Groundwater

Aquiclude , Aquitard, Aquifuge !·\
Aquifer ··\
Artesian Aquifer |.··\
Cone of Depression ·ºi
Confined Aquifer ´"··\
Darcy's Law ·`¯+
Discharge .
Dripstone .·(
Flowstone .·(
Hydraulic Gradient ··:º
Karst Topography (´--·
Percolation ¬·
Permeability ¬·´3
Porosity -!´
Recharge |.
Replacement `¦
Saturated Zone ¹|\
Sinkhole !.
Spring
Unconfined Aquifer |··\
Water Table -¯·¬
Zone of Aeration ··¨

0.0008
11,470
.·· .·· .·· .··
0.0001
1,120
|·~ |·~ |·~ |·~
0.0002
2,120
.¨ .¨ .¨ .¨
0.001
12,900
·· ·· ·· ··
0.013
176,400
.. .. .. ..
0.022
300,000
-¬¹¯ -¬¹¯ -¬¹¯ -¬¹¯
0.001
16,500
¤· ¤· ¤· ¤·
1.7
23,400,000
-¯· -¯· -¯· -¯·
1.74
24,064,000
¹¬'¹¨ ¹¬'¹¨ ¹¬'¹¨ ¹¬'¹¨
96.5
1,338,000,000
.: .: .: .:
]~ ]~ ]~ ]~ 1 11 1| || | km
3
` `` `
· ·· · . .. .
Water In The Ground
Groundwater is the water below the ground
surface occupying the pore spaces in rocks and
soils.
Groundwater is present everywhere beneath
land surface and ocean bottom.
Most ground water originates from precipitation
and surface water.
Groundwater is always in motion.
Water Table
Water table: the undulating surface
where pore water pressure =
atmospheric pressure
In fine-grained sediment, a narrow
fringe immediately above the
water table is kept saturated by
capillary attraction.
In humid regions, the water table
is a subdued imitation of the
land surface above it.
Water table varies with
precipitation, infiltrtation rate,
evapotranspiration, and
groundwater flow rate.
Porosity
Porosity is the ratio of
pore volume to total
volume of a soil or rock .
open porosity or
effective porosity is the
ratio of accessible
pore volume to total
volume .
Porosity determines the
amount of water that a
given volume of soil or
rock can contain.
Well-sorted
sediments
Poorly-sorted
sediments
Reduction of
porosity by
cementation
Rock Porosity
The porosity of a sedimentary rock is affected by
several factors:
Sizes and shapes of the mineral grains.
Compactness of their arrangement.
Weight of overlying rock or soil.
Extent to which the pores become filled with the
cement that holds the particles together.
The porosity of intrusive and metamorphic rocks
generally is low.
Groundwater Recharge and Discharge
Recharge is the process by which groundwater is replenished.
Discharge is the process by which groundwater reaches and flows to the
surface.
An area of the landscape where precipitation seeps downward and reaches an
aquifer is called a recharge area.
The water moves slowly toward discharge areas where groundwater flows to
streams, lakes, ponds, swamps or ocean.
How Fast Does Groundwater Flow?
In 1856, Henri Darcy concluded the velocity of
groundwater is related to:
The hydraulic gradient: the slope of the water
table.
The coefficient of permeability of the rock or
sediment through which the water is flowing.
* The coefficient of permeability, now called
hydraulic conductivity, is determined by
permeability, density, and viscosity of water.
Darcy’s Law
K(h
1
-h
2
)
V = ---------------
L
K is the hydraulic conductivity;
h
1
-h
2
is the difference in altitude;
L is the horizontal distance
between two points;
V is flow velocity;
Spring
A spring is a flow of groundwater emerging
naturally at the ground surface.
Small springs are found in all kinds of rocks,
but almost all large springs flow from lava
flows, limestone, or gravel.
A change in permeability, a body of less
permeable rock adjacent to a permeable one,
is a common explanation for the location of
springs.
Contacts between a porous
limestone and an impermeable shale.
Contact between a sand unit
and an impermeable clay.
Contact between a jointed lava flow
and an impermeable mudstone.
Trace of a fault intersecting
the land surface.
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Aquifer
An aquifer is a body of highly permeable rock or regolith
that can store water and yield sufficient quantities to supply
wells.
Gravel and sand generally are good aquifers. Many
sandstones and limestones are also good aquifers.
Aquifers are of two types:
– Confined (bounded by confining beds).
– Unconfined (an aquifer without overlain).
The High Plains aquifer
An unconfined aquifer which lies at shallow depths beneath
the High Plains of the United States.
About 30 percent of the groundwater used for
irrigation in the United States is obtained from the
High Plains aquifer.
In parts of Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas, the water
table has dropped so much over the past half century
that the thickness of the saturated zone has declined by
more than 50 percent.
The Dakota Aquifer
The Dakota aquifer system
in South Dakota provides a
good example of a confined
aquifer.
Water that percolates into a
confined aquifer flows
downward under the pull of
gravity.
Artesian Aquifer
An artesian aquifer is confined by rock layers that
restrict water flow, resulting in an aquifer that is
"pressurized." Water is virtually squeezed to the
pressure level above the ground surface.
Water in an artesian aquifer could rise to the same
height as the water table in the recharge area.
The well installed in an artesian aquifer is called an
artesian well.
A freely flowing spring supplied by an artesian
aquifer is an artesian spring.
A Flowing (Artesian) Well
Maybe you've heard advertisements by water companies
wanting to sell you "artesian-well drinking water." Is this
water different from other bottled water taken from springs?
The water may not be different, but it comes to the earth's
surface a bit differently. A flowing well has water that
comes up to the surface because of internal pressure in the
underground aquifer containing the water. An artesian
aquifer is confined by rock layers that restrict water flow,
resulting in an aquifer that is "pressurized." Water is
virtually squeezed to the surface by underground pressure.
This picture shows how strong artesian pressure can be!
The Floridian Aquifer
A complex regional aquifer system in which both
confined and unconfined units are present, and in
which water locally reaches the surface by an
artesian flow.
The aquifer system is restricted mainly to middle
and late Tertiary limestones.
The age of groundwater in the well farthest from the
recharge area has been determined by radiocarbon
dating : at least 19,000 years.
Changes in the water table as a Result of Pumping
• When water is pumped from a new well, the rate of withdrawal
initially exceeds the rate of local groundwater flow.
• This imbalance in flow rates creates a conical depression in the
water table immediately surrounding the well called a cone of
depression.
• The locally steepened slope of the water table increases the flow of
water to the well.
Mechanism of Land Subsidence
The weight of overlying sediments is supported by the
pore water pressure and the effective stress in an aquifer.
When groundwater is withdrawn, the pore water
pressure is reduced, and meanwhile, the effective stress
between mineral grains is increased, causing the
compression of sediments. As a result, the land surface
subsides.
The amount of subsidence depends on:
How much the water pressure is reduced.
The thickness and compressibility of the aquifer.
San Joaquin Valley
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Leaning Tower of Pisa
Groundwater Contamination
Water circulating through sulfur-rich rocks may contain
dissolved hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S) that has the disagreeable odor
of rotten eggs.
If the contaminated water percolates through sand or permeable
sandstone, it become purified within short distances. Sand
promotes purification by:
Mechanically filtering out bacteria.
Oxidizing bacteria so they are rendered harmless.
Placing bacteria in contact with other organisms that
consume them.
Contamination of Groundwater by Toxic Wastes
Municipal and industrial wastes, Pesticides & herbicides,
Landfills and underground storage tanks
Geologic Activity of Groundwater
Cementation
Replacement
Dissolution
Chemical Cementation
The conversion of sediment into sedimentary rock is
primarily resulted from cementation.
Particulates in groundwater are precipitated as cement
between mineral particles of sediments.
Calcite, quartz, and iron hydroxides (mainly limonite)
are the chief cementing substances.
Petrified wood is produced by the
replacement process.
Replacement
The process by which
a fluid dissolves
matter already present
and at the same time
deposits from solution
an equal volume of a
different substance
Dissolution
Of all the rocks, the carbonate rocks (limestone,
dolostone, and marble) are among the most
readily attacked by the dissolution and hydrolysis.
The weathering attack occurs mainly along joints
and other partings in the carbonate bedrock.
In temperate regions with a high rainfall, a high
water table, and a nearly continuous cover of
vegetation, carbonate landscapes are being
lowered at average rates of up to 0.01 cm/yr.
Cave Formation
Caves are resulted from the dissolution of
carbonate rock by circulating groundwater.
Limestone caves are generally believed to
result from dissolution by carbonic acid.
Some caves, like Carlsbad, may have
resulted from dissolution by sulfuric acid.
The rate of cave formation is related to the rate
of dissolution.
A fully developed cave system may take
10,000 to 1 million years to produce.
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CO
3
2 -
+ H
+
HCO
3
-
CaCO
3
Ca
2+
+ CO
3
2 –
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3
2 –
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3
-
,+ + + +CaCO
3
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Sequence of Cave Development
1. Initial dissolution along a system of
interconnected open joints or bedding planes by
percolating groundwater.
2. Enlargement of a cave passage along the most
favorable flow route.
3. Deposition of carbonate formations on the cave
walls while a stream occupies the cave floor.
4. Continued deposition of carbonate on the walls
and floor of the cave after the stream has stopped
flowing.
Cave Deposits
Clay and silt, originally present as
impurities in limestone, gradually
concentrated as the rock was
dissolved.
Flowstone is precipitated from flowing
water.
Dripstone is precipitated from dripping
water.
Stalactites are icicle-like forms of
dripstone hanging from the the
ceilings of caves.
Stalagmites are blunt mounds
projecting upward from cave floor.
Columns are stalactites joined with
stalagmites.
¹¯:'.'· ¹¯:'.'· ¹¯:'.'· ¹¯:'.'·,¯j ¯j ¯j ¯j
´¯¹¯¯¯[ ´¯¹¯¯¯[ ´¯¹¯¯¯[ ´¯¹¯¯¯[,^ ^^ ^
!'´´|±¦~, !'´´|±¦~, !'´´|±¦~, !'´´|±¦~,
¨ ¨¨ ¨, PH ]¹· ]¹· ]¹· ]¹·, |' |' |' |'
HCO3-'¯¹ '¯¹ '¯¹ '¯¹CO32 – ,
]¦ ]¦ ]¦ ]¦CaCO3 ,, ,, ,, ,,
The cavern formed in the saturated zone when the water table lay
at the former higher level. Uplift of the region caused streams to
deepen their valleys. The water table then lowered in response to
valley deepening, leaving the cavern above the lower
Sinkholes: large dissolution cavities
Some sinkholes are formed when caves
have collapsed, others are formed from
dissolution.
Many sinkholes are located at the
intersection of joints.
New sinkholes are forming because of the
lowering of the water table due to
excessive pumping.
The floors of sinkholes lie below the water
table.
Karst Topography
Karst topography is a landscape in which caves and
sinkholes are so numerous that they form a peculiar
topography characterized by:
Many small, closed basins.
Disrupted drainage pattern.
Streams disappearing into the ground.
Streams reappearing as large springs.
Karst topography was first described in the Karst region of
the former Yugoslavia, extending from Slovenia to
Montenegro.
Hard Water and Soft Water
Hard water: water containing calcium
and magnesium bicarbonates
dissolved from carbonate rock that
prevent the formation of lather with
soap. .
soft water: water contains little
dissolved matter and no appreciable
calcium.
Homework: ý|. ý|. ý|. ý|.
Hydraulic conductivity
Karst topography
Water table
Artesian aquifer
Zone of aeration
*``¯·-·`W+´¹´' ``¯·-·`W+´¹´' ``¯·-·`W+´¹´' ``¯·-·`W+´¹´'121¯ ¯¯ ¯

Aquiclude , Aquitard, Aquifuge Aquifer Artesian Aquifer Cone of Depression Confined Aquifer Darcy's Law Discharge Dripstone Flowstone Hydraulic Gradient Karst Topography

k – k >‹ – k » ^• ł – k r K ‹@ @ ¡ ‹ ¡ ^ ¡ * ˛ S

Percolation Permeability Porosity Recharge Replacement Saturated Zone Sinkhole Spring Unconfined Aquifer Water Table Zone of Aeration

Vł Vł § W 6Y ⁄ « 'k ¤ > ; ¥ – k _

O H km3 G' ˙ ˙¿ 1,338,000,000 24,064,000 23,400,000 †F _˙ ºr ; a ^¿ Ø 16,500 300,000 176,400 12,900 11,470 2,120 1,120

-Ø 96.5 1.74 1.7 0.001 0.022 0.013 0.001 0.0008 0.0002 0.0001

Groundwater is always in motion. Groundwater is present everywhere beneath land surface and ocean bottom. Most ground water originates from precipitation and surface water.Water In The Ground Groundwater is the water below the ground surface occupying the pore spaces in rocks and soils. .

the water table is a subdued imitation of the land surface above it. and groundwater flow rate.Water Table Water table: the undulating surface where pore water pressure = atmospheric pressure In fine-grained sediment. Water table varies with precipitation. In humid regions. . a narrow fringe immediately above the water table is kept saturated by capillary attraction. evapotranspiration. infiltrtation rate.

Well-sorted sediments . open porosity or effective porosity is the Poorly-sorted sediments ratio of accessible pore volume to total volume . Porosity determines the Reduction of amount of water that a porosity by given volume of soil or cementation rock can contain.Porosity Porosity is the ratio of pore volume to total volume of a soil or rock .

Compactness of their arrangement. Extent to which the pores become filled with the cement that holds the particles together. .Rock Porosity The porosity of a sedimentary rock is affected by several factors: Sizes and shapes of the mineral grains. The porosity of intrusive and metamorphic rocks generally is low. Weight of overlying rock or soil.

The water moves slowly toward discharge areas where groundwater flows to streams. ponds. .Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Recharge is the process by which groundwater is replenished. swamps or ocean. An area of the landscape where precipitation seeps downward and reaches an aquifer is called a recharge area. lakes. Discharge is the process by which groundwater reaches and flows to the surface.

How Fast Does Groundwater Flow? In 1856. The coefficient of permeability of the rock or sediment through which the water is flowing. and viscosity of water. . * The coefficient of permeability. density. Henri Darcy concluded the velocity of groundwater is related to: The hydraulic gradient: the slope of the water table. now called hydraulic conductivity. is determined by permeability.

Darcy’s Law K(h1-h2) V = --------------L K is the hydraulic conductivity. . V is flow velocity. L is the horizontal distance between two points. h1-h2 is the difference in altitude.

A change in permeability. a body of less permeable rock adjacent to a permeable one. Small springs are found in all kinds of rocks. is a common explanation for the location of springs. limestone. or gravel. .Spring A spring is a flow of groundwater emerging naturally at the ground surface. but almost all large springs flow from lava flows.

Contact between a sand unit and an impermeable clay.Contacts between a porous limestone and an impermeable shale. Trace of a fault intersecting the land surface. . Contact between a jointed lava flow and an impermeable mudstone.

446 ‹ ˘ ? 9 .7 ß .»‚ e `1237 ` • 1966 ¢ } @ — ¢ } m3 1957 vZ L t ˇ K r 4000 km r7 ?2001 — ‹ ˘ / r 9 m3 ? 1.• ( L- 1500 ß > K e— ¢ } § • .

Gravel and sand generally are good aquifers.Aquifer An aquifer is a body of highly permeable rock or regolith that can store water and yield sufficient quantities to supply wells. Many sandstones and limestones are also good aquifers. Aquifers are of two types: – – Confined (bounded by confining beds). . Unconfined (an aquifer without overlain).

. New Mexico.The High Plains aquifer An unconfined aquifer which lies at shallow depths beneath the High Plains of the United States. In parts of Kansas. About 30 percent of the groundwater used for irrigation in the United States is obtained from the High Plains aquifer. and Texas. the water table has dropped so much over the past half century that the thickness of the saturated zone has declined by more than 50 percent.

The Dakota Aquifer The Dakota aquifer system in South Dakota provides a good example of a confined aquifer. . Water that percolates into a confined aquifer flows downward under the pull of gravity.

resulting in an aquifer that is "pressurized. . Water in an artesian aquifer could rise to the same height as the water table in the recharge area.Artesian Aquifer An artesian aquifer is confined by rock layers that restrict water flow. The well installed in an artesian aquifer is called an artesian well." Water is virtually squeezed to the pressure level above the ground surface. A freely flowing spring supplied by an artesian aquifer is an artesian spring.

This picture shows how strong artesian pressure can be! ." Water is virtually squeezed to the surface by underground pressure. but it comes to the earth's surface a bit differently. A flowing well has water that comes up to the surface because of internal pressure in the underground aquifer containing the water. resulting in an aquifer that is "pressurized. An artesian aquifer is confined by rock layers that restrict water flow." Is this water different from other bottled water taken from springs? The water may not be different.A Flowing (Artesian) Well Maybe you've heard advertisements by water companies wanting to sell you "artesian-well drinking water.

and in which water locally reaches the surface by an artesian flow. The age of groundwater in the well farthest from the recharge area has been determined by radiocarbon dating : at least 19.The Floridian Aquifer A complex regional aquifer system in which both confined and unconfined units are present. .000 years. The aquifer system is restricted mainly to middle and late Tertiary limestones.

Changes in the water table as a Result of Pumping • When water is pumped from a new well. • The locally steepened slope of the water table increases the flow of water to the well. the rate of withdrawal initially exceeds the rate of local groundwater flow. . • This imbalance in flow rates creates a conical depression in the water table immediately surrounding the well called a cone of depression.

causing the compression of sediments. and meanwhile. When groundwater is withdrawn. the land surface subsides. the effective stress between mineral grains is increased.Mechanism of Land Subsidence The weight of overlying sediments is supported by the pore water pressure and the effective stress in an aquifer. . As a result. The amount of subsidence depends on: How much the water pressure is reduced. the pore water pressure is reduced. The thickness and compressibility of the aquifer.

ˇ” T q > ˘ k d œ ˜ Im p† ł H ˘ /r 9 6 3.San Joaquin Valley k 1. 2. .

10 m – o ˛ C œ ‚ ˝ o ‘| 40 œ œ›q œ ‘G œ 1925 ?1977 ' k ¢Gq K G – ek > A s – ¨ 9m – .

Leaning Tower of Pisa .

it become purified within short distances. If the contaminated water percolates through sand or permeable sandstone. Oxidizing bacteria so they are rendered harmless. . Sand promotes purification by: Mechanically filtering out bacteria. Placing bacteria in contact with other organisms that consume them.Groundwater Contamination Water circulating through sulfur-rich rocks may contain dissolved hydrogen sulfide (H2S) that has the disagreeable odor of rotten eggs.

Pesticides & herbicides. Landfills and underground storage tanks .Contamination of Groundwater by Toxic Wastes Municipal and industrial wastes.

Geologic Activity of Groundwater Cementation Replacement Dissolution .

. Particulates in groundwater are precipitated as cement between mineral particles of sediments. quartz.Chemical Cementation The conversion of sediment into sedimentary rock is primarily resulted from cementation. Calcite. and iron hydroxides (mainly limonite) are the chief cementing substances.

Replacement The process by which a fluid dissolves matter already present and at the same time deposits from solution an equal volume of a different substance Petrified wood is produced by the replacement process. .

and marble) are among the most readily attacked by the dissolution and hydrolysis. . The weathering attack occurs mainly along joints and other partings in the carbonate bedrock.01 cm/yr. carbonate landscapes are being lowered at average rates of up to 0. a high water table. the carbonate rocks (limestone. and a nearly continuous cover of vegetation. In temperate regions with a high rainfall.Dissolution Of all the rocks. dolostone.

A fully developed cave system may take 10. The rate of cave formation is related to the rate of dissolution. may have resulted from dissolution by sulfuric acid.000 to 1 million years to produce.Cave Formation Caves are resulted from the dissolution of carbonate rock by circulating groundwater. . like Carlsbad. Limestone caves are generally believed to result from dissolution by carbonic acid. Some caves.

: … pH ‰ CO3 + H+ CaCO3 2- HCO3- Ca2+ + CO3 2– .ˆ ’x 3˝ . v l CaCO3 > . PH v Z / /.# . • l CaCO3 – . +@ < y .o B ` CO32 – . CO32 – o B ` HCO3. HCO3. ^ e PH v..

Continued deposition of carbonate on the walls and floor of the cave after the stream has stopped flowing. Initial dissolution along a system of interconnected open joints or bedding planes by percolating groundwater. 4. 2. Deposition of carbonate formations on the cave walls while a stream occupies the cave floor.Sequence of Cave Development 1. . Enlargement of a cave passage along the most favorable flow route. 3.

Columns are stalactites joined with stalagmites.Cave Deposits Clay and silt. gradually concentrated as the rock was dissolved. Dripstone is precipitated from dripping water. . originally present as impurities in limestone. Stalagmites are blunt mounds projecting upward from cave floor. Stalactites are icicle-like forms of dripstone hanging from the the ceilings of caves. Flowstone is precipitated from flowing water.

PH œ ˇ . ¸ 2 ˆ& W . .P •¤ Bc ˙ m) . … HCO3a CO32 – . CaCO3 ¤ ‚ – .

The cavern formed in the saturated zone when the water table lay at the former higher level. Uplift of the region caused streams to deepen their valleys. The water table then lowered in response to valley deepening. leaving the cavern above the lower .

Many sinkholes are located at the intersection of joints. others are formed from dissolution. New sinkholes are forming because of the lowering of the water table due to excessive pumping. . The floors of sinkholes lie below the water table.Sinkholes: large dissolution cavities Some sinkholes are formed when caves have collapsed.

.Karst Topography Karst topography is a landscape in which caves and sinkholes are so numerous that they form a peculiar topography characterized by: Many small. Disrupted drainage pattern. closed basins. extending from Slovenia to Montenegro. Karst topography was first described in the Karst region of the former Yugoslavia. Streams disappearing into the ground. Streams reappearing as large springs.

. . soft water: water contains little dissolved matter and no appreciable calcium.Hard Water and Soft Water Hard water: water containing calcium and magnesium bicarbonates dissolved from carbonate rock that prevent the formation of lather with soap.

.Homework: > Hydraulic conductivity Karst topography Water table Artesian aquifer Zone of aeration * N… ¢P b p‹ ? ’ 121 .

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