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Degree of Students' Response to Motivational Strategies Employed

by ALS Teachers: Basis to Proposed Action Plan

A research

Presented to the Faculty of

, Laguna

In Partial Fulfilment

of the Requirements for the

Masteral Education Applied Research Course

JERAMIE O. ORAYE

First Semester, Sy 2018-2019


CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Rationale

Teaching a class full of students who are enthusiastic about learning and

who strive to further their education is something all teachers hope for. However,

for various reasons, some students lose their inspiration to learn often resorting

to low performance. Teachers can transform performance and build student's

desire to learn by using motivational strategies. For some students, they might

already see the importance in school and have a dedication to their education;

therefore, teachers should emphasize using motivation strategies to keep them

excited.

However, it is also a reality that a huge number of the world population are

dropouts, out-of-school youth, and even individuals who do not go to formal

schooling. And as a result, these individuals who do not go to formal schooling

have difficulties in understanding which enable them to cope with and to compete

in the globalized world. And to cope with these challenges given by the changing

world and knowledge economy, alternatives were presented and implemented by

the countries around the world to help individuals attain education through non-

formal and informal education ( Bjornavold, 2014)

According to The Governance Act for Basic Education otherwise known as

the Republic Act 9155 it said stipulates the establishment of the Alternative

Learning System (ALS) to provide out-of-school children, youth and adults

population with basic education.


Alternative learning system (ALS) is a program that serves students at any

level, serves suspended or expelled students, serves students whose learning

styles are better served in an alternative program, or provides individualized

programs outside of a standard classroom setting in a caring atmosphere in

which students learn the skills necessary to redirect their lives.

The Alternative Learning System (ALS) is a ladderized, modular non-

formal education program in the Philippines for dropouts in elementary and

secondary schools, out-of-school youths, non-readers, working Filipinos and

even senior citizens. It is part of the education system of the Philippines but an

alternative to the regular classroom studies where Filipino students are required

to attend daily.

The alternative system only requires students to choose schedules

according to their choice and availability. The program has two different ways for

conducting instruction; school-based and community-based. On the school-

based program for ALS, instructions are conducted in school campuses while in

the community-based program, formal instruction are conducted in community

halls or on private places. (www.courses.com.ph/alternative learning system)

One of the roles of the mobile teacher is to motivate their students in order

to stimulate their senses and acquire meaningful learning. Motivational strategies

can make student active part during their class and to develop learners to their

full potential.
Learner’s motivation is one of the key factors that determine success in

learning. Researchers found that motivational strategies that can use effectively

influence learners’ motivation toward learning. (Manning, 2015)

By encouraging them with motivational strategies, the goal is to give

struggling students something to work for and get excited about.

By getting these students eager to learn and be in the classroom, they in

turn will gain tools for more success. The topic and my research question

therefore become: How can motivation in the classroom be increased through

motivational strategies? (Raza, 2013).

The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational strategies and

the performance of ALS students at 4th District of Laguna..

The researcher experienced to be with children with different level of

understanding by using different motivational strategies can help the students to

understand the lesson. As a mobile teacher to see that my learners learn using

different motivational strategies and well motivate using different instruction is a

great accomplishment.
Background of the Study

4th District of Laguna is compost of 13 municipalities, Each municipalities

are having with Alternative Learning System (ALS) program, Headed by the

District ALS Coordinator and Mobile Teacher. Motivating students at this area is

one of the major challenges teachers face on a daily basis. Developing student’s

energy and drive to engage, learn, work effectively, and achieve their potential at

school, motivation and engagement play a large role in student’s interest &

enjoyment of school. (Martin, 2012).

Out-of-school children, youth and adults cannot learn easily compare to

regularly attending in a formal education. Unless they have been made fun of

regularly, when investigating or presenting their knowledge they usually have a

strong desire to find out and share information and some factors affected their

desire to studies likes time, location, and even their shyness.

As stated by Education Secretary Leonor Briones (2016) said in a

statement that ALS Non-formal Education happens outside the classroom,

community-based, usually conducted at community learning centers, barangay

multi-purpose hall, libraries or at home, managed by ALS learning facilitators,


such as mobile teachers, district ALS Coordinators, instructional managers at an

agreed schedule and venue between the learners and facilitators.

The National Goals of 2000 and the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of

2001 emphasize how important it is for all students to be taught and show

progress. Hence, all schools are mandated to show students’ progress by

making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). It is expected that different

instructional strategies such as Motivational Strategies, differentiated instruction,

relate positively to students’ performance.

The issues of motivation of pupils in education and the impact on the

performance of ALS students has significantly change there are learners who

motivate fast and vice versa.

The purpose also is to examine the relationship between the profile of the

respondents and the extent of motivational strategies, between the profile of the

respondents and the level of performance of ALS students, between the extents

of motivational strategies. The findings could also help to address the learning

needs of different types of students


Statement of the problem

The main purpose of the study is to determine the Degree of Students'

Response to Motivational Strategies Employed by ALS Teachers. Specifically, it

sought answers to the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of :

1.1. Age;

1.2. Sex;

1.3. Highest educational attainment;

1.4. Family income; and

1.5. Community?

2. What motivational strategies employed by Als Teachers?

3. What is the level of performance of the learners in terms of

3.1. Communication;

3.2. Writing;

4. Is there any difference between the extents of motivational strategies based

on the respondent’s profile?

5. Is there any difference between the profile respondents and the level of

performance of the learners?

6. Is there any significant relationship between the extent of motivational

strategies and the level of performance of the learners?


Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were formulated in attempt to find the

temporary answers to the specific questions relevant to this study:

1. There is no difference relationship between the profile of the respondents

and the extent of motivational strategies.

2. There is no difference relationship between the profile of the respondents

and the level of performance of learners.

3. There is no significant relationship between the extent of motivational

strategies and the level performance of learners.


Theoretical Framework

According to Bandura’s (1982) self-efficacy theory, efficacy is the major

determinant of effort, persistence, and goal setting. Empirical research supports

this notion, suggesting that individuals with higher self-efficacy tend to be more

motivated and successful on a given task (Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990). Self-

efficacy has also been associated with the use of cognitive strategies, and self-

efficacy perceptions predict achievement over and above actual ability levels

(Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990).

Another line of inquiry in the field of motivation explores the issue of focus

of control. According to this theory, individuals should be more motivated to the

extent that they feel they are in control of their own successes and failures

(Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). In fact, in one formulation of control theory, autonomy

is one of three basic psychological needs, along with competence and

relatedness. Within this framework, individual differences in the extent to which

these basic needs are fulfilled correspond to variation in levels of motivation

(Connell & Wellborn, 1991, as cited in Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). Locus of control

is closely related to the concept of attributions. Attributions refer to an individual’s

beliefs regarding causes of successful or failing performance. There are several

types of attributions, including ability, effort, task, and luck.


According to attribution theory, the types of attributions a person holds

determine his or her level of motivation according to whether the cause is

perceived as something that is changeable and within the person’s control

(Weiner, 1985, as cited in Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). For example, native ability is

a relatively stable characteristic that is difficult to affect. On the other hand, effort

is within a person’s control and entirely manipulable. Both task characteristics

and luck are outside one’s control and tend to be variable. Thus, poor

performance on a task is more likely to contribute to reduced effort and

motivation for those holding ability attributions than for those holding effort

attributions because failing performance for the former group communicates a

lack of ability that may be difficult to change, whereas failure for the latter group

communicates that success is within reach if more effort is expended. Empirical

research suggests that those holding effort attributions tend to exhibit more

positive learning behaviours, such as goal-setting that focuses on learning rather

than performance (Miller & Meece, 1997), use of strategies, and persistence at

difficult or challenging tasks (Stipek, 1996).

However, teachers should frame successful performances in terms of ability

rather than effort because success communicates positive information about

competency to students (Schunk, 1983).


Finally, self-worth theory is somewhat related to both self-efficacy and

locus of control. According to this theory, students need to believe they are

competent in academic domains to feel they have self-worth in the school context

(Covington, 1992, as cited in Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). This line of research

suggests that students attempt to maximize their self-worth and will protect a

sense of competence by making causal attributions that enhance their sense of

competence and control. For example, empirical research suggests that the most

common attributions among both college-level and younger students are ability

and effort, and the most preferred attribution for failed performance is a lack of

effort.

This theory supports the evaluation process undertaken by the

researcher to gauge perception from the data gathered on motivational strategies

in the performance of ALS students in their area of jurisdiction to substantially

evaluate problems and solutions.


Conceptual Framework

In this section the researcher identified and discussed the variables

related to the problem. The diagram of the paradigm is shown through the Input-

Process-Output model of evaluation. The input includes the profile of the

respondents in terms of Age; Sex; Highest educational attainment; Environment;

and Socio-economic and environment, and motivational strategies employed by

Als Teachers and the level of performance of the learners. The process involves

the procedure on how the study was conducted. It concludes the administration

of questionnaire- checklist, gathering data and analysis and interpretation of the

gathered data. The output involves the Degree of Students' Response to

Motivational Strategies Employed by ALS Teachers


Research Paradigm

Input Process Output

profile of the
respondents in terms of
Age; Sex; Highest
educational attainment;
Environment; and Socio-
economic and
environment, questionnaire- checklist, Proposed Action Plan
Extent of motivational gathering data and
strategies employed by analysis and
Als Teachers interpretation of the
Level of performance of gathered data
the learners
Significance of the study

The findings of the study will be great help to the following:

Out of school youth – this study will help the pupils understand/ learn best

using different motivational strategies

MobileTeachers – this study will help the teachers to know if the strategies used

in teaching help to motivate pupils and improve the teaching-learning process.

And to know in what strategy/motivation pupils learn best.

Educational Planners and Leaders- the findings of this study will help them to

know if the motivational strategies help to upgrade the level of performance of

the learners

Department of Education – this study will help the department to know if the

materials used as motivational strategies are effective

Future Researchers - this study will help to have a broad understanding on

different motivational strategies that can motivate students/pupils.


SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The focused of the study was on the Degree of Students' Response on

motivational strategies Employed by ALS Teachers. The researcher will be

conducting this study on July-August 2018 in ALS centre at 4th District of Laguna.

It is limited to (3) areas of investigation the profile of the respondents; relationship

between the profile and the extent of motivational strategies, and relationship

between motivational strategies and the level of performance of the learners. And

however, the result of this study was based on the respondents’ answer on the

item of the questionnaire made by the researcher.

Definition of Terms

This section defines the key term used in order to make ease in

understanding the problem. To aid the comprehension of the study, the following

terms are defined operationally.

Level of performance – the degree of performance of learners

Motivational Strategies – are tactics or techniques or approaches use to

encourage learners of students to participate in the teaching and learning

process.

Multimedia – the combined used of several media or computer application,

using different various communication or promotional media


Out of school youth - means— (A) an eligible youth who is a school dropout; or

(B) an eligible youth who has received a secondary school diploma or its

equivalent but is basic skills deficient, unemployed, or underemployed

Performance – the act of performing, the ability to perform a certain doing, the

execution of an action, something done/accomplished

Rewards – something that give to someone who actively participate in the class

Socio-economic – this refers to the condition of someone in terms of education,

wealth occupation and social class


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter dealt with the discussion on the relation of motivational

strategies in the Degree of Students' Response employed by ALS Teachers 4th

district of Laguna. The following literatures and studies were related to the

present study as an adequate preparation of the researcher.

“When we encounter one who is unmotivated, the questions focus on where,

how, why and when motivation was depleted. The job is to restore that force by

making the goal more attractive, by seeing to it that the goal is somehow

attainable, and by easing the effort required through effective strategies and

sensitive teaching." (Levine, 2012, p. 265)

Definition of Motivation

Motivation referred to “the reasons were underlying behaviour” (Guay et

al., 2010, p. 712).Paraphrasing Gredler, Broussard and Garrison (2004) broadly

define motivation as “the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something” (p.

106). Intrinsic motivation was motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment,

interest, or pleasure. As Deci et al. (1999) observe, “intrinsic motivation

energizes and sustains activities through the spontaneous satisfactions inherent

in effective volitional action. It was manifest in behaviours such as play,

exploration, and challenge seeking that people often do for external rewards”(p.

658). Researchers often contrast intrinsic motivation with extrinsic motivation,

which is motivation governed by reinforcement contingencies. Traditionally,


educators consider intrinsic motivation to be more desirable and to result in

better learning outcomes than extrinsic motivation (Deci et al., 1999)

Environment

As stated by Conroy (2013) that creating a positive and engaging

classroom atmosphere is important for teachers to establish a classroom

environment where all students feel safe, comfortable, and welcome.

Environment is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to encourage

children's learning and prevent problem behaviors from occurring" .

Rhoda (2012) emphasized in her study that the environment was a very

important to a student success. Children who has a comfortable environment

learned more and enjoy class better the child who did not.

Zulueta (2017) cited that an ideal classroom maybe considered conducive

to the teaching-learning, if it has a stimulating and pleasant physical surrounding

and healthful conditions and adequate learning.

Cunningham (2012) states that environment also concluded literacy

motivation and engagement and classroom environment were positively

correlated. He believes that , “The key to early literacy development is a rich, well

organized environment that can support teacher’s goals for children—in other

words, a high quality literacy environment”.

Kelly (2016) mentioned to his researched that the physical environment

can have such an impact on students that it could affect a student’s academic
progress by as much as 25%. Color, classroom organization, cleanliness,

sufficient supplies, and bright lights can enhance learning experience and boost

student achievement. Alternatively, crowded rooms and a high-density of

students often results in lower student achievement and a poorer student

disposition.

Socio-Economic Status

Printrich and Meece (2015) argued which factors that often is associated

with socio- economic status level influence motivation. Resources were a critical

factor. Poor families have fewer resources to support their child learning outside

of school compared with families higher in socio-economic status student.

Researches claimed that low socioeconomic status has negative effect on the

performance of students because the basic needs of students remain not met,

hence they do not perform well in their subjects.

Farooq, et al. (2012) explained that Socio-Economic Status contributed

towards the academic performance of student. Researchers claimed that low

socio-economic status has negative effect on the performance of student

because the basic need of students remain not met, hence they do not perform

well in their subjects.

Multimedia

Bravo ( 2016 ) in his Previous research explored the results of the use of

videos as an educational tooI. In his study the authors used educational videos

with duration of approximately four minutes. They used a teaching platform


based on Moodle and YouTube channels for reproduction. The study showed

that streaming videos used as supporting material for learning had a positive

effect upon students’ perception regarding the enhancement of their learning

motivation. The study emphasized that proper definition of content and amount of

information delivered through supplemental video is an important task to solve.

Durations of videos and methodologies of displaying them influence the

effectiveness of learning and student satisfaction. An important result of this

research is that streaming supplemental videos improve students’ ability to learn

in an autonomous way. Multimedia instruction has also been shown to make

classes more vivid and interesting which can increase student learning,

motivation, and class efficiency (Dong & Li, 2011).

The American Public Broadcasting System’s (PBS) annual teacher survey

on media and technology, the percentages of teachers finding value in

multimedia and video content has increased each year since 2014. Result for

2010 showed that 68 percent believe that video content stimulates discussions.

66 percent believe video increases student motivation. 61 percent believe video

is preferred by students. 42 percent believe video directly increases student

achievement. Generally, it implies that video usage increases and enhances

students’ learning.

Because today’s children have grown up with a different digital landscape

than their teachers (Jukes, 2018), they, most likely, are inspired and motivated by

different technology. Today’s digital natives speak a different language than their

teachers do (Prensky, 2013). For these reasons, students of the 21st century
may retain more information if it comes to them through a digital medium. In a

more digital world, online teaching tools are better for a student’s memory (Miller,

2014). Not only online tools, but digital tools in general are better for a student’s

memory. SMART boards, digital “clickers, “and computers all spur interest in a

child and are more likely to motivate a student to perform at his other highest

level (Miller). Online tools that promote content creation among students, such as

videos, audio podcasts, and web pages, are more effective strategies than

traditional methods (Miller, 2014).

Reward

Hoffman (2012) examined the use of rewards through an elementary

teacher's perspective. When surveyed on their use of rewards, the majority of

teachers were in favor of using rewards to motivate students. Teachers who used

rewards for behavior management also tended to use rewards for academic

achievement, with the highest frequencies of rewards being verbal or written

praise and prizes. Other types of rewards included class privileges, homework

passes, extra credit, and verbal or written praise to parents.

As stated by Kremer (2013) it may seem that designing incentive

mechanisms to improve education It may seem that designing incentive

mechanisms to improve education should be relatively straightforward. Students

may invest too little effort in there should be relatively straightforward. Students

may invest too little effort in their own education because they overly discount the

future, have time-inconsistent own education because they overly discount the

future, have time-inconsistent preferences, or underestimate the return on


education. Extrinsic incentives can preferences, or underestimate the return on

education. Extrinsic incentives can then provide immediate returns that give an

extra motivation to study. Similarly, then provide immediate returns that give an

extra motivation to study. Similarly, incentives can give parents and teachers

additional reasons to put more effort into incentives can give parents and

teachers additional reasons to put more effort into educating children or simply

making sure the kids get to school and educating children or simply making sure

the kids get to school

This result corresponds to Cheng and Dornyei’s study (2007), which

indicates that showing teachers’ enthusiasm through their behavior is one of the

most important and frequently-used motivational strategies. There is obvious

evidence indicating that teachers’ motivational strategies critically manipulate the

development of L2 learning motivation.


Level of performance

Positive reinforcement is often used to effectively teach students age

appropriate behaviours and social skills when these behaviors and skills are

lacking, as these deficits can create disruption in the classroom. Positive

reinforcement is the presentation of a reward immediately following a desired

behaviour intended to make that behavior more likely to occur in the future.

Conroy (2012) found that teachers improved their overall classroom

environment, in addition to increasing positive interactions with students by

effectively implementing positive reinforce-tent, including praise. The Students

who related to high SES were usually high achievers as they should opened

opportunities and facilities that are necessary to accelerate the progress in

academics. Whereas people belonged to low or average SES classes face lack

of resources and facilities that was why their achievement damages by remaining

low and they were less likely to be successful (Akhtar&Niazi, 2011).

The school systems in low-SES communities were often under resourced,

negatively affecting students’ academic progress (Aikens & Barbarin, 2013).

Gardner (2012) conducted an empirical research with Spanish students,

and concluded that “the more highly motivated students have higher grades than

the less motivated ones”.

kirby, Winston (2012) focused on student’s impatience (his time-discount

behaviour) that influences his own academic performance.


Goethe (2014) found out that weak students do better when grouped with

other weak students. (As implied by Zajonc’s analysis of older siblings (1976) it

shows that students’ performance improves if they are with the students of their

own kind.

Sacerdote (2013) finds that grades are higher when students have

unusually academically strong roommates.

The results of Zimmerman et Al.(2016) were somewhat contradictory to

Goethe results but again it proved that students performance depends on

number of different factors, it says that weak peers might reduce the grades of

middling or strong students

As stated by Vansteenkiste (2015) Motivation has been shown to

positively influence study strategy, academic performance, adjustment and well-

being in students in domains of education other than medical education. Studying

motivation particularly in medical students is important because medical

education is different from general education in several aspects, some of them

being high intensity of study, the requirement to carry out clinical work along with

study and the need to follow a highly specifically defined path to be able to

qualify to practice as doctors.

Kusurkar. (2013) in a literature review we found that the positive

correlation between motivation and performance has not been substantiated

strongly in medical education as different studies have contradictory findings.

The objective of the present research study was to explore the relationships
between motivation, study strategy, study effort and academic performance

among medical students.

Johnson, (2016) mentioned that learning environment along with teachers’

pedagogical skills is important for quality education. Similarly, the students have

also become both, geographically and socially diversified. There is a great need

of new teaching methods and pedagogies to meet global challenges. Hence, we

can say that there is also a need of change in the learner and teachers’ means of

interaction. All the schools are striving to integrate curriculum with technology so

that the students are provided quality education and learning takes place their

way and they are focusing to provide quality education to the students by all the

means so that they are ahead in the education industry.


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the methods and procedure design applied by the

researcher in completing the study. It included the research design, sampling

technique, subject of the study, data gathering procedure, research instrument

and statistical treatment of the data.

Research Design

This study was used the descriptive research design. This design fits best

in studies which aim to describe the nature of a situation at the time of the study

and to explore the causes of particular phenomena Ardales,( 2008)

. Further Good and Scates (2002) emphasized that descriptive research

method included that the present facts concerning anything, a group of person,

number of objects, a set of conditions, a class of events, a sequence of thoughts

or any kind of phenomenon which one wishes to study. The researchers used the

questionnaire-checklist to gathered relevant data which lead them to obtain

accurate findings; more over this research method also serve as a guide in

evaluating the level of motivational strategies in the performance of learners at

4th district of Laguna


Setting of the Study

Figure 2. The Geographical Location of the Study


Subjects of the Study

The study involved randomly selected population of ALS school at 4th

District of Laguna consisting of ------respondents. Table below shown the

distribution of the pupil respondents by school for the academic school Year

2018-2019.

School Population Sample

Sta. Maria ES 112

Mabitac ES 96

Famy ES 155

Siniloan ES 138

Pangil ES 105

Pakil ES 105

Paete ES 79

Kalayaan ES 95

Lumban ES 96

Pagsajan ES 125

Sta.Cruz ES 1, 571

Pila ES 150

Table 1: Distribution of ALS students as Respondents


Research Instrument

To attain the objectives of this study, in gathering data it will be a

conducting with self-formulated question as a guide to gather the necessary

information needed in the study. The researcher used questionnaire checklist as

the main instrument for gathering data of the study.

Only one research instrument with three sets were used in the study the

first set was include the profile of the respondent while the second set include

items relating to the motivational strategies in the performance of learners and

lastly the level of performance which was measured by five points scale describe

as follows:

Legend:

5- Always
4- Sometimes
3-Moderate
2-often
1-never
Research Procedure

The researcher understood several steps which led to the completion of

the study. The researcher gathered data and information upon the approval of

the title. The researcher sought permission for the school division

superintendent, district supervisor and principals in the selected schools in the

fourth congressional district of Laguna to gather the needed data through letter of

request for this study

The distribution and collecting of questionnaire were administered

personally by the researcher in order to follow up responses made by the pupil

respondent for consistency check. The researcher explained clearly the direction

as well as the purpose of the study before allowing the respondents to answer

the questionnaire.

Statistical treatment

The following statistical treatments were used in the conduct of the study.

The researcher used Descriptive statistical measure such as particularly

mean and Percentage, Frequency were used to interpret some data, also

ranking. and ANOVA


Statement Statistical Tool

 Profile of the respondents in terms of Frequency, Percentage, Rank

Environment; and Socio-economic


Weighted Mean, Interpretation, Rank
 Extent of motivational strategies
ANOVA
 Level of performance of Learners

 Difference between the extent of ANOVA

motivational strategies based on

respondents profile.

 Difference between the profile and Chi-Tsart/Pearson Correlation

the level of performance

 significant relationship between the


Chi-Tsart/Pearson Correlation
extent of motivational strategies and

the level of performance of Learners