurement data has been applied for development of a three-dimensional furnace model. the flue gas flow rate through the furnace is smaller at the same thermal load.

The feed points are located at the lower part of the furnace. the maximum thermal power is about 15 MWth. The maximum thermal power is reached in oxygen-fired mode with high inlet oxygen concentration. The solid input materials include fuel. and make-up sand. DeSOx LIMESTONE FLY ASH FEEDING SYSTEM SYSTEM SAND SILO MIXER SAND FEEDING SYSTEM PRIMARY FAN OXIDANT FUEL SILO MIXER CB1 SECUNDARY FAN OXIDANT FUEL FEEDING SYSTEM MIXER CB2 NATURAL START-UP OXYGEN BURNER GAS SKID BOTTOM ASH Fig. the CIUDEN CFB is a real drum boiler applying natural circulation with membrane wall sections in the furnace and superheated external heat exchangers in the hot solids loop. CO2 compression and purification unit (CPU). The CIUDEN Technology Development Centre for CO2 Capture. secondary oxidant through nozzles at higher levels of the furnace. some tests have been carried out with bituminous and subbituminous coal. The sulphur capture has been carried out by injection of calcitic limestone to furnace. where the solids are separated and returned back to furnace. The circulating bed from furnace enters a cyclone. near Ponferrada) has large scale test facilities for studying oxycombustion: 20 MWth pulverized coal (PC) and 30 MWth circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The gas streams include primary oxidant through the grid at the bottom of the furnace. The unit uses wet flue gas recirculation for the oxidant streams. 2. / Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 591 2. which use water cooled heat exchangers. the site facilitates a 3 MWth bubbling fluidized bed gasifier for biomass. In air-fired mode and in oxygen-fired mode with low inlet O2. Kari Myöhänen et al. Part of the circulating solids are returned directly to the furnace and the rest is cooled in an external heat exchanger. limestone. Unlike many small scale oxy-CFB pilots. AMMONIA. Ammonia injection is possible at the cyclone outlet to reduce NOx emissions. which operates in bubbling bed mode. In addition. and experimental CO2 transport piping with total length of 3 km. the fuel has been a mixture of anthracite and petcoke in ratio of 70/30 w-% as this has been the design fuel for the commercial scale units (Table 1). In most of the tests. The maximum steam flow is 47. transport gas for solid feed systems. located in Cubillos del Sil (NW Spain. The feed water temperature is 170°C. and biomass. In addition. and high pressure fluidization gas for loop seal and external heat exchanger. The oxy-CFB furnace is 20. . CIUDEN’s 30 MWth oxy-CFB test facility. Oxy-CFB tests at CIUDEN The Fundación Ciudad de la Energía (CIUDEN) is a technological development institution created in 2006 by the Spanish administration. FLY ASH DeNOx FLY ASH RECIRCULATION SILO BOILER FEED LIMESTONE FUEL FEED WATER SAND FLY ASH FEEDING SYSTEM LIMESTONE FLUE GAS SILO LIMESTONE. 2).0 m high with a rectangular cross-section (Fig.5 t/h and the parameters of the superheated steam are 250°C and 30 bar.

/ Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 Table 1.89 31.43 Oxygen 4.18 3. 3 presents the measured UBC and CO at different operating modes when firing a mixture of anthracite and petcoke.55 23. Fuel properties.5 81. the estimated CO2 content would be above 90%-vol. The combustion efficiency is clearly a function of bed temperature and there is no significant difference between air-fired or oxygen-fired tests with different inlet oxygen concentrations. Because of smaller residence times of char and combustible gases.dry. as fired (MJ/kg) LHV 19.22 Heat value. the temperature control has been good even with high inlet oxygen concentration. while in a commercial scale unit.592 Kari Myöhänen et al.53 1. e. (b) carbon monoxide after furnace. These tests supported the development of second generation oxy-CFB in O2GEN-project. low inlet O2 Oxygen-fired. dry. high inlet O2 10 140 8 120 100 6 80 4 60 40 2 20 0 0 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 Bed temperature (°C) Bed temperature (°C) Fig.0 Fixed carbon 54. the combustion efficiency tends to be smaller in small scale equipment. The excess oxygen concentration in the tests has been 3 – 4 %-vol. . and the switching between air-fired and oxygen-fired mode has been smooth. The focus of the first tests was to study flexible operation between air-fired and oxygen-fired modes and to support the development of a 300 MWe scale Flexi-Burn® CFB boiler [6].43 1. anthracite has been used.08 The unit was first fired with coal in September 2011. The application of oxycombustion has not generated any operational problems.47 24.4 10.6 Hydrogen 2. which targeted for reducing the energy penalty of the oxy-CFB process [7]. which is unreactive when compared with other coal types.6 7.dry.5 Ultimate analysis. ash-free (w-%) Carbon 89.2 88. 3. a) b) 14 200 Air-fired Air-fired 180 12 Oxygen-fired.56 Sulphur 1. as fired (w-%) Moisture 8. the inlet oxygen concentration was increased up to 40%-vol. wet. The CIUDEN’s CPU unit operated normally at this flexible CO2 concentration range and reached without problems the target of capturing CO2 with a high purity (>99%-vol CO2).39 HHV 20.g. In later test campaigns in 2014–2015. The operating experiences have been good in all test campaigns. The CO2 content in the flue gas has been typically in the order of 80 – 84%-vol.09 3.7 Volatiles 6. Anthracite Petcoke Mixture Proximate analysis. high inlet O2 Oxygen-fired.9 62.86 3.75 3.71 6. The first test campaigns at CIUDEN with low inlet oxygen (< 30%-vol) were carried out in 2012–2013 under the EU FP7 projects FLEXI BURN CFB and MACPLUS [5]. Moreover. Measured data of CIUDEN oxy-CFB: (a) unburned carbon in ash.48 32. low inlet O2 Carbon monoxide (ppm.vol) Unburned carbon (%HHV) 160 Oxygen-fired.21 Nitrogen 1.2 7. Fig.8 Ash 30. The losses are mainly found as unburned carbon (UBC) in fly ash and bottom ash and as carbon monoxide (CO) in flue gas. in CIUDEN.5 87. bituminous coal.3 22.76 1.3 6. A good combustion efficiency is achieved when the bed temperature is above 900°C.8 1.

low inlet O2 1000 Oxygen-fired. low inlet O2 Air-fired 300 Oxygen-fired. 5. x Direct sulphation is possible in addition to indirect sulphation. Fig. preferably above 900°C. 5 presents the measured NO and N2O concentration after furnace without ammonia injection. a) b) 1600 100 1400 95 Sulphur dioxide (ppm. high inlet O2 N2O (ppm. In air- fired combustion. the oxygen-fired mode shows usually improved performance. the optimum temperature for sulphur capture has been usually considered to be about 850°C. 4. a) b) 250 400 Air-fired 350 200 Oxygen-fired. Fig. The other affecting factors are the oxygen staging and the catalytic effects of limestone. the NO emission increases and the N2O emission decreases as a function of bed temperature. low inlet O2 200 65 Oxygen-fired. Similar to air- fired mode. indirect sulphation is prevented. When considering sulphur retention. x Higher SO2 concentration (due to FGR) enhances the sulphation reactions. high inlet O2 85 Tbed < 850°C 800 80 Tbed < 850°C 600 75 Air-fired 400 70 Oxygen-fired. The total Ca/S ratio includes the inherent calcium from fuel in addition to calcium from limestone.vol) Air-fired 1200 Sulphur retention (%) 90 Oxygen-fired. The only exception is when the bed temperature has been below the calcination temperature. (b) nitrous oxide. high inlet O2 0 60 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Total Ca/S ratio (mol/mol) Total Ca/S ratio (mol/mol) Fig. high inlet O2 250 200 100 150 100 50 50 0 0 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 Bed temperature (°C) Bed temperature (°C) Fig. The trend is clearer for the N2O. The volumetric concentration of SO2 is about the same in oxygen-fired and air-fired mode. the furnace temperatures should be higher. Kari Myöhänen et al. (b) sulphur retention. / Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 593 The limestone reactions in oxygen-fired mode are affected by the changed atmosphere in the furnace: x Calcination temperature is higher due to higher CO2 concentration. but in oxygen-fired mode.e.vol) NO (ppm. Measured data of CIUDEN oxy-CFB: (a) sulphur dioxide after furnace. i. low inlet O2 Oxygen-fired. 4 presents the sulphur capture data. Measured data of CIUDEN oxy-CFB: (a) nitrogen oxide. where the temperature is below calcination temperature.vol) 150 Oxygen-fired. x Local re-carbonization is possible in sections. x Higher H2O concentration may enhance the calcination and sulphation. .

several submodels were either created or further developed and validated. The updated 3D-model was used for simulating the oxy-CFB tests carried out at CIUDEN. Three-dimensional modelling of oxy-CFB combustion For simulation of the oxy-CFB furnace process.594 Kari Myöhänen et al.65 7. / Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 3. a semi-empirical. 6 compares the modelled oxygen profiles for different units plotted at the same scale to illustrate the differences in size. fuel input. .0 29.7 Depth 1. gasification reactions. combustion of char. homogeneous combustion reactions. This model has been originally developed for air-fired CFB combustion. These included the submodels for devolatilization. sorbent reactions.. The validated 3D-model was applied for predicting the performance of full scale oxy-CFB units: a 300 MWe Flexi-Burn® CFB and a 600 MWe oxy-CFB with high inlet O2. and nitrogen oxide emissions.5 40. heat transfer.5 Thermal power (MWth) Oxygen-fired 15. Modelled oxygen profiles of CIUDEN oxy-CFB. Fig. steady-state 3D-model was applied [9]. The studied cases included different operating conditions in terms of inlet oxygen concentration. and 600 MWe oxy-CFB. Table 2 compares the main design data of the different units.5.5 845 1919 Temperature (°C) 250 600 600 Pressure (bar) 30 279 257 Fig. Table 2.0 SH steam parameters Mass flow (t/h) 47. 6. furnace temperature. 300 MWe oxy-CFB.0 23. Design data of oxy-CFB units..40. and Ca/S-ratio.. For oxy-CFB conditions.. Parameter CIUDEN OXY-CFB-300 OXY-CFB-600 Furnace dimensions (m) Height 20 37 52 Width 2.8 28.0 9.30 708 1439 Air-fired 15 647 - Inlet oxygen in oxy-mode (%-vol) 23.

However. Sulphur retention (%) Case O3 Case O4 Case O26 Measured 92. which is mainly elutriated char. (b) temperature. Table 3 reports the main process data of the modelled CIUDEN oxy-CFB cases presented here. 7 compares the measured and modelled oxygen and temperature profiles in the core of the furnace.4 21.3 98. Process data of the modelled CIUDEN oxy-CFB cases. the furnace area increases only 40%. The following presents more recent modelling results of the CIUDEN facility at high inlet oxygen concentration and the application of model to simulate a 600 MWe oxy-CFB. With the CIUDEN oxy-CFB.7 37.1 36. The very high O2 concentration at the bottom of the furnace drops rapidly at first due to fast combustion reactions in this section.5 Outlet H2O (%-wet) 21.3 Primary oxidant O2 (%-wet) 36. Measured and modelled profiles of CIUDEN oxy-CFB: (a) oxygen. / Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 595 Comparing the cross-sectional sizes of the 300 MWe and 600 MWe units. burns higher up in the furnace producing a slowly declining O2 profile. Measured and modelled sulphur retention of CIUDEN oxy-CFB.1 1.7 3. The high sulphur retention in Case O26 is due to high Ca/S ratio.5 Bed temperature (°C) 910 910 917 Outlet O2 (%-wet) 3.3 89.4 Modelled 89.1 29.9 Fig.5 2. this results to increasing thermal load with increasing inlet O2 concentration.6 97.2 35. Table 4 presents the measured and modelled sulfur retention. the gas flow rate through the furnace is smaller at equal thermal load. 7.0 Outlet CO2 (%-wet) 62.8 Secondary oxidant O2 (%-wet) 37. the model matched reasonably well with the measurements. a) b) 45 1000 40 950 35 900 Temperature (°C) 30 Oxygen (%-dry) O3 850 O3 25 O4 O4 800 20 O26 O26 O3 750 O3 15 O4 O4 O26 700 O26 10 5 650 0 600 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 Height (m) Height (m) Fig. although the thermal power is more than doubled. This is due to decreased flue gas recycle ratio: with higher inlet O 2.0 2. The modelling results of CIUDEN CFB at low inlet O2 and the modelling of the 300 MWe unit have been presented earlier in OCC3 conference [10].1 21. the temperature profiles are quite uniform despite the fast combustion reactions at high oxygen concentration. Kari Myöhänen et al.8 91. The remaining uncombustible material. The measured calcium content of the limestone varied in a wide range (84 – 92%). Because of the large heat capacity of the circulating solids.6 Ca/S ratio (mol/mol) 2. Table 4. The case names refer to the internal naming system used in the tests.8 . which makes it difficult to determine the exact composition to be used in the model cases.6 28.7 37. Table 3.8 63.6 62. Parameter Case O3 Case O4 Case O26 Thermal load (MWth) 28.

596 Kari Myöhänen et al.0 2. Main modelled process data of the 600 MWe oxy-CFB. the temperatures are less than 950°C. Table 5. The temperature profiles in Fig.7 17. The stepwise drop in the temperature profiles at the upper furnace is due to hanging superheaters. where the oxygen and fuel are mixing and combustion reactions are fastest.7 2.0 40.5 Outlet CO2 (%-wet) 73. Modelled oxygen profiles of a 600 MWe oxy-CFB. but this high temperatures have been detected in the core of air-fired CFB units as well without sintering.8 The CO2 concentration in dry flue gas was about 91% in all cases.9 Bed temperature (°C) 934 941 918 Furnace exit temperature (°C) 880 851 791 Outlet O2 (%-wet) 2. The sections with low local oxygen concentration are due to fuel feed distribution at the bottom of the furnace. Table 5 presents the modelled process data of different load points.6 Outlet H2O (%-wet) 19. The modelled oxygen profiles at the centre plane of the furnace are presented in Fig. The maximum local temperatures in the core reach slightly higher than 1000°C. 8. Fig.8 74. 9 show high local temperatures in zones.0 40.0 18.4 2.7 73. . 8.5 2. High oxygen concentrations are found just above the grid. Near the membrane walls. / Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 The 3D model was applied to simulate the design of a 600 MWe oxygen-fired CFB. Parameter Case L100_oxy Case L80_oxy Case L50_oxy Load (%MCR) 100 80 50 Oxidant O2 (%-wet) 40.0 Ca/S ratio (mol/mol) 3.

The local maximums are found at the bottom of the furnace. 10. thus. Kari Myöhänen et al. The bed temperatures were above calcination temperature. where the fresh CaCO3 is available from limestone feeds. 9. Fig. where the concentrations of CaO and SO2 are high. 10 and 11 present the modelled indirect and direct sulphation profiles. Interestingly. some direct sulphation is occurring at the bottom of the furnace. Modelled indirect sulphation profiles of a 600 MWe oxy-CFB. Modelled temperature profiles of a 600 MWe oxy-CFB. / Energy Procedia 114 (2017) 589 – 599 597 Fig. Fig. In the reducing zones. The net amount of the direct sulphation is insignificant compared with the indirect sulphation however. . the main sulphation mode is indirect sulphation. the indirect sulphation is inhibited.

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