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Alphabet and sounds

1 Alphabet
At the beginning of the recording for this section you will hear the
complete Greek alphabet. You will find the alphabet in written form, in
the nearest equivalent English spelling in the Alphabet booklet, and at
the beginning of the text book in Greek letters.
Listen to the recorded alphabet a number of times and learn it by heart,
following the instructions in the Alphabet booklet.'k"

2 Vowels and diphthongs

Next you will hear recordings of the Greek vowel sounds and diphthongs
followed by examples of commonly used words in which these sounds
are heard.
There are only five vowel sounds in Greek, all of which are easy to
produce. Note, however, that in general Greek vowel sounds are not as
long as their stressed English counterparts. On the other hand,
unstressed vowels are more clearly pronounced in Greek than in English
and they maintain their full value in all positions in a word; compare
English Maria, where the unstressed a's are very weak, with Greek
MaQia where both u's have almost the same quality as the stressed a in
µaµa. Similarly compare English monotonous where only the second o
has the full o value with Greek µovo'tovoc; where all the o's are very
dearly heard.
The combination m is pronounced exactly the same as E. The sound is
nlways similar to English e as in met, never like ay as in nay, away;
compare these two words with the recordings of vm, Et<J'tE, Note that the
letters t, 11, u, and the combinations or, EL, ut, all represent exactly the
~11111c sound (the combination ui is archaic and rarely found in modern
~pclling). The Greek i sound is never like the i in sit or in night but
nlwnys like a rather shorter form of ea as in seat; compare Greek q>0.11
with Englishfilly.
t'hc Greek letters o and w also represent exactly the same sound.
't'hey arc never pronounced like the o in rode, but always something like
tlw llritish (not American) English o in not; compare the final o in
/11111fllll with TtQW'tO and 1t~xa>
l'ho (Ireek diphthongs oi: and ai: are written with two dots above the Lor
wtt h 1111 accent on the first vowel when it is stressed ot, at (see Alphabet

booklet). Remember that or and m accented on the t or with no accent the tongue is touching or almost touching the roof of the mouth while the
are pronounced just like t and E respectively, but note that OTJ and atJ are air is forced through the gap.
always pronounced as diphthongs, whether they carry an accent or not When any other sound follows, X is pronounced like the Scottish ch in
(oi: and OTJ are identical in sound, as are ai: and un). These diphthongs loch.
are similar to oy as in boy and y as in fry.
The vowel combination ou is always pronounced something like a
shortened version of the ou in through.
4 Combinations and consonant groups
There are certain letters which when they appear in combination are.
3 Consonants pronounced in a special way. These you will hear, together with
examples again, in the next part of the recording, and you will find the
Next you will hear recordings of all the Greek consonant sounds together written form of what you hear in the text book.
with words in which each sound occurs. On the recording and in the text (a) The combination au is pronounced like af in raft before 0, x, ;, ,i, 1J,
book they are in alphabetical order, but here we will look at them in 't, q>, x, 'I', and like av in have before other consonants or a vowel. In the
various groups according to the difficulties they may present. same way Ell is pronounced like ef in left or ev as in ever according to
(a) B, ~. Z, 0, M, l:, <I> present no problem as they are almost identical the following letter.
to, respectively, English v in very, th as in the, z as in zero, th as in thin, (b) Double yy is found only in the middle of words and produces a sound
m as in met, s as in sit andf as in fit. similar to ng as in angle.
(b) :E: and 'I' are in effect two consonants joined together. :E: is K and I: (c) The consonants yx produce the same sound as yy when they occur in
pronounced like x in taxi or ks in sticks, while 'I' is II and I: pronounced the middle of a word, but these letters can also be found in the initial
like ps in dipstick. position when they are pronounced like g in go.
Note, however, that many Greek words begin with these sounds, while (d) The consonants YX are also found only in the middle of words. The
English words do not: ;tQw, lptJAO;. sound produced is initially the same as yy but followed by a normal x
(c) K, II, T, are very like English k, p, t in sound, but much softer. In sound.
English we expel quite a lot of air as we say these letters, but in Greek (e) The combination µ,i is similar to English b as in bit when in the initial
only a little air is let out. To produce Greek T the tip of the tongue position. In the middle of a word it is usually pronounced mb as in
comes a little further forward than it does to produce English t, and may member, but in some words it is pronounced b.
actually touch the base of the top front teeth. Note that K when followed (f) The combination vr is similar to English d as in dot when in the initial
by an E or t sound is pronounced ky, with a slight y (as in yes) sound position. In the middle of a word it is usually pronounced nd as in
following it. There is no y sound when a consonant or another vowel window, but in some words it is pronounced d.
sound follows. (g) The combination ro is like ts as in lets, but note that Greek words
(d) A, N, P, are, like T, produced with the tongue coming forward to can begin with this sound, English words do not.
touch the base of the top front teeth. Greek A is never like the lazy (h) Finally et; is pronounced just like ds in heads, but again Greek words
English l in small but always like a strong version of the I in leaf. can begin with the sound while English words do not.
Greek P is never like the English r, but similar to a lightly rolled Scottish
r, where the tongue flaps against the base of the top front teeth.
(e) r has two pronunciations. When the following sound is E or t (any
spelling of these two sounds m, u, tJ, or, El, ui) it is pronounced like the 6 Intonation of the sentence
y in yes. When any other sound follows, it is pronounced more like g as
The final part of the recorded sounds section is intended to give you
in go. This is one of the few difficult Greek sounds for English speakers
practise in listening to and repeating simple Greek sentences (statements,
to produce; it is like a continuous g sound with the tongue further back
negatives, questions). Listen to these sentences a number of times and
in the mouth than for the English g.
repeat them aloud. Note, and imitate as closely as possible, the way in
(f) X also has two pronunciations and is another difficult sound for
English speakers to produce. Before E or t (or any other spelling of these which the words are grouped together, the way certain syllables are
two sounds) X is pronounced like the ch in German ich; the tip of the stressed and the way the voice rises and falls.
tongue is touching the base of the bottom front teeth and the middle of

You will find the written form of what you hear in your text book. I ntrod uctio n
This is an English translation:

This is your case.

First part
Is this your case?
1 What's this? 2 What's this?
This is not a lighter. It's an aeroplane. It's a passport.
Isn't this a lighter?
• 3 What's this? 4 What's this?
Andreas is in the plane. It's a house. It's a pencil.
Is Andreas in the plane?
5 What's this? 6 What's this?
Is your wife at the airport? It's a book. It's a cassette.
Yes, she's at the airport.
7 What's this? 8 What's this?
Are you at the customs? It's a suitcase. It's a handbag.
No, we aren't at the customs.
9 What's this? 10 What's this?
It's a record. It's a car.

11 What's this? 12 What's this?

It's a lighter. It's a statue.

13 Is this a biscuit? 14 Is this a match?

Yes, it's a biscuit. Yes, it's a match.

15 Is this a drachma? 16 Is this a newspaper?

Yes, it's a drachma. Yes, this is a newspaper.

17 Is this an envelope? 18 Is he a doctor?

Yes, it's an envelope. Yes, he's a doctor.

Second part
I Have you got an umbrella? 2 Have you got a taxi?
Yes, I've got an umbrella. No, I haven't got a taxi.

.I Have you got a telephone? 4 Have you got a cassette recorder?

Yes, I've got a telephone. No, I haven't got a cassette recorder.

!I I lave you got a coffee? 6 Have you got an aeroplane?

Y cs, I've got a coffee. No, I haven't got an aeroplane . .,..

7 I lave you got any bananas? 8 Have you got a tomato?

Yes, I've got some bananas. No, I haven't got a tomato.

9 Have you got a table? IO Have you got a lemon? Ma8ruaa tva Lesson one
Yes, we've got a table. No, we haven't got a lemon.

11 Have you got drachmas? 12 Have you got cigarettes?

Yes, we've got drachmas. No, we haven't got cigarettes. Words in this lesson
13 Have you got a telephone? o «bEQq>oc; brother ,.uxc; our
14 Have you got any whisky?
'to «EQObQoµw airport 11 µfl'tEQa mother
Yes, we've got a telephone. No, we haven't got any whisky.
'to «EQO:rtAavo aeroplane uou my
• (l\l'toc;-11-0 this, that vu there's, here's
15 Have you got some chocolates? 16 Have you got any biscuits?
fua oac; Hello, Goodbye ; vm yes
Yes, we've got some chocolates. No, we haven't got any biscuits.
o ytoc; son o the
11 yuva(xa wife 11 otxoytvtta family
'to bta(iu'tllQlO passport OQLCJ'tE here you are, here's
Third part El'.µm I am t :r1:a1:1axairo please ·
Eiµ«CJ'tE we are o :n:a'tEQac; father
Mr. Kazakos I'm Nikos Kazakos. tivm (he/she/it) is, (they) are :7tQW'tO first
I'm Greek. El'.om you are aac; your
El'.ou you are OE in, on, at, to
Mrs. Kazakou I'm Despina Kazakou. o EAE"("f,Oc; control cou your
I'm Greek. o 'Eii11v«c; Greek (male) - CJ'tO at/ in/ on the
Nikos is my husband. ~ 11 Eii11vib« Greek (female) , ,:a the (neuter plural)
EVU one 't1]c; her
Maria Kazakou I'm Maria Kazakou EV't<l;Et in order, 0.K. 'tO the
I'm their daughter. EU"f,UQtCJ'tro thank you 'tO\l his
11 the 'tWQU now
Andreas Kazakos I'm Andreas Kazakos. xmand o u:r1:aii11ioc; official, employee
Maria is my sister. 'I'll µa911µ« lesson "f,UlQE'tE hello, goodbye
µCXAtCJ't« yes
Mrs. Papa I'm Athina Papa.
I'm the grandmother.
Despina is my daughter.
Mrs. Yiannopoulou I'm Ero Yiannopoulou.
I'eur oac;, literally Health to you, and XatQE'tE Rejoice are two very
Despina is my sister.
common expressions for greeting people but they can also be used when
Mr. Yiannopoulos taking your leave; that is, these can both mean not only Hello but also
I'm Petros Yiannopoulos.
Ero is my wife. Goodbye. XatQE'tE is rather more formal and is not normally used
between friends.
Minas Londos I'm Minas Londos.
2 In this lesson you will find all the forms of the present tense of the Greek
equivalent of the verb to be, which is irregular in Greek as in English.
Maria is a friend of mine.
Study all the forms together:
Singular Plural
dµm I am EiµaCJ'tE we are
dam you are E&CJ'tE you are
dvm he/she/it is Eivm they are
(a) The first peculiarity for English speakers to note is that subject
pronouns(/, you, we, he etc.) are not necessary in Greek while they

6 7

. . -~ - ----;-.-
usually are in English. The ending -µat is enough to show that the (b) I:ov and oar; both represent the possessive your. The singular nou is
subject is first person singular (I) while the ending -ucoee shows that the used, like dam (see Note 2b), to address a friend, relation or child, while
subject is the first person plural (We). The ending -voa denotes a third the plural oar; is used to refer to more than one person or to address
person subject which can be singular or plural (He, she, it, they); you someone politely.
may think that this will lead to confusion but, in fact, you will find that (c) Listen to the recording again and note how the uou, oou, rou etc. are
the surrounding words will make the meaning clear. completely unstressed in pronunciation. In fact, they are said as though
(b) The second person singular etom and plural EiO'tE are both translated they were part of the preceding word.
by you are in English, although in Old English Eiom was thou art. Eiam (d) ro btajJet'ttJQtO 't1J<; Note that bmjJet'tl]QLO takes a second stress on
(the singular) is used when addressing a friend, relation, child or pet, the final syllable when unstressed possessives like uou, oou, 1:0v, 1:11r; are
while EtO'tE (the plural) is used to address more than one person or when tacked on. Words normally stressed three syllables from the end always
respectfully addressing someone who is not close to you. Note that the take this second stress when an unstressed syllable is added. They would
official uses the plural EtO'tE when speaking to Mr. Kazakos, but feels otherwise be stressed four syllables from the end, which is unacceptable
that Andreas is young enough to be spoken to in the friendly singular to Greeks: eo lhal}a'tl]QLO, to bmjJet'tl)QlO ,:rir;.
form. I:,:o etEQ07tA«vo I:,:o etEQObQoµto
(c) Note that as Modern Greek has no equivalent of the infinitive (e.g. to (a) Here the article ro has combined with the preposition oE (in, on, at,
be) verbs are always listed and referred to in this book, and in to) to form rrto; OE and 1:0 always combine in this way.
dictionaries generally, in the first person singular (the l form) of the (b) Greek does not normally differentiate between the ideas of at, on, in
present tense (e.g. Eiµm). or to, so O'tO «EQ07tA«Vo may be translated by on the plane or in the
3 0 Ni'.xor; 1J L\fon:Olva ro bmjJan'ww plane, and O'tO etEQObQoµto is translated by at the airport. Don't worry,
(a) o, 1J, ,:o These are all forms of the Greek definite article (the). you won't find this confusing.
While our definite article is invariably the, Greek is not so obliging; if the 7 0 Nixor; Ka~<ixor; H MetQi« Ka~<ixou Another strange thing to
following noun is Masculine it is o, but it is 1J if the noun is Feminine and remember is that family names often change according to whether they
ro if the noun is Neuter. All Greek nouns have one of these three refer to males or females. Masculine family names ending in -oc change
so-called genders. This is one of the major difficulties of the language, the ending to -ou when they refer to females: also H L\fono,va Ka~<ixov,
but you will find it is not such a problem if you take care to learn each but O Av1:Qfor; Ka~<ixor;
new noun together with its definite article (o, 1J or to), Na 1J µ111:i:Qet uou. There's my mother. Na is a useful expression to
(b) Note also that the definite article (o or 1J) generally precedes people's use when pointing something out to someone, just as we use Here's
names when we refer to them: o Nixor;, 1J MetQiet, o Av,:Qfor;, 1J There's .... , Here are .... or There are .... Note that no verb is used in
L\fon:OlVCt the Greek expression and there is no differentiation between Here and
4 Av,:or;, av,:iJ and av,:o this are the Masculine, Feminine and Neuter There.
forms of the same word. !) Ta bta~et'ttJQLCt Passports Now we meet a new factor which may
It's time to note that most Greek nouns, adjectives and verbs, as well as affect endings of words: the difference between singular and plural.
some pronouns, can be divided into two parts, known as the stem and Neuter nouns in -o change the ending to -n in the plural and the Neuter
the ending. The stem is the part of the word which is common to many definite article ro changes to ,:a: ,:o btetl}et'tl)QLO the passport ,:a
different forms, while the ending is that part which changes according to b,ajlet'tl)Qtet the passports.
various factors which we shall be studying one by one. EiO'tE 'E1,.1,.11var;; Are you Greek?
Av,:or; Eivat o y,or; µar;. Here the stem our- has the ending -oc because (a) Remember that (;) which looks like an English semi-colon, is, in fact,
the noun referred to is y,or; son, which is Masculine. a question-mark in Greek.
Av,:11 Eivm 1J yvvaixa uou, Here the ending is -11 because yvvaixa wife (b) The question form in Greek is nice and easy as it is exactly the same
is the Feminine noun referred to. in form as a statement. Only the rising tone of voice at the end of the
Av,:o Eivm eo bmjJa,:lJQU> 'tt]r;, Here the ending is -o because b,a~et'tl]QLO sentence tells the listener that he is being asked a question. Listen to the
is a Neuter noun. recording carefully and compare: EtO'tE E~1,.11viba; (rising intonation) with
5 Possession Nm, Eiµm EAAtJViba (falling intonation). Imitate this closely.
(a) Study the way Greek expresses the possessive adjectives; uoe my, (c) Note that Greek expresses nationality using a noun with no article
µar; our, ooo/oue your, ,:ov his or 1:11r; her are placed after the noun. The before it, while English uses an adjective. In addition note that some
definite article o, 1J, ro is kept before the noun in Greek, 1J yvvaixa uou (,reek nouns change their ending according to whether they refer to
my wife o y,or; µar; our son. males or females. EiO'tE EAA1)Vtba; Are you ( a) Greek (woman)? EiO'tE

8 9
'EJJ,11va;; Are you (a) Greek (man)?
11 Official Are you Greek?
Nm. MaJ..una. Both these words mean yes. Nm is more common.
Despina Yes, I'm Greek.
MaJ..una is rather formal or emphatic. Be careful with vm because it Your passport's in order. Here you are.
resembles our no but has the opposite meaning.
12 Despina Thank you.
OQi<Tte. Evi:aset. These are useful expressions that you will hear This is my passport.
frequently. 0Qt<Tt£ is commonly used when offering or handing someone Are you Greek?
something, as we use Here you are or Here's .. .!Here are ... Evi:asu is Nikos Yes.
used just as we use O.K. or All right.
13 fronunciation Official O.K. Here's your passport.
Nikos This is our son. Here's his passport.
(a) Remember that m, 0t and Et are all pronounced as single sounds (see Are you Greek?
Sounds Section): EV1:llS£L, ')'UVabm, ,:\fo,i:otva While UE is pronounced as
Andreas Yes.
two separate vowels: UEQ0'1:Aavo, UEQObQoµm.
Official Here's your passport.
(b) Note also that vr is pronounced nd in EVi:asu.
Andreas Thank you.
(c) In EvxaQt<Ttw, bEU1:EQO the eu is pronounced ef.
14 Cultural Note Greeks tend to be informal and friendly and you will
find that they soon begin to address you in the friendly singular forms
(dam, oou) once they feel they know you - especially if you are
relatively young, and especially in the country.


On the aeroplane
Nikos Hello. I'm Nikos Kazakos.
This is my wife, Despina.
This is our son, Andreas. ·
Now we're on the aeroplane ....
And now we 're at the airport.

The Kazakou Family

Maria Hello. I'm Maria Kazakou.
Now I'm at the airport.
Nikos Kazakos is my father.
Despina Kazakou is my mother.
And Andreas Kazakos is my brother.
Ah! There's my mother.
My mother, my father and my brother are at the airport.
Passport control
Official (Your) passports, please.
Nikos Here you are. This is my wife and this is her

M68ru.,a l>uo Lesson two 4 Autoi; Eivm ava:1tt11Qni;; Is this a lighter?
Aut11 dvm oµ:1t()EAa. This is an umbrella.
Since the statement and question form are the same in Greek, the only
difference between ls this? and This is is the difference in intonation at
New words the end of the sentence. Listen again and imitate the recording yourself.
5 Aovtoi;. Mrivui; Aovtoi;. Lon dos. Minas Londos. Minas formally
1J ai8ovaa avaµoviJi; waiting room µa~( together
o ava:1ttl)Qai; cigarette lighter
introduces himself; note that in this situation he does not use the article o
1J µaµa: mum
avoi!;n open (up) before his name.
o µ:1taµ:1ta:i; dad
11 PaAitoa suitcase 6 0 X\J()lOS Kasa:xoi; Mr. Kazakos H XU()l(l Kasa:xou Mrs. Kazakou
1J oµ:1t()EAa umbrella (a) Remember that we normally use the definite article when referring to
bEV not to oufoxt whisky
people's names (Lesson 1, Note 3b); the same is true before the terms
bwtE()O second oxt no Mr. and Mrs.
buo two to :1tmbi chi Id
(b) 0 X\J()lOS is another example of a noun which changes its ending
to ltClVEltlO'tlJµto university
when referring to a female; in this case the stress moves as well: 11
ttm xt Et<Jt so-so, not bad :1tOA\J very
WJCCl()totwi; certainly ltO\J where
x«Aa: well 7 o ytoi; toui; their son We have now met the possessive adjective in all
:1twi; how
xt and its forms, so study them all together.
o tEAwvaaxoi; customs officer
xAEiote close Singular
to tEA(l)VEtO customs
1J X0()1J daughter µou my o ytoi; uou my son
tl what
xou(_)aoµtvoi; tired oou your o ywi; oou your son
toui; their
tO\J his/its o y,oi; rou his son
1J XVQia Mrs. 1J qJtA1J friend (female)
0 X\J()toi; Mr.
t1JS her/its o ytoi; tl]i; her son
to AlXE() liqueur Plural
Te xa:vai;; How are you? ~
~mi; our o ywi; µai; our son
aai; your o ywi; oai; your son
toui; their o ywi; toui; their son
H H Ma()t« e(vm qJLA1J uou. Maria is a friend of mine. Study this simple
Notes way of expressing a (friend) of (mine): the noun followed by the
possessive but no article. Compare this with o qJtAoi; uou my friend.
1 bt:v .Eivm AtXE(). it isn't liqueur. Eivm qJtA1J oeu. She's a friend of yours.
The formation of the negative in Greek is very simple; you just put bEV Eivm qJtA1J µai;. She's a friend of ours.
before the verb. AEV Ei".m 'EAA1Jvm;. I'm not Greek. Etvm qi(A1J toui;. She's a friend of theirs.
H MaQia bEV t:(vm ore ClE()OltAa:vo. Maria isn't on the plane. ll faa oou, µaµa:. Hello, mum.
2 Autoi; ElVCll ClVCllttl]()Cli;. This is a (cigarette) lighter. l'Et« oou, M«Qia µou. Hello, (my) Maria.
Autt'I Eivm oµ:1t()EAa. This is an umbrella. K«Aa:, µ:1taµ:1ta. Fine, dad.
Auto Eivm OUl<JXl. This is whisky. lloAu xaAa, :1tmb( µou. Very well, my child.
(a) Nouns referring to male people (o ywi; son, o :1tatEQai; father) are Avt()fo; Andreas?
normally Masculine, and nouns referring to females (1J X0()1J daughter, 1J I (ere we meet the Vocative case, which may affect endings of words.
µl]tE()a mother) are usually Feminine, but although we tend to think of The Vocative case is the form used when we address someone directly
things as Neuter (it), in Greek inanimate objects may be Masculine, (often using their name).
Feminine or Neuter in gender. Nouns ending in -a or ., do not change but Masculine nouns in -ai; drop
(b) Note that in English an indefinite article (a, an) is required when we lhc i; in the Vocative. Notice especially that there is no article before a
indicate an object (This is an umbrella/lighter), while Greek simply noun in the Vocative: ·
names the object without any article (Eivm oµ:1t()EAa). Nom. Voe. Norn. Voe.
3 Avoi!;tt:. Open. KAt:LotE. Close. These are imperatives (orders, ,, ,,aµa ~ µaµa - o µlt«µ:rrai; ~ µlt(lµlt(l \
instructions) which we will be studying later in detail. For the moment, 11 M «Qi« · M«Qi« , o Avt()foi; , AVt()fo ~
learn them by heart and don't worry about them. ·ro m:nb( :1tmbt

12 13
10 I'eur oou. Hello. We met Teur ans in Lesson 1; naturally fna oou is The waiting room
the form used when speaking to a friend or relation.
11 nws tiam; TL xavw;; How are you? Both these expressions are Minas Londos. Minas Londos. Maria Kazakou is a friend of mine. We are
commonly used when meeting a friend; they are exactly equivalent to our together at the university. Now we are together at the airport. Mr.
How are you? Tt xcivtts; means literally What are you doing? but in use Kazakos, Mrs. Kazakou and their son are at the airport now.
it is identical to IIws dam; Goodbye.
12 EuxaQioi:ws 'Errn Xl frat Another two useful expressions to
remember. EuxnQtat"WS is used exactly like our Certainly, With pleasure Despina Ah! There's our daughter.
or Of course, when we politely agree to something. 'Enn Xl hat Maria Hello, mum. How are you?
expresses the feeling that things are not as good as they might be, So-so. Despina Hello, (my) Maria. How are you?
13 Note that xm and can be shortened to Xl when the next word begins with Maria Very well, mum.
the vowel E (or at which is also pronounced s), e.g. faat Xl ti:m. Nikos Maria! How are you? Are you well?
14 Pronunciation Maria Fine, dad. (And) you?
(a) oufoxt As Greek has no w sound, English words and names Nikos Very well, my child.
containing a w are rendered by ou the nearest sound in Greek to English Maria Andreas? How are you?
w. Andreas So-so. I'm tired.
(b) oµl'tQ£Aa The letters µl't produce the sounds mb here.
(c) µl'taµl'tci The µl't produces the sound b only here, baba.
(d) AvTQfo, Aovt"OS The letters VT produce the sound nd in these two
15 Note that the words l'tou, and mos, take stress accents here although they
are single syllable words. The reason for this will be apparent later. For
the moment just learn them.

The Customs
Officer Where's your case?
Nikos Here's our case.
Officer Open (it up), please.
Nikos Certainly.
Officer Hmm ... What's this? Liqueur?
Nikos No, that isn't liqueur. It's whisky.
Officer And this, what is it?
Nikos That's an umbrella.
Officer (Ah) yes. Is this a (cigarette) lighter?
Nikos Yes, it's a lighter.
Officer All right. Close (it).
Nikos Thank you.

14 15
Ma8r11.1a rple Lesson three 7 i\va 'ta);i a taxi We have met ha meaning one; now we see it used as
the indefinite article· (a/an). Greek does not differentiate between the
number (one) and the article (a).
8 ot f.\aAtWES the suitcases This is the plural form of 11 f.\aAhaa
New words {remember 'ta Otaf.\ntt]QLll); we now have to note that Feminine nouns
to autoxiv11to car tQtto third ending in -u change the ending to -ES in the plural. Also the definite
i::om here o (/)LAOS friend (male) article 11 changes toot in the plural (which does not, however, change the
i::xEi there (J)Qaia splendid, good, great pronunciation at all): 11 f.\a>.t'tCJll the case, Ol f.\aAL'tCJES the cases.
i:va a(n) 9 cro au'tOXtVl]'tO tou in his car To U\J'tOXtVl]'tO is stressed three
Aomov well, now ... Tt xnven; How do you do? syllables from the end, it therefore takes a second stress on the final
or the XatQ(J) itoAv. (Very) pleased to syllable when the unstressed possessive is added to it. (See Lesson 1,
to ta1;i taxi meet you. Note Sd).
tQia three 10 l:to IIayxQa'tl To Pangrati Pangrati is a residential area near the
centre of Athens; notice that place names, like people's names, usually
take the definite article in front of them: 111::+'tO IIayxQa'tl. Remember
also that CJE can mean on, in, at or to (see Lesson 1, Note 6b) and
Notes combined with 'to becomes oro.
11 Pronunciation Note the way yx is pronounced in IIayXQll'tt.
1 0 cptAOS is another noun like o xvews which has a different ending to
refer to males or females: o cptAOS uou my friend (male), 11 cptAl] uou my
friend (female).
2 XatQ(J) itOAV. Pleased to meet you. This is the conventional thing to Translation
say when you are introduced to someone. It means, literally, I rejoice
very much, but in this situation we usually say in English either: Pleased llow do you do?
to meet you or How do you do? Mum, (this is) Minas. Minas is a friend of mine.
3 Ti xnvue; How do you do? This is the polite, plural form of Ti I tcspina Pleased to meet you, my boy.
xnvns; (see Lesson 2, Note 11), but note that here Nikos uses Ti How do you do, Mrs. Kazakou?
K<ivi:ti:; as an introduction. In fact, T1 K<ivui:; can be used not only when we Maria Minas, my father.
meet someone for the first time (where we would say How do you do?) but Minas Minas Londos. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Kazakos.
also when we see someone we already know (where we would say How are How do you do? Maria, are Mr. Londos and you
together at the university?
4 IIa'tEQU Ml]tEQU M11vn Kueia Ka~UXO\J KUQlE Ka~axo Maria Yes, dad.
These are further examples of the Vocative case (see Lesson 2, Note 9). Hi, Minas. I'm Andreas, her brother.
Ml]'tEQa and xueia Ka~nxou are unchanged, except that there is no Hi, Andreas.
article before the noun, but o itn'tEQUS becomes na'tEQa and o M11vas
becomes M11vn in the Vocative. Note that o xuews Ka~axos becomes 'l'hc taxi
XUQtE Ka~axo. Masculine nouns in -os normally change their ending to -E
in the Vocative e.g. XVQtE but a few people's names change -os to -o e.g. vudreas There's a taxi. Taxi!
Ka~axo. Maria Ah ... good. Where are mum and dad?
5 ri::ta (JOU, M11va. rna oou, AV'tQEU. Hi, Minas. Hi, Andreas. Minas uulreas There. Dad! mum! Now then, our cases are here.
and Andreas, being both modern and young, introduce themselves in the Oh ... Where's Minas?
most informal way possible and immediately use the singular forms. Maria Minas is in his car.
6 Aomov Well (then) fiQaia Good These are two more useful \ tulreas To Pangrati, please.
expressions; Aotnov is used just as we use Well, now when hesitating,
concluding or changing the subject. fiQaia is very commonly used to
indicate satisfaction; Splendid/Good/Great would be the English

16 17
Special Note The following words you will need to recognise when you begin M68rwa reooepe Lesson four
the exercises for the first three lessons.
(1)) <iaXtJotJ exercise · yemnti; aaxtJaEti; written exercises .
(ro) 1taQ<ibnyµa example 1taeabdyµata examples ..
EU..1JVLX1J l:£1.QU Greek Course A1tavn'tani; Answers .. New words
KamA<i(Jau; Did you understand? .ru µa611µaro lessons .
1) ab£Q(f)fl sister txw I have
1J A611va Athens 1J 0Ea(J(lAovix11 Thessaloniki
aAM but xaMi;-11-0 good
o aV'tQlli; husband, man A£1t'toi;-11-o thin, slim
lll"tO from µEyaAoi;-11-0 big, large
llU'tOl they µtvw I live
llU'tOI, he, it µta a(n), one
au't1J she, it o µtxeofJtoMyoi; microbiologist
o yaµ1tQoi; brother-in-law µtxQoi;-11-0 small, little
yEµU'tOl,-1)-0 full 1J µovoxa'totxi.a detached house
o ytll'tQOi; doctor o 1ta60Aoyoi; general practitioner
0£ not 1tllV'tQ£µtvoi;-11-o married
01JAU01J that is (to say) 1t£Qtµtvw I wait (for)
TO btaµEQtaµa flat 'to a1ti.'tt house
o btX1JYOQoi; lawyer U'tt)(v) to/at/in the
bouAEtJW I work 'tfoaEQll four
0 beoµoi; road, street 'tE'tllQ'tOl,-1)-0 fourth
qw I \J!11Mi;-11-o tall, high
EµEi.i; we

1 Up till now we have studied the Vocative case - µ1taµ1ta, Av'tQEll,
XtJQL£ Ka~<ixo (L2, N9) - and what is called the Nominative case - o
µ1taµ1tai;, o Av'tQfoi;, o XtJQtoi; Ka~<ixoi;. The Nominative case is the
form used to refer to the subject of a verb, or after the verb to be. We
now have to study another case, the Accusative case, which is the form
used to refer to the direct object of a verb, or after a preposition.
0 Ilt'teoi; £1.VUL yta'tQoi;. Petros is a doctor.
0 IlE'tQoi; is the subject of the verb and so is Nominative, as is ym'tQOi;
after the verb Eivm.
H Maeia EXEL tva btaµEQtaµa IJ'tt)V AOriva. Maria has a flat in Athens.
H Maeia is the subject (Nominative) and tva bmµtewµa is the object
(Accusative); 't1)V A611va is Accusative after the preposition at.
(a) First look at the Accusative singular forms of the definite article:
Masculine o changes to 'tOV or 'to - 'tOV AV'tQEll, 'to bQ6µo.
Feminine 1J becomes 't1)V or 't1) - 't1J Maei.a, 't1JV A611va.
Neuter 'to remains unchanged in the Accusative.
The vis necessary on Masculine 'tOV and Feminine 'tt)V in the Accusative,

18 19
only when the following word begins with a vowel or with one of these MtvouµE O'tl]V A811va. We live in Athens.
consonants.x, n, e, µn, vr, yx (also, of course, before ;, which is really 'Exouv tva btaµEQtaµa. They have a flat.
x+a and ljJ which is :n:+a as well as before ta and t~ which clearly begin The endings for most Greek verbs in the present tense are: -0> for the
with r). first person singular (I), -Et for the third person singular (he/she/it), -ouus
(b) Now let's compare nouns in the Nominative with nouns in the for the first person plural (we) and -ouv for the third person plural (they).
Accusative: These endings may be added to the stem of any regular verb (we shall
Norn. Acc. Norn. Acc. call them type I verbs), and conversely if you subtract the ending you
Masc. o Nixos to Nixo o AvtQfos rov AvtQfo can find the stem of any verb:
Fem. ri A811va tl]V A811va fl XOQfl tflV XOQl] rt£Qtµtv0> I wait Stem: :n:EQtµtv-
Neut. to anin to anin to «EQObQ6µt0 to UE(.)()bQ6µt0 rtEQtµEVEt he/she/it waits
All these cases and endings may confuse you at first, but there are a few :n:qnµtvouµE we wait
points to note which make them less complicated than they appear. Note, rtEQlµE,VO\JV they wait
for example, that Neuter and Feminine endings are exactly the same in An important point to note is that in English we have two present tenses
the Nominative, Vocative and Accusative. Masculine nouns simply drop I wait and I am waiting, while Greek has only one present tense which
the sin the Accusative and in the Vocative, except for Masculines in -os may translate either of the two English tenses. Hence :n:EQtµtv0> may be
which usually change to E in the Vocative (L3, N4). translated as I wait or I am waiting, according to the context.
2 By now you will be getting used to the fact that Greek words frequently Finally note that English verbs are often followed by a preposition which
change their endings, so you will not be surprised to learn that adjectives may not be necessary in Greek.
too change their endings according to the case and gender of the noun I'm waiting FOR Andrew. IIEQlµEVO> rov AvtQfo.
they describe. Most Greek adjectives have the endings -os,-T1,-o in the 4 H HQci> rtavvo:n:ouAo\J Ero Yiannopoulou Just as Ka~o.xou is the
Masculine, Feminine and Neuter Nominative case respectively: o xw.os Feminine form of the name Ka~o.xos, so ftavvo:n:ou>.ou is the Feminine
btxt]yOQOS, fl AE:n:tri abEQ(f)l'I, to µqcH.o a:n:itt. form of the name ftavv6:n:ollAos. Note also how the stress is different in
In the Vocative and Accusative cases the endings are just like those of the two words.
Masculine nouns in -os, Feminine nouns in ·fl and Neuter nouns in -o. 5 Tl abEQcpt] µou my sister There are two forms of the words «bEQcpos,
So the Accusative forms of these adjectives will be the same as the abEQ(f)tJ brother, sister. The p may be changed in pronunciation and
Nominative except in the Masculine Accusative where, as we know, the writing to L You may meet or use both of them, abEQ(f)ll or abtlcp11;
sis dropped: tov xw.6 btXflYOQO, tl] AE:lttl) abEQ(f)ll, 'tO µ£yaw a:n:in. both are right.
Note also that a woman describing herself, uses the feminine forms of 6 Km Tl Afonotva eivm 'V'l'-11· Despina is tall too. We know that xm or
adjectives: Ero says: Eiµm 'V'l'-11 xm Arntt), I'm tall and slim. A man xi mean and, but note that xm may often be translated as too at the end
describing himself would say: Eiµm 'V'l'-OS xm Arnt6;. I'm tall and slim. of the phrase in English.
Special Note Since nouns and adjectives may have various endings, it 7 0 O.vtQUS µou dvm ytatQ6s. My husband is a doctor.
is normal to list them in vocabularies and dictionaries only in the Eiµm µixQol}wMyos. I'm a microbiologist.
Nominative singular. The word list at the back of this book follows this When referring to someone's job or profession Greek uses no article
normal procedure, but you will also find a number and letter after the before the noun, whereas we normally use the article a.
word, which will refer you to the appendix where you will find each type 8 l:tflV A9tJVU In Athens l:tfl 0rnaa>.ovixri In Thessaloniki
of adjective and noun in all its forms. For example: xaAQS·tJ·O 4: B 1. (a) Remember that orov or oro is the preposition <JE to/in/at/on joined to
Here 4 tells you that the word is first used in Lesson 4; Bl refers you to the Accusative Masculine or Neuter article; Ott](V) is oe joined to the
appendix B (adjectives) type I. Feminine Accusative article 'tt]V or 'tfl· Remember that the vis necessary
0 ,i:atteas 1: AM2. Here I tells you the noun is first used in Lesson I only before a vowel and certain consonants (see Note la).
and AM2 refers you to appendix A (nouns), type Masculine 2. (b) Remember, too, that place names, like people's names, are normally
3 So far we have studied only the irregular verb Eiµm I am. Now we are preceded by the definite article.
going to study regular verbs in the present tense. Remember that the (c) I:to In Pangrati The v is not needed here because the
ending of the verb changes according to the subject, and that the subject, Neuter Accusative article is always to.
if it is a pronoun, may often be omitted. Remember, too, that the Kt Eyci> eiµm yta'tQOS. /' m a doctor too.
negative is formed simply by placing bE(v) before the verb. Study these: Eµ£t; µ£VO\Jµ£ <Jtt]V A811va. We live in Athens.
IIE{>LµEVO> ,:ov AvtQfo. I am waiting for Andreas. Auto( txouv tva btaµtQwµa. They have a flat.
At bov>.wu. She doesn't work. (a) We have noted that subject pronouns are not usually necessary in

20 21
Greek, but subject pronouns may be used for emphasis or to contrast two M68rn,1a nevre Lesson five
different subjects. In English we would simply use our voice to
emphasise the subjects/, we, they, here. Eyw is emphatically/, while
tµti.i; is emphatically we and ucroi is emphatically they.
(b) Aurni. is, in fact, the Nominative Masculine plural form of au'toi;. We New words
have already met au'toi;-11-6 as the pronoun this (Lessons 1 and 2) so we
'to ciya1,,µa statue 'to xoµ:n:1,,tµEV'tO compliment
now know a second use of the same word as an emphatic subject
yw. for XQuoi;-a-o cold
pronoun. Au'toi; may be used to mean he emphatically, and au'tll to mean
to yhxo sweet to xTtQlO building
she: Au'toi; 1oivm btXtJYOQoi;, a1,,1,,a «U'tll OE bou1,,1ouEL. He's a lawyer but
wEir; you 1,,iyo a little
she doesn't work.
11 or 'to Aovbivo London
10 µw. µtXQ'I µovoxa'totxia a small detached house We have met tva as
11tav was to µvriµ1oio monument
the indefinite article a(n). Mw. is the Feminine form of the same word:
µw. oµ:n:Q£Aa an umbrella but !\vu 'ta!;i a taxi, µm µovoxarntxi.a a
tJ 6Eia aunt ro OU~llXt (little) OUZO
o Odor; uncle 'tO OU~O OUZO
detached house but tva a:n:iu a house.
8t1,,w I want :n:tµ:n:toi;-tJ-o fifth
11 Ari1,,ab11 is another little expression useful when we want to explain
xa9t<JTE sit down :n:tvn five
further; we would say: That is (to say) ...
xa1,,wr; OQiaau welcome tJ :n:01,,ri town
12 AE bouJ..EUEL. AE uevouv. A1ov not (just like 'tov, rnv) may drop the v
xa1,,mi; tour; welcome to 't<l!;ibt journey
when the next letter is not a vowel or x, :n:, -r, yx, µ:n:, vr,
13 A:n:ofrom is another preposition which, like oe, is followed by the 'to xaTUOTtJµa store, shop ro 't<Jllt tea
o xaqiti; coffee WQ«foi;-a-o beautiful, splendid
Accusative case, e.g. a:n:o mv A611va.
14 OTO OQoµo in the street Here OE has joined to 'to OQoµo which is the
Accusative form of o bQoµoi;. Nov is necessary here as the following
letter is b.
15 Pronunciation Note that µ:n: is pronounced mb in yaµ:n:Q6i; and vr is
pronounced nd in UV'tQai;.
1 0£J..ELt;, 0£AE'tf.. KlivELi;, K<ivE'tt. Here we see the second person
()'ou) endings, singular -ni; and plural -ere, for regular verbs (type I). We
now know all the endings for regular verbs: -w, -ni;, -EL, -ouue, -ete,
Translation -ouv,
At Home Singular Plural
6t1,,w I want 6twuµE we want
Ero I'm Ero Yiannopoulou. Despina Kazakou is my sister. Nikos Kazakos is 9£J..Elt; you want 6tuu you want
my brother-in-law. I'm tall and slim. Despina is tall, too, but full 9£J..EL he/she/it wants 8t1,,ouv they want
(figured). I'm married. My husband is a doctor. He's a general Once you know these endings you can use any regular verb in all its
practitioner. I'm a doctor too. I'm a microbiologist. My brother-in-law is present tense forms.
a lawyer. He's a good lawyer. My sister doesn't work. My husband and 2 E(JU/Eodi; You These are the emphatic subject pronouns for the
I live in Athens in Pangrati. My sister, her husband and their son don't second person, singular £(JU and plural wtir;. This completes your picture
live in Athens. They live in Thessaloniki. Maria, their daughter, lives in of subject pronouns:
Athens. We live in a small detached house. They, that is Despina and EyciJ / EµEii; we
Nikos, have a big flat. Now I'm at home and I'm waiting for Andreas, E(JU you Ea1oir; you
Despina, Nikos and Maria (coming) from the airport. There's a taxi in Autoi;-11-0 he/she/it AU'tOL they
the street. .. Note that these are often used when no verb follows.
MaQia: Eyw, oxt. Not me.
HQciJ: E(JU, Av'tQE«; And you, Andreas.7
3 Adjectives
(a) In this lesson you will find more adjectives like the ones we studied in
Lesson 4, but we now see adjectives used to describe nouns in the

22 23
Neuter plural. The Neuter plural ending for adjectives is -u just like the Note carefully the difference in spelling and stress between :rroi..u very
plural ending for Neuter nouns in -o: 'to lhaj}U't11QtO, m lhal}«'tllQta: and tJ :rtOAtJ the town.
\j)tJMI aycH.µa'ta tall statues, µEyai..a xdQta big buildings. 8 Note that Andreas does not know his aunt as well as Maria does, so he
(b) However, we also need to look at some adjectives which are slightly says respectfully Ti xavnE; How are you? while Maria is very familiar
different; we shall call them type 2 adjectives. Type 2 adjectives are with her and uses the singular rua nou Hello.
those whose stem ends with a vowel: O>Q«i.o; (O>QUt·), XQUO; (XQU·) The 9 Ka6ian. Sit down. This is another "imperative" (i.e. instruction).
only difference between these and type I adjectives is in the Feminine Remember Avoil;n and xi..EiatE in Lesson 2?
singular where the ending is -a in the Nominative, Vocative and 10 fl'tUV This is the past tense form of Eivm, that is the third person,
Accusative; remember that in type I adjectives the ending is ·tJ for all singular and plural of Eiµm. It therefore means he/she/it was or they
these cases: were. Don't worry about it now; we shall study the past tense in detail
µta XQUU :rtOAtJ a cold town, but µta µtXQ11 :rtOAtJ a small town later. •
µta 0>Qaia oµ:rtQEAU a lovely umbrella, but µm µEyai..tJ oµ:rtQEAU a big 11 'Ox1 ou;o Not ouza Note that the Greeks say literally No ouzo. The
umbrella. Greek btv can only be used with a verb; you must use ox1 with a noun.
4 We also meet in this lesson more Neuter nouns of the types we have 12 Kaq,i 11 ov;ax1; Coffee or ouzo? Take special note of 11 and the
already met in previous lessons, as well as one new type. Let's study difference between this 11 and 11 without an accent on it. Remember that
them all together - remember that Neuter nouns have the same endings tJ without an accent means the, while 11 with the accent means or.
in the Nominative, Vocative and Accusative; this is true for the plural as 13 ou;o, ov~ax1 ouza, little ouza This is an interesting feature of Greek.
well as the singular. · The ending -ax1 may be added to many nouns without really changing
(a) Neuters ending in -o, plural in -u the meaning. The -ax1 actually suggests a small thing, but very often it is
to ou;o, 'tU ou;a OUZO(S) 'tO "(A\JXO, 'tU "(A\JX<l sweeti s) added only to suggest affection for the object or person referred to:
'to xoµ:rri..tµt\''to, 'ta xoµ:rri..tµEv'ta compliment(s) 'tO :rtatbi, 'tO :rtatbaxt the ( little) child
'to µvt]µEio, ta µvt]µtta monument(s) 'tO X'tLQtO, m xdQta building(s) 'to a:rriu, ,:o CJ:rtttaxt the ( little) house
(b) Neuters in -1, plural -tn 'tO O\JlCJXt, 'tO OULCJX<lXt the ( little) whisky
'to :rrmbi, 'ta :rrmbta childtren) 'to ml;ibt, m ml;ibiajourney(s) Note that the stress always falls on the -axt and that the last vowel of
to ou;ax1, ,:a ov;ax1a (little) ouzots) the word is dropped before -a,e1 is added.
(c) (New type) Neuters in -un, plural -µa'ta 14 fmfor is another preposition followed by the Accusative case.
ro ayw..µa, 'tU ayai..µa'tU statuets) 15 Note the µv (mn) sound at the beginning of µvt]µda.
'to xai:aattJµa, ,:a xataatitµa,:a storets) ·1 6 Cultural notes
to btaµiQwµa, ta btuµEQtaµam flat( s) (a) Ouzo is the Greek national aperitif. It is a strong, colourless spirit
Note that the stress changes on these nouns when the extra syllable is which goes cloudy white when water is added. It has a strong aniseed
added: that is, the stress still falls three syllables from the end. flavour and is often drunk before meals.
(d) We can also mention a fourth type of Neuter noun: those whose (b) It is a common Greek custom to offer guests in your house something
endings never change at all in the singular or plural; these words are sweet, EVU yi..uxo. This may be a cream cake or fruit stewed in syrup and
usually not Greek in origin. to ,:al;i, 'ta ml;i taxi(s). it is usually served with a glass of water and/or Greek coffee (Turkish
5 We also have one new type of Masculine noun ending in -E;. For the style).
moment you need only note that the -; drops in the Vocative and
Accusative singular. We will be studying these in more detail later on.
Norn. o xaq,i; Acc. rov xaq,i coffee
6; OQtCJUtE!; tou;! These two expressions are both used Translation
to welcome new arrivals.; tov; is more usual in the spoken Welcome
language; it is used to welcome several people together and means
literally welcome to them. Ero Welcome! Welcome! Despina, how are you?
7 i..iyo a little :rrolu very These two words are opposites and are Despina Fine, Ero. But I'm a little tired from the journey.
useful to qualify a verb, adjective or·adverb. Andreas Aunt Ero. How are you?
Eiµm i..iyo xovQaaµtvo;. I'm a little tired. Ero Very well, Andreas. (And) you?
Eivm :rroi..u weaia. She's very beautiful. Nikos Hello, Ero. How are you?
Eivm :rtoi..u xai..a. He's very well. Ero Fine, Nikos.

7.4 25
Maria. Hello, Aunt. The Kazakos family is here. Maeru,a &~I Lesson six
Ero Sit down. Sit down. Well? How was London?
Despina A very nice town, but very cold.
Andreas Tall statues, Aunt. Lovely monuments and great buildings.
Despina And their stores are lovely. New words
wJ,os-11-0 else, other 1tUQaxuAw you're welcome, it's a
Something sweet?
o uv6Qw1toi; man, person pleasure, don't mention it, not
Ero I've got a nice sweet. You, children, do you want (some)? ro Bt)µu name of newspaper at all
Maria I don't, Aunt. o b(oxos record 'tO 1tEQL1t'tEQO kiosk
Andreas I want (some), Aunt. Your sweets are lovely. 11 bQuxµri drachma rtl]yuivw I go, I'm going
Ero Thanks for the compliment, Andreas. You, Nikos? Do you want buo,:uxws unfortunately n:oao how much?
coffee or ouzo? ro bWQO present to n:ouAO~EQ pullover
Nikos Not ouzo, now. A coffee. Eixom twenty ,:u Qima change
Ero You, Despina? Do you want tea? Exa,:6 hundred ,:o a1tiQrn match
Despina Yes, a (cup of) tea. Thanks, Ero. ixrni;-11-0 sixth ,:(n:on anything
Petros Hello. d,Al]Vtxos-tJ-6 Greek 'tlll:O'tE uHo anything else
Maria Here's Uncle Petros, too. ivu(v) a, an 'tQlUV'tU thirty
ivasa, an 11 wuv,:u (hand) bag
E;lJV'tU sixty ro WlYUQO cigarette
i;t six ,:o ((JtA'tQO filter
11 E<pl]µEQ(ba newspaper ro ((JOQEµu dress
xun:vi~w I smoke
'tO XO\J'tt box n:600 xuvEL; how much is that?
µn:Qu~o bravo, well done n:oao xuvouv; how much is that?
i:o n:uxho packet oro xuM goodbye, good luck
n:uQu n:oAu very much

1 By now you will be familiar with the terms Nominative, Vocative,
Accusative, Masculine, Feminine and Neuter. In future we shall refer to
them simply as Norn., Voe., Acc., Masc., Fem., and Neut. and you will
know what we mean.
We can now study the indefinite article a(n) in the Norn. and Acc. forms
for all three genders.
Norn. ivus bfoxos a record (Masc.)
µtu 0µ1tQEAU an umbrella (Fem.)
ivu n:ouM~EQ a pullover (Neut.)
Ace: 0iAw ivuv XU(f)E, I want a coffee. (Masc.)
'Exw µm E<pl]µEQibu. I have a newspaper. (Fem.)
0iAW tvu W<ll, / want a tea. (Neut.)
The Masc. Ace. Form ivuv keeps the v only when a vowel or one of the
consonants x, n:, ,:, µn:, vr, yx follows (just like the definite article rotv),
'tl](v) - see L4, Nia).

26 I 27
Remember that the Neut. articles do not change in the Norn. or Acc. and (iv) To 1tou1..oj31:p pullover is another word of non-Greek origin which
don't forget that articles are not used in the Voe. case. The Fem. never changes: 'ta 3touMIJEQ pullovers.
indefinite article is also the same in the Norn. as in the Acc. µta. It is (b) We have already noted that Fem. nouns in -n in the Norn. sing. take
worth noting now, too, that the Greek indefinite article is the same as the the ending -ES in the plural (L3, NS). We can now note that Fem. nouns
number one: Ma611µa tva Lesson one. in ·lJ in the Norn. sing. also take the ending ·ES in the plural: 11 bQ«xµt't -
2 All'tOS o avmt'ttJQ«S This lighter Au'ttJ 11 't<JCI.V'ta This handbag or bQaxµts, 11 i<OQtJ - oc i<OQES, tJ abEQ<ptJ - or abEQqJES.
A\l'tO 'tO <pOQEµa This dress Au'ta 'ta 't<JL"fCI.Q« These cigarettes 8 Flooo i<avEt; How much is that? Flooo i<avouv; How much is that?
We have already studied au"tos-t't-6 as the pronoun this (Lessons 1 and Note that i<avw / do is the verb to use to ask about prices, but note that
2) and as an emphatic subject pronoun (Lessons 4 and 5). Now we see the verb is singular x<ivn when we ask how much for only one object (a
the same word used as an adjective with a noun following. The only packet of cigarettes) and plural when we ask about the cost of several
peculiarity to note is that the definite article o, 11, 'to etc. is kept in Greek objects-(matches and a newspaper). In English we say How much is that?
between the Ct\l'tOS·t't-6 and the noun. In English we say, of course, either in the singular in both cases.
This lighter or The lighter not the and this together. 9 'Oxt, 6EiE. No, Uncle. 0EiE from o 6dos is another example of the
Naturally, these may also be used in the Acc. case: Voe. case (Lessons 2, 3). ·
0H.w uu"to 'tov avmt'tt)Q(l l<at Ct\l'tt) 't11V 't<JUV'ta / want this lighter and 10 'Eva 3taxE'to K«QEAta A packet of Karella tva. xou"ti <J3tlQ'tll a box of
this handbag. matches Note that while we say a packet OF, a box OF, Greek just
3 Eux«Qt<J'tOJ (l'tUQ«) l'tOA\J. Thanks very much (indeed). In Lesson 5, puts the two nouns together when expressing a quantity of something.
Note 7, we saw that l'tOA\J can be used before an adjective or adverb, 11 To BiJµa is the name of a well-known Greek newspaper.
where we would use very; now we see it used alone after a verb, where 12 I:to xa.Ao. So long/Goodbye. This is a commonly used expression to
we would use a lot or very much. llaQ« l'tOA\J is a stronger, more wish someone well, when they are leaving you. Rather like: Goodbye and
emphatic form of 3tOA\J, rather like very much indeed or extremely. good luck.
Ka3tvi~EL 3tOA\J. She smokes a lot. Ka3tVl~Et 3tCI.Q« 3tOA\J, She smokes very 1:1 Cultural note The periptero or kiosk plays a big role in Greek life.
much indeed. These little kiosks are found at almost every street corner in Greece.
l'tOA\J WQ«ia very nice 3tCI.Q« l'tOA\J WQ«La extremely nice Some are open all night in the big cities and they sell all sorts of things,
4 Eux«Qt<J'tw, AV'tQEU. Thanks, Andreas. including: cigarettes, lighters, sweets, newspapers, ice-cream and packets
IlaQ«XaAw, 6EiE uou, You're welcome, Uncle. of coffee; many of them also have a public telephone, which you will find
We learned that 3t«Q«i<aMi> means please, but note that it can also be very convenient when you are in Greece. Note that any prices mentioned
used in reply to someone who says Thank you to you. In English we in the course are likely to have changed by the time you visit Greece.
often don't bother to reply to Thank you, but we may say You're
welcome or That's all right or Not at all.
5 yta EAA11Vti<a 't<JL'{CI.Q«for Greek cigarettes Note that EAA11Vti<os-t't-6 is
the adjective from o 'EAAtJV«S (Lesson I); the adjective, however, does Irnnalation
not require a capital letter.
6 Kt E"fOJ bEv xa3tvi~w. / don't smoke either. This sentence means I h11 presents
literally And I don't smoke; but, of course, we would express this I 111 /11•11,1· And now ... your presents from London.
negative idea using either not and. (AEv keeps the v here as x is the next 1,,. 1/iillfl This dress, this handbag, these cigarettes and this lighter are for
letter.) Ero.
7 (a) In this lesson there are more Neut. nouns of the types we have l•.'ro Oh! Thanks a lot.
studied. I 11,/11•11.,· A pullover, a record and an umbrella for Uncle Petros.
(i) Ending in -o, plural -n: I ',•(/'/I,\' Thank you very much, Andreas.
ro bwQo, "ta bciJQ« presentt s) 'to 3t«XE"to, ,:a l'tCti<E'ta packet( s) 1111//1•11,1· You're welcome, Uncle .... Ah, I want some cigarettes. I'm going
,:o a3tiQ"tO, ,:a <J3ttQ't« matchi es), ro "tatya.Qo, ,:a ,:myciQ« cigarette! s) for (some) Greek cigarettes.
ro 3tEQut'tEQo, m 3tEQL3ttEQ« kioskis) ,.,.,, //,\'
Don't you smoke, Maria?
(ii) Ending in -t, plural -uz: '1111 /11 No, Uncle, I don't smoke.
to xou"ti, ta i<ouna boxi es) I '1 I/ II I' Bravo. I don't smoke either. Unfortunately your aunt smokes a lot.
(iii) Ending in -µa, plural -µuta:
'to <pOQEµa, 't« <pOQEµam dresst es)

28 29
At the kiosk M68r11.1a &<pTa Lesson seven
Andreas A packet of Karelia Filter (cigarettes) please.
Man Here you are.
Andreas How much is that? New words
Man Twenty drachmas. Anything else?
Andreas Yes. I want a box of matches and a newspaper. The Vima. «yy>..Lxoi;-11-0 English ltEVTfVT« fifty
How much is that? (t\Jtoi-ti;-a these 1towc;-«-o which, who
Man Thirty five drachmas. llE~«iwi; certainly, of course 1toooi;-11-o how much, how many
Andreas Here's a hundred drachmas. <>L«XO<JLOL·E<;·« two hundred I sell, I'm selling
There's your change. Sixty five drachmas. <>11tA« <JE next to TO ltQll'/µ« thing
Andreas Thank you. Goodbye. ro <>oAaQw dollar 1tQonµw I prefer
Goodbye and good luck. t~<>oµoc;-11-,0 seventh 11 ooxo>..aT« chocolate
t~w «1to outside To T«µEio cash desk
r<pta seven o T«µi«i; cashier
t4l x«A>.uvnxa cosmetics, make up TETOLO<;·«-o such, similar
x«ti>i;-11-0 nice TETQ«XO<JLOL·E<;·« four hundred
11 XaQt« (post)card 11 TQ<l3tE~« bank
xomi~w I look (at) TQL«xoowt·E<;·« three hundred
rn AE1tTo minute o <p«xE>..oi; envelope
11 AtQ« pound ta \\1LAtxa haberdashery, small things,
It€ with, to odds and ends
11fo« <JE inside, in
111>.aw I speak tv« AE:JtTO just a minute
, o 11moxo,:o biscuit :rt«Q«xa>..w can I help you?
oyMvm eighty . ouyvwµ11 I'm sorry
nau> I go, I'm going

(;1) In this lesson we meet what we will call type 2 verbs. Type 2 verbs
urc easily distinguishable from type I verbs as all type I verbs are
vtressed on the final syllable of the STEM in the present tense (:rtEQLµtvw,
bouAEuw, xavw), while type 2 verbs are stressed on the first syllable of
the ENDING in the present tense (1tQonµw, 1tnw, µLAUW, µt>..aEL,
3TOUAllEL, :rtQOTLµllTE).
Some endings of type 2 verbs are different from type I verb endings. The
l'irst person singular may be either -aw or -w, while the third person
vingular is -au (instead of -u in type I verbs), and the second person
plural is ·«TE (instead of -ETE).
(h) MtA«EL µE TOY Taµiu. He's speaking to the cashier. The Greek
111Mu> / speak may be followed by the preposition µE, which usually
means with, or by <JE meaning to.

(c) Komi!;i-E u\li-t,;. Look at these. Komi!;n is another imperative or Neut. 0ilro U\lTci 't'O. <Jl'ttQT«. / want these matches.
instruction formed from xomi~ro I look at. See Lesson 2, Note 3. Remember that the adjective «llTo,;-t]-6 must be followed by the definite
(d) The verb 11:ciro (with type 2 endings) I go, I'm going is the modern article (L6, N2): u\li-E,; 't'LS xciQTE,;, U\l't'ci TU <Jl'ttQT«,
more popular form of the type 1 verb l'tTJ"(Utvro that we met in Lesson 6. 4 llooE,; 1.iQE,;; How many pounds? Floou bo1.ciQm; How-many dollars?
llciro, 1tcin are much more usual in the modern language, although We met Iloco xciVElj in Lesson 6 meaning How much is it? In fact,
l'ttJ"(Utvro, l'tlJ"(«ivu are also quite common. You need to be able to 1t6ao is the Neut. sing. form of the adjective 1toao,;-tJ-O which changes
recognise both, but we recommend you use the type 2 forms 1tciro, 1tciu. its ending according to the noun it refers to, and in the plural is
2 Masc. Norn. plural translated by how many.
A\lTOt or b\lo <pcixd.ol dvm xa.1.ot These two envelopes are nice. 5 Numbers
Here we see some typical endings for the Norn. case in the Masc. plural. (a) Exa.i-o(v), bLuxoolOl·E,;-u, 't'Ql«XO<JlOL-E,;-a., TETQO.XO<JlOl·E,;-u The
(a) The definite article is or for all Masc. nouns in the Norn. plural, Ol round number a hundred is invariable, but when another number follows,
<pcixtAol, remember it is also OL for Fem. nouns in the Norn. plural, OL vis added: txui-ov tva., EXUTov b\',o etc. The numbers 200, 300, 400 up to
jla.1.ii-c1t,;, while it is 't'« for Neut. nouns, i-a. y1.\lxci. So the article in the 900, however, vary according to the noun they refer to, like normal
Norn. looks like this: adjectives in the plural:
Masc. Fem. Neut. 't'ETQUXO<JlOL civ8Qmn:otfour hundred people, bl«xooLE,; ALQES two
Sing. o tJ ro hundred pounds, TQmxoom bo1.ciQLU three hundred dollars.
Plural OL OL 't'O. (b) The numbers 20, 30, 40 up to 90 are, like Exm:o, invariable: n:EVtJVT«
(b) All those Masc. nouns which end in -os in the Norn. sing. have the AiQE,;fifty pounds, l'tEVtJVTU bo1.ciQmfifty dollars.
ending -ot in the Norn. plural; remember that Fem. nouns ending in -u or 6 Prepositions 'E!;ro Ul'to outside, µfoa. <JE in(side), and bi11:1.o. <JE next to
-TJ in the Norn. sing. have the ending -E,; and Neut. nouns the ending -u, are further useful prepositions which take the Acc. case. Remember that
-ur, or -µuT« in the Norn. plural. So we have: oE always combines with a following definite article to form <J't'o(v),
Masc. o <pcixE1.o,; the envelope OL cpcixEAOl the envelopes <J't'T)(v) or <J't'o; it may also be shortened to a' before a vowel.
0 (J)l/.0', the friend Ol (J)l/.Ol the friends 7 II«Q«xu1.w Can I help you? We already kfll'W 1t«Q«xa1.w with the
Fem. tJ 1.iQU the pound Ol AtQES the pounds meaning please and the meaning You're welcome; now note a third use
tJ ubEQ<ptJ the sister OL a.bEQcpt,; the sisters when asking a stranger what he wants, especially in shops, banks, offices
Neut. TO 1tmbi the child 't'« 1tmblci the children etc. Here we would probably say Can I help you? What can I do for
(c) Both type 1 and type 2 adjectives also have the ending -oi when you? or Yes, please?
referring to any Masc. noun in the Norn. plural; remember they have the 0 Ilow,;-u-o is a type 2 adjective with the meaning which, but it may also
ending -E,; referring to Fem. nouns in the plural and the ending -u . be used as a pronoun meaning which (one), which (ones). When used as a
referring to Neut. nouns. So we have; pronoun the Acc. Masc. sing. form has a final v. Similarly ll\l't'o,;-t]-O is
Masc. OL xa.1.ot cpcixEAOL the nice envelopes used as an adjective this/these or as a pronoun this (one) I these, and
Fem. OL a.yy1.txi,; ALQES the English pounds takes a final v in the Acc. Masc. sing., when used as a pronoun.
Neut. m ciUu l'tQciyµu't'« the other things Ilow cpcixt1.o l'tQonµcii-E; Which envelope do you prefer?
3 Fem. Acc. Plural nowv n:Qonµcii-t; Which (one) do you prefer?
Koti-ci;'t'E U\l't'ES n,; xciQi-E,;. Look at these postcards. IlQonµw ll\l't'O i-o cpcixdo. I prefer this envelope.
Here we see some typical endings for the Fem. plural in the Acc. case. IlQonµw (l\l't'OV, J prefer this one.
(a) The definite article for all Fem. Nouns in the Acc. plural is n,;; I:\lyvwµT). J' m sorry. BEjla.iro,;. Of course. 'Eva. AEl'tTO, Just a
remember that for Neut. nouns it is i-a. (we shall shortly meet the article minute. These are three useful expressions when you want to excuse
for Masc. nouns in the Acc. plural). So we now know the following for yourself, or affirm something emphatically or ask someone to wait a
the article in the Ace: moment.
Sing. Plural UI uyy1.Lxt,; 1.iQE,; English pounds The type I adjective a.yy1.Lxo,;-t1-6 like
Fem. 't'tJ(V) n,; EAAtJVLxo,;-t]-O does not require a capital letter.
Neut. ro 't'U It Cultural note The nearest equivalent to the Greek \j)LAlXci shop is the
(b) Fem. nouns and adjectives have the same endings -E,; in the Ace .. English haberdasher's. They do not, however, correspond exactly.
plural as in the Norn. plural; remember that Neut. nouns and adjectives 'l't1.Lxci means small, fine things and the shop is rather like a shop
have the ending -u in both the Norn. and the Acc. plural. So we have: version of the periptero or kiosk, with a greater variety of things for sale.
Fem. «lli-t,; n,; xciQTE,;. I want these cards. ·

Translation Ma8r11.1a OXTW Lesson eight
At the bank
Despina My husband is going into the bank. I'm outside the bank and I'm
waiting. Nikos is inside the bank and he's speaking to the cashier. New words
«XQt~oc;-t}-O expensive µou (to) me
At the cash desk mttvavi:, mto opposite, facing oybooc;-1)-0 eighth
Cashier Can I help you, please? a:rco'\jlE tonight oµwc; however
Nikos I've got English pounds and dollars and I want drachmas. «Qfow I please OX'tW eight
Cashier Certainly. How many pounds have you got? ymti because ro :rc«Qci0uQO window
Nikos I've got three hundred and fifty. yuni; why? aac; (to) you
Cashier And how many dollars have you got? 1:!;mQEttxoc;-t}-O excellent o aEQ~t'tOQoc; waiter
Nikos Two hundred and eighty ... No ... I'm sorry. EU'tUXW<; fortunately auxvci often
I've got four hundred and eighty. To tU'tQElO surgery lJ m~EQV« tavern, restaurant
These are the dollars and these are the pounds. xa0«Qoc;-t}-O clean 'tfoaEQtc; four
Cashier Just a minute ... Here are your drachmas. xa1,.wµtvoc;-l)-O invited 'touc; the
Nikos Thank you xaµui some, any 'to 'tQwtE~t table
xav£Va some, any 'tQEtc; three
The haberdashery o xa'ta.Aoyoc; menu u1tciQXEL there is, it exists
cl XtJ:rcoc; garden u:rcciQxouv there are
Maria I'm in a small store next to the house. The store sells (all sorts of) xov,:ci aE close to, near 'to qi«ylJ'tO food, meal
little things, that is, chocolates, biscuits, postcards, cigarettes, 1,.(yoc;-TJ·O little, few
cosmetics and other such things. ~tt}:rcwc; I wonder if, perhaps µou/aac; «QfoEL I/you like
µou/aac; aQfoouv I/you like
Maria Have you got any postcards?
Assistant Certainly. Look at these (here).
Which ones do you prefer?
Maria I'd like these two. Notes
Assistant What else?
Maria A big envelope.
(a) (AEv) u:rcciQXEt There is tn't) (AEV) u1tciQxouv There are tn't) The
Assistant These two envelopes are nice.
verb u:rcciQXW means literally/ exist, but used in the third person it
Which one do you prefer?
normally corresponds exactly to our use of there is or there are: like
Maria I prefer this one (here).
El'.µm it is used with the Norn. case.
Y:rcciQXEt µm xdt} 'tll~EQVU, There's a good tavern.
Y1tciQxouv buo 'tQU:TCE~m. There are two tables.
(b) :rcciµE we go or we are going This is the first person plural form of
the verb :rcciw. The ending for the first person plural of type 2 verbs is
-o:µE (instead of -ouue for type 1 verbs).
(c) Mou UQfoEt 'to qiaYlJ'tO. I like food. Mou aQfoouv or 'tU~EQVEc;. I
like taverns.
The verb UQEOOJ literally means/ please, but note how it is used as the
exact equivalent of the English verb to like, with the subject 'and object
reversed. We say I like food while a Greek says something like Food is
pleasing to me. Similarly you like it is aac; UQEOEl /it is pleasing to you), I
like them is µou UQfoouv (they are pleasing to me) and you like them is
,roe; «Qfoouv (they are pleasing to you). This needs a little practice, but

34 35
Similarly, Mou «Qfoouv or 't<ljlEQVEc;. Taverns please me. You will notice
you'll soon get used to the idea. Mou (to) me and oa; (to) you are object
that quite often Greek and English word order differ; although there are
pronouns here which, you will note, are placed before the verb in Greek:
some strict rules, like putting the object pronoun before the verb, in
we 'LI be studying these further shortly.
general, word order is much less rigid in Greek than in English, so you
2 Y3tciQXEl xaµtci xaAtJ 'tajlEQva; Are there any good taverns/ls there any
don't have to worry too much about it since often the exact position of
good tavern? ~Ev U3tciQXEl xaµtci. There aren't any (at a/l)!There isn't.
subject, object or adverb is not important. Hence Mou «Qfoouv or
Y3tciQXEl xavEva 'tQ<l3tE~t; Are there any tables/ls there a table?
't<ljlEQVES or Ot 't<ljlEQVES µou «Qfoouv are both correct. Also 'ExnE
~Ev U3tciQXH xavha. There aren't any (at ally/There isn't.
wtyciQ«; or TotyciQa E)CetE;
Kavha;, xaµtci, xavtva is a special adjective or pronoun consisting of
Note also KaAci Eivm Ebro. It's nice here. KaAa is given emphasis in the
the stem xa- or xav- combined with the indefinite article tva;, µm, tva.
Its use is similar to our any or some, but there is an important difference: initial position in the sentence.
5 Mou UQEOEL 'to q>«Yl!'tO. I like food. Mou aQfoouv ot 't<l(JEQVES, 1 like
as the indefinite article tva; has no plural xavtva;-xaµtci can only be
taverns. Note that Greek uses the definite article before a noun when
used in the sing., while we use some and any frequently in the· plural. So
referring to all the objects of that species in general, while English uses
Greek says something like Is there some good tavern?, which in normal
the noun without an article: OL 't«(JEQVE; taverns, 'to q>ayri'tofood and
English would be Are there any good taverns?, and the answer in Greek
similarly Mou «Qfon ro ouioxt. I like whisky. ·
is something like There isn't one while we would say There aren't any.
6 H A911va txn Aiyou; X1J3tOUCj, Athens has few gardens. We met Aiyo
In negative sentences xaviva;, xo.µtci, xo.vtva have the sense of a
meaning a little as an invariable word followed by an adjective (LS, N7),
strongly emphatic negative like the English at all.
now we see Aiyo;-ri-o as a type I adjective followed by a noun.
3 Masc. Acc. Plural
Naturally as an adjective its ending changes according to the noun
µE 'tou; q>iAou; µa.; with our friends
referred to, and in the plural its meaning is (a)few. Compare these: Etvru
H A911va E)CEl Aiyou; x111tou;. Athens has few gardens.
Aiyo XOUQ«<Jµtvri. She's a little tired. 1,.(ya 3tmbtci a few children: Aiyot
Here we see some typical endings for the Masc. Acc. plural case.
civ9QW3tOt a Jew people: Uy£; oµ3tQEAECj a Jew umbrellas: 0EAW Aiyo
(a) The definite article 'tou; is used for all Masc. nouns in the Acc.
ouioxt. / want a little whisky.
plural; remember that Fem. nouns use ns and Neut. nouns 'ta in the
Acc. plural. So the plural forms of the definite article are: 7 Prepositions
(a) Kov,:ci <JE close to and aithavu a3to opposite or facing are two more
Masc. Fem. Neut.
useful prepositions followed by the Acc. case.
Nom. ot or 't<l
(b) x«AE<Jµtvo; aito invited by Note that here English uses by while
Ace. 'tou; 'tt; ,:a
Greek uses «3to which usually translates the English from.
(b) Masc. nouns, but only those with the ending -o; in the Norn. sing.,
U . Numbers
have the ending -ou; in the Acc. plural; remember that Fem. nouns have
'tQnc; three, 'tEa<JEQt;Jour We learned in the last lesson that the
the ending -E; and Neut. nouns -c, So plural nouns look like this:
numbers 200, 300, 400 etc. change their endings, like plural adjectives;
Masc. Fem. Neut.
we also know that tva;-µta-tva as the numeral one or as the indefinite
Nom. or q>iAot ot AtQE; 'ta aitina
article varies in form. Most other numbers are invariable buo, TCEV'tE, E;t,
Acc. 'tou; q>iAou; ns AiQE; 't<l o3ti'tta
etc, but there is a little complication with the numbers 3 and 4 as they
(c) Adjectives, both type l and type 2, have the ending -ou; when
have two forms. You will remember µci0riµa 'tQia lesson three and
referring to any Masc. noun in the Acc. plural; remember that the Fem.
~,ci0riµa 't£<J<JEQ« lesson four; 'tQi« and 'tEOOEQ« are the Neut. forms
ending is -E; and the Neut. ending -n for adjectives in the Acc. plural. So
which are used as simple numerals cioxri<Jll 'tQi« exercise (number) three
we have in the plural:
and when referring to Neut. nouns, while 'tQELc; and 'tE<J<JEQtc; are the
Masc. Fem. Neut.
forms used when numbers of Masc. or Fem. nouns in the plural are
Norn. ot xaAoi q>tAOL or ayyAtxE; AiQES 't<l µLXQci aitina
't(l µLXQ(l 03tt'tl(l
referred to. 'tQELC,: aoXl)<JEt; three exercises: Eiµa<J'tE 'tE<JOEQt; avOQroitoL.
Acc. 'tou; xru.ou; q>iwu; u; ayyAtxE; AiQE;
We are four persons. 'tQELS AlQECj three pounds: 'Exw 'tQEtc; q>tAou;. I have
4 Word order
1/tree friends. 'tEOOEQ« boA«Qmfour dollars.
:Ea; «QEOEL au'to; Does this one please you? (Do you like this one?)
II l'to.'ti; Why? rta'ti µ' «QEOEL ... Because I like ... Note that ,ytad both
We have already noted that object pronouns like aa; (to) you and µou
asks and answers a question. Said with a rising intonation, it asks the
(to) me go before the verb in Greek; it is worth noting also that the
question why? but, said with a falling intonation, it answers the question
subject of the sentence may sometimes come after the verb, as does au'to
with the meaning because. Listen again to your recording and imitate the
in this case. This is a complete reversal of the English word order where
rising and falling tone of voice.
the subject normally comes before the verb and the object after.
10 O)(t axQt(}l] not expensive Remember that i>EV not is only used with a Ma8r11,1a EVVIO Lesson nine
verb and that, therefore, O)(t is used with the meaning not before an
11 Eutuxwr;fortunately, buawxwr; unfortunately It is worth noting that the
prefixes EU· and buo- are quite common in Greek; EU· always suggests New words
something good, while bua- always suggests something bad, so Eutuxooi; tJ UQ)(ll start, beginning tJ 1tatat« potato
means literally of good luck and buatuxoo,; of bad luck. bt'\j)aro I thirst, I'm thirsty 1tnvaro I hunger, I'm hungry
12 The word µ11;cwi; is useful when you want to ask a question very politely,
evatoi;•f)•O ninth 1tQtV «n:6 before
rather like our J wonder if or perhaps: tJ QEto(va retsina (resinated wine)
EVVta nine
M111tw,; un:aQ)(Et xavi:va tQU1tE~t; / wonder if you've got a table? to Qll~t rice
r.totµo,;-t')-o ready
M111twi; aar; uefon auto; Perhaps you would like this one? tJ a«Aat« salad
11 tbfo idea
M111tw,; E)(ETE totyaeo; I wonder if you have a cigarette (to spare)? oou to you
tO XOt()j'[QUJ,O chicken
13 Cultural note The taverna or tavern is one of the most pleasant and aroota that's right
to XQUOt wine
justifiably famous things about Greece. Taverns are usually small rather aroatoi;-11-0 right, correct
11 µEQibu portion
informal restaurants where one can eat and drink relatively cheaply. In µEta then, afterwards Ot tt')YUVT)tE,; n:atatEi; chips
summer one may often sit under the stars or perhaps at lunch time in the to µoO)(O.Qt veal, beef, calf tt')"fUVtJtO,;·l]·O fried
shade of a large fig tree. Greeks are fond of eating out and, especially in µoO)(aQt1JLo,;-a-o veal, beef to )(t«1tobt octopus
summer, many taverns are packed from about 8.30 p.m. until well after
11 µ1ttQU beer xroetanxor;-t')-o country, rustic
midnight. 11 µ,t:Qt~M,a chop tVtJto,;-11-6 roast
To VEQO water
sr.QW I know btv Etvm r.wt!Ewt btv dvm; isn't
11 1t«Q«yyEAta order it? don't you? isn't that right? etc.
A good tavern
Nikos Petros, are there any good taverns near your house? Notes
Petros Near our house there aren't any. There is one, however, opposite my
surgery. 1 Verbs
Nikos ls it good? . (a) 31:EtVO.(l), 31:EtVa,;, 1tEtVaEt, 1tElVO.µE, 1tEtVatE, 31:ElVO.VE
Petros Very good, very clean and not expensive. Their food is excellent. Ero Here you can see a type 2 verb in all its forms in the present tense.
and .f often go there with our friends. Remember the stress always falls on the first syllable of the ending.
Study the endings now:
In the tavern Sing. Plural
-<ii -aw -aµE
Minas Tonight I'm invited to a tavern for a meal by the Kazakos family. I -ai; -atE
like taverns. Why? Because I like good food. Fortunately this tavern -an -aVE
has a garden, because unfortunately Athens has few gardens. I'm The first person sing. is something of a problem. Some verbs e.g. 1taro
going into the tavern. must have the ending -aro, some e.g. 1tQottµoo usually have -oo but may
also use -aw, while others e.g. µtAaro usually use -aw
but may also have
Waiter Can I help you? How many are you? Three? -w. We recommend the -aro ending, but if we list a verb with the -w
Maria No, there are four of us (lit. we're four). ending, this means that it is heard usually with the -oo ending and not so
Nikos I wonder if there are any tables (free) near the window? often with the -aro. Verbs listed with -aro are usually heard with that
Waiter Certainly, there are two. Does this one here suit you? ending but, unless we indicate otherwise e.g. n:aro, the -m ending is also
Nikos Yes, it's fine here. (We'd like) a menu, please. correct e.g. µ11,.aw or µtAoo,
Waiter Here you are. (b) Ilnvatt; Are you hungry? Ta 1tmb1a bt\l)avE. The children are
thirsty. Note the verbs n:uvaw and bt\l)aro carefully, because I hunger
and I thirst would be very strange in English, as in normal modern

38 39
speech we use I am and the adjectives hungry and thirsty to express the 8 Cultural notes
idea given by the Greek verbs. The taverna
2 µm µrrtu~o1.a µoaxaQfom a veal chop .Remember that type 2 (a) The customary way of ordering and eating a meal in a Greek tavern is
adjectives like µoaxaQiawi; take the ending -a in the Fem. Norn. and not the same as in an English restaurant, and, naturally, there are many
Acc. sing. Note also that the word order is odd here. Occasionally, for typical Greek dishes (of which we can mention only a few here) not
emphasis, an adjective can be placed after a noun in Greek, instead of normally found in other countries. Before the main course it is usual to
before it, which is the usual order in both English and Greek. Here there order a few portions of things like chips, salad, chopped octopus, cheese
is emphasis on µoaxaQiom to show that a veal chop, not for example a etc. These are placed in the centre of the table so that everyone can help
pork chop, is required. As we said in the last lesson, word order is less him or herself to some of whatever he or she fancies. These are starters
rigid in Greek than in English. or appetisers; the main course of chicken, meat or fish will follow later.
3 'E)(ELS xaµta xa1.11 tbfo; Have you got any good ideas? Remember the (b) The )(WQtllttXl] oaMta or country salad is typically Greek. It is a
Greek sing. xaµta (tbfo) is normally rendered by the plural in English splendid mixture of tomatoes, cucumber, onion, cheese, olives and
any (ideas) (LS, N2). peppers - all soaked in olive oil.
4 bvo µEQtb1:i; l(tmtobt two portions of octopus (c) With the meal Greeks may drink cold bottled beer, but wine is more
bvo t11yav111€i; 3tataui; two (portions) of chips typical. Retsina is the cheapest Greek table wine, still often locally made
When you order dishes at a Greek tavern it is usual to ask for portions of and drawn from a wooden barrel. It has a very distinct flavour because
things. Note, however, that the word µEQtba portion is often omitted e.g. of the pine tree resin in it, which accounts for its name. The taste may
as tr. bvo 3tataui;. Remember that in expressions like this Greek has no need some acquiring, but most foreigners enjoy it immensely after they
equivalent to the~nglish of (ha xovti 03ttQta a box of matches Lesson have been in Greece for a while.
5 Indirect object pronouns
uou CXQE<JEL it is pleasing to me (I like), oou CXQE<JEt it is pleasing to you
(you like) The uou, oou, oai; are indirect object pronouns here. We Translation
talked about direct objects in Lesson 4, Note 1. The indirect object is
usually distinguishable from the direct object in English because we can The order
put to or for in front of it; for example, in He gave the book to me, the Despina Are you hungry, children?
book is the direct object, directly affected by the action, and to me is the Minas I'm not very hungry.
indirect object, only indirectly affected by the action. Maria Minas isn't hungry, but I'm very hungry.
As we said in LS, Nie object pronouns go before the verb in Greek, not Nikos Have you got any good ideas, Maria?
after as in English. So far, then, we know three indirect object pronouns: Maria Yes. Two portions of octopus, two big country salads and two (plates
uou (to) me, oou /to) you (sing.), aai; /to) you (plural). . of) chips for a start. You like octopus, Mum, don't you?
6 ~ apfot:t to )(t«itoot, 6t:v dvm ttcn; You like octopus, don't you?· tiespina Yes, my child.
The question phrase Ot:v t:ivm i:tat or tta, OEv dvm, literally isn't it?, may be Nikos Do you like country (style) salad, Mr. Londos?
put at the end of a statement to ask for the listener's confirmation of the Minas Yes, I like it very much.
statement. English uses phrases like don't you? haven't they? can't he? etc. in Maria To follow/Then, I want chicken with rice. (What about) you, Dad?
these cases.
Nikos I prefer a veal chop. (What about) you, Mr. Londos?
7 l:wata. (That's) right. l:woi:a is in fact an adverb here formed from the Maria I know what Minas wants. Roast beef. Isn't that right?
Neut. plural form of the adjective awo'toi;-11-0 correct. Note that this is Minas (That's) right. And you, Mrs. Kazakou?
similar to f.!Qaia Great or That's great, which is also an adverb (used I trspina I'd like a veal chop too.
where we would use an adjective) and formed from the Neut. plural of Nikos Good. Where's the waiter? Waiter! (lit. Please!)
the adjective WQ«ioi;-a-o beautiful. Woiter I'm ready. Before your order, wine or beer?
In fact many adverbs are formed directly from the Neut. plural of type I ·Maria Wine. We'd like some retsina.
or 2 adjectives; we already know <J\J)(Vll often from <J\J)(VOS-11-ofrequent, /l1•.1·pina And water, please, because the children are thirsty.
and xa1.a well from xaMs-11-0 good.

40 41
Ma8r11,1a ~&Ka Lesson ten Masc. Fem.
Nom. o natEQ<li; o cpi1.oi; t) µl]tEQ« tJ cpiAtJ
Voe. n«ttQa cpiu µl]tEQa cpi1.ri
Ace. rov ,ratEQa to cpi1.o TtJ µl]tEQa ttJ cpi1.ri
New words Gen. toll ,ratEQa toll cpiAOu TtJi; µt)tEQai; tt)i; cpi1.rii;
Note that while Masc. nouns in -ai; in the Norn. drop the -i; in the Voe.,
ta ayy1.tx<i English (language) µai; (to) us Acc. and Gen., Fem. nouns in -a or -ri in the Norn., Voe. and Acc.
axoµa also, in addition to µna1.xovt balcony conversely add an -i; in the Gen.
ta yaHixa French (language) to µno.vw bathroom 3 Km t) E1.£Vt) tivm cpot'tl]tQW. Eleni is a student too. Remember this
ta yt~µavtx6. German (language) ta voµtx6. law (studies) use of xm (xt) in the sense of too (L4, N6).
to yQacptio desk 11 vtotJAMa cupboard 4 ta voµtx6. /aw, ta ayy1.tx6. English, ta ya1.1.tx6. French, ta ytQµavtx<i
YQ«cpw I write n<ivw <1£ on German It's worth noting that nouns denoting fields of study like legal
btxa ten noHoi-Ei;-6. many, a lot of studies and especially languages and other school subjects generally are
bexatoi;-tJ-0 tenth tJ ,ro1.u8Qova armchair very often formed from the Neut. plural of adjectives and end in -tx6..
to bcoµ<itw room a,rouM:~w I study Further examples: µa0t)µanx6. mathematics and d.ltJVlXO. Greek. Note
t1.tv8£Qoi;-11-o free, single O'.)Ctttx<i relatively that words referring to languages do not begin with a capital Jetter in
E;tJnvoi;-11-0 clever, intelligent tJ tl]AtOQa<JtJ television Greek.
11 xaQEXA« chair to tQant~<ixt little table 5 to tQC!.Ttt~<ixt the little table Remember that the ending -6.xt can be
tJ xontla girl tJ cpottl]tQta student (fem.) added to many nouns to give the idea of (nice) little to the usual meaning:
tJ xotJ~iva kitchen tJ cpcotoyQacpia photograph to tQanE~t, to tQ«Tt£~6.xt (LS, N13).
ro XQ£ bed to xo1. hall 6 II<ivco <1£ on is another preposition followed by the Acc. case.
to 1.ou1.ovbt flower 7 H µta tivm tou Mt)VU xm tJ O.J.At) toll ,ratEQa µotJ. One is of Minas and
µaxQt6. (ano) far (from) 1.iyo µaXQlU not very far the other is of my father. Note the use of the definite article tJ before
µm here. In English we don't normally use the article before one; we just
say One is ... the other is ...
Notes 8 no1.1.6. 1.otJ1.ovbta a lot of flowers The adjectives ,rol1.oi, 1io1.1.ti;,
1 µai; <lQfoouv we like them Just as uou «Qfott means I like it or it is
,ro1.1.a, many or a lot of should not be confused with the invariable
adverb ,ro1.v very. The adjective changes its ending, like a normal type I
pleasing to me (LS, Nie), so µai; aQfootJv means they are pleasing to us
or we like them. We can, therefore, now note another indirect object or 2 adjective in the plural according to the noun referred to: ,rolloi
pronoun µai; (to) us which is placed before the verb just like the others avOQconot many people, ,ro1.1.ti; ytJV«ixti; a lot of women, 1toH6. nmbt6.
we met µou /to) me, oou (to) you and aai; /to) you. a lot of children, µ£ ,ro1.1,.ot'.,i; cptAOlli; with a lot of friends.
2 Genitive case 9 1.iyo µaxQt<i not too far Obviously this expression is literally little far
We have studied the Norn., Voe. and Acc. cases in the previouslessons in the sense of quite far but not very far.
and now we come to the Genitive case, the fourth and, you will be · 10 µE µta cpilt) µou with one of my friends Compare this with t) cptl.tJ µotJ
relieved to know, last Greek case you will have to study. The Genitive, my friend and tivm fPlAtJ µotJ she's a friend of mine (L2, NS).
which we shall refer to as Gen. for short, is usually expressed in English 11 Numbers
You now know all the cardinal numbers (that is I, 2, 3 etc.) up to ten.
by of or 's: to bwµ 'ttJio EUvtti; Eleni's room, tJ cpcotoyQacpia toll
abtQcpot'., 'ttJio the photo of her brother. Remember that one, three and four are variable while all the others are
invariable. All the ordinal numbers (that is:first, second, third etc.) are
(a) The definite article in the Gen. sing. is tou before a Masc. noun and
always used like normal adjectives and vary their endings according to
tt)i; before a Fem. noun: tou abtQcpov, tt)i; E1.evtJi;.
the noun referred to: µaOriµa n£µrttofifth lesson, tJ neµrttt) XOQtJ the
(b) Nouns Masc. nouns in -ai; in the Norn. sing. e.g. o na"ttQai; simply
fifth daughter. If you wish to revise all the numbers you have met, you
drop the -i; in the Gen. sing. - tou Mttv<i, toll natEQa, so the Gen. has
can study them all together in Appendix F, Section 1 at the back of this
the same form as the Voe. and Ace . However Masc. nouns in -oi; in the
book, but don't try to learn all the numbers you haven't met yet, as well;
Norn. sing. e.g. o cpi1.oi;, o abtQcpoi; change their ending tovou in the
Gen. sing. tou cpiMtJ, toll abtQcpot'., and Fem. nouns in -a or -tJ in the we'll learn these later step by step.
Norn. sing. e.g. tJ µt)tEQ«, tJ E1.tvri simply add -i;.in the Gen. sing. So we I 2 Pronunciation
have: £AtU9EQtJ Note that Ell is pronounced ef here.

Translation M68ru.1a tvT&Ka Lesson eleven
My flat
Maria I live in a small flat, not too far from the University. I live with a
friend of mine, Eleni Dimitriou. Eleni is a student too. She is New words
studying law. She's a very clever girl. She speaks and writes English, O.X(.)t~w,; exactly, just to QO.VtE~ou meeting, appointment
French and German. She's not married. She's single. My room has £0vtxo,;-11-o national 'l <JtO.<Jl] (bus) stop
got a bed, a cupboard, a desk, a little table beside the bed, an eiv' (dvm) is <J\JYXWQW (3) I forgive, excuse
armchair and two chairs. On my desk there are two photos. One is of ti.a. come on <J\Jµqiwvo,;-ri-o agreed
Minas and the other (is) of my father. In Eleni's room there is a EµitQo,; go ahead, hello to I:t'.lvto.yµo. Constitution (Square)
television (set). On the television Eleni has the photograph of her Evbixm:o,;-ri-o eleventh to to.zubQoµEio post office
brother and of her mother. The flat also has a small hall, a kitchen tvnxo. eleven to tl]AEqiwvriµo. phone call
and a bathroom. The bathroom is small but fortunately the kitchen is to AEW(flO(.)ElO bus to tl]AEqiwvo telephone
relatively big. On our balcony we have a lot of flowers, because we µ£ me 'l WQO. hour, time, o'clock
like flowers. µu10,;-11-o half w,; to, as far as, up to
µlt(.)O<Jtn <JE in front of
to vovµEQO number xnvEt <JtO.<Jl] it stops
1t£Qi1tou about ME <J\JYX,W(.)EltE Excuse me
itEQVnw I pass Ilo<Jl] WQO. (xnvn); How long
:rtE(.)VO.W mto I pass through (does it take)?
1t0to,;-o.-o who, which Tt WQO. (eivm): What time (is it)?

1 Verbs
(a) ME <JUYXWQEitE. Excuse me. The verb <J\JYXWQW I forgive or I
excuse is a new type of verb, a type 3 verb. There are not so very many
type 3 verbs, but they differ from type 2 verbs in that, although they are
stressed on the first syllable of the ending (like type 2 verbs), the endings
are in fact all the same as type I verbs, except for the second person
plural which is -£it£ instead of -ere. So you already know all the endings
for type 3 verbs.
Singular Plural
c:ruy:xw(.)w I forgive c:ruyx.w(.)O\JµE we forgive
c:ruy:xw(.)Ei,; you forgive c:ruy:xwQEltE you forgive
c:ruyX,WQ£i he/she/it forgives auyx.WQOUV they forgive
All the type 3 verbs will be listed in the lesson vocabularies with a figure
3 alongside them so that you can instantly distinguish them from type 2
ME is the direct object pronoun me. It goes before the verb like the other
object pronouns we met. Don't confuse the direct object pronoun ue
(pronounced like met without the t, not like me or May) with the indirect
object pronoun µou (L9, NS). The expression ME c:ruyx.wQEil'E which
literally means You forgive me, is very commonly used, just like our own
Excuse me, when approaching someone for information.

(b) n:EQVUfl an:6 ro I:uv,;ayµa it passes through Syntagma Il£QV«iro I only when it has the idea of up to or as far as: mt6 tva roi; itEVt£/rom
pass is another type 2 verb; note that it can be followed by the one to five. Ilaµ£ roi; t'l ota<n]. We are going as far as the bus stop.
preposition an:6 in the sense of by, through. Note also that an:6 can be shortened to an:' before a word beginning with
(c) Note that the verb x<ivw is often used idiomatically. We already know a vowel.
Tt xnvn£; How are you? or How do you do? Now we have Ilou xavu 10 I:uµcpwvotAgreed, 0.K., All right The adjective CJUµcprovoi;-11-0 is
U'taa11; Where does it stop? (literally Where does it make (a) stop) and often used in the Norn. plural form like this to give the idea (we are)
Il6<n] WQa xav£t; How long does it take? agreed.
(d) 'E)..a, Afon:otva. Hey there, Despina' 'E)..a is another imperative 11 µm xuQia a lady Note that 'l xuQia can be used to refer politely to an
meaning literally Come or Come on, but it may be used when calling or unknown lady as well as before a name meaning Mrs.: ri xuQia Ka~nxou
greeting someone. Mrs. Kazakou.
2 Hoioc-«-o can be used as a pronoun or an adjective and note that it can 12 Cultural note Syntagma is the name of one of the main squares and
be used to refer to persons or things with the meaning who or which: landmarks in the centre of Athens. As ,;o I:uvtayµa means constitution,
Ilot0i; Eivm oro t111.tcprovo; Who's speaking? Floro AE<O(j)OQEio n:o:Et ... ; it is usually called Constitution Square in English. It is next to the
Which bus goes ... ? (L7, NS). Parliament buildings and the National Garden o E9vtxoi; Krinoi;.
3 Floooc-n-o can also be used as a pronoun or as an adjective. Ir the sing.
it has the meaning how much and in the plural how many: Hooo xci:vu;
How much is it? Il6a£i; AlQE<;; How many pounds? Ilo<n] WQa; How Translation
long? (How much time?) (L7, N4). A phone call
4 Time
(a) Note that 'l wQa hour has four different translations in equivalent Ero Hello?
English expressions: Ti WQa (Eivm); What time (is it)? 'Ev-r£xa 'l WQa Nikos Ero? (Is that) you?
Eleven o'clock. Ilo<n] roQa xavu; How long (does it take)? (Knvn) µun1 Ero Yes. Who's speaking?
roQa. ( ft takes) half an hour. The meaning is, however, quite clear in Nikos It's Nikos.
each case. Ero (Oh) yes, Nikos.
(b) Telling the time is quite simple in Greek; for the moment we need Nikos Is Despina there?
only note the use of the article ri before roQa where in English we say Ero Yes, she's here. Just a minute.
o'clock. We can omit 'l WQ« if we wish, just as in English we can omit Oespina Yes?
o'clock. Eivm Ecptn (ri roQa). It's seven (o'clock). Nikos Hello/Hi, there, Despina. (It's) Nikos.
(c) U'tt<; EV't£Xa at eleven, U'tt<; itEVt£ 'l WQa at five o'clock The Greek Oespina I'm ready.
equivalent of our at before a time is ani; (oe joined to the Fem. Acc. Nikos Our meeting (date) is in Syntagma Square, outside the post office,
plural article ni;). agreed?
(d) µun'l roQa half an hour The adjective µlCJoi;-11-6 half naturally varies nespina 0.K. What time?
according to the noun referred to, but note there is no Greek equivalent Nikos At eleven o'clock.
to our a, an here. Note also µtao 1.£n:T6 half a minute. Oespina What time is it now?
5 Eµn:Q6i; is a frequently used expression for answering a telephone. It's Nikos It's ten o'clock.
real meaning is something like go ahead but it is rather equivalent to our nespina 0.K. Bye.
Hello? in a questioning tone of voice when we answer the phone. Nikos Bye.
6 0 Nixoi; Eiµm. It's Nikos. Note this use, curious for us, of the first
person Eiµm I am where we use the impersonal third person It's to At the bus stop
explain who we are. l)<'spina Excuse me. Do you happen to know which bus goes to Syntagma?
7 H Afon:otva eiv' £X£i; Is Despina there? In spoken Greek Eivm is often Yes. The number two passes through Syntagma.
/\ lady
shortened to dv' before a word beginning with a vowel. I kspina Where does it stop?
8 Mrin:roi; ;EQE'tf ... ; Do you happen to know? Remember that µrin:roi; can be /\ lady It stops just in front of the National Garden.
used to ask a question very politely; Do you happen to know ... is a l>,•spina How long does the bus take (to get) from here to Syntagma?
possible English equivalent here.· /\ lady About half an hour.
9 an:' Ebw roi; ,;o I:uv,;ayµafrom here to Syntagma The preposition roi;
I >,•spin a Thank you very much.
has the meaning to here, but it is quite different from es; it translates to
;\ lady You're welcome.

46 47
Ma8111,.1 a t5Wt5£KO Lesson twelve 2 Genitive case
Evo; 'A yy1,ou of an Englishman, µta; qiiA11i; uou of a friend of mine We
studied the definite article in the Gen. sing. rou qiiAou and 'tllS EAivris, in
Lesson 10. Now we can look at the indefinite article in the Gen. sing: Evo; for
New words Masc. nouns and µm; for Fem. nouns. So we have:
1J Ayy,,.io. England Norn. Acc. Gen.
11 µtea day
1J Ayy1,t'.bo. English woman µtQlXOL•ES·U some, few Masc. tvo.; q>iAOS uou ho. qiiw µou EVOS cpiAou uou
1J O.Q:(o.tOAoyio. archeology uovo only Fem. µto. qiiAl] uou µto. qiiAl] µou µto.; qiiAl]S uou
o ythovo.; neighbour :itEVTo.xoawt-t;-o. five hundred 3 Masc. nouns
c'> then <JO.QUVTO. forty (a) Singular We have met quite a lot of Masc. nouns with the endings
bwbtxo. twelve aoflo.eos-11-0 serious -oi; or -as in the Norn. sing. o cpt'.1,0;, o «VTQo.i;; now we can see a third
bwbexo.1:0;-11-0 twelfth TO <JTOUV'ttO studio type of Masc. noun with the ending -11; in the Norn. sing. o xo.811Yl1TlJS,
tl}boµ11vm seventy 11 <JUVUVTl]<Jll meeting o qiotTl]TtJS, These present no new problems as they are in fact exactly
11 EUubo. Greece TO <J:(E()W plan like Masc. nouns in -o.; except that in all the sing. endings we substitute
11 E;o.MQ(J)tl cousin 10 'tl]At<p<0vo phone number
1J for a. So the three Masc. types are:
o ~wyeucpo; painter Tl]AEcpwvw (3) I phone Norn. Voe. Acc. Gen.
11µ we were o qiotTl]'tlJS student ( -oc) 0 qJtAOS Q)tAE TO qiiAo TOU qit'.wu
11µouv I was ;t:9t; yesterday (-as) 0 '/ElTOva; yEiTOVO. TO yEiTova tO\J ytt'.Tova
l)< you were ( ·1JS) 0 qJOlTl]tlJS Q)OlT1JTl) TO qJottl]'tl) TOU qJOlTl]'tl)
l)<Jouv you were a:ito bw over here; this is (b) Plural So far we have studied only one type of Masc. noun in the
l)to.V he/she/it was, they were (introduction) plural (those with Norn. sing. in -oc). Now we can look at the other two
o xo.91JY1JTlJS professor, teacher XO.Al]µEQCl good morning types (those with Norn. sing. in -as and -11;) as well. Both of these types
xaTaAal}o.t'.vw I understand have the ending ·ES in the Norn., Voe. and Acc. plural. So we have:
to µiAAov future Norn. Voe. Acc.
(-os) Ol qJlAOl Q)lAOl TOUS qJlAOUS
(-o.;) Ol '/Et'tOVES '/EttOVES TOUS '/EtTOVES
( ·1JS) or Q)ot'tl]t£S qJOlTl]T£S rnu; qJOLtl]t£S
Notes Note that type 1 and 2 adjectives always take the Masc. endings of
Nouns in -os when referring to a Masc. noun (even if the Masc. noun is
1 Verbs of a different type). So we have:
(a) In this lesson you can see all the forms of the past tense of Eiµm I am; Norn. Acc.
study them all together: Masc. (-os) µEQlXOL (j)lAOl µE µtQlXOUS qiiwu;
Singular Plural Masc. ( ·1JS) µEQtxof (j)OLTl]T£S µE µEQlxou; (j)OLT1JTES
11µouv / was l)µO.<JTO.V we were Masc. ( -as) µEQlXOl yEtTOVES µE µEQlXOUS '/EltOVES
l)<JOUV you were 1100.0,:0.v you were Fem. µEQlX£S q>LAES µt µEQlXES (j)LAES
l)TO.V he/she/it was t]tav they were All these endings and noun types are of course confusing at first, but you
Note that the third person has the same form 11mv in the sing. and will soon master them.
plural, just as the present tense has tivm in the sing. and plural. 4 Efµ' tbw /' m here Eiµm can be shortened to Eiµ' in speech before
(b) Tl]Atqiwvw is another type 3 verb like <JUY:t:WQW (Ll l) which takes the vowels.
endings: -w, -Eis, -ei, -ouue, -erre, -oev. So also, by the way, are 5 MEQtxoi-ti;-u some, a few is a type 1 adjective which, in this sense, is
JtO.QO.XO.AW please (literally I beg) and EU:(O.QlO'tlO thank you (literally I only used in the plural. It suggests an undefined smallish number of, like
thank). our some, before a plural word. It is similar to Aiym-Ei;-a except that this
(c) Dou µtvnt; Where are you staying? Note that µtvw is used where suggests a very small number of. Compare:
we would use the verb stay as well as where we would use the verb live 'Exw µEQtxoui; qii1.ou; cn:riv Ayy1.ia. I've got some friends in England.
(L4). 'Exw (1to1.u) 1.iyoui; cpiAoui;. I've got (very) few friends.
(d) AvtQfo, mu Eiam; Andreas, is it you? Note the use of tfom are
you? where in English we use the impersonal is it? (Lll, N6).

48 49
6 Ari:o bw 11 yuvaixa µou. This is my wife (over here). Ari:o Ebro means D. Markopoulos My wife doesn't speak Greek. She understands a little of
literally from here or over here, but in this situation we are more likely to course. Do you speak English, Mrs. Kazakou?
say simply: This is my wife. Despina Yes, I speak a little.
7 0 xaOtJy11-r11; translates both professor and teacher. In English we are Nikos Where are you staying?
rather mean with the title professor, reserving it for a few top positions at D. Markopoulos We're staying at my cousin's house in Pangrati.
universities; the Greeks are more generous, and all university and Nikos We're neighbours, then. Have you got a telephone?
secondary school teachers are lumped together with the title xa6t)y11-rt;. D. Markopou/os Yes. Our phone (number) is 76-548.
8 KaAf)µtQa is obviously a very common greeting meaning literally good
day, but it is normally not used after lunchtime and therefore On the phone
corresponds to our good morning.
9 (a) o 'EH11va; the Greek, 11 E1..Af)Viba the Greek (woman), 11 AyyAiba Andreas Yes?
the English (woman) Note that the ending -iba on a noun showing Maria Andreas, is that you?
nationality, denotes a female of that nationality. Andreas Yes, Maria. Good morning. Where are you phoning from?
(b) o (j)Ol"t11"ttJS (male) student, 11 q,ottl}tQLa (female) student Quite a lot Maria From a friend's house. Where were you yesterday?
of nouns in ·"ttJS denoting people change the ending to ·"tQta to show that Andreas Yesterday I was with a friend in the studio of an English painter.
a female person is referred to. Also: o xa01')YfJ"ttJS, 11 xaOlJYl}"tQta. His wife is English, too. Where were you?
10 To µillov future is an archaic Neut. noun type. It is exceptional; just Maria We were at a taverna with Minas. It was great.
note that the Norn. Voe. and Acc. sing. end in -ov, and don't worry Andreas Serious chap, Minas. Have you got plans for the future?
about it. Maria Bye, Andreas.
11 Numbers
(a) Note that phone numbers in Greek are not given one digit at a time as
in English, but in pairs of digits. If there is an odd number of digits, the
last three are normally given together as hundreds: 76-548, but sometimes
the first three digits are _given as hundreds and the rest in pairs: 765-48.
Nowadays almost all Athenian numbers comprise seven digits and are
split up in the way just explained.
(b) 76 1::jlboµ11v-ra t;t Numbers from twenty one to ninety nine (except
round numbers 20, 30, 40 etc.) are two separate words just as in English.
(c) 548 ri:Ev-raxoata aaQ«iv-ra ox-rw Note that while we say five hundred
and forty eight the Greek number has no equivalent to our and.
(d) 3wbExa twelve The numbers 11-19 are all one word.

A meeting in the street.
D. Markopoulos Mr. Kazakos?
Nikos Oh! How are you, Mr. Markopoulos? Are you in Greece now?
D. Markopoulos Yes, for a few days only. I'm here with some students from
London. (This is) my wife, Margaret.
Nikos How do you do? And here is my wife. Despina, Mr. Markopo-
ulos is a professor of Archeology in England.
I kspi11r1 How do you do?
/). Al,11/,11111111/11,,· Pleased to meet you, Mrs. Kazakou.
I >,•,111/1111 l)o you speak Greek, Mrs. Markopoulou?

~II 51
MCJ81UJO lS&KOTpia Lesson thirteen 2 Genitive case
(a) o tbtOXTt]TtJS TO\J 1;ax«Q01tA«CJ'tE&Oll the owner of the pastry shop Now
we can study the Gen. sing. for Neut. nouns. This is easy because, as you can
see, the Neut. article is eoo, the same as the Masc. article in the Gen. sing.,
New words and Neut. nouns in -o have the ending -ou in the Gen. sing. just like Masc.
CJt]µEQ« today nouns in -oc;. So the Gen. sing. looks like this:
ayoQci1;m I buy
to «YOQL boy To CJtveµci cinema Nam. Gen.
tJ «At]6EL« truth ri auµn:TmCJtJ coincidence Masc. o 6£ioc; rou 6Eiou
f}Un:m I see tJ TnO:Qt'fl Wednesday o n:atEQ«c; tou n:atEQ«
to f}Qcibu evening ttJS to her 0 (l)OlttJTt]S tO\J (l)Olt't]'tt]
ta yu«Atci glasses tOV him
Mxatoi; tQitoc; thirteenth tOTE then, so Fem. tJ 6ei'.a t'flS 6ei'.ac;
bex«TQi« thirteen rou to him tJ «bE~(l)t) t'tJS abEQ(l)tJS
tJ bouAnci job, work touc; them
exeivoc;-ri-o that/those To ¢uyeio fridge Neut. to n:axho tou n:axEtO\J
To 1;«x«Qon:A«<n:Eio pastry shop (b) AQECJO\JV noH, TO\J «bEQ<pOtl uou, My brother likes them a lot.
o tblOXttJ't'tJS owner, proprietor «At]6EL« tell me, say Aev «QECJO\JV :rtOA\l t'tJS µt]TEQ«c; uou. My mother doesn't like them much.
xavEv«c; someone/anyone e; isn't that so? Study these carefully: the literal meanings are they are very pleasing to
A.Em I say, call, tell lfoµe; Shall we go? my brother, they aren't very pleasing to my mother. Note that in Greek
vo<n:tµoc;-ri-o good-looking, tasty Owe; an:o bm; What are you doing the Gen. case is used for the indirect object of the sentence.
to n:ciQn party here? 3 Object pronouns
tJ n:a:o,:a pastry, cake Ilwc; rov Uve; What's his name? (a) We can now complete our picture of indirect object pronouns (L9, NS
n:EQtµtvm I expect Tr Ate;; What do you say? and LlO, Nl). Here they are all together:
TO l:cif}f}ato Saturday Tl OlJµ1tTmat1! What a coincidence! Singular Plural
µou µtAO:Et he speaks to me µac; µLAO:EL he speaks to us
CJ£ you
cou µLAO:Et he speaks to you CJ«c; µLAciEt he speaks to you
tou µ,Met he speaks to him/it Tove; µLAa:Et he speaks to them
TtJS µLAO:Et he speaks to her/it
Note that TO\J can be used in place of Masc. or Neut. nouns and so may
mean either to him or to it, while to\Jc; can refer to Masc., Fem. or Neut.
nouns, just as them can refer to men, women or things in English.
(b) We met the direct object pronoun µe in Lesson 11 (Nln) in µE
1 Verbs . IJ\J"/XmQEitE excuse me. Here are some more direct object pronouns: CJ£
(a) The verb A.Em/ call, say, tell is of a special type in which the final :rtEQtµtvm / expect you, eov A.EVE they call him and To\Jc; f}Unuc; you see
vowel of the stem often combines with the endings to produce a verb just them. Remember that direct and indirect object pronouns go before the
like n:am except that the a is changed to E throughout: verb. Note that TOV and touc; are just like the Masc. Acc. definite article
1t0:(I) n:<iµE AE(I) AEµE and that touc; may be a direct or an indirect obiect,
n:ac; n:au AES A.ET£ 4 IlEQtµEVEti; xavEv«v; Are you waiting for someone? Remember x«vtvac;,
1t(l£l 1tUVE AEEl A.EVE x«µtci (L8, N2). Note that these can refer to persons as well as to things and
(b) Ilwc; tOV A.EVE; Tov A.EVE AVTQE«, may be translated as somebody, anybody, someone, anyone: BU:rteti;
Note this use of A.Em in the third person plural to ask and give someone's x«vEv«v; Do you see anybody? Note also that when used as a pronoun
name. The literal meaning is How do they call him? They call him x«vtv«v has a final v in the Masc. Acc. sing.
Andreas. but we might say What's he called? He's called Andreas. Note 6 o tl'tJAOS the tall one Note that Greek can use an adjective with an
also T, Ate;; What do you say? in the sense of What do you think of my article as if it were a noun; here we would say either the· tall one or the
idea? tall man. We know from the ending -oc; that a male is referred to, tJ
(c) Note that n:ciµE is useful for making suggestions. You will often hear ll'tJAtJ would refer to a tallfemale.
it in the sense of Shall we go? or Let's go.

.~2 53
6 ExEiv11 11 xuei« that lady The adjective or pronoun ExEivoi;-11-0 is just Eleni Is your brother the tall one with glasses?
like au'toi;-11-0 (L6, N2); it translates that/those and is used to indicate Maria That's the owner of the pastry shop. My brother's next to my mother
persons or objects at some distance from the speaker. Note again that the and he's talking to her. My mother's buying him pastries.
article is kept between exEivoi; or «U'tO<; and the noun: etU'tll 11 xugia this Eleni They like sweet things, eh?
lady, EXEtVfl 11 xugi« that lady, «U'tU 't« yAuxa these sweets, EXEtva 'tet Maria My mother doesn't much, but my brother likes them a lot.
yAux<i those sweets. Eleni Good-looking boy, your brother. Tell me, what's his name? (lit. what
7 Expressions do they call him?)
(a) Tr O'\Jµit'tWO'lJ! What a coincidence! and Ilwi; mto bw What are you Maria His name's Andreas. (lit. They call him Andreas.) Do you fancy him?
doing here? are two useful expressions to show surprise. Ilwi; cero bw is Eleni Hmm ... Yes.
obviously idiomatic and makes no sense translated word for word. Maria (Well) then, I'll expect you at my uncle and aunt's party on Saturday.
(b) voanµo ayOQt good-looking boy Noonµoi;-11-0 means good-looking What day is it today?
or attractive when referring to a person, but it means tasty when applied Eleni Today's Wednesday.
to food: µta voonµ11 µitgt,oAa a tasty chop. Maria What do you say? Shall we go to some cinema this evening? Or have
(c) AA1'16u« is actually a noun meaning truth, but it is commonly used in you got some work (to do)?
the sense of say or go on, tell me. Eleni No, I haven't. What time and where?
8 'to I:<if}f}et'to on Saturday Eivm Tn<iQ't11 it's Wednesday Now we Maria At eight o'clock. Outside the Plaza cinema.
come to the days of the week. One thing to note immediately is that
where we use a preposition on Saturday, Greek has no preposition but
uses the Acc. definite article instead 'to I:af}f}a'to. As Wednesday is the
fourth day of the week (if we take Sunday as the first) the Greek word 11
Tn«Q'tl] formed from the adjective 'tE't«Q'toi;-11-0 means the fourth (day);
it has the Fem. form (naturally) as it refers to 11 µEQ« day which is Fem.
All the days of the week are Fem. in Greek except 'to I:<if}f}«'to which, as
we see, is Neut.
9 To ltUQn, to atveµ<i are two more Neut. nouns of non-Greek origin
which are invariable.
10 e; isn't that so? The questioning e; at the end of a sentence is an
informal way of asking for confirmation of what you have said.
11 Cultural note The ,«x«QOltA«<JTEio has no exact equivalent in English.
It is a cross between a cake shop, a bar and a snack bar and you will find
one or more in every district of every town in Greece. You can buy
things to take away or sit at a table, either inside or outside on the
pavement, and consume things on the premises. It sells large varieties of
cakes, biscuits and pastries as well as ice-cream, coffee and soft or
alcoholic drinks.

Outside the pastry shop
Eleni Hello, Maria.
Maria Hi, Eleni. What a coincidence! What are you doing here?
Eleni I've got a few jobs (to do) here in Pangrati. (What about) you? Are
you waiting for somebody?
Maria Yes, my mother and my brother. They're in the pastry shop. Do you
see them? My mother is that lady in front of the refrigerator.

Direct Indirect
Ma8r11Ja iS&KaTtaaepa Lesson fourteen
ue f.JU:rtEl he sees me uou µ he speaks to me
OE f.JU:itu he sees you UO\J µtA«El he speaks to you
'tOV flAE:rtEl he sees him 'tO\J µtA«El he speaks to him
New words he sees her 'tfl<; µtA«El he speaks to her
'tfl f.JU:rtEl
0 <lQt9µoc; number tJ :rtEA<inuua client, customer ro flAE:it:El he sees it 'tO\J µtAClEl he speaks to it
o/tJ f.JotJ96<; assistant, helper (female) µac; fl.1.i:rtEt he sees us µa<; µtA<iu he speaks to us
btxa'tfo<JEQ<X fourteen :rtEQO<J'tE pass, go in ua<; fl.1.i:rtu he sees you <JU<; µtAUEl he speaks to you
bixarnc; 'tE't<lQ'tO<; fourteenth 'to :rtQof.JAtJµa problem 'toll<; f.JU:rtu he sees them (Masc.) 'tO\J<; µLAUEl he speaks to them
tJ bttu9\JV<Jt) address tJ UElQ« turn 'tt<; f.J.1.i:itt:t he sees them (Fern.)
tl;axouwt-Ec;-a six hundred 'tO (Jl)Xron Ii ver 't(l f.J>.titEl he sees them (Neut.)
tl;u<i~w I examine ro it
EVEVt)V't(l ninety tJ q,oQ6: time, occasion (a) Note that µa<;, aa<; and 'toll<; can be direct or indirect objects, just like
'to E:rtrovvµo surname o wovo<; year us, you and them in English. However, 'toll<; as a direct object can only
tJ tJAtxia age refer to Masc. people or things ('tt<; refers to Fem., and 't<l to Neut.
xmvouQw<;-a-o new :rtouwv wovrov how old nouns), while 'tOll<; as an indirect object can refer to any of the three
tJ x«Q'tEA<X card, form :rtQW'ta :it:Qro'ta first of all genders, just like our them. So speaking of 'tOU<; «V'tQE<; we say 'tov<;
J.10:AAOv rather uac; EUX<XQt<J'tro thank you f.J>.rnro and 'tOll<; µ1>.<iw, speaking of 'tt<; yvvaixE<; we say n<; flArnw and
'to µtxQo ovou« first name ym <J'ta9Eiu hold on 'toll<; µt>.aw, and speaking of m :rtmbtci we say 'ta f.J>.rnw and 'toll<; µt.1.<iw.
'tO ovouc name (b) Note that the Masc. direct object pronoun is always 'tov, while the Fe·m.
is 'tfl or, if the following word begins with x, :rt, 't, µit, v't, yx, (or a vowel) 'ttJV:
'ttJ fl>.E:rtW but 'tflV tl;nu;w.
(c) You will have noticed that some of these words µa<;, ua<;, 'tou, 'tt)<;
Notes etc. can be used for various functions (articles, possessives, direct and
indirect objects). You may think this will lead to confusion, but, in fact,
1 Genitive plural the surrounding words always make the meaning clear and you will soon
(a) The plural of the Gen. case is the easiest part of the Greek case get used to the various uses. Note that, in writing, when confusion could
system. The ending is always -erv (with omega) for all types of nouns and arise the pronouns are given a stress to distinguish them from the
adjectives, except for a few invariables. The article is ALWAYS 'tWV. possessives:
(b) Floorov XQOVrov ElatE; Eiµm <JUQllV't<l 'tQlWV ••. <J<lQUV'tU 'tEU<JClQWV 0 yta'tQO<; ua<; :itE{)tµEvEt, The doctor is waiting for you. BUT 0
XQOvrov Note how Greek uses the Gen. case to ask how old and to give yt«'t{)O<; oa<; :itEQLJ.lEVEt. Your doctor is waiting. In speaking the meaning
ages. Literally we have here Of how many years are you? I'm offorty is clear because yta'tQO<; aa<; is said as a single word when the possessive
three ... forty four years. Hoeeov is the Gen. plural of nouo<;-tJ·O how is involved.
many, and XQOvrov is the Gen. plural of o XQOVO<; year. 3 Names
TQtrov and 'tEOO«QWV are the Gen. forms of 'tQia, 'tE<JOEQa; note that the (a) Oro<; ElVlll 'tO ovoµ<i ua<;; What's your name? Note the use of Oro<;
stress often moves to a different syllable in the Gen. plural. here where we would say What not How.
(c) We now know all the possible forms of the numbers 'tQia and (b) MtX{)O ovoµa literally little name, refers to first or christian names as
'tEUUE()U. opposed to 'to t:nrovuµo the surname.
Masc. and Fem. Neut. 4 To µtXQO aa<; ovoµa Up to now we have always seen the possessives
Nom. Voe. Ace. 'tQEt<;, 'tEO<JEQt<; 'tQia, 'tE<JOE{)« µou, oov, 'tO\J etc. following a noun, but note that when an adjective
Gen. 'tQtrov, n:uo«QWV 'tQl(!)V, 'tE<J<JO{)WV comes before the noun, the possessive may be, and usually is, placed
2 Object pronouns T11v t:l;na;u. He's examining her. I:a<; :itE{)tµEVEt. after the adjective 'to xmvOUQtO µov <l\J'tOXLVtJ'tO my new car.
He's expecting you. To ey,w.
I have it. Now let's look at all the direct 5 Expressions
object pronouns together, and compare them with indirect object (a) :rtQro'ta :rtQro'tafirst of allThis expression is formed from the Neut.
pronouns: plural of itQro'to<;-11-ofirst, and the repetition shows emphasis at the very

(b) IIE(?ll<TtE literally pass is another imperative. It is commonly used to Ma81'11,IO ~&KOTT£VT& Lesson fifteen
invite someone to go or come in or out of somewhere or to pass by
something; we may say go in, come in or go ahead according to the
(c) :Em; Ell'l(O.(?UJ'tW is quite literally/ thank you and is a more formal, New words
very polite version of the simple £\J'l(O.(?Urtw. We can do the same thing O.(?XEtOt;-l)-0 quite a lot to xefoi; meat
with ao.i; :rto.eo.xo.Mi> literally/ beg you. o.-ueto tomorrow to i..o.xo.vtxo vegetable
(d) fto. m:aOti:tE is a common expression in spoken Greek equivalent to flrflmo. of course µo.yEt(?E\JW I cook
our hold on or wait. Note that in this expression yw. is stressed in (li..faro I look at, see µEOo.uew the day after tomorrow
pronunciation. 11 l'ai..i..tba Frenchwoman o ;ivoi; foreigner, stranger
(e) Ko. is the normal abbreviation for Kueio.. 0 fEeµavoi; German (male) oi..oi;-tJ-0 all
6 OµT)(?Oll 97 In Greek the number of the house usually follows the o yvrom:oi; acquaintance, friend o:rtwi; as
street name with the word for street omitted. bExo.:rtrvu fifteen OQtaµtvoi;-ri-o certain, a number of
brxo.toi; :rtrµn;toi; fifteenth :rtai..toi;-u-o old, longstanding
o 011µoawyenqioi; journalist, reporter tJ naeo.axE\Jq Friday
rnnto. afterwards, then tJ IIEµ:rttl] Thursday
Translation E:rtt<JtJt; also, in addition, too to :rtoto drink
uotµa~ro I prepare tJ <n:tyµT) moment
At the surgery
tJ eroumoie preparation to tatyo.euxt cigarette
Mrs. Nikolaou is in Petros' surgery because she has problems with her liver. hat so, thus 11 t\JQO:rttta cheese pie
Now she's waiting her turn. She's a new client, that is Petros is examining her to ~E\J'{ll(?t couple, pair \J<n:EQU afterwards, then
for the first time. 11 ho.i..(ba Italian (female) to qiui..i..o leaf, pastry
xo.Oaei~ro I clean
Assistant Mrs. Nikolaou? tJ xa011y11tem teacher, professor a:rto t<i>QO. from now, in advance
Mrs. Nikolaou Yes. 0 xai..rnµrvoi; guest CX\Jtl] ttJ <n:tyµl] at the moment
Assistant Go in, please. The doctor is waiting for you. 0 xatai..oyoi; list xuvro tvo. itU(?tl I'm having a party

Petros Come in, madam. Sit down.

Mrs. Nikolaou Thank you, doctor.
Petros And first of all (I'll make out) your card. What's your surname?
Mrs. Nikolaou Nikolaou. Notes
Petros What's your first name?
Mrs. Nikolaou Aspasia. 1 Verbs
Petros Address? (a) In this lesson we can study the future tense. This is formed by using
Mrs. Nikolaou We live in Nea Elvetia, 97 Omirou Street. the word Oo. and the subjunctive form of the verb. There is no equivalent
Petros Yes. How old are you? to the subjunctive in English, but the Greek subjunctive is not difficult to
Mrs. Nikolaou Pardon? learn, as the endings are the same as in the present tense. It is only the
Petros Your age, please. stem which may be different in the subjunctive.
Mrs. Nikolaou Ah, yes! Hmm ... I'm forty three years old ... or rather ... forty The commonest stem change for the subjunctive is -~w to -aw:
four. o.yoeu~w Oa ayoeaaw I'll buy Ou ayoenaouµE we'll buy.
Petros Have you got a telephone? Or rather, hold on a minute. I've got notµu~ro Oo. u0tµuani; you'll prepare Ou u0tµaan£you'/l prepare.
it. Your number is 67-625. Right? xo.:rtvt~ro Oa xa:rtvtaEt she' II smoke Ou xa:rtviaouv they'll smoke.
Mrs. Nikolaou That's it. Another common stem change is -rum to -tljlro:
µuyEt(?E\Jffi Oa µo.yEt(?E\jlro I' Ii cook.
boui..£\JW Oo. boui..tljlw /' II work.

A few very common verbs do not change at all in the subjunctive, so both male and female, but in these cases the Masc. form is used.), while
there is nothing new to learn. 'ttc; refers to the Fem. ttc; haAibec;. If referring to ta mubm, we could
tiµm 9a Eiµm I'll be 11:avro 9a 11:0:vro I'll make/do. say ta gEQO\JµE,
txro 9a txro I' II have 1tilro 9a naro I'II go. It is also worth noting that all the third person direct object pronouns,
:itEQtµEVco 9a :itEQLµEVw /' ll wait. both sing. and plural, are exactly the same as the Acc. of the definite
We will meet other uses of the subjunctive but, for the moment, you article, except that the Masc. sing. rov never loses its v as a pronoun,
need only remember to use it with 6a. Notice, however, that the Greek while the article may be ro or tov.
future with 6a is used not only where we use will or shall but in many 5 Strong pronouns
places where we would use the present tense or going to to refer to the (a) The Acc. case of our old friend atJ'toc;-l)-o can also be used as an
future. To :Ecijljlm:o 8a ,ccivo\JV tva :itciQtt. On Saturday they are having object pronoun in the third person. This is known as the strong form of
a party. AuQlO 8a ,ca6«Qiaovµ£ 'to <mitt. Tomorrow we're going to clean the object pronoun, as opposed to the weak form in N4 above. The
the house, or we'll clean the house. strong object pronoun is used for emphasis or contrast, just like the
(b) Note, by the way, that in Greek we say ,cavco EV« :itciQtt literally I'm subject pronouns tyro, £(JU, {l\Jtoc; (L4, N9): AtJ'tEc; ttc; SEQO\JµE, We know
making a party, while in English we normally say I'm holding or having them or, literally, These (women) we know them. Similarly, we can say
a party. Avtl)V mv SEQW aHci U\J'tov btv 'tOV SEQCO. I know her but I don't know
2 Genitive case him. Note this strange use of both the strong and weak pronouns
(a) Sing. ot botJA£t£c; £Voe; amnou the housework, literally, the jobs of a together, to refer to the same person.
house We learned in Lesson 13 (N2) that the ending for Neut. nouns in (b) A very important use of the strong form of the object pronoun is after
-o is -ou in the Gen. Sing. The only new point to note here is that Neut. a preposition (the weak forms cannot be used here): µEQtxoi a,i:' av'touc;
Nouns in -r in the Norn. sing. take the ending -ou as well but are always some of them or literally some from these; similarly we can say yta
stressed on the final syllable in the Gen. sing. -wu, no matter where the U\Jtov for him, ue «lltl) with her, an' auta from them. The strong Masc.
stress may be in the Norn. to a:ii:itt but 'tO\J <J:itt'tt0u: to l<QE~an, 'tO\J sing. pronoun avtov always keeps its v, just like the weak form 'tov.
l<QE~anou: to ,i:mbt, 'tO\J :ii:mbLou. Neut. nouns in -o in the N om. do not 0 Nationalities
change their stress 'tO ~«X«QOTtAU<J'ttio, 'tO\J ~ax«Q01tAUat£iotJ, and to It is worth studying the adjectives and nouns we have met referring to
YQ«<pdo, 'tO\J YQ«<ptiov. countries, nationalities and languages, as they usually follow an easily
Note also that the indefinite article, like the definite article, is the same recognisable pattern:
for Masc. as for Neut. nouns in the Gen. sing. £voe; (Lesson 12, Note 2). country person (Masc.) person (Fem.) language adjective
(b) Plural rov ,catawyo 'tCOV XUAE<JµEvwv the list of guests 11 AyyAia o 'AyyAoc; 11 AyyW,a ayy.1,,t,ca ayy.1,,Lxoc;-l)-0
<ptAOt tcov nmbuuv friends of the children IJ foAAl(l o faHoc; 11 raiiiba yaAAll<ll YUAAlXoc;-l)-0
We met the Gen. plural in Lesson 14 (Nl). These are further examples. IJ rEQµavia O rtQµavoc; 11 reQµaviba. YEQµ«VlX(l YEQµ«vtxoc;-l)-0
Remember that the Gen. plural ending is always -cov. 11 EAA<iba o 'E.1,,.1, 11vac; 11 EAAl]Viba EAAl]Vtxa EAAl]Vt,coc;-11-0
We can note again that Neut. nouns in -t change their stress to the final Many other countries and nationalities follow the same pattern. Here
syllable in the Gen. plural -uuv just as they do in the Gen. sing.: 'to only 11 EAAaba and o 'EH11vac; do not exactly follow the pattern of the
Ttatbt, 'tCOV 1tmbtWV! ro <J1tt'tt, 'tCOV <J:itl'tt(l)V but O l<UAE<JµEvoc;, 'tWV others. Remember the uses of these: Eiµm 'Ayy.1,,oc; (Ayy.1,,iba). MEVro
xairnµtvrov. IJ'tlJV Ayy.1,,ia. MLA(X(J) ayyAtxa. 'Exro ayyAtl<O {l\JtOl<tVl]'tO,
3 Days 11 ntµ:it'tl] Thursday 11 na11aa,cw11 Friday ntµ:it't1] comes from 'I Words to note
ntµ:ii:toc;-11-ofifth as it is the fifth day of the week counting from Sunday. (u) H xa811ytJtQta. is the Fem. form of o xa9lJY1J'tlJS teacher or professor
Remember that we use the article before the day to :Ea~~a'to, 'tl]V on the same pattern as o <pOl'tl]ttJc;, 11 <pottl)'t!]ta.
IlEµ:ittl] to render the idea of on Saturday, on Thursday. Note that, in (h) We met tiµm xaieaµtvos I'm invited in Lesson 8 where
fact, the article is in the Acc. case here; not apparent with the Neut. to xiiArnµtvoc;-11-0 was used as an adjective. In this lesson we see that o
I:a~~ato, but apparent with all the other days which are Fem. 'tl]V Ml(AWµEVoc; can also be used as a noun the guest, literally the invited
Tn<iQ't11, 'tl]V na11 aa,cw 11• 11/1('.

4 Direct object pronouns (c) We have met f}tf}aiwc; meaning of course; now we meet f}tf}ma with
You will remember from Lesson 14 (N2a) that the direct object pronoun I he same meaning. You can use whichever you like; f}tf}airoc; is the ok1L11
for them varies according to whether the noun referred to is Masc., Fem. lnnn of the same word.
or Neut. An 'tovc; sEQOllµE, We don't know them. Ttc; SEQO\Jµ£. We know (d) A1.1,cnoc;-l)-o is a useful word to express not a very large 1111111h,•r/n1111111111
them. TotJc; here refers to tovc; xa.1, rnµtvovc; the guests (The guests are (11/), but quite a large number/amount (of) probably best tran1,lntcd hy 111111,, ,1

so r,I

M681')1,10 6£KO&~I Lesson sixteen
lot or quite a few. 0Qtaµtvot·ES·« is commonly used in the sense ofa certain
(number of).
(e) ffoAtos-6.-o means old but not in the sense of an old man. It can
mean ancient referring to things, or longstanding referring to friends: New words
;tUAtol yvwa,:o( old friends, na1.iu ltOAl] old town.
(f) 'EltEttu and u<rtEQU both mean afterwards or then. Although in 6.bnos-u-o empty 11 µoumxri music
spoken Greek µnu (L9) is often used instead, vai:EQ« and tnEttu are uxoµu still, yet on that
considered more grammatically correct as they are adverbs, while µnu axouw I listen to, hear ;tO.QW (subjunctive) from :itUlQVW
aµfowr; at once, immediately, I take, have
after is strictly a preposition.
right away 11 mu,:t}.u dish, large plate
av if 11 ;tOQ'toxu1.ubu orangeade
ro uvmjJuxnxo soft drink :,YOU that
ltQXE'tO. q U i te :itQEl'tEtmust, have to
Translation 01 yovE(r; parents QWOtxor;-11-0 Russian
Preparations for a party hexui:~t sixteen 11 'tQU:itE~UQlU dining room
bcxui:or; i:xi:or; sixteenth 'tQW<o I eat
Despina On Saturday, that is the day after tomorrow, Ero and Petros are
having a party at their house. Quite a few of the guests are old h1aPu~w I read, study <fJO.W (subjunctive) from 'tQWW I eat
acquaintances from Thessaloniki. Also there will be some friends of hox1J10.~w I try, sample (f)Uyw (subjunctive) from qJEvyw
the children (there) too. At the moment I'm looking at the list of 1•).1hE come (on) I leave, go away
guests. Some of them are foreigners: an English couple, two Italian lh1os-u-o same l(UtQoµm 1 am pleased

(girls), a French teacher and a German journalist. Of course, we 11 xu1.110~1tv11 (female) guest
don't know them all. But we know the German journalist. We know >WA11mtEQU good evening xuµui <fJOQU sometimes
him from London. We know the Italians too. We know them from 1d1v1,1 I do, make µtux«QU fine, splendidly
Thessaloniki. Today is Thursday. Ero and I are at home and we are 11,inou somewhere nws ,:a :i'tUS" ue ; How do you
10 11, ,,,,.,•ho.xi. meatball get on with ?
preparing certain things now in advance. So today we'll buy the
meat and the vegetables for the salads. Ero will cook the meat and 1w>.).ov probably
I'll prepare pastry for cheese pie. Afterwards we'll smoke a
cigarette with our coffee. On Friday, that is tomorrow, we 'II clean
the house. There are quite a lot of jobs (to do) in the house, as you
know. Then I'll buy some more things and Ero will go for drinks
and sweets.
111) 1,1 lhi~ lesson we meet more subjunctives, some following 6a and
!111111111~ the future tense, and others following another little word vu,
~l1111• 11t111 I his vu is quite different from the vu we met before vu o
111 ,uoi;: there'» Petros, We have already mentioned that Modern Greek
Ii 1, 1111 1•q1tiv:1k111 or 011r infinitive (to he, 10 eat etc.) so vu is used to get
1111111111It,• p111hk111. 'I'hi« vu is used with the subjunctive after verbs like
111 >,,, I 11·11111 111111 11'(1/,m'• 11111st or it is 11ec1's.1·r11y where English uses the
111ll11l11v1•, w1tlt 111 withou: 111: (-){,).1,1 v,i X(tvhl. I 111r111t to do. 0(1£:i'tEl vu
1111 ,,..,, .. ,._. l'ri11 11111,1'/ 1, 1•. llu/trr,,, v« 11/viu. //1• 11111st be, The literal
111, 11111111111 1111,~,· I~ ,011wlhi1111 ltl..1· / 11•1111/ 1/,111 / i/11, II is 11('1"(',l',\'(//",Y 1h01
11 II \ / I / \ 11/1 ,. //,11 I It,. I I
tltj It I ~ ~illd\ 11111111' Ill W Nttl1j111H tiVl'N Ill 11th 11·,•HIII S111111• 1111' l\'fllillll
111,.I 1111pi\ , 1111111•1 tit, 111111! ~ 111 1111 ~11111111111 ono11h11~M Oo
ll;J ,,,,/11111111 / /I 1111,/1• ho/llfl,,t111 Ou ho/llfW0111 I' II 111•, hwjl11tc,, 011
buxj}aaro J' I/ read; others are irregular and need to be learned by heart as conjunctions to connect two parts of a sentence and they may all
you meet them: tQroro - 0« <f)«ro I'll eat, <f)EUyro - 0a <f)Uyro I'll leave, represent that in English. Experience will soon tell you where to use
axouro - 0a axouaro I'll listen, n:«iQvro - 0a n:«Qro I'll take. each; for the moment remember that 6rAro and 7tQE3t£l use vu, that xou is
(c) The verb itQEitEl is very common and very unusual in that it can only used when what follows tells you the reason/ the reason I am pleased is
be used in the third person singvand is impersonal; that is its subject - that I see you). and that Ott is used when what follows is the object of
cannot be a person (or an object). It shows obligation or certainty and the verb / l see what? - that the dish is empty).
translates into our must or have to, but its literal meaning is more like it 4 The adjective QWOlxoi;-11-0 is just like the other adjectives of nationality
is necessary or it is certain. It is followed by vu with the subjunctive and we noted in LlS, N6, so we can also form fl Pwaia Russia, o Proaoi; and
the ending of the following verb shows who or what is obliged to carry T( Pwaiba Russian (male and female) and QOlOLX« Russian (language).
out the action of the verb. 5 The noun or yonii; parents is a special archaic type of noun. Just learn it
IlQE.7t£t vu boxtµaaro. I must try, It is necessary that I try. as it stands for the moment ot yovdi;, rnui; yovt:ii;.
IlQEn:£t ve boxtµ«at:ti;. You must try, It is necessary that you try. 6 Word order Remember that word order is very flexible in Greek. The
IlQE.7t£t vu boxlµ«an. He/She/It must try, It is necessary that he/she/it sentence Kan:ou aTT(V tQ«n:E~«Qi« .7tQE3t£t va £ivm could also be
tries. expressed IlQE:Tt£t va dvm xan:ou otT(V TQ«itE~«Qia.
IlQE3t£t va boxlµ«oouµE. We must try, It is necessary that we try. 7 Words and expressions to note
IlQEffEl vu boxlµ«anE. You must try, It is necessary that you try. (a) Ilroi; ta ;mi; µE ... ; How do you get on with ... ? literally, How do you
IlQEffEl vu boxlµ«aouv. They must try, It is necessary that they try. go with ... ?
(d) The verb tQroro I eat, subjunctive 1paco, is another unusual verb; it is (b) µm "/.«Q«fine, splendidly (literally a joy)
like naro and Afro (L13, Nl); compare these: (c) xaµlci <f)OQ« sometimes (sing. in Greek, but plural in English)
1tCl(l) n:ClµE tQroro tQroµ£ <f)<lOl cp«µE (d) To :1,:01:0 can mean any kind of drink, but often refers particularly to
n:a<; itCltE tQroi; tQroT£ qiai; <f)«t£ alcoholic drinks, while 1:0 avmjJuxuxo can refer only to non-alcoholic
7t<l£t .7tClVE tQ(J)Et tQ(J)VE <f)<l£t <f)ClVE drinks such as lemonade.
(e) xa(Qoµm I am pleased The ending -oµm is quite different from (e) Axoµa can be translated by yet in negative sentences, Axoµa bi:v
anything we have met so far; it is in fact a passive ending. We shall be ;tew. I don't know yet. ln LlO we saw it used in the sense of in
studying the passive later, so don't bother with it now. addition. Note the word order again.
(f) Note the meaning and use of these verbs: (f) 0a <f)Uyw a.n:o 1:0 an:in. I'll leave the house. Note that <f)EUYW is
Aoxtµa~ro means I try in the sense of I sample (to see if it is good). followed by ruto, while in English leave needs no preposition.
Ai:aj}ci~ro means I read but is often used in the sense of I study. (g) AQxna is the adverb formed from the Neut. plural of the adjective
Axouro can mean either I listen /to) or I hear. «QXEtoi;-11-0, and means quite, sufficiently.
(g) EA«tE come is the plural form of the imperative EA« (Lll, Nld). (h) MaUov can be used in the sense of probably as well as of rather
2 Genitive case (L14).
T( n:tatEACl tfl<; QO)OlXT(<; a«Aatai; the dish of Russian salad
ta itQOl}At'lµata i-rov µlXQroV bmµEQlOµ«trov the problems of small flats
(a) The Gen. plural of Neut. nouns in -µa is -µa,:rov; note again that the
stress moves forward to the penultimate syllable in the Gen. plural: rmnslation
Acc. ta bmµEQtaµata Gen. rerv btaµEQlOµ«trov \I lhc party
(b) All adjectives have the Gen. plural ending -rov; type I adjectives have
the Gen. sing. ending ·rt<; in the Fem. and -ou in the Masc. and Neut. ,, /(/
Good evening. Come in. I'm very pleased to see you.
Type 2 adjectives differ only in the Gen. Fem. where the ending is -ai;. It ,.-11,•1/ So am I, Mrs. Yiannopoulou.
might be a good idea now to turn to Appendix B and revise type I and 2 I 111 Come in. Sit down.
adjectives in all their forms. It is worth noting also that the stress on I i'llnt Thank you. How is the doctor?
adjectives always falls on the same syllable in all the cases both sing. and I I (I I !e's fine. He must be somewhere in the dining room. Will you have a
plural. drink or would you prefer a soft drink?
3 XaiQoµm n:ou oai; j}Arnro. I am pleased to see you ( that I see you). I' ill1i,\ I /\n orangeade, if there is any.
BUnro ott fl n:mtEA« Eivm abt:la. I see that the plate is empty. /1111 Of' course. Right away.
At:v ;EQW tl 9rAro vc xavro. I don't know what I want to do (that I do).
Note that nou (without an accent), ott and vu are all used as

/,II 65
What are you eating? Ma8r11.1a 6&KO&cpTa Lesson seventeen
Maria What are you eating?
Eleni Meatballs, Russian salad and potatoes.
Maria You must try my mother's cheese pie too. It's excellent. New words
Eleni All right. I'll have some cheese pie too, because I see that the plate
of Russian salad is empty. amxaxo>.t)µevoc;-t)-0· busy, occupied veonuoc-n-o delicious, tasty
Maria There's Andreas, my brother. Andreas, (this is) Eleni. Eleni and I bExaErptu seventeen o-rav when
live together in the same flat. bexatoc; e~boµoc; seventeenth :rtQUatvoc;-1)-0 green
Andreas Ah yes! I know you quite well from my sister. You are studying tJ bimta diet tJ (J'l)l;t]tt)Ot) discussion, conversation
law, aren't you? Ebro Xat for (time) -roaoc;-t)-0 so much, so many
Eleni Yes. (What about) you? What are you going to study? Euxo1.oc;-t)-o easy eo (flQO\J"tO fruit
Andreas I don't know what I want to do yet. Tell me, how do you get on tbmitEQa especially -ro ljJ«Qt fish
with Maria? xm •.. xm both ... and
Eleni Fine. Of course, sometimes I have to study and she wants to listen xuvro bimta I'm on a diet :TtEQVU<O xa>.u I'm having a good
to music. But, you see, these are the problems of small flats. How 11 µaywvel;a mayonnaise time
do you get on with your parents? µauQOS-tJ-o black
Andreas I've got problems. Probably I'll leave home.

1 Verbs
(a) Eiµm aw a:rti'.-rt Ebro xm buo roQES, I have been in the house for two
hours now. Note that Greek uses the present tense in sentences using
expressions like for hours, for days, for months, while we use the perfect
Note also the curious idiomatic expression Ebro xm (buo roQtc;) to express
a period of time up to now; here we might also say for the last two
(b) IlEQVU<O xa>.u J' m having a good time is another useful idiomatic
expression; literally I'm passing (my time) well.
(c) Note that xot-ral;ro usually corresponds to our I look (at), but takes a
direct object, while ~U:rtro usually corresponds to our I see.
Time Eivm bexa xm µtat]. It's half past ten. Half past is expressed by
xcu µtat] in Greek; µtat] has the Fem. ending as it refers to tJ roQa,
Remember that in Greek the hour is always stated first and the minutes
uftcrwards: E(fl"t« xm µtat], :rtEV"tE xm µtat],
( 'onjunctions
I lcrc are further examples of conjunctions joining two parts of a
(11) Aett Otl :rtQE:rtEt vc xuvro bimta. He says (that) I should go on a
dlr], Remember that on is used meaning that when what follows is the
11hjcc1 of the verb (LI6, N3). So ott is used after verbs like >.Ero to tell us
11•!,nt someone says. Although the word that may be omitted from these
N1111t1mces in English, the corresponding o-rt cannot be omitted in Greek.

(b) Moll llQ£UOlJV 'ta :rtllQ'tt O'tllV lJ:rt«QXEl )((U.() cpay11i:o. I like parties Ma8r11Ja ~&KOOXTW Lesson eighteen
when there is good food. The conjunction 6,:av is a straightforward
one, used just like our own conjunction when. However it cannot be used
to ask a question.
4 11 XlJQtll µE TO :n:eaotvo cpoQEµa the lady in the green dress Note that New words
Greek uses the preposition µE when describing people's dress, while
«J.J,oi;-11-0 next µa but
English normally uses in. «Qy« late µtva me
5 Words and expressions to note 1}0116a01 I help o µ11vai; month
(a) ,:a cpQOUi:afruit, 'tll cpay11i:«food In English fruit andfood are
11 l}oq8na help µtXQOl,·1]·0 young
rarely used in the plural, but in Greek the plural is common.
11 l}eubt« evening µl'tOQW (3) I can
0a cp«w cpeoui:a. /' II eat some fruit. weaia cpay11i:11 good food
l}Qt(J)(W I find vweii; early
(b) Kavw bimm. I'm on a diet. This is another idiomatic expression
bEXllEVVlll nineteen o:n:01ob11:rtou really, absolutely
involving xavw; we say we are on a diet while Greeks make diets. bExaox,:cf:J eighteen :n:aievw I take
(c) Toooc-n-o is a useful adjective corresponding to our so much or so
btxa,:oi; oybooi; eighteenth :n:«vm always
many: roon voonµa cp«"fll'tll so much delicious food. Remember, too,
rntµtvw I insist :rt«Qa to, but for
that voonµoi; means attractive when referring to a person but delicious
o 0wµ«i; Thomas 11 :n:aefo company
when referring to food. xa11µtvoi;-11-o poor, unhappy ro :n:ui,:o plate, dish
(d) Note the expression xm ... xm ... which means both ... and ...
xaM O.K., all right n:ivw (subj. moo) I drink
xw.11vux,:a good night 'tO oaj}j}ll'tOX'IJQlllXO weekend
xto>; already otva you
x>..Eivw (subj. x>..t:iaw) I close, shut (JlJµ:1ta811nxoi;-11-o likeable, nice
xea,:aw (subj. xea,:qow) I keep, (JlJVEXEL« all the time, continuously
Are you on a diet? hold ro ,:l,:ae,:o quarter
•1 KtJQlllXll Sunday TOTE in that case
Mr. Hadzlkas It's half past ten. I've been at Mr. and Mrs. Yiannopoulos'
house for two hours now. Tonight I'm having quite a good
time. I like parties; especially when there is good food, good
wine and good conversation.
I'm here with my wife. She's that lady in the green dress with
the black handbag. She's talking to a gentleman. At the Notes
moment I'm eating potatoes, meat, cheese pie, salad and fish
(with) mayonnaise. Afterwards I'll have some sweet and some Verbs
fruit. The doctor says (that) I should go on a diet, but when (a) In this lesson there are more examples of the use ofva with the subjunctive
you see so much delicious food, a diet isn't an easy thing. after :rtQrnEL, and after a new verb µn:OQW, This is another type 3 verb, and itis
Fortunately both my wife and the doctor are occupied and used like our verb can to express either ability or permission. Mn:oew va inw.
they aren't looking at me. I can/am able to drink or I may/am allowed to drink.
(b) Iluo is another irregular subjunctive to learn; it is from the verb :rtivw
I drink. Note that this subjunctive stem ru- ends in a vowel.
(c) Now we come to the subjunctive form of type 2 and 3 verbs, that is
verbs stressed on the ending in the present tense. These verbs add a little
syllable to the present stem before adding the normal present tense
endings of type I verbs. The added syllable is commonly 110 which is
~ll'csscd: xea1:«01, xea,:-, XQll'ttJOW 1}0118«01, 1}0116-, 1}011811001. So this
L~ how these verbs look in the subjunctive in full:
Oct X!]<l'tqow 8a XQ«TqaotJµE
O,t X!]ll'TIIOEti; 8a XQ«'ttJOE'tE
Oct XfJ«,:qoEL 6a XQai:qoolJV

flit 69
(d) Note the other new subjunctive in this lesson xAdvro, Ou xui<Jro /' II (d) Eivm µtxQor; he's young We met µ1xQor;-11-o meaning small in size
close. The literal meaning of this verb is close or shut, but x1,.dvro ta but take careful note that it can also mean young in age; this can be
OEXUEVVLci is idiomatic and means I'll be nineteen (literally I'll finish 19 confusing to an English speaker.
years). (e) µtxQor; Eivm uxoµa he's still young Note that axoµa may be
(e) TL WQCl txur;; What time do you make it? Note the use of txro here, translated as still, yet or in addition according to the situation. Note that
literally What time have you got? the position of uxoµa is quite flexible. (See also Ll6, N7e). We could
2 Strong pronouns also say axoµu µLXQOr; dvm or dvm axoµa µtxQ<>r;.
In LIS, NS, we met strong forms of object pronouns used for emphasis (f) Mu <lllQto dvm KuQt«Xl], But tomorrow's Sunday. At the beginning
or after prepositions. Now we can see the strong forms in the first and of a sentence the word µa can be used as an alternative to aAAci but in
second persons: yta <Jar;for you (plural), ytu oiva for you (sing.), yt« surprised exclamations.
µhafor me, ym µar;for us. Let's study the whole set of strong (g) ltoAAl] bouAEt« a lot of work IloAAlJ is the Fem. sing. form of
pronouns and compare them with the weak forms. 1tOAAOL, l'toAAtr;, 3tOAAll,
weak strong (h) There are two words for evening in Greek: ,:o flQ«bu is used to refer
µE jlAtn:n he sees me Eivm ym µtvu it's for me to the evening generally, as a time of day, while tJ ~Q«bui is used to refer
<JE jlAtn:n he sees you Eivm ym <JEVU it's for you to the whole duration of a particular evening: 0o. n:«µE to ~Qcibu. We'll
rov jlAfau he sees him dvm yt' uutov it's for him go this evening: but 'Hrnv roQaia ~Qabta. It was a nice evening. (the
tl) jlAtn:n he sees her dvm yt' «ll'tllV it's for her whole time)
to ~AEn:EL he sees it dvm yt' auto it's for it (i) KuAci, the adverb from the Neut. plural of the adjective xaMr;-11-0,
µar; jlArnEL he sees us dvm ym µar; it's for us often means well, but can also be used as a reply in the sense of 0.K. or
<Jar; ~Um,t he sees you dvm ym <J«r; it's for you all right.
tour; ~A£n:Et he sees them (Masc.) dvm yt' uutour; it's for them G) TO'tE means then often in the sense of so or in that case.
nr; jlArnEL he sees them (Fem.) Eivm yt' auttr; it's for them (k) Kor; is the normal abbreviated form of i<tJQtor; (L14, NSe).
tU jlArnu he sees them (Neut.) dvm yt' uutci it's for them
Note that <Jet.r; and µur; are used in both strong and weak forms, although
Eµcir; and rncir; may also be heard as strong forms.
In the sing. the strong forms Eµtvu and rntva may be heard as well as Translation
µhu, <JEVo. but the E usually drops when preceded by a vowel. A little help
3 Time boobExa xm tEt<lQtO quarter past twelve, tvtEx« 1t«Qci t£tO.QtO
quarter to eleven (lit eleven but for a quarter) Past and to the hour are Maria Andreas, can you help Auntie a little in the kitchen?
expressed by xm and n:«Qci respectively. 'Eva tEt«Q'tO a quarter is the She wants you.
noun formed from the adjective tEtUQtor;·lJ·Ofourth. Note that 'tEt«QtO is Andreas Do I really have to go?
a Neut. noun, while µw11 is the feminine form of the adjective µt<Jor;-11-0 Maria Yes.
half. Andreas All right. I'm going. Will you keep Eleni company?
4 Days lJ AE\J't£Q« Monday (the second day of the week) and lJ KuQtUXl] Maria Yes, yes!
Sunday Note also ro <J«jlflatoxuQt«xo the weekend which is a Eleni How is Minas?
combination of ,:o I:cifl~u,:o and 'tlJV KuQtUXl], Maria Fine. He studies all the time. I'm going to have a little wine. Will
5 Words and expressions to note you have some?
(a) On:ro<Jbl]n:01:E is a strongly emphatic word translated by absolutely, Eleni I'm drinking beer.
without fail or really. Moria How do you find him?
(b) I:uµn:o.Ol)tLXOr;-11-0 nice, likeable is different in meaning from our lsleni Minas?
word sympathetic; be careful. Maria No, my brother
(c) «AAor;-l)-O We have met this word meaning else; now we see Elen! Nice. How old is he?
another use ,:ov MAO µ11vu next month where «Uor;·has the sense of the Maria He's just 19, that is he'll be 19 next month.
one following. Note also the use of rov here; no article is used in English Eleni Hmm, he's still young. By the way, what tim_e do you make it?
before next month. /\Io ria A quarter to eleven. It's early yet.
\11rlr1•11s These plates are for us. This one is for you, Eleni. This one is for
Maria, and this one is for me.

We have to leave. M68ruia ~£KO£VVICJ lesson nineteen
Petros Are you leaving already? It's only a quarter past twelve.
Mr. Hadzikos Unfortunately it's (quite) late for us.
Petros But tomorrow is Sunday. New words
Mrs. Hadzikos Yes, but Thomas, the poor thing, has to work at home. He
always takes work home at the weekend. anf3aivw I go up '1 XQE(3awxaµu.Qa bedroom
Mr. Hadzikos And on Monday there's a lot of work waiting for me. U.Qyro (3) I am late ro At(3lyx QOUµ living room
Petros Then I won't insist. btxa'to; tva'to; nineteenth 0 wqio; hill
Mr. Hadzlkos (We) thank you very much for a lovely evening, doctor. bro (subjunctive) from o Auxaf3TJ't'to; Lykavittos
Petros (We) thank you for your good company. Goodnight. (31,.tn:ro I see ;Exlvaro I go, set off
ro EUJl'tl]QLO ticket O\J'tE ... oun neither ... nor
TJ £1'.uobo; entrance 0 n:ayxo; bench, seat
EXEi- n:avro Up there :n:avro above' up
'1 EXXATJoia church o :71:EQin:a'to; walk
EV'tun:roomxo;-l]-O impressive 'to :71:E\Jxo pine tree
tQxoµm (tQ8ro) I come mo more
fl ... fl either ... or ro :71:00t leg, foot
TJAEX'tQtxo;-t]-6 electric :n:o1u; a lot of, much
11 eta view :n:ou that, which
x<i9oµm (xa9iuro) I sit 'to :71:QWL morning
o xmQo; weather auvq8ro; usually
xu.1:a about, around 'to 'tEAEq>EQLX telepheric, funicular
xa'tE(3aivro I go down railway
xa'tro below, down 1:0 'tO\JVEA tunnel
To XEV'tQO centre 1:0 'tQEVO train
11 XOQU<flfl top, summit xaµT]M;-t]-o low
0 xooµo; people lJITJM;-t]-6 high

(a) xa9oµm, EQXE'tat, EQXOV'tm We met x«iQoµm with its passive
ending in L16; now we meet two more verbs with passive endings
xa8oµm / sit and tQxoµm / come. In English, of course, sit and come
are normal verbs, but in Greek xa9oµm and tQxoµm are special in that
they exist only in the passive form in the present tense. This is no
problem once you know the passive endings; as you can see, the first
person sing. ending is -oµm, the third person sing. is -erm, and the third
person plural is -ovrm.
We shall be studying the real passive later; for the moment just learn the
endings as you meet them.
(b) 0a EQ8n He'll come 0a xu.8£oouµE We'll sit The subjunctive of
these two special verbs is straightforward, we only need to learn the
subjunctive stems tQ8-, xa6ia- and add the normal type I present tense

(c) There are two more subjunctives to note here: avt:jlaivw, 0a avejiw 8 Words and expressions to note
I'll go up and xatEjlaivw, 0a xattjlw I'll go down. The subjunctive stem (a) To Aijltvyx QOtJµ the living-room, to tOUVEA the tunnel and to
is obtained by cutting off the last syllable of the present stem of these tEAE<pEQiX t elepheric or funicular railway are more invariable Neut. nouns
two verbs. of foreign origin.
(d) We also have another type 2 verb !;Extvaw I start/set out, endings (b) µEta nobta on foot, µE ta!;iby taxi, µE ro A£<O<pOQ£io on the bus Note
-ac;, -aEt, -riue, -aTE, -(XV£ with the regular subjunctive SEXtVl]<J<O and that the preposition ue is used in Greek referring to means of transport where
another type 3 verb «l}YW I am late, endings -Eic;, -st, -oeue, -etre, -ouv we usually use by, on or in. Note also that while we say on foot in the sing.,
with the regular subjunctive «QY11<J<O, Greek uses the plural µE ta n:6bta.
Note that the verb «Qyw, like nuvaw and bnjJaw (L9, Nlb) is translated (c) mo more This is a useful invariable word with which you can make
into English by an adjective and the verb to be: 1 am late. comparisons xatw below, nw xatwfurther down, literally more below.
2 Ilaw vu bro I'm going (in order) to see Note that vu followed by the (d) ~llµEQU to 3tQWi literally today the morning is the Greek equivalent of
subjunctive can also be used to express purpose, where English often our this morning.
uses the infinitive to or in order to: 'EQXEtat va to xavEt, He's coming (e) Na. Look. Note that vu can be used by itself when you are pointing
/in order) to do it. Ilaµ£ va <paµe. We are going (in order) to eat. Note at something.
also that bw is the irregular subjunctive of jl.Unw. (f) oe bfaa Arnta in ten minutes (time) To refer to a period of time
3 Eivm tva tQEVaXt zrou avEjlaivEt It' s a train which goes up We can from the present into the future <JE can be used as we use in.
also note another use of nov which/that to join two parts of a sentence. (g) xata ttc; EVtEXet at about eleven (o'clock) When referring to a time
Here the nov is a pronoun relating to the preceding noun "tQ£Vcixt. the preposition x«ta, without aE, and the Acc. article are used in the
4 (a) AEv dvm oure \jJl]Aoc; oun xaµ11Mc;. lt' s neither high nor low. (It sense of about, or around.
isn't either high or low.) Note how out£ ... oUtE may be used after bev The adverb 3t£Qi:rtov about, approximately is used to refer to a length of
in Greek. We use neither ... nor without not, or we use not followed by time: cr£ btxa lE:rtta 3tEQL3tO\J in about ten minutes.
either ... or.
(b) 0a n:aµE 11 µE m!;i 11 µE to AE<O<pOQELO. We are going either by taxi or
on the bus. We already know 11 with an accent meaning or; we now
see 11 ···11 used to show a choice, where in English we use either ... or. Translation
In this case the verb is not negative in Greek or in English.
5 ;i:01-,i,c; xocrµoc; a lot of people We're going for a walk.
(a) 0 xocrµoc; is an unusual noun in that although it is sing. in form it t>espina This morning Nikos and I are going to Lykavittos. Lykavittos is a
usually has a plural meaning (lots of) people. It may, also however, have hill in the centre of Athens. It's neither high nor low. At the top
the meaning of the (whole) world. there's a small church and a little further down there's a pastry
(b) IloAuc; is the Masc. Norn. sing. form of nolloi, nolltc;, nolla. While shop. They say (that) the view from up there is impressive. There
the plural is regular, the sing. forms are irregular. We met the Fem. sing. are quite a lot of pine trees, and a lot of people go there for a walk
form noAlll bovlEta a lot of work (L18) which has the regular type 1 when the weather is fine. Now I'm sitting in the living room and
adjective endings, Gen. n0Al11c;, and double ll throughout like the plural I'm having a cigarette. What time is it actually? Hmm., it's twenty
forms, but as you see, the Masc. sing.form has only one A and the ending to eleven already. Nikos will be coming at around quarter past
-uc;. The Acc. sing. form is nolu; the Voe. and Gen. are almost never eleven. We'll go either by taxi or on the bus. I'm going to the
used. bedroom ... I'm ready. It's ten past eleven. Nikos shouldn't be late.
6 11 dcroboc; the entrance There are a few nouns of an archaic type He's not usually late for his appointments. I'll go to the window to
which, although they end in -oc; in the Norn. sing., are nevertheless Fem. see if he's coming ... Yes, he's coming. The children are coming
nouns. Their endings are just like normal Masc. nouns in -oc; but the into the house, too.
article is Fem. and adjectives and pronouns referring to them.are in the
Fem. form: 11 µEynAl] dcroboc; the big entrance. 011 foot?
7 Time
tvnxa xm bfa« ten past eleven .tvtexa naQa Eixocrt twenty to eleven Nikos Do you want to go up on the funicular (railway) or on foot?
Remember that n«Qa and xm are used for minutes to and past the hour, / l1•.1pi11a What is this funicular?
but that Greek puts the hour first and the minutes afterwards. You Nikos It's a little electric train that goes up and comes down inside a
should now be able to say any time you wish in Greek. tunnel.

74 75
Despina Let's go on the funicular. Lesson twenty
M68r11,1a &iKOOI
Nikos 0. K. Look, there's the entrance.

At the entrance
Nikos Two tickets, please. New words
Cashier Here you are. uymtriµtvoi;-ri-o dear, beloved xutu:rtlrixnxoi;-11-0 sensational,
Nikos Thank you. What time does it start off? n A(ytvu Egina splendid
Cashier In about ten minutes. UXQLjlWi; exactly ri xuta<Jtua11 situation
Nikos Shall we go and sit on that bench, Despina? We've got ten more o A:rtQtltoi; April XEQvaro I treat
minutes. ri utµompmeu atmosphere to A<i6oi; mistake
to jl<iOoi; distance, depth o µE~Ei; titbit, hors d'oeuvre
to jlouvo mountain fl IlcievriOu Parnitha
ytu about fl IlEVtEAfl Pendeli
to yQ<iµµu letter fl ltQWtEfouau capital (city)
bwaw (subjunctive) from b(vro 0 nueyoi; tower
I give nro (subjunctive) from Atro I say
fl Ejll'Joµal'Ju week to atcibto stadium
0 E"f"{OVOi; grandson ri TQltfl Tuesday
ElXO<JtOi;·fJ·O twentieth o Yµt}ttoi; Ymittos
ElALXQtVa honestly, sincerely q>tAW I kiss
EvOouatuaµhoi;-ri-o t hri II ed, ta XUtQEtfoµutu greetings, regards
enthusiastic fl XUQll joy, pleasure
ti OaAuaau sea
(aroi; perhaps mto xovta from close up
xuOueoi;-11-0 clear Otlro vu :rtro I mean
xuvEii; one, someone xavro AaOoi; I'm wrong
ne: no! Oh! Oh, dear!

I Verbs
(a) Imperatives We have already met a few imperatives here and there
in the course. Remember that imperatives are the verb forms we use to
order, instruct or request. Since we now know how to form the
subjunctive, we can also begin to learn how to form the imperative.
There are a number of exceptions, such as tAu come, but most verbs
form the sing. imperative (the form used when addressing a friend, pet or
relative) by adding the ending -E to the subjunctive stem and, in words of
more than two syllables, moving the stress one syllable backwards:
Present Subjunctive Imperative
XOltll~(I) XOtta;ro XOLta;E
xldvro XAEL<JW xAEL<JE
rtEQtµhro TCEQtµhro ltEQ(µEVE
(1X01J(I) UX01J(J(I) (lXOU<JE
(b) We have two more type 2 verbs to learn: q>tlw / kiss and XEQvaro I
treat. with the endings -ai; ·llEl -aµE -cre •UVE,

76 77
(c) We also have two more irregular subjunctives bO><J(I) from btV(I) I give µa~{ which are strictly adverbs, not pure prepositions, are followed by a
and lt(I) from J..£(1) I say/tell. Be careful to distinguish it(!) from nuo (ittV(I) I pronoun in the Gen., not Acc., case. Similarly: Eivm biitAn. It's nearby.
drink). E{vm biitAn uou. It's next to me.
2 Nouns 11 Cultural note
In this lesson we meet a new type of noun, Neut. nouns in -oc, Most (a) Ymittos, Parnitha and Pendeli are the three mountains which surround
nouns in -oc are Masc. o q,i1.oi;, but a few are Fem. tJ d<Joboi; and a few Athens, and Egina is one of the nearest islands to Athens, a popular
are Neut. ro ~«Ooi; the distance/background and to 1.ciOoi; mistake. All tourist spot. Despina is not very complimentary about Athens, because,
Neut. nouns in -oc, just like all other Neut. nouns, have the same ending like most big cities, it has its traffic, noise and pollution problems.
in the Voe. and the Acc. as in the Norn. The Gen. and the plural we shall (b) Ou~«XL ue µe~t There is no exact translation of µ£~ti;, but it is
meet later. quite common to have an ouzo just before lunch time in Greece, and
Note that x«V(I) A«Ooi; is literally/ make a mistake but it can also be usually one has a plate of bits and pieces, such as tomato, cucumber,
translated as /' m wrong. cheese, olives, octopus, bread etc. with the ouzo. These bits and pieces
3 Tr (l)Qlllll Ota! What a beautiful view! Greek can use Tt to make an are called µe~ti;, or in the plural µe~tbei;, an unusual type of Masc. noun
exclamation of surprise or wonder just as we can use What, but note that that we shall be studying later. Since this ouzo with µe~t is an appetiser
no article is used in Greek. taken before a meal, hors d'oeuvre is not a bad translation.
4 bEv µ,tOQEt xnVEti; va bfl µnXQl« one can't see far Note this use of (c) 0 ituQyoi; ttov AOrivrov The Tower of Athens is a modern sky-scraper,
xnvE{i; to refer to people in general in the sense of any person; we might the tallest building in Athens, containing a variety of shops and offices.
use one or you here. Note particularly the word order here; the subject Note also that ,:(l)v A011vwv is the Gen. plural form; the use of the plural
xnvE{i; comes after the verb in sentences of this type. referring to place names was common in former times, hence we say
5 oi:av CJE bfl when he sees you We have already noted oi:av as a joining Athens not Athen . In modern Greek the plural is rare but it is still heard.
word, usually translated by when, but we must also note that, like On and
vu it is followed by the subjunctive when a future action is referred to.
6 On oou ltfl he' II tell you Note that object pronouns are placed between
On and the verb. Translation
7 When we write a letter, in Greek as in English, the date is usually written
at the top on the right. Note that Greek uses the cardinal number and the What a lovely view!
Gen. of the month while English uses the ordinal number: MExa Despina Oh! Look! What a lovely view! Look! There's the Stadium.
AitQtAiou eleventh of April. Nikos That tall building is the Tower of Athens. And the Athenian
8 We now meet 11 TQi'.i:l] Tuesday, the third day of the week, from the mountains: Ymittos, Pendeli and Pamitha.
adjective TQi'.i:oi;-11-0 third. You should now know all the days of the i u-spina And there's the sea. And in the distance it must be Egina, or am I
week. wrong?
9 Letter writing Nikos It's Egina. Fortunately the atmosphere is very clear today. UsuaJly
(a) Aynit11µtv11 µou is a typical opening for a letter to a close female it isn't, you know, and one can't see so far.
friend or relative; the English equivalent would be My dear(est). I trspina It's splendid. Well, Athens is very beautiful from high (up).
(b) I:E (f)lAO>, 11 XOQl] oou J kiss you, your daughter The typical English Nikos Do you mean to say that down below the situation isn't so great?
ending to a letter like this would more probably be something like With I l1•,1·pi11a Exactly. What do you say to going down to the pastry shop. I'll
love, Ero. treat you to an ouzo with hors d'oeuvres.
10 Words and expressions to note Nikos Very good idea! Let's go.
(a) Ilo! ito! is a typical Greek exclamation to show wonder or surprise.
(b) We know that xaOnQoi;-11-0 can mean clean, µm xaOnQ11 -rn~EQVn a
clean tavern; now we can see that the same word can also mean clear,
xaOnQ11 ai:µoo<pmQ<I clear atmosphere.
(c) 0EA(I) va it(!), literally/ want to say, is often best translated into
English as 1 mean.
(d) µa~i µai; with us We have already met µa~{ used adverbially (L2),
translated as together. Note that it can also be used as a preposition,
when it is like an emphatic form of ue with. Note also that words like

78 79
A letter M68r11Ja &iKOOI tva Lesson twenty one
Tuesday, 11th April.

My dear mother,
Greetings from Athens. As you already know perhaps, Despina, Nikos and New words
Andreas have been in Athens for a week now. They are staying with us. We're
all having a wonderful time. Your grandson is thrilled; he'll have a lot to tell uvot)(to;-11-0 open 11 6uQtb« window, counter
you about London when he sees you (from close up). '1 I' u,.iiu France XttQtvo;-11-0 yellow
J know that you don't like our capital very much, but we would all like '1 ft:Qµ«viu Germany :7tAtJQWVW (subj. :71:AlJQW<Jw) I pay
you to stay with us for a few days. What do you say? Can you come to to '/Q«µµutomiµo stamp Qixvw (subj. Qi;w) I throw, post,
Athens? Honestly, you will make us very happy. to Mµu parcel drop
Lots of love, (Lit. I kiss you,) bt:;ui on the right attivw (O'tftAW) I send
Your daughter, £tXOO'to; :7tQWto; twenty first <J\JO'tlJ µho; ·lJ -o registered
Ero. £Xto; (U:7t0) except (for) T£A£Ut«io;-a-o last, previous
11 Ei(Jniu Switzerland
t::7tdyov express, urgent

1 Verbs
(a) Now we can study the plural forms of imperatives, used when
instructing (requesting or ordering) a stranger or more than one person.
We studied the sing. form in L20, Nl. There are exceptions again, but
normally the plural imperative· is formed- from the second person plural of
the subjunctive, the only difference being that if the subjunctive stem
ends in a (or of course; or lj!) the following e is dropped. Let's compare
a few subjunctives with the sing. and plural forms of the imperative.
Subjunctive Sing. imperative Plural imperative
xomi;w xoita;t: xomi;tf
XAfl(J(t) XAfl(Jf XAfl(J't'f
(lX0\J(J(1) UX.OU(Jf (lXO\J<J't'f
:7tEQtµhw :7tEQiµEvE :7tfQtµEVEtf
Qi;w Qt;E Qt;tf
owaw OW Of OW<J't'f
(b) There are a few more subjunctives to learn in this lesson: Qixvw, 6a
Qi;w I' II throw, <J't'EAVW, Ou O'tflA(J) /' // send and :7tA1JQWVW, 6a ,i:1,:rwwaw
I'll pay.
i w·c can form the associated nouns and adjectives from '1 E1.(Jnia on the
pattern we learned in Ll5, N6: o EA(JEto;, '1 E1.(Jniba Swiss (man or
woman), EAjJEnxo;-11-0 Swiss (adjective).
:1 or buo xciQtE; two of the cards, to iv« '/Q«µµu one letter Note how
the article is used before a number here; this is translated into English
either by using of the or by the number alone, without the article.
11 Words and expressions to note
(a) AE;tci is a useful adverb which may be translated by on the right or to
the right according to the situation.

80 81
(b) En:dyov urgent is a rare irregular type of adjective taken from Maeru.10 &IKOOI ~uo Lesson twenty two
Katharevousa but used in the spoken language too. We'll look at this
type again later.
(c) The Greek word T) lh,efbn applies to cash desks or small windows in
banks, theatres, post offices etc. where we pay for and receive such New words
things as tickets or stamps.
(d) yt' avi:t,;for them Note that ym is shortened to yt' before the «Ho,;-ri-o other µtXQOjJtoAOytxo,;-it-6 micro-
vowel a. yEVtx« generally biological
5 Special note btxo ,:ou,; theirs µovi:tevo,;-n-o modern
This is a short lesson with only a few new things to learn, so that you ,:n tmn:1,.a furniture sExroeto,:6,;-it-6 separate
can take a breather and revise what you have learned so far. If you have to EQyaa1:11ew laboratory on:ou where, in which
completely mastered everything we have covered you deserve a medal. It ro taoyno ground floor o OQO<po,; storey, floor
might be a good idea to check in the Appendix now to see if you have xa6E each, every T) '1:EQtoXit area, district
forgotten anything. We have covered the following: articles, Appendix D; xa6oµm I stay, Ii ve ro aaAOVt living room
adjectives types I and 2, Appendix B; pronouns, Appendix E I, 2, 3, 4 o xavnn:t,; sofa oxnAun:6,;-it-6 carved
and 7; quite a lot of numbers, the days of the week and time, Appendix F XEV'tQtxo,;-11-0 central ro o,:u1, style
I, 2 and 4; verb types I, 2 and 3 in the present, future and subjunctive, x1,.aatx6,;-11-o classical TJ ,:ouMti:a toilet
Appendix C. ro xoµµan piece ro un:vobroµano bedroom
When you use the Appendix for reference or revision, we advise you to xuew,;-a-o main XQT)CJtµon:OLro (3) I use
avoid any temptation to study things we have not yet met in the course;
just revise what we have done and leave the rest for later.

Translation 1 Verbs
At the post office (a) In this lesson we have some more passive forms to study: IJeiaxnm it
is found is the passive third person sing. form of IJe(axro I find, which we
NikosI want stamps for these three cards and these two letters. have already met; xn6nm he stays, xn66µao'tE we stay and xa6ov,:m
Two of the cards are for England and the third (one) is for France. they stay are the third person sing., the first person plural and the third
The letters are going to Germany. Also I've got a parcel for person plural of the special verb xa6oµm I sit or I stay which is, as we
Switzerland. said, passive in form in Greek but not in English.
Employee Will you send the cards (in) open (envelopes)? The passive is easily formed in Greek by adding the passive endings to
Nikos Yes, I always send them open. Also one letter I want to go express the normal present stem; English forms the passive by using the verb to
and registered. be and the past participle. So far we know the endings -oum, -erm,
Employee Here are your stamps. Hand in (lit. Give) the registered letter -oµao,:E and -ovtm, so IJe(axro I find becomes in the passive IJeimwµm I
opposite at that window. You ('II) pay me for everything. am found, IJefoxum he/she is found, IJewxoµao,:E we are found and
Nikos Right. Where shall I go with the parcel? IJe(axov,:m they are found. We shall meet the second person endings
Employee To the last window on the right. Throw all the letters except the shortly.
registered one into that yellow box. (b) Note the use of IJeiaxoµm and xa6oµm carefully. Although xa6oµm
Nikos Thank you. is literally / sit, it is often used in the sense of I stay or I live. (Mtvro can
also mean I stay or I live but NEVER I sit.) BQt<JXETm it is found is
frequently used to say where something is situated: Be(axnm oro
llnyxean. It is (found) in Pangrati.
(c) XQt]mµon:otro is another type 3 verb.
'J Nouns
(a) The noun o xavan:t,; sofa is another Masc. noun in -E,; in the Norn.
sing. like o xa<pt,;. The final c drops in the Voe., Acc. and Gen. sing.

82 83
(b) There is also a new Gen. sing. form to learn in this lesson. Neut. 11 We have seen that CXA.A.Q<;-tt-o can be translated as else, next (L18); now we
nouns ending in -µa in the Norn. sing. have the ending -µatoi; in the meet aA.A.oi;-11-0 in a third use xm µEQtXa (XAAU 1tQ6:yµata and some
Gen. sing. and the stress is always on the third syllable from the end: ta other things where it is translated by other.
broµana rou bmµEQtaµatoi; the rooms of the flat. 12 To <JTUA. style is another invariable Neut. noun of foreign origin.
Similarly to µa011µa, tou µaOitµatoi; and to qJOQEµa, rou qJOQtµatoi;. 13 Remember that a dot above the line ( ·) in Greek corresponds to the
3 To <J.7tttL Etvm <>Lxo rouc. The house is theirs. We already know the semi- colon (;) in English.
possessive adjectives my, your, his, her etc. very well; now we can learn
the use of the possessive pronoun mine, yours, his, hers etc. This is
formed from btxoi;-it-6 which follows the pattern of normal type l
adjectives, and is always followed by the possessives µou, eon, 'tOU, ttt<;, etc.
So ro <min tivm 6uc6 µou means the house is mine, 'to anin tivat 61Ko µw;
means the house is ours and ro anin stvci 61Ko 'tl]<; means the house is hers.
4 There are further examples of .nou, without an accent, used as a Ero's house
conjunction or joining word in this lesson.
Despina Ero and Petros' house is (situated) in Pangrati. Pangrati is one of the
(a) !:to llmµiQ1<1µa nou EJCEL f;El(WQL<JT'I daobo In the flat that has a
central districts of Athens. The house is theirs; it was Petros' father's
separate entrance, µEQtX« xoµµana ztou aQtaouv tou IlttQOU a few
house. lt is (one) of the few detached houses that still exist in Pangrati.
pieces that please Petros, a1t6 tti; AiyEi; µovoxatoLxtEi; rtou u1t«Qxouv
It has two storeys. There is a flat on each floor. Ero has her microbio-
one of the few detached houses that exist. In these examples the .nou is
logical laboratory in the flat on the ground floor. Of the four rooms in the
equivalent to our that, a relative pronoun referring back to the preceding
flat she uses three for her work. Ero and Petros live in the flat on the first
noun (L19, N3).
floor, which has a separate entrance. This flat has a hall, a kitchen, a big
(b) Tci>Qa nou xa06µa<JTE µa~i toui; Now that we are staying with them
bathroom, a small toilet and four main rooms: the living room, the
Note the use of nou after the time adverb tci>Qa here, corresponding
dining room and two bedrooms. In general their furniture is modern,
exactly to our that again.
except for some old pieces that Petros likes: a carved armchair, a desk
5 There is also a new conjunction to study in this lesson 01tou U.7tllQJCEL
in the classical style and a few other things. Now that we are staying
where there is. Remember that .nou (with the accent) is the question word
with them, Nikos and I are using one bedroom and Andreas the living
for where? Flou Etvm; Where is it? The word 6.nou is a conjunction (not a
room where there is a big sofa.
question) which may be translated by where or in which.
6 The word xaOE is a useful invariable word which corresponds to our each
or every: xaOE OQO(f)OS each floor, xaOE µEQU every day, xaOE (J.7ttTt every
7 to bLaµEQLaµa avto· this flat Note the word order here with auto after
the noun for emphasis. Remember that the most usual word order is auto
to bLaµiQwµa, but don't forget that word order is quite flexible in
8 Note that ta E.1tt.1tAa the furniture is used in the plural in Greek, while we
use furniture only in the sing. Remember also ta qJQOVtafruit and ta
9 Eivat µLa a1to ni; XEVtQtxei; .7tEQLOJCES It is one of the central districts
E(vm a1to ni; AiyEi; µovoxatoLXtEi; It is one of the few houses Note
this use of (µta) which is translated by one of; Greek may omit µLa
but English cannot omit one here. It is similar to the English use of out
of as in Ta tE<J<JEQa broµana / out] of the four rooms.
10 (a) Remember that Masc. nouns in -oi; stressed three sylJables from the
end in the N om. normally move the stress to the penultimate syllable in
the Gen.: o OQO(f)oi;, 1:ou OQO(f)O\J,
(b) The word OQO(f)OS means storey but it may also be translated as floor:
<JTOV .7tQWTO OQO(j)O on the first floor.

84 85
M68rn,1a &1Koo1 rpia Lesson twenty three that the plural imperative is formed from the second person plural of the
subjunctive, but the first E of the ·EtE ending is dropped after CJ or \j).
2 Nouns
(a) We have learned all the forms of normal Fern. nouns in -11 in the
New words Norn. sing., but we now have to note that a few Fem. nouns in ·1J are. of
an archaic type and in the Gen. sing. they have the ending -ew;
0 O.Qt6µo; number voµi;w I think (remember that the normal ending is ·tJS for Fem. nouns in -n) with the
O.Qt<JtEQll on the left 11 obos street stress moving one syllable forward; so 1J ixbo<Jt) publication becomes t1JS
to ~t~lfo book o oi'.xos house 1,xbo<1ews of publication. Other nouns of this type that we have met are 11
o btEu6uvt11i; manager, director o OQOS term, condition U<JXl]<Jt), tl]S a<JXl]<JEWS, 11 <JUVUV'tl]<Jt), tl]S <J\JV<XVtl]<JEWS and 11 JtOA1J, tl]S
to bixmo law, justice JtUQ«;w I annoy, disturb itOAEWS.
1J txbo<JtJ publication ltQOXWQO> I proceed, go on (b) The words lJ AEW(f)OQOS avenue and 11 oMi; street are more examples
EXbOttXOS•l]•O publishing QWt<iw I ask of the few archaic type Fem. nouns in -oe, like 11 Et<Jobos (Ll9, N6).
Evbto.(f)EQoµm I am interested <JtQi'.~w I turn 3 We met bE;t<i on the right in L21, we now meet «QtotEQ<i on the left and
Eu6da straight on <JU;l]t<iw I discuss eu0Ei'.a straight on or straight ahead. These are of course very helpful
x6.6nos·tJ·O turning, vertical <JUvavt<iw I meet when you listen to or give directions.
x<inows someone 11 q,wv11 voice 4 0o. QWtl]<JW x<i1towv J' ll ask someone The type 2 adjective or pronoun
1J AEW(f)OQOS avenue x<i1tows-a-o consists of xo-plus now;-a-o and is rather like xavha;,
µ11btv nought, zero bEv JtUQci;u it doesn't matter, xo.µt<i, xavivo.; xMow; is more usual in affirmative sentences while
vo.uttxo;-11-0 maritime, marine that's all right xavivo.s is more usual in negative sentences or questions;; is
something like someone in use, while x«vivas is more like anyone. When
used as a pronoun, the Masc. Acc. sing. form takes a final v, Blinw
xa1towv. l see someone. AE ~li1tw xavivo.v. l don't see anyone.
5 Words and expressions to note
(a) The normal word for house in Greek is to arti'.tt, but o oixos is an old
word which is used especially in the sense of a business house or firm, as
1 Verbs in publishing house or House of Fraser.
(a) BQi<Jxoµm xovt<i <Jtf1 AEW(f)OQO 0lJGEWS, I am near Theseus (b) We already know the preposition yto.Jor; note that it can also he
Avenue. Note again how the passive of ~Qfoxw may be used to speak used in the sense of about: ym Nauttxo Aixmo about Maritime Law.
of location; ~Qt.<Jxoµm, literally lam found, would here be translated (c) The Greeks often use the expression l<i6os x<ivnE you are making a
simply as lam. mistake on the phone to indicate you have got the wrong number.
(b) evbto.q,EQoµm I am interested This is the passive form of (d) The general word for road is o bQ6µos; 11 obos is used particularly
EVbto.(f)EQW I interest. when referring to streets by their name. Most streets are referred to as
(c) There are some more type 2 verbs in the subjunctive to study in this obos, but' a broad main street is often called AEW(f)OQOS, which could be
lesson: 80. <JU;l]tl]<JOuµE we'll discuss from <JU;11t<iw i discuss, 80. translated as avenue or boulevard.
QWtl]<JW I'll ask from QWtaw l ask and 60. <JUVO.Vtl]<JEtE you'll meet from (e) The expression bEV rtEtQci;u, literally it doesn't annoy, is a very
<JUV<Xvt<iw l meet. common expression used to put someone at ease just as we say it doesn't
(d) AEv ltQEltEl vo. ei'.vm µ«XQt<i. lt can't be far away. Note that bi;v matter or never mind.
ltQEl'tEl more literally mustn't often translates into can't in English when (t) o beutEQOS x6.0no; the second turning The adjective x<i0nos
the meaning is J' m sure it's or ... not. So bEV itQEltEl vn Etµm may mean means literally vertical or perpendicular, but it is used here to refer to a
I can't be, bEv ltQEl'tEl vu etvm, it can't be and bev ltQEltEl va ei<1myou road junction or turning.
can't be. Compare IlQEl'tEl vu Eivm I'm sure it is and Aev JtQEitEt vu (g) The verb voµi'.;w means I think in the sense of my opinion is (I'm not
Ei'.vm I'm sure it isn't. Note also that µ«XQt<i can be translated by Jar or sure), not in the sense of I'm thinking over something which is
far away. <1xrntoµm.
(e) IlQOXWQl]<JtE go on and <JtQitl'tE turn are two more regular (h) Note the use of txw with phone numbers where English uses to be: Tt
imperatives formed from the type 2 verb JtQOXWQ<i>, subjunctive O.Qt0µ6 E)CEtE; What's your number?
itQOXWQ1]<JW and the type l verb <JtQi~w, subjunctive <JtQl\VW· Remember'

86 87
6 o Exbonxoc; auTo<; oixoc; this publishing house Note again how flexible Ma8rUJa &IKOOI TCOO&pa Lesson twenty four
word order is in Greek. Here auTo<; comes after the adjective Exbonxoc;
to give a little emphasis, instead of in its most usual position before the
New words TO J..EµOVl lemon
µaJ..(l)VW I quarrel
ayvwato<;-1'(-0 unknown
µ1tQOaTa in front
Translation abtxa pointlessly, wrongly
vfoc;-a-o young, new
llQXLSOl I begin, start ;Exvaw I forget
In the street ~Qiaxw (subj. ~QW) I find n:aisw I act, play
Nikos At this moment I am near Theseus Avenue. At twelve o'clock I have an YQ'IYOQll quickly TO 1taho overcoat
To bta>.nµµa interval, break 1t<ivtw<; though, all the same
appointment with the director of a publishing house. I'm writing a book
about Maritime Law, and this publishing house says it is interested. o E;WaTf(<; balcony
3tUQE take
Today we'll discuss the terms of publication. Their address is 16 Zonara TO EQYO film, play, work 'I 1t>.atda stalls
Street. It can't be far (away). I'll ask someone where exactly this road is. EXEL there is, there are o axf(voOhri<; director
Excuse me. I wonder if you know where Zonara Street is? fl s«XllQfl sugar xuvw I waste, lose
o f(Oo:rwu'lc; actor
A man Zonara Street. I don't think ... Ah, yes! I know. Go straight ahead and XQEL<isoµm I need
take the third turning (lit. turn into the third road) on the left. Zonara fl f(Oo1toto<; actress
0 xuµo<; juice
Street is either the first or second turning that you come to (lit. meet). fl Ofof( place, seat
Nikos Thank you very much. o xmQO<; time AuTo J..EW xt Eyoo That's what I say
A man You're welcome. f( XQttuo1 review, criticism

Wrong number
Maria Yes? Notes
Voice (Can I speak to) George please?
Maria What George? 1 Verbs
Voice George Athanassiou. (a) L\E XQEt<isnm It isn't necessary The verb XQEt<isoµm I need is
Maria There's no George Athanassiou here. another verb which is passive in form in Greek but not in English. In the
Voice What's your number? third person sing. bt XQEL<isnm is often impersonal, like 3tQE3tEL, and
Maria What number do you want? translates into it isn't necessary or it isn't needed.
Voice 689-07. (b) The verb ~Qiaxw I find has an irregular subjunctive ~QW, while
Maria You've got the wrong number. µa>.wvw I quarrel, like many verbs with a present stem ending in v,
Voice I'm sorry. changes the v to a in the subjunctive µa1.waw, and «Qxisw I start
Maria That's all right. changes regularly to «Qxiaw.
(c) Oa EXEL ;,:01,{, xoaµo there'll be a lot of people Note that we can use
the third person sing. of EXW I have to mean there is, or in the future
there will be. Remember that we can also use 1J1tUQXEL followed by the
Norn. case, in the sense of there is: 0a 1J1t«QXEL n:01.{,c; xoaµoc;.
(d) Il«QE take is another sing. imperative formed from the verb 1t«tQVW I
take, subjunctive 1tUQW, Remember that the sing. imperative is formed by
adding E to the subjunctive stem.
2 Nouns
We now meet the plural of the archaic type Fem. nouns ending in -T( in
the Norn. sing. (L23, N2a). The ending for the Norn., Voe. and Acc.
plural is -EL<; for these nouns (remember that most Fem. nouns in -T( have
the plural ending-sc). Nouns of more than two syllables of this type move
the stress one syllable forward in the plural:

88 89
Singular Plural
11 6tari or 6fons 8 We have already met µrr:QOO't<l in front of and oirr:ACt. or next to used as
l] <llJXl]ffi] Ol CI.IJXl]IJf:t; prepositions. Note that they can also be used without or as adverbs: mo
11 0lE\J6lJVIJl] Ol OtE\J61JVIJ£tS µrr:QOO'tafurther in front or further forward and row birr:1.a here beside
11 11:0Al] Ot 11:0AEtS (it) or here close by.
3 9 Words and expressions to note
'Exn rr:oAA1] 1;axaQ11· It has a lot of sugar. Tt 1tOAt1S xoaµos! What a lot
of people.' 6a EXEL rr:oAv xoaµo there'll be a lot of people (a) Ilows rr:ail;n; Who's in it? The verb rr:ail;w I play is often used
(a) Let's study the sing. forms of the adjective rtOAAoi, rr:01.Ats, rr:0A1.a when referring to the theatre or cinema in the sense of/ act. Here Eleni
much, many, a lot of (remember that the plural forms are regular with ll is asking who is acting in the film.
throughout). In the sing. only the Fem. forms are regular, also with AA. (b) We have already met o XlllQOS with the meaning weather, o XCUQOS
The Masc. and Neut. forms have a single ). and the vowel is u in the Eivm xu1.6s the weather is fine, but note that o XlltQOS can also mean
endings. So the sing. looks like this: time. This can be confusing at first, but the surrounding words always
Masc. Fem. Neut. make it clear which meaning is intended: Xuvouue t'OV XlllQO µus. We
Norn. rr:01.1.11 rr:01.u are wasting our time.
Acc. rr:01.u rr:01.1.11 rr:oAu (c) The noun to tQyo means work, but it may also refer to a work of art,
The sing. forms are normally translated by much or a lot of while the such as a theatrical play or film just as we speak of the works of
plural is normally translated by many or a lot of. Shakespeare.
In pronunciation all the Acc. sing. forms are the same. The Voe. and (d) The expression xavn xuM literally it does good corresponds to our
Gen. are rarely used, especially in the Masc. and Neut. (The Fem. Gen. expression it does you good or it is good for you.
sing. form is regular rr:01.1.11s). (e) Av,:o xt ryw That's what I say or literally/ say that too is a
(b) Remember that o xoaµos is a sing. noun with a plural meaning: common expression to express agreement with what has just been said.
xooµos a lot of people. (f) Note that 116011:otos may mean actor or actress; it is a normal Masc.
4 Remember that mo can be used before adverbs just as we use more: noun, like o cpi1.os, when it refers to actors but it takes the Fern. article,
'YQ1J'YOQCt. quickly, mo 'YQlJ'YOQCt. more quickly. like 11 obos, when it refers to actresses.
5 There are more examples in this lesson of the use of btxos-11-0 to form
the possessive pronouns mine, yours, hers etc.: 0 o,xos uou EXEL rtOAAlJ
1;<iXCt.QlJ Mine has a lot of sugar. Here Otxos has the Masc. form as it Translation
refers to o xvµosJuice. Note also the use of the definite article before
Otxos here. A\J'tl] l] 6fo11 Eivm OtXlJ uou, This place is mine. Here btxtt A good film
has the Fem. form as it refers to 11 6fo11 place. Il«iQE ro Otxo uou, Take
/l/11rin Corne on, let's go (a little) quicker because there'll be a big crowd.
mine. Here o,xo has the Masc. Acc. form as it refers too xvµos and is
the object of rt<lQE. J;'/,·11i Is it :, good film?
6 l\lnr/11 The reviews say that it's excellent. It's the second film by a young
Avo xvµous 1.rµovt Two lemon juices This is the construction we met
in L6, NlO with two nouns together in the Acc. case (remember tva ltulian director. I forget his name for the moment.
rr:axtt'o t'Ot')'<lQCt. a packet of cigarettes). J..'/i•11i Who's in it?
7 I\ In rin /\II the act.ors, except for one, are unknown.
Eµtva µ' Ct.QfoEt lJ S<lXCt.QlJ. Me I like sugar or literally sugar is pleasing
h'/1•11i Oh! Goodness! What a crowd! Will we find seats?
to me. Here we see the strong form of the indirect object pronoun
M11rio We'll see.
rµtva used for emphasis. We studied the strong forms of the direct
object pronouns in L18, N2; in fact the strong forms are the same for
Al the box office
direct and indirect objects in the first and second person sing. and plural.
Remember that we said the forms µtva (to) me, otva (to) you, µas (to) /\I aria Two tickets, please.
us and IJCI.S (to) you may also be rµtva, EIJEVCI., rµas and £Oas. The initial < 'nsliier Stalls or balcony?
Eis usually dropped from these if the preceding word ends in a vowel Maria Stalls
(ym µtvafor me). Remember that third person strong object pronouns < 'ashier I !ere you are.
are formed from ll\Jt'OS-11-6. The indirect object in the third person is Mnrl« Wh11t time does the film start?
formed from the Gen. of this pronoun: ll\Jt'ou, Ct.ll'tl]S, ll\Jt'Ou in the sing., 1'11,1/tll'r It'll st1111 in five minutes.
and au,:wv for all genders in the plural.

In the interval M68r11,1a eiKOOI TT&VTe Lesson twenty five
Eleni Are you thirsty?
Maria Yes.
Eleni Two lemon juices, please.
New words l)ITTJXOS·tJ·O quiet, calm, assured
Employee Here you are. µ:n:aivw I enter, get in
Maria Mine has got a lot of sugar. I can't drink it. ,, ayn:rttJ love
:rtott never, ever.
Eleni Take mine and give me yours. (Me) I like sugar. aya:n:ri1:oi;-11-o dear
tJ :rt!]OaXAtJGtJ invitation
Maria A lot of sugar isn't good for you, though. 11 a:n:av1:rim1 answer
to. xeovta years
o.:n:o than
Mine or yours? o.<f)tJVW (subj. aq:it'law) I leave -
yt' auto that's why
11 yo.w cat
Maria Excuse me, but this seat is mine. yto. :n:0.1,,u Xat(.>O for a long time
11 Y(.>O.µµm:foi; secretary
A man (How is it yours?) What do you mean? ueivere l)ITTJXOS don't worry
, o y(.>o.q:>eio office
Maria Because my overcoat was on the seat. µ:n:o.ivw oe «E(.>O:rtAavo I get (into) a
btXtJYOQtxoi;-11-0 legal, lawyer's plane
A man Was the coat yours?
•'(IXOµevoi;-11-0 coming, next
Maria Yes, mine. And this is my friend's pullover beside (it). Come on :rtat(.>VW ttJAEq:>wvo I call/telephone
~11taw I ask for, request
now. We're wasting our time needlessly. There are other places
further forward.
A man All right. All right. We needn't quarrel.
Maria That's what I say.
(11) M:rtOQEttE va rou :rtEt'tE vu ue :rtUQEl 'ttJAEq:>wvo; Can you tell him to
11/11111e me? Study the construction of this sentence carefully. Greek
1l~l'S vn twice where English uses two infinitives. A more literal
n.uislation would be something like ls it possible that you tell him to take
11w telephone?
Nole the common expression :rt«iQVW 'ttJAEq:>WVO I phone, call literally I
1,il,1· telephone,
lh) M:rto(.>EttE vc rou :n:ehe; Can you tell him? Remember that type 3
11 i11s, like µ:rtoQro, have endings which are stressed but are otherwise the
111tt• 11s type l verb endings, except for the second person plural where
1111 cuding is -sire instead of -ere: µ:rto(.>ELtE.
\\'1 1·1111 now note also that subjunctives consisting of only one syllable in
1111 I 11 ~, person sing. (i.e. those that are perforce stressed on the ending)
ii"' tukc type 3 verb endings (i.e. the second person plural ending -etre):
,, >•111 I ,\'(/y becomes 6a :n:w I'll say and 6a :n:einyou'/1 say. Other verbs
1111 I lit~ that we have met are: :n:ivw, 6a mw, 6a :rttEt'tE you'll drink;
1'~.1 ,1111, Ort. bw, 6a bei1:e, you'll see; flQi<mw, 60. flQw, 6a flQEltE you'll
1111,/ N111c. however, that q:>6.w, qiciu, from 'tQWW I eat follows the
1111111 111 111' 11:«W, mite.
1 l 1111• verb !;111:aw I ask for is another type 2 verb with a regular
11l11111111lv1· Oo. stJtiJaw. Note that QID't(l(J) is used to ask a question while
,11111111 wlih n direct object is used to ask for or request something: 0a
,11,111j11111 xl1,rowv. /' I/ ask someone. Ilowi; rov ;ri1:an; Who is asking for
92 93
(d) Like many verbs with a present stem ending in v, aq>tJVro / leave not the same as the English one.
changes the v to o in the subjunctive «q>tJ<Jro Note that 'to yQ«q>Ei.o may mean office as well as desk (LlO).
(e) Me(vne 1)(Jl))COt; Don't worry or literally stay quiet. Mdvne is the 12 The noun yQaµµa'tfot; has the Masc. -at; ending but takes a Fem. article
plural imperative of µtvro / live/stay. Note first that µtvro has an irregular if a female secretary is referred to and the Masc. article if a mate is
subjunctive with a vowel change in the stem, and secondly that the plural referred to. Compare o jlo1106t; and 11 llori06t; assistant.
imperative is the same as the second person plural of the subjunctive;
remember the first E of -ETE drops if the stem ends in <J,
2 Tov XUQto 4>t;11, 1t«Q«xalw. Mr. Fexis, please. Note that when Nikos
asks for Mr. Fexis on the phone, rov XUQto 4>t;11 is in the Acc. case as it Translation
is the object of the unspoken Otlro / want.
3 Am'> nt; 12 rot; ·nt; S From 12 o'clock to 5 o'clock Remember rot; (Lll, llc's busy
N9) meaning up to or as far as? Note that cot; can also refer to time in \'1•1·relary Mr. Fexis ' law office. Good morning.
the sense of until or to. Nikos Good morning. Mr. Fexis, please.
4 The Fem. nouns 11 «1ta.v't11011 answer and 11 1tQO<Jxl11011 invitation are of ,\1•r·1·e1ary Mr. Fexis is busy at the moment. Who is asking for him, please?
the archaic type (L23, N2), 'tlJt; a1t«V't1)<JErot;, 't11t; 1tQOOXAtJ0Erot; in the Nikos Kazakos. Nikos Kazakos.
Gen. sing., and or a1taV'tfJOEtt;, ot 1tQOoxA1JOEtt; in the Norn. Voe. and \,•, t rt ary Do you want me to tell him anything, Mr. Kazakos?
Acc. plural. Nikos Yes. You can tell him to call me at 701-86.
5 E(vm altJOEt« on It's true that Remember that 11 altJOEta truth is in ,\,•, n-t ary Certainly. What time can he call you?
fact a noun, but the English translation uses the adjective true here. Note N//,0.1· From 12 o'clock to 5 o'clock today. I'll be there all the time.
again the use of O'tt as a conjunction; what follows on here tells us what \,, 11•111ry All right, Mr. Kazakos. Don't worry.
is true. Nlkos Thanks.
6 H 0rn<J«lovix11 dvm mo COQata a1t6 't11V A01Jva. Thessaloniki is more •,·,, 11•/nry You're welcome. Goodbye.
beautiful than Athens. Here we see 1tto more again, used this time
before an adjective to make a comparison. Note that «1t6 is used in 1 lw uuswer
comparisons where we use than.
7 XQ6vta txro vc oat; bro. I haven't seen you for years or It's years since I Thursday, 13th. April
saw you. Note this construction carefully; it may be translated in i1,,111 liro,
different ways into English, but the literal translation Years I have to see Thank you very much for your invitation.
you makes no sense. Note also the use of the present tense again II'•, 1111c that Thessaloniki is more beautiful than your Athens. It is,
(compare L17, Nla). We have already met o XQOVOt; year which in the lill\\1111·1, 111~0 true that I want to see you (all) very much. I haven't seen you
sing. is like a normal Masc. noun in -oc, This noun is quite exceptional, II 111111 llt1·1 for years. That's why I'll come, but only for one week. You have
however, as the plural is Neut. 't« xQovm; we already know the Gen. 11111 11111 k 1111cJ I can't leave my cats and my flowers for long. I'll come, if I'm
plural from 1t6orov XQOVwv .. 11 11, ,1 Tuesday on the train, because as you know, I never get (into) an
8 The literal translation of ym 1tolu xmQ6 is obviously for a lot of time, i i!jil.1111
but we usually say for a long time. With much love,
9 AEv µ1ta(vro OE aEQ01tl6.vo 1to'tt. I never get into an aeroplane. The Your mother.
verb µn:a(vro usually followed by OE can be translated by get into, go into
or enter. Note how 1tO'tE is used with a negative verb. In English we
would have to use either never or not ... ever. I don't ever get into a
plane or I never get into a plane.
10 ft' a\J'tO Oa EQOro. That's why I'll come. The final « of yt« has been
dropped before the a of «ll'to here.
Similarly the a of va drops when the next word begins with a: v' aq>tJm,,.
The expression yt' au't6 obviously means literally for this, but it
translates best into that's why or for this reason.
11 The nearest English equivalent to a b,x11y0Qtx6 yQaq>efo would be a
solicitor's office but naturally the Greek system of laws and lawyers is

94 95
Ma8rUJO &iKOOI &~I Lesson twenty six tense: xcin:vtoa / smoked, boxiµaoEs; have you tried? and CX(.)YflOU l
was late.
(a) The regular formation of the past tense is quite simple; we take the
New words subjunctive stem, which we already know about, and add the past tense
endings, which we can begin to learn now: -n for the first person sing.,
yivoµm I become 11 rrciota pas try, cake and -ES for the second person sing.
OtJAabiJ then, in that case rrt(_)vciw I enjoy myself One characteristic of the past tense is that the stress generally falls on
to bui~aoµa studying, reading :TCES tell the third syllable from the end. There are some exceptions to this,
bui(j)OQOS-11-0 different, various to :rco(_)toxci>.t orange however, as in iJµouv, iJoouv, iJtav which we have already met.
tvbmcptQw I interest rron when Let's compare the present, subjunctive and past of these verbs:
to Otµa subject to rrotl)(.)t glass Present Subjunctive Past
xci9toE sit (down) rr(_)ootxw I take care, watch out UQYW UQYlJOW «QYlJOU I was late
xa9o>.ou (not) at all tO<JO so UQYEtS llQY1JOElS «(.)YlJOES you were late
xata(j)E(.)VW I manage, get by (j)OflEQOS·iJ-o terrible xcmvi~ro xarrvfow xa:rcv,oa l smoked
xcin something xwtvi~Et.s xarrvfoEtS xa.:rcvtOES you smoked
l) XtVfl(Jl) movement, traffic xohal;t v« OEtS you see, look boxtµci~w boxtµ boxiµaoa I tried
to µtQOS place, part ta xat«(j)E(.)VW J manage, get by l>oxtµ«~EtS boxtµa.aEtS boxiµaots you tried
to µrn11µE(.)t~vo lunch, midday meal Tt yivrnm; How are you? (b) The past tense in Greek is used like the past tense in English to speak
µuci after tooo no>.6 so long or an action completed in the past. Karrvtoa tva µna. to µwl)µE(.)mvo. /
JtEt(.)tOS·U·O medium smoked one after lunch. However, the Greek past tense may often be -
translated by the English perfect tense LioxiµaoES ttS n:ciotES tou;; Have
you tried their pastries? Take special note of the use of a.(_)yl)aU here,
where we would say/ am late in the present tense. Greek uses the past
tense on the grounds that the late arrival is complete and therefore past;
Notes l1lcni is in effect saying she is sorry that she has arrived late.
1Passive {11) Kci9toE Sit down is the regular sing. imperative from xci9oµm,
(a) The verb yivoµm / become is another of those special verbs, like ~11hjunctive xa9iow, and 31:(.)00ESE watch out is the regular sing.
E(.))Coµm and xci9oµm (L19, Nla), which are always passive in form in luipcrative from rr(_)ootxro, subjunctive :rc(_)ootl;w.
the present tense but active in meaning. Tr yivwm; is in fact an
idiomatic expression meaning How are you (getting on)? From this we
iii) lles-µou Tell me Dts is an irregular sing. imperative not formed
111\·mding to the rules we studied. It comes from Uw, subjunctive rrw;
can see that the second person sing. passive ending is -eom and a little llwrc are only a few irregular imperatives, which you can learn by heart
later in the lesson we find the second person plural ending E(.))CEotE ot11v 11•1 you meet them.
A0iJva you come to Athens. So the second person passsive endings are (1 ) Remember that µEivw is the subjunctive of µtvro l live/stay.
-eom sing. and -eore plural; let's study the complete picture of passive Nouns
endings now, and make sure we know them all. \'fr now meet the plural of Neut. nouns in -os (L20) 01: bt«(j)O(.)U µE(.)lJ to
E(.))COµm / come E(.)l(OµaotE we come ,ll//1•11•111 places. The Norn., Voe and Acc. plural of"to µtQospart, place is
E(.)l(Wm you come E(.))CEotE you come "' ,1/•u11; similarly the plural ofto A<i6os ism >.ci6l) and to Pci9os becomes
E(.)l(EtUt he/she comes E(.)l(Ovtm they come ,., llt'dh1,
The other special verbs, x6.6oµm and yivoµm, follow the same pattern, N, 11 kt• I he use of xatt something and its opposite ti:n:otE anything or
as do normal type I verbs in the passive (L22, Nia). 11t1/l,/11if, Both are invariable: Kci'tt ~Urrro. / see something. 0tAEtS
+(b) T, yivEoat; How are you (getting on)? This is a third greeting to 1 I ,t011•; no yo11 want anything? AEv dvm ti.rrotE, It's nothing or It isn't
add to the two we already know with the same meaning: Oros Eiom; and Ill\•//, //If.I, .
Tr xavEts; You can use any one of these three. 11,, ,,011 '/'ell me Note that object pronouns come directly after
2 Past tense l11q11111livcs. Remember that in statements and questions, on the
We are now quite familiar with the Greek present, subjunctive and 111111111 y, object pronouns come directly before the verb. Compare: 0a µou
future, so we can take another step forward and begin to study the past 111 l,111'// le// me. At: 9a µou rrt:tS, You won't te/(me. and DES µouTe// me.

7 Eivm fl lt()Wtfl q>O()a itO\J EQXEO'tE omv A611va; Is it the first time that Eleni Another time. I'm not at all hungry now.
you ('ve) come to Athens? Note again how :1to\J that is used as a Andreas (Waiter) please. One orange juice and a medium coffee. Shall we
conjunction after a time expression. smoke a cigarette?
8 IlotE q>Euytt;; When are you leaving? Note the question word 11:otE Eleni I smoked one at home after lunch.
when? carefully. Do not confuse it with orcv when (L17). Ilore is used Andreas I'll smoke one with my coffee.
as a question word, while otav is used only as a conjunction. Also do not Eleni Tell me, then. How are you enjoying yourself in Athens?
confuse itOtE when with 11:ote (stressed on the second syllable) never, Andreas Quite well. I've got quite a lot of friends here and we go to different
ever. IlotE 6a EQ6tt;; When will you come? LiEv 11:ivw 11:ote. I never places together.
drink. 0a to\J mo orov EQ6Et. I'll tell him when he comes. Eleni Is it the first time that you (have) all come to Athens together?
9 Words and expressions to note Andreas No, but it's the first time that we're staying for such a long time.
(a) LiEv 11:Etvaw xa601.otJ. I'm not at all hungry. Note that xa6oAO\J is a Eleni When are you leaving then?
useful word to emphasize a negative, just like the English expression at uidreas In three weeks. (What about) you? How are you getting on with
a II. law? Are you managing?
(b) H xivriori is another archaic type Fem. noun with the plural ot Eleni Well, you see, law needs (a lot of) study. But the subject interests
xtVl]OEt;. Its literal meaning is movement, but it is often used, as here, to me, so I manage quite well.
refer to crowds or traffic: qioPEl.>11 xivriori terrible traffic. \ tulreas Here's our order. The juice is yours and the coffee is mine. Hmm!
(c) We met itE()vaw with its literal meaning I pass in LU, but note that Watch out! I (can) see something in your glass.
Ilw; itE()va;; literally How are you passing? is often used in the sense of lilcn! It's nothing. It's something from the orange.
How are you enjoying yourself?
(d) Remember btaPa~w I read or study? The noun to btaPuoµa can also
refer to reading or studying.
(e) The adjective µhQto;-a-o medium is commonly used when ordering
Greek coffee. It means neither strong nor weak and neither very sweet
nor bitter.
(f) The idiomatic expression ta xatacpel_)vw means/ manage or get by.
The ta here refers to things that are managed, but it would not normally
be translated into English.
(g) We met EV<>tacpEQOµm / am interested in L23; µ' EV<>taq>E()Et it
interests me is the active form of the same verb.
(h) In L9 we saw that µna can be used adverbially and translated as after-
wards; now we see µna used as a preposition µna to µEOflµE()tavo after
(i) Koital;E va bn;, literally Look and see, is a common opening phrase, often
preceding some explanation; an English equivalent would be something like
Well, you see ... or simply Look ...

At the pastry shop
Eleni Hello. I'm ten minutes late, but the traffic was terrible. I'm sorry.
Andreas Never mind. Sit down. How are you?
Eleni Fine.
Andreas What will you have?
Eleni I'll have an orange juice.
Andreas Have you tried their pastries? They're terrific.

98 99
Ma8ru1a &IKOOI &q>TO Lesson twenty seven examples in this lesson. There are also a number of adverbs which end in
-w<;, not to be confused with -os the Masc. Norn. sing. ending for type 1
and 2 adjectives: auv110w<; usually, E\J't\JXW<;fortunately, <>umuxw<;
unfortunately and XUQtwc; mainly. Compare xuQiwi; mainly with the
New words adjective XUQto<;·«-o main and note the difference in stress.
7 'Oxore ayoQ<i~w x<itt Whenever I buy something Here we have
aAAWOtE besides 1tEQ«oµtvoc;-11-o last another useful conjunction to note, 61tote, which can be translated by
av<>QtXO<;-ri-6 men's ta Qouxa clothes whenever or any time that.
aitO(f)Euyw I avoid auyxEXQtµtvo<;-11-0 definite 8 'Exne -rittou u1t6¢11 oa<;; Have you anything in mind? The expression
yvw<rto<;-ri-6 well known oxntx«i relatively u1tolj!11 uou/oou/occ etc. is idiomatic, but neatly translated by if! mind:
yuvmxeio<;-a-o women's tEAetoc;-a-o perfect 'Exw x«in u1t6¢t1 uou, I have something in mind.
MoxoAo<;-11-0 difficult, fussy 11 nµii price 9 Note the use of the article in the expressions 'tl1tO'tE ro ouyxEXQtµtvo
11 t!;o<>o<; outing, expedition 11 u1toµov11 patience nothing definite and 'tl!V 1tEQ«aµtv11 el}<>oµ<i<>a last week where no article
eµ1tOQtX6<;-ri-6 shopping, u1tolj!11 (ooc) in mind is needed in the English translation. Note also that d1to-re translates into
commercial to U(f)«oµa material, cloth nothing when it is used without a verb.
XUQLW<; mainly, especially 11 (fJO\JOta skirt 10 The adjective EµitOQtXo<;-11-0 means business or commercial but Ermou is
to µaya~i shop, store (f)tllv« cheaply in fact what we would calJ one of the main shopping streets in the centre
µua!;u between (f)t11voc;-ri-6 cheap of Athens.
61tote whenever XQUooc;-ri-6 golden, dear I '1 The adjective XQUOO<;·lJ·O golden is often used to refer to a person as a
1tm<>tx6c;-ri-6 children's ta lj!wvm shopping term of affection, just as we use dear or darling. Remember that in
Greek adjectives can be used on their own as if they were nouns: 'Oxt,
XQU<Jl] µou. No, dear. Here XQU<Jl] refers to Despina and has the Fem.
Yoe. ending.
1~ xa-raa-r11µa-ra U(f)«oµ«itwv literally shops of materials Here we see the
1 Past tense Gen. plural of Neut. nouns in -un. Note that these nouns are always
H M«Qi« ay6Q«OE µm (fJOUom. Maria bought a skirt. The past tense stressed on the penultimate syllable in the Gen. plural.
of ayoQ«~w is formed regularly from the subjunctive stem ay6Qao- and
the past tense endings. The ending for the third person sing. is e, so we
now know all three sing. endings for the past tense: ay6Qaoa I bought,
ay6Q«oec; you bought, ay6Q«OE he bought. trnnslation
2 0a 1t<iEt yta lj!wvm She'll go shopping Note that the Greek expression lhi• shops
for going shopping uses yta and the plural noun lj!wvm purchases.
3 Note the adjectives yuvmxdo<;-a-o, av<>Qtxo<;-ri-6 and 1tml'ux6<;-11-o 1/,,11 Today my wife is going shopping in Ermou Street. Ermou is a very
corresponding to the nouns ll yuvaixa woman, o UV'tQ«<; man and -ro well known shopping street in Athens. There are a lot of shops that
1tm<>i child. English doesn't have equivalent adjectives; but we talk of sell clothes, especially women's clothes. There are some (shops) for
men's shops, women's clothes and children's toys etc. men's and children's (clothes) too. There are also a lot of shops for
4 The noun ll 1}01106<; assistant is Fem. as it refers to Litsa, a girl; if a male (I hat sell) material. Despina is going with Ero and Maria's friend, Eleni.
assistant was referred to the Masc. o 1}01106<; would be used (L14). liro hasn't got much work today. Besides, Litsa, her assistant, will
Remember also o 110o1tot6<; actor, ll 110o1tm6<; actress. xtay in the surgery. Between ourselves I avoid such outings. And that
H t!;o<>o<; outing, expedition is another Fem. noun ending in -o<; in the (is) because I haven't any patience. When I need something, I go into
Norn. sing., just like 11 oM<; and 11 eioo<>oc;. 11 shop, buy it and leave. My wife is very fussy. Sometimes she goes
5 Remember that we said the prefixes <>uo- and eu- have opposite 11110 twenty shops and doesn't buy anything. It's true, however, that
meanings; now we have another pair buoxoAo<;-11-0 difficult and ~he buys wisely and cheaply. And I must tell you something else ...
euxoAo<;-11-0 easy. When <>uoxoAo<; refers to a person,fussy or difficult to Whenever T buy something with the help of my wife, it's always
please is often a good translation. 1 w I feel.
6 We have already noted that a lot of adverbs ending in -c are formed from
the Neut. plural of adjectives: (f)tlJVU cheaply and owat«i correctly are

100 101
Good prices M68r11,1a &1Koo1 OXT<a> Lesson twenty eight
Despina Isn't this Ermou?
Ero No, dear. That's Ermou.
Eleni Where shalt we go? I mean, have you got anything in mind? New words
Despina No, nothing definite.
Eleni Do you want (us) to go into that shop? Usually it has very nice ,:o cimteo white nfow (11(0 behind
things at good prices.Last week Maria bought a lovely skirt from aoneoi;-11-0 white 1tJ.£Vro I wash
there and (it was) relatively cheap. ,:o P«µpcixt cotton '1 1tOL<>1:11m quality
P«µp«xEeoi;-11-0 cotton o nroAtJ'tl](; salesman, sales assistant
l>Eixvro (subj. bd;ro) I show IJ nro).111:em salesgirl, sales assistant
Eixoot ntvu ,:« Ex«-ro twenty five o,:Evoi;-11-0 tight (fitting), narrow
per cent m,v6ntx6i;-ri-o synthetic
Ex«,:o ,:« Ex«,:o hundred per cent ,:mou none, nothing
~EO"tOl,•1]•0 hot q>«ivoµm I seem, look, appear
xmcoi;-11-0 bad to q,apooc; length
xoxiuvoi;-11-0 red q>«Qbv loose (fitting), wide
xov,:oi;-11-0 short qmaxvw I fix, put right
11 xoue-riv« curtain x).meoi;-11-0 warm, tepid
xuei« madam
'to µaxeoi; length uv 6wu if you like
µ«xev long AE uou xcivEL It's not what I want
µci).).tvoi;-11-0 woollen N« oou nro ... Well, I think ...
I'll µtyE6oi; size Ilooo EXEL; How much is it?
( ,o) µn).E blue oou EQXE-rm it fits you
11 µn).oi,~« blouse oou nan it suits you

(11) Passive
To µaKpo; q,naxv&-mL. The length can be put right. This is the
1 cgularly formed passive of the verb q>,:uixvro I fix or put right. Note,
however, the use of can in the English translation; we might also
hunslate this as The length is fixable.
ll)Jvnm oe xevo VEQ<>; Can it be washed in cold water? This is
unother 'regular passive from n).tvro I wash. Once again, note the use of
i 1111 in the translation; the literal translation would be Is it washed.
(h) Special verbs
Av y{ve,:m. If it is possible. We have already met Tt yivEam; used
Idiomatically as How are you? Now we see the verb yivoµm used
1dl11111nlically in the third person sing.; the literal translation if it becomes
w1111ld make little sense.
l ,11; l•uxnm 1to1.v roQ«i«. It fits you beautifully. Here we see the third
111 1 ~on sing. of texoµm I come used idiomatically to mean it fits. Again,
t 111 literal translation it comes to you makes little sense.

102 103
Ilwi; GOV <patvt:tm; How does it look to you? The verb qia(voµm / (b) The adjectives GTEVOS·tJ·O and <paQOU mean narrow and wide
seem, appear, look is another verb which is always passive in form in generally, but they are commonly used of clothing to mean tight (fitting)
Greek but not in English. It is very common in the third person sing. and loose (fitting).
meaning it seems or it looks. (c) Na GOU mo, literally let me tell you, is a common idiomatic expression
(c) Idiomatic uses used before expressing an opinion. It can be translated as Well, I think ...
!:ov n:cin to µn:'>.t. Blue suits you. At: uou doesn't suit me. Note the or In my opinion ...
idiomatic use of n:cin it goes which translates into it suits here. (d) Note the use of XUQtll uou madam. This is a respectful way of
At: uou xcivn ttitotE an:' avtci. None of these is what I want. Here we see addressing an unknown married or older woman. Remember that lJ
another idiomatic use ofxcivro I make, do. At: uou xcivn is rather like saying it X\lQta is translated as Mrs. before a name.
won't do for me. Note also that tin:otE an:' avTci is literally nothing from
Av 6t'>.t:tt: is translated literally by if you want, but the normal English
expression is if you like or if you wish. Translation
(d) At:t!;ro is the subjunctive form of bt:ixvro I show and bt:i!;Tt: is the Dresses
regularly formed plural imperative.
(e) At:ttE is the second person plural subjunctive of bw from jl'>.tn:ro I see. Uespina This blue dress isn't bad.
Remember we said that verbs stressed on the endings in the subjunctive \'ofesgirl Do you want to try it (on)?
take type 3 verb endings (L25, Nlb). l uspina Yes, if it's possible.
(f) Ilooo EXEL; How much is it? This is an alternative to itOGO xcivn; \'11/esgirl Here you are. Go inside ...
when asking the cost of something. I u/spina ... How does it look to you, Ero?
2 !:ov n:cit:t TO ciGitQO. White suits you. The Neut. sing. forms of colour Ero Lovely. And blue suits you, you know.
adjectives can be used as nouns in Greek, but note that the article to I uspin a It doesn't suit me very (well). Green suits me more. It's a little long
precedes the colour when it is used as a noun, whereas no article is used too. I prefer something shorter.
in English. Note also the word order here with the subject after the verb. \111,•.1·,.:irl The length can be put right, madam.
3 E(vm µax11u. It's long. Eivm qiaQOU. It's loose. We have studied type J trsnina Yes, but it's a little loose (fitting) too. No, the other one I tried on
1 adjectives like xa'>.oi;·tJ·O and type 2 adjectives like roQafoi;-a-o; now was tighter (fitting) than this one. But it was red and red doesn't
we come to type 3 adjectives with quite different endings. We won't suit me. Isn't that so, Ero?
study them in detail yet; just note the Neut. sing. ending -v. The endings h'/'/) Well, I think ...
are Neut. here as µax11u and <paQOU refer to to <pOQEµa. The noun to / J, I Jii 110 No. None of these is what I want. I can't find what I want.
qiciQboi; length is another Neut. noun like to Aci6oi;. \,tl,•,1·;.:irl Whatever you say (lit. As you think), madam.
4 Comparisons
(a) Mou n:ciu mo n:o'>.u. It suits me more. Note how mo n:o'>.u Woollen or cotton?
translates into one word more. We already know n:o'>.u a lot or much; mo
n:o'>.u is the comparative form more. 1•:fr11i Show me that white blouse.
(b) n:w xovto shorter, mo orevo tighter To say more short, more tight
.,,/, \///((// You want to see this one?
would sound strange; again single English words translate two Greek Flrni Yes, is it woollen?
words here. ,·0/1 \/111111 No, it's cotton.
5 At:v µitOQW vu jlQro avto xou 61;'>.ro. I can't find what I want. Study I l1•11i A hundred per cent cotton?
this construction carefully. The literal translation of avto n:ou 6t'>.w 1 /1 I /Ill/// It's twenty five per cent synthetic.
would be that which I want. Once again one word, what, translates two I /1•1(/ Can it be washed only in cold water?
Greek words. ,I, \I/Ill/I It can be washed in warm (water) too. Not in hot (water) though.
6 t:Xato ta t:XaTo a hundred per cent, EtXOGl itEVtE ta t:xaTo twenty five This is your size.
per cent Note how percentages are expressed in Greek; literally a / / 1•11/ Can I try it on?
hundred the hundred, twenty five the hundred. 1 /1 I I/Ir/// If you like. Go behind the curtain ... It fits you beautifully. And
7 Words and expressions while suits you very well.
(a) The colour adjective and noun (To) µn:.1.t:, being of foreign origin, is I /,•11/ I low much is it?
I, .uu) II 11 's not at all expensive for its quality.
invariable just like the Neut. nouns we have met TO ta!;i, to Touvu etc.

104 105
Ma&rwa eiK001 evvra Lesson twenty nine 3 ivo. ~EU"/O:Qt uEvrovm a pair of sheets, ')(LAtEi; bQaxµti; jlEv~ivri a
thousand drachmas (worth) of petrol Remember this construction (L6,
4 Ill]yEi; vu jlQtti; xavtva q>OQEµa. You went to find a dress of some sort.
New words Note the translation of xavtv~ q>OQEµa here a dress of some sort;
we might also translate this as some (sort of) dress.
o atQai; air (pressure) ta AE<pta money 5 AE jlQ11xa auto xou 116EAa. / didn't find what I wanted. Note again the
wtMi;-11-0 ordinary, regular tJ µatw look, glance use of aui:6 nou what, literally that which (L28, NS).
jla~w (subj. jlaMO) I put (in) 1tl]ya I went 6 ')(tAtEi; bQa')(µti; a thousand drachmas The number xi1.t0t·E<;-a a
to jlEV~tvabtxo petrol station 1t11Qa I got, took, bought thousand is, like the numbers bmxouwt-ri;-a to evvicxomor-ec-c, a type
tJ jlEv~ivri petrol 1tiuw at the back I adjective in the plural. Here xiAtri; has the Fern. ending as it refers to
1lQ11xa I found to uEvtovt sheet bQuxµti;. Note that we say a thousand, but no article is used in Greek.
yEµi~w I fill (up) uou1tEQ super 7 Words and expressions
to ~EU"/«Qt pair 'tEAtxa in the end, after all (a) Pi!;i:E µai:ta u,:u },<ibm xat orov CJ.EQU. Have a look at the oil and
118d.a I wanted ')(LAlOt·Ei;-a a thousand tyres. The literal translation here would be Throw a glance at the oils
11Q8a I came \jlwvi~w I shop, buy and air. In English we usually ask to have the tyres or tyre pressure
X\JQLE sir looked at, but Petros asks the man to look at the air. Also Flooo atQO.
to Mbt oil Ql;tE µta µana have a look jla~nr; What pressure do you put in? Another peculiarity is that Greeks
talk of ,:u },<ibtu in the plural, while in English we talk of the / engine) oil
in the singular.
(b) A1tA1] '1 aotJ1t£Q; Ordinary or super? These two words refer to the
grades of petrol on sale in Greece. A1ti11 Iiterally simple has the Fem.
Notes ending as it refers to tJ jlEv~ivri petrol; uo\J1t£Q is invariable as it is
1 Verbs another word of foreign origin.
(c) Note the use of Evi:<i!;tt riµo.oi:r, literally we're 0.K., meaning that
(a) Past tense
In this lesson we meet the past tense endings for the first and second the job in hand has been completed and everything is 0.K.
(d) EuxaQun:ro, X\JQtE. Thank you, sir. Remember that o X\JQW<; can be
person plural -nue and -nre, and at the same time we have to learn some
used before a name like Mr. as in o X\JQtoi; Ka~axoi;, and to refer to an
irregular past tense stems, which are not the same as the subjunctive
unknown person, tvo.; XtJQt0i; a gentleman. Note now that the Yoe.
stems. The past tense endings are the same for all verbs, but the irregular
X\JQtE is often used politely when addressing strangers, just as sir is
stems (there aren't very many of them) you will have to learn as you
sometimes used in English. You will find, however, that X\JQtE is used in
meet them. Compare these:
Present Subjunctive Past Greek much more widely than sir in English.
(c) Note that 1tO.iQVW / take may often translate as/ get or/ buy: n11eii
EQ')(<>µautE EQflouµE f!Q6aµE we came
1tUtE 1tll'tE 1tf1"/atE you went pnu µ1t1.ou~o.. I got a blouse or 1 bought a blouse.
(I') Note very carefully that ,:a uq>i:6. money is a plural noun in Greek.
1taiQVEt 1tllQEt :ltlJQE she took, got
jlQt<JX(l) jlQW jlQl]Xa / fOU nd
Note also 116£1.a / wanted which adds a syllable in the past tense.
(b) fEµma is the regular past tense from yEµi~w I fill (up), subjunctive
yEµiuw, and \jlrovtaa is the regular past of \jlwvi~w / shop, buy,
subjunctive \jlwviuw. rrn1,olntlon
(c) The type one verb jla~w / put (in) becomes jlaiw in the subjunctive 1111 1ihop1ling
and the plural imperative form is jlaA(E)tE. Although the stem ends in },
not u the first E of ·E'tE is often dropped in speech. '//,III Ah! You've come.
2 Na to yEµiaw; Shall I fill her up? Study this new use of vu followed by /L/ LI Yes, we've come.
the subjunctive carefully. Here it is used as a question when offering to IA ,,1 Where did you go in the end?
do something for someone. We might also translate this by Would you I I" We went to Ermou.
like me to fill her up? '(/, l I I )id you buy anything?

106 107
Ero 1 bought a skirt, (some) cosmetics and a pair of sheets. Eleni got a Maerwa Tp1civTa Lesson thirty
very attractive white blouse.
Nikos And you, Despina. What did you get?
Despina In the end I bought some material for curtains.
Nikos But you went to find a dress of some sort. New words
Despina I didn't find whatI wanted.
aywtw J love µEya1,.wvw I grow (up)
At the petrol station arrO(f)ll<Jt~W I decide ovoµa~w I name, call
o yaµrrQ6i; son-in-law, brother-in-law 11:QlV ll1TO ago
Employee What do you put in? Ordinary or super? ym vu in order to 1TQOoxa1,.w (3) I invite
Petros Super. 11 ytayta grandmother o m'.,~uyoi; husband
Employee Shall I fill her up? yuQt~w I return, come back CJXEbov almost
Petros No. Put me in a thousand drachmas (worth) of petrol. TO Eyyovt grandchild rooo such (a), so
Employee There we are. Em9uµw (3) I miss i:Qmxoai:oi;-11-6 thirtieth
Petros Have a look at the oil and tyres, please. 11 ~wt\ life tJ XllQU widow
Employee Right away. What air (pressure) do you put in? xat]µtvoi; poor, unfortunate
Petros Twenty two in front and twenty four at the back. o µaKapitt]; the late/deceased au,:a EXEL 11 ~(!)11 that's life
Employee ... Oil and tyres O.K. You're ready. (person) Ou ,:a rrouµE we'll talk about it
Perros The money for the petrol. And that's for a (cup of) coffee. ~tEya1,.oi;-t]-O old, big tH..oi; rravtwv anyway, still
Employee Thank you very much, sir.

(a) Passive
Ovoµa~oµm / am called is the regular passive form of ovoµa~w I name
or/ call. Remember too the noun ro ovou«.
(b) Past tense
In this lesson we see the third person plural form for the past tense
yiJQtCJUV they came back. The ending -nv completes our picture of past
tense endings. Here they are all together:
yi,Qtaa I came back yuQioaµE we came back
yu(!wEi; you came back yueioai:E you came back
yt',QtCJE he/she came back yuQtoav they came back
l{cmcmber we said that the stress is generally THREE syllables from the
1•11d. Hence, when a TWO syllable ending like -uus and -nre is added the
~,,·css is moved to the vowel which is now THREE syllables from the end:
'Y ll(lUJE - YUQlCJ«µE.
Nole also tai:EtlE from ai:tlvw I send, subjunctive ai:Eilw, and tµavav
110111 µtvw / stay, subjunctive µEivw. A number of such verbs, which
11111~ist of only two syllables in the first person sing. of the subjunctive,
11dd nn e in the past tense in order to make a three syllable word; in these
1 11~1·~ the t, as the third from final syllable, always takes the stress.
fl ( 111,, llElVW - tµnva
o, I )..wo - ai:EiAw - tai:n1,.a
1111' p11sl tense forms a,to(f)«otoa from wtO(f)UCJt~w I decide, yuQtCJa from

108 109
yugi~w I come back, return and E1tt6uµ11oa from the type 3 verb 10 Words and expressions
1:m6uµro / miss/wish are regular. (a) 01l 'tll 110\JµE is a commonly used expression meaning we'll talk about
(c) Aya1tro I love, also commonly heard as aym,:aw, is another type 2 it (later], literally we'll say them.
verb, while 1tQ0< I invite is a type 3 verb. (b) o µaKapitTJ<; o Avtptai; the late Andreas The noun o µaxaQl'tTJS
2 Eiµm tl}boµT}V'ta naoagwv xeovwv. I'm seventy four years old. means the deceased person, but it translates best into English as the
Remember that ages are expressed using the Gen. case. adjective late in the sense of dead. Note that both µaxagiTTJS and the
3 Eiµm XttQa, I'm a widow. Remember that Greek does not use an following noun are preceded by the definite article.
article in sentences like this (L4, N7). (c) 0 ou~uyoi; husband can also be a Fem. noun TJ <J\J~uyoi; wife like
4 o mo xawi; OtXTJYOQOS the best lawyer Note that mo is used in the o Po111tos, 11 Po111toi;. o <J\J~uyos is an alternative to o av,:gai;, and 11
superlative as well as the comparative: ov~uyoi; is an alternative to TJ yuvaixa.
tivm xaJ..oi; he's good dvm xov,:o it's short (d) Note the use of the adjective K«TJµEVO<,·TJ-O wifortwiate, poor:
dvm mo xawi; he's better Eivm mo xov,:o it's shorter o Ka11µtv0<, o A vtptai; poor Andreas, 'I K«TJJ&EVTJ 'I A9t)va poor Athina
dvm o mo xaJ,.oi; he's the best dvm to mo xov,:o it's the shortest. o KUTJJlEV°', poor thing/fellow, lJ KUTJJ&EVTJ poor girl.
Usually the comparative is formed by using mo without an article while Note also the pronunciation of Kat)µtv0<,: remember that UTJ is
the superlative is normally formed by using the definite article before pronounced something like the i in kite, while a, is pronounced like E.
mo. Note, however, that TJ Afo1toiva Eivm TJ mo µtyaJ..11 is translated (e) Tuoi; itUV'tWV anyway, still is another common expression; it is often
by the comparative Despina is the older one because Athina has only used as a kind of conclusion to a subject.
two daughters; if she had three daughters TJ mo µEy«ATJ (a1to ni; TQEti;) (f) The girl's name TJ A611va (also the name of a goddess) is stressed on
would be translated by the superlative the oldest one ( of the three). the final syllable; don't confuse it with 'I A611va Athens stressed on the
5 'tooo XllAOS av6gro1toi; such a good man We met the adjective roooc-n-o middle syllable.
so much, so many in L17, NSc. Note that tO<JO is used as an invariable (g) Note that 1.uxgoi;-11-0 and µty«J..oi;-11-0 can respectively mean small
like J..iyo a little and 1toJ..u very, to qualify an adjective, verb or adverb; it or young and big or old according to context: µta µtXQl] xo,i;tJ..a a young
is normally translated by such ( a) or so. Compare these: Eivm ,i;oJ..t', girl but µw µtXQl) 1tOATJ a small town; au'tOS rivm µty«J,.oi; he's old but
XllJ..oi;. He's very good. Etvrn 'tO<JO xaJ..oi;. He's so good; Eiµm J..iyo tva µ1:yaJ,.o oitin a big house. Usually the meanings are young or old
xougaoµEVTJ, /' m a little tired. Eiµm 'tO<JO xougaoµEVTJ. /' m so tired. when a person is referred to, with xovTOS·tt·O short and \jJTJAOS·lJ·O tall
Note particularly the difference in these two sentences: Y1tagxouv TOl:A being used to refer to size.
WQlltll qJll'{TJT«. There is so much lovely food. Y1t«QXOUV TOI:O wgaill (h) Note that 1taV'tQEµtvos-TJ·O is followed by the preposition µE,
qiayTJ't«. There is SUCH lovely food. translated by married to.
6 Flooo YQlJYOQll µtyaJ..wvouv! How quickly they grow up! Note this use (i) xavtva µ11va about a month Note that xavtva is translated here as
of 1tooo before an adverb in exclamations: Ilooo llXQll}a 1:ivm re about. We could also translate this by a month or so.
1tgayµll Ta! How expensive things are! (j) Note that the Neut. noun 'to tyyovi refers to a grandchild of either
In such expressions 1tooo is invariable. sex, while o tyyovoi; refers only to a grandson.
7 flgtv a,i;o µ1:gixti; µEQES A Jew days ago We have already met the (k) A1toq,aa1aa va x:attjko O''tTJV A9itva y,a va totx; 60>. I've decided to go
preposition 1tQlV ll1tO before (L9): 1tQtV llitO TTJV itllQllYYEAia oai; before down to Athens to see them. Note that ym va in order to, so that is a more
your order. Note that 1tQtV ll1tO is often translated by ago when referring emphatic form of the simple va. The difference between va and y,a va is
to the past and always precedes the phrase of time. nbout the same as the difference between to and in order to in these cases.
8 Note how vc is translated here: 11 Cultural note ·
II is very common for the eldest son in a Greek family to be given the
Mt 1tQO<JXllAEi va itaro. She invites me to go.
\111nc name as his grandfather, and the eldest daughter usually gets her
Mt 1tQO<JXaAEi vc µdvw. She invites me to stay.
Mt 1tQO<JXllJ..Ei Vil 1t«ro Vil µtivw. She invites me to go and stay.
1,1rnndmother's n.ame.
In the last of these sentences note that the English translation puts an
and between the two infinitives to go and /to) stay.
9 rov tyyovo µou 1tou ,:ov ll'{ll1t«ro my grandson whotm) I love Here W('
see itou used as a joining word again relating to the preceding noun 'tOv
Eyyovo; this time xou translates into who, whom or that. Notice also 1'1111
the object pronoun Tov him is not translated into English here; likewise
Tti; xogti; µou ••• ni; ;tQnE.

110 111
Translation Ma8rn,1a Tp1aVTa tva Lesson thirty one
The grandmother
Athina My name is Athina Papa. I'm the mother of Despina and Ero. I'm
seventy four years old. We'll talk about my house, my garden and New words
my cats some other time. I'm a widow. My late husband, Andreas, ayrut1]1,tEVoi;-11-o favourite, beloved ro it-ru:x;to diploma, degree
was, you know, the best lawyer in the whole of Thessaloniki. And o av-reai; man, husband onv as, like
such a good man, poor thing ... Still, that's life. You know my to ctQvfou lamb 11 O'lll,l(f)Ol'tll'tQtct fellow student
daughters Despina and Ero. Despina, the older one, is forty six years to ywujlh<Jt yiou vetsi (female)
old now. She's married to Nikos and they've got two children. The yv(l)Qt~(l) I know, get to know 'tEAHfilV(l) I finish, end
younger one, Ero, is forty two. Really, how quickly children grow eforn I said 11 'Yl>Qct Idra
up! I haven't any grandchildren from Petros, my son-in-law, and Ero. evw while :x;ctQOU1,ttvoi;-11-o happy
Ero sent me a letter a few days ago. In her letter she invites me to go 11 t:UXctLQtct opportunity, chance
and stay with them for a short time. T haven't seen them for a long E(flhoi; this year am> XatQO for some time, for ages
time, almost a year, and I've missed them. But there's something 11 1JO'll:X:tct quietness, calm, ease Hy11 WQa a short time
else too. Despina, Nikos and Andreas, my grandson, were in England 'I lct'tQlXll medicine, medical science µE -r11v 1JO'll:X:tct (µai;) in peace and
where they stayed for about three months. And now that they've 0 Iouvwi; June quiet, at (our) leisure
come back they are staying at Ero's house. They say that they'll stay ro 1,tct!;tActQt cushion µovot (µai;) alone, on (our) own
about a month. That's why I've decided to go down to Athens to see ro µnouxaAt bottle xooo xmeo how long
them all together. 1 especially want to see (that) Andreas, who(m) I itEQ<Jt last year
love more than all the others. You see, he's got the name of my late
Past tense
(a) We have another irregular past tense form to learn in this lesson EtitE
she said from H(l) / say/tell. Remember the subjunctive form 6a 1t(l) J' II
(b) Note that the special verb tQ:x;oµm I come, although it has passive
endings in the present, has normal active endings in the past tense, as it
does in the subjunctive 6a EQ6(1) I' II come, t1Q6ct / came.
(c) The regular past tense form yvwQwct I knew, I got to know is from
yv(l)Qt~(l), subjunctive yV(l)l)t<J(l),
The verb (fl'tlctXV(l) l fix forms its.subjunctive regularly 6a (fl'tlct!;(l) I'll fix.
<r-r11 cpctQbta 1to1.u6Qova in the wide armchair Now we can see the
l-crn. form of type 3 adjectives that we met in L28, N3. The Fem. ending
is -ta in the Norn., Voe. and Acc. sing; remember that the Neut ending is
-11 in the Norn., Voe and Acc. sing.: ha <pctQM (f)OQEµct a loose dress.
Ti me expressions
(11) Note that in adverbial time expressions like -rriv TEAEurnia (f)OQ« the
111st time and itEQ<Jl -rov Ioevio last year in Ju11e the nouns are in the Acc.
v11~c; hence the articles -rriv and rov here. Note that rov Iouvio is
trnnslated by in June. Remember that in a similar way English uses a
prcnosition while Greek uses the Acc. of the definite article in
uxprcssions like -r11v TQt't11 on Tuesday.
(11) The single words 1tEQ<Jt last year and E(f)ETOi; this year are useful
iuvnriable adverbs.

112 113
(c) The expression mto xctt()o is commonly used meaning for some time Translation
or for ages.
(d) Tov SEQW Mxa µtjve;. I have known him for ten months. Note that A lovely evening
the English translation has the preposition/or here; in Greek the Acc.
case without a preposition is sufficient. Maria Tonight Minas is coming to the house. I'm very happy because I
haven't seen him for days. And the last time he came, he only stayed
(e) Note also the expression 3tOOO X<XlQO literally how much time
for a short time. I'll make his favourite dish for him, lamb yiouvetsi.
normally translated by how long. Compare this with 3tOOlJ WQ« in Lesson We'll open a bottle of good red wine that I've had for some time too.
11, Note 4. While noo11 WQ« how long is used for shorter periods of We'll be alone tonight. Eleni is going to study with a fellow student of
time, hours or minutes, noao X<XlQO is used for longer periods, days, hers and she'll come back late, so she told me. After twelve o'clock.
months or years.
So we'll have the chance to talk at (our) leisure, he (sitting) in the
5 'E:x;w µtQe; v« rov bro./ haven't seen him for days or It's days since I wide armchair that he likes and me beside him on two cushions.
saw him. Remember this construction using the present tense that we Actually, how long have I known Minas? I got to know him last year
met in L25, Note 7. Note also the use of the present tense again where in June on Idra. That's to say (that) I've known him for ten months
English uses the perfect tense to refer to a period of time stretching from already. We're both students of medicine. I'm still in the second year,
the past to the present. Similarly: tva µ,touxa>.t XQaoi nou txw (lj[Q while Minas is finishing. He's sitting for (his) diploma this year. I love
Xat()O a bottle of wine that I have had for some time and Tov sEQW btxa Minas. I like him very much both as a man and as a person. And he
µfive; xu>>.a;. I have known him for ten months already.
loves me, I think. He doesn't tell me often, but I understand (it).
6 Note the expression µ6vot µa; alone or on our own, where the adjective
or pronoun µovo;-l}-o only combines with the possessive. We can also
say Eiµat µovo; µou. I'm alone. Eivm µov11 t11;. She's alone.
7 Eiµaon Xt or buo qiottl}tE;. We are both students. Note this use of
xm with the definite article followed by buo which translates into both.
We can also say 0Hw xm ta buo (f)OQEµata. I want both dresses.
8 Evw is another useful conjunction or joining word which is usually
translated by while.
9 xm onv avtQ«; xm ouv avOQomo;both as a man and as a person Here the
double use of xm is best translated as both ... and ... Note onv avtQ«; as a
man where English uses the indefinite article but Greek does not (L2, N2b).
Note also that o UVtQ«; can be translated as man or husband according to the
context; similarly 11 yuvaixa can be translated as woman or wife.
10 Words and expressions
(a) Aivet yta ntu:x;io. He is giving (exwninations)Jor (his) diploma. The
verb bivw is often used in connection with examinations, while English
normally uses the expression / am sitting/taking an exam.
(b) vu ta nouµe to talk about things Remember this idiomatic
expression (L30).
(c) us tl}V lJO"UXl« µa; in peace and quiet or at our ease
11 Cultural notes
(a) 'Ybea is a famous holiday island to the south of Athens.
(b) To ywu~ttm is a Greek dish consisting of meat, sauce and macaroni
with cheese on top, cooked in the oven in a casserole.

MaOrn.10 TPIOVTO c>uo Lesson thirty two (d) Past tense
We have already noted that some verbs, which consist of only two
syllables in the first person of the subjunctive, add the prefix t to form
the first person sing. of the past tense: Ou µEivw, tµttva / stayed, Oa
New words 01:EiAw, E<J'tElAct / sent. Now we also have EAouoa I washed from Aou~w,
subjunctive Aouow; but note AouoatE you washed where the i: has
11 mt:ia cause t(X µ« hair disappeared. Study the full form of these verbs with the i: prefix now;
11 aµolfh'i fee, reward µoAtr; as soon as you will note that there is no t in the first and second person plural
avot'l(Tor;-l)-O light, open 11 l;txOVQU<nJ relaxation, rest forms, which already, without the i:, consist of three syllables. We can
11 avTiQQlJ<nJ objection ocptiAttm it is due say in other words that the t is only added to bring the verb up to the
«QUJ'tt:Qt'>r;·l)-O left ocpeiAro I owe, I ought to required three syllables and it then bears the stress:
to auTi ear J"[Ovaw I ache, I'm in pain tiouoa Aouoaµe fo,:nii,a otEiAaµE
Paq,w I dye 0 itovor; pain EAOuotr; Aouoau E<J't£lA£r; <JTEtA«TE
to pa,1aµo dyeing nptv before EAOUOE EAOUOClV E<J't£lA£ E<J't£lAClV
to ytvµa meal itQOTtivw I suggest, propose 2 Naturally Minas and Maria address each other in the friendly sing. form
TO yovm:o knee o itUQEtor; fever, temperature normally Ilwr; Eiom; but note that Minas suddenly switches to the formal
11 brnl"[otvir; Miss oiyouQor;-11-0 sure, certain plural Ata(la~ET£ itoAu, Ornitotvi;. This is where he joins in Maria's game
'1 btaOt<n) disposal oxovQor;-a-o dark and plays the role of a doctor with his patient. Note Ornitmvir; Miss
ouvaTov possible To oToµa')Ct stomach which is the title used to address a young unmarried woman formally;
ouvaTor;-l)-0 strong, severe TO ouµn:Troµa symptom remember that xuQi« madam is used for older or married women. The
evomcptQouoa interesting To q,tAaxt little kiss ending -tr; on Ornl"[otvir; is a Katharevousa form and need not concern
~aH~w I make dizzy qiopaµm I'm afraid, I fear you.
11 OtQwttia treatment, cure cpuotxor;·l)·O natural 3 Km ta ouo. Both (of them). Compare L31, N7. Here the Neut. plural
to xa&itxov function, duty TO 'JCQWµa colour ta is used since both things is implied.
TO xoµJlWTlJQlO hairdresser's 4 The adjectival form of ctQt<JT£Q« on the left is «Qt<J'tEQOr;-11-0 left.
11 xoµµWTQta hairdresser (female) EA« µfoa come in 5 'Exw TQt«vTa evvta itUQ£to. I've got a temperature of thirty nine. The
TO XOlJQtµa haircut TwQa aµfowr; right away literal meaning of l'l:UQUOr; is fever, but in English we talk of having a
Aov~w I wash temperature not a fever normally. Naturally the thirty nine refers to
degrees centigrade.
6 We have two new joining words, or conjunctions, to study here: µoAtr; as
soon as and itQtV before. Remember that itQtV can also be translated as
Notes ago (L30) and that itQtV an:o is also a preposition (L9). Take careful note
1 Verbs that µoAtr; and l'l:QtV are followed by the subjunctive while as soon as and
(a) Passive hefore are often followed by the past or perfect tenses in English. MoAtr;
tEAttmoro Ou oar; n:«QW. As soon as l' ve finished I' fl take you. Aouoau
The passive forms ~aAi~oµm / am dizzy and oq,£iAovtm they are due arc Tct µaHta oar; 31:Qtv teOut; Did you wash your hair before you came?
regularly formed from ~aAi~ro I make dizzy and ocpEiAw I owe or/ ought I K«Al]µEQU oar;. Good morning. Note that oar; can be added to
to; oq,EiAOVTm translates better as they are due to than as they are owed t,,
x«Al]µEQct as a formal polite greeting. This is like saying Good morning
(b) Note that now we have a new type of passive verb. «l>opaµm I am
to you.
afraid, which is another verb always used in the passive, is in fact a type It Words and expressions
2 passive verb; that is the stress is on the first syllable of the ending, not (a) The adjective evbmcptgouoa interesting is, like rneiyov, from
on the stem. For the moment you need only note that type 2 passive Katharevousa (see L21, N4b). The ending -ouoa is Fem. sing. while the
verbs have the ending -aµm in place of the type I -oum in the first ending -ov is Neut. sing.
person sing.
(b) The noun to x«OtJXOV duty, function is another archaic type of noun
(c) Subjunctive
like to µi:Hov future (L12) and 11 avTiQQlJ<nJ, tt OtaOt<Jl] are archaic
The subjunctive of xaTctfl)EQVW I manage is xaT«qJEQW, while TEAEtwoo, i~
11cm. nouns, plural ot avttQQlJOEtr;, ot OtaOfonr;.
the subjunctive of tEAttwvw I finish and Pa1Jlw is the subjunctive of Pa(f'"' (l') To <ptAaxt little kiss is formed from to cptAi kiss.
I dye.

116 117
(d) Note 'Exw tva buvato novo I've got a severe pain and av Etvm Maria And what treatment do you suggest, doctor?
buva't'OV if it's possible. The adjective buvatoi;-11-0 normally means Minas A little relaxation, a good meal with a little good wine and then an
strong or referring to pain, severe, sharp; but Eivm buvatov with a final interesting discussion. You must begin the treatment at once,
v means It is possible. Compare Eivm buvato. It is strong. however. Tonight, if (it is) possible.
(e) Extoi; wto autu is a useful expression meaning except for that or Maria I'm afraid that I won't manage it on my own. Will you help me?
apart from that. Note, however, the Neut. plural form auta these Minas I have no objection. Besides that is my function.
(things); English normally uses that in the sing. here. Maria And your fee, doctor?
(f) .c\ev txw ti1totE is literally/ haven't anything but Maria uses it Minas A little kiss, right away.
idiomatically here in the sense of There's nothing wrong with me.
(g) The expression µm xm µ,ovo m't'ia is an emphatic way of saying one At the hairdresser's
cause and one cause only.
Despina Good morning.
(h) .c\uo AE1tt« two minutes is a commonly used expression meaning tion
a short time. Hairdresser Good morning.
Despina I'm the sister of Mrs. Yiannopoulou, the microbiologist.
(i) Take special note of m µaAAt« hair. We speak of the hair on our
I I airdresser (Mrs.) Ero?
heads in the sing. but Greek uses the plural m µaAAt«; hence ta tlouoa
I washed it where the Neut. plural pronoun ta is used referring to Despina Yes.
I I airdresser Sit down for two minutes. As soon as I finish this lady, I'll take
µallui. Note also that 1.ou~w / wash is used only for washing hair, while
nAtvw is used for washing other parts of the body or clothes.
(i) 0tlw jl«l/Jtµo. / want my hair dyed. Note that Greek uses the noun ·····················································································
l l airdresser I'm at your disposal.
ro jl«hjaµo dyeing here but the English translation uses the verb to dye.
Despina I want my hair cut and dyed.
(k) Note that oXOUQoi;-a-o dark is a type 2 adjective, with a in the Fem.
tt airdresser Did you wash your hair before you came?
sing. endings, although its stem does not end in a vowel. There are only
Despina l washed it this morning.
a few adjectives like this to learn.
I lairdresser Fine. Do you want it dyed darker than its natural colour?
(I) Aynm1 µou my love/dear is a term of endearment often used when
Despina No, a little lighter.
addressing a loved one (boy/girl friend, child, close relation).
I t airdresser How short do you want it?
9 Cultural note .
Despina Not very (short).
Note that the hairdresser speaks of Ero as lJ X\JQt<l HQW, It is quite
common for a Greek to speak of an acquaintance who is not quite a
friend, using the first name preceded by the respectful title o X\JQtOS Mr.,
lJ XUQt<l Mrs. or lJ bro1totvii; Miss; in English of course we normally use
these titles only with the surname.

A certain cure
Maria Come in, love. Sit down.
Minas Ah ... I like this armchair very much. I'm listening. How are you?
Maria Are you asking me as a doctor or as a friend?
Minas Both.
Maria I've got a severe pain in the stomach, my ear aches and (so does) my
left knee. I'm dizzy and I've got a temperature of thirty nine
(degrees). Apart from that there's nothing wrong with me.
Minas All those symptoms are due to one cause and one cause only.
Maria To which (cause)?
Minas To studying. You study too much, miss.

118 119
Ma81')µa Tp1aVTa Tpia Lesson thirty three 5 'Ex1:11to>.il Kooµo ero <Jta0µ6. There are a lot of people at the station.
Remember that unapxi:1 or unapxouv can be used to express there is, there are
(l..8, NI).
M11v to ~Tit~ is a commonly used expression when one insists on
New words something. It means literally Don't ( even) discuss it but It's out of the
question or Don't argue about it are better translations. The little word
1:0 t;n(IES express (train) 11 oriµaoia meaning, significance M11v is used to form a negative imperative, just like the English Don't,
ruxoi.a easily o o,:aOµos station when telling someone not to do something. We'll be studying the use of
lJALXUOµEVOS-TJ-0 elderly ou~111:«w I discuss Mnv further soon.
6uµaµm I remember qJ't«vw I arrive, reach 7 Ta xavov1oa 01,.a. I arranged everything. Note the use of re and oi.a here
xavovt~(I) I arrange, fix in the Neut. plural. This sentence says literally / arranged them all (the
xov(l«~oµm I get ti red am> xov,:« together things).
i,aOaivw (subj. µ«Ow) I learn, find brv EXEL ariµaaia it doesn't matter, 8 Words and expressions
out it's of no significance (a) The adverb EuxoAa easily is formed from the Neut. plural of Euxo>.os-11-0
i,riv don't unv 1:0 (11)~111:<is it's out of the easy.
01t(l)ab11no,:r definitely question (b) Remember the uses of: xavEi;one (L20, N4), Mt'lit(l)S ... Do you happen to
arixwvw I lift, raise ... (LS, N12) and Eau dam; ls that you? (LI2, Nld).
(c) A.Ev txn ariµaaia is another useful expression. It literally means it has no
meaning but is used in the sense of Never mind or It's of no significance.
(d) To E;it(IES is another invariable Neut. noun of foreign origin.
Notes (e) 0a i(IOW oitin. I'll come to the house. Note this expression without a
preposition or article in Greek which is rather like our expression come
1 Passive home, but which you can use to refer to someone else's home and not just
(a) We met the type 2 passive verb qJojluµm I'm afraid in L32, Nib; now we your own.
can see the second person sing. form of type 2 passive verbs Ouµaom you
remember, so we can compare the type 2 passive endings -«µm, «om with
the type I passive endings -oum, -eom. We'll study the other endings later. Translation
0uµ6.µm is another verb which is always passive in form. What time does the train arrive?
(b) A.t X(IEL«~E't«t vu XO\J(lamein. It's not necessary to tire yourselves
(out). We now come to a new verb form, the subjunctive of passive verbs. Ero Yes?
The passive verb xou(l«~oµm I get tired becomes xou(lamw in the /\ tliina Ero, my child. Is that you?
subjunctive. There are no new endings to learn as all kinds of verbs in the Ero Yes, mum. You are coming to us on Tuesday in the end, aren't you?
passive subjunctive have the same stressed endings as type 3 verbs in the /\ 1 liina Yes, yes, I've arranged everything. I'll take the express.
present tense -w, -£is, -d, -ouue, -eiee, -ouv, Ero What time does the train leave Thessaloniki?
The only thing you have to study is the passive subjunctive stem which often, /vtliina At eleven in the morning.
as here, ends in er: XO\J(lam-. We'll be studying these further shortly. Ero Do you happen to remember what time it arrives in Athens?
2 Imperatives Atliin a I don't remember now, dear.
Na si(IELS Know or You should know We have studied the imperative Ero All right. It's not important. Petros will ask and find out.
forms in some detail, but note that Greek often uses vo followed by the Be sure that one of us will definitely be waiting for you at the station.
subjunctive as an alternative to the imperative; the meaning is the same. So vthina It isn't necessary to put (lit. tire) yourselves out, my child.I can still
we can say Ilo.(IE au,:o or Na no.(IELS au,:o. Take this. K«vne au,:o or Nu manage on my own. I'll find a taxi and come to the house.
x«vEn au,:o. Do this. 'Avmsr TtJ j}aAi't<Ja or Na avo(;e1s Tt] j}ai.(wa. Open Ero It's out of the question. There are a lot of people at the station and one
the case. doesn't easily find a taxi. Also, it isn't easy for an elderly lady to lift a
3 There is another regularly formed subjunctive in this lesson arixwaw from case by herself.
arixwvw I lift, and one new irregular subjunctive µa6w from µaOaivrn I \ thlu« All right, my child. I don't insist.
learn/find out. l:'m Well, bye-bye, mum. We'll discuss everything when we're together on
4 The past tense form. xavov1oa I arranged from xavovi~w, subjunctivi Tuesday.
xevovtcei, is regular. \1/i/110 Bye-bye, Ero.

120 121
Ma8r11.1a Tp16vTa rscoepc Lesson thirty four in Greek, but not in English. In this lesson we can see the third person
sing. ending -cimt and the first person plural -ouuuore; xotµcitm he is
sleeping, xouiouucore we are sleeping.
There are also two more type I passive verbs here bt:xoµm I accept, also
New words always passive in form in Greek but not in English, and l;t:XO\JQci~o~taL /
relax, rest. Note that l;Exoueci~oµm is the opposite of xoueci~oµm / g<'t
11 cibna permit, licence l;avayeciqiw I rewrite tired; the prefix l;r- is often added to words to give the opposite meaning.
cupou after, once l;rxollQCl~oµm I rest, relax (c) Passive subjunctive Remember that we said passive verbs form the
yrvtx6s-ri-6 general n:ciw I take (of people) subjunctive by adding type 3 verb endings to the passive stem (L33,
btzoµm I accept 11 n:t:6£Qci mother-in-law Nib). Another example is vn t\ln:roOEt to ~L~Afo uou that my hook
11 nbtx6ffJ'ta speciality n:eoaqitew I offer (should) he printed. The verb tun:wvw becomes tun:wvoµm in the passive
rxb(bw (subj. rxbwaw) I publish 11 ad.iba page, sheet and has the passive subjunctive stem turrwO-. Many passive subjunctive
11 tl;ciax111111 practice (Jl/)11 QObQOµtXOS ·t]-6 railway stems end in O; remember we said that many others end in IJ't, as in vn
to En:ciyyd.µa profession, job 11 I:xotia Scotland XO\JQUIJ't(t) (L33).
xa0ws xm as well as an:civia rarely, seldom (d) The subjunctive form 8a Exbwaw is irregular from Exoibw / publish,
xaAutt:Qos-11-0 best, better 11 an:ollOl] study (e) These are regularly formed past tense forms: auwpwv11aa / agreed
xotµciµm I sleep (J\) µqiwvw (3) I agree from the type 3 verb allµqiwvw, subjunctive (J\)µqiwvriaw; rrQ6aq>EQav
to µEIJ1]µEQl afternoon, midday 'tUn:wvw I print they offered from rreoaq>tQw, subjunctive also n:eoaq>EQW and an:oubcum I
µnan:'tUxtax6s-ri-6 postgraduate 11 lln:60EIJ1] affair, matter, case studied from <moubci~w, subjunctive an:oubciaw.
va\ltLA.iax6s-ri-6 marine, shipping 11 qitJ<nJ nature 2 Note Touc n:ciEL o TittQOS. Petros is taking them. We are already very
o voµtxos lawyer familiar with n:ciw which usually translates into/ go or I am going. The
verb rrciw can, however, take a direct object (rouc them), which is never
possible for the English verb go. When n:ciw takes an object, it is best
translated into English by take, the opposite of bring.
3 Ot 6QOl l]t«v ot xaAUtEQOL The terms were the best We have already
Notes studied comparisons using the word rrto more or most (L30, N4) but now
we see that there are two ways to make the comparative or superlative in
1 Verbs Greek, as there are in English. The one word form xaAuttQos-11-0
(a) Perfect tense corresponds to our one word form better, best, while the two word form
'Exo\lv rrcitt IJ'tO IJ'ta9µ6. They have gone to the station. mo xaMs-ri-o corresponds literally to what would be incorrect English
We now come to the perfect tense, a new verb form, but a nice easy one
111ore good, most good. You can use either form in Greek: Ot OQOL l]TltV
this time. It is formed, just like the English perfect tense, by using the
OL mo xa1.oi or Ot OQOt t]t«v ot xaAUtEQOt.
present tense of txw I have and the perfect participle. The perfect Note that 11 un:60EIJ11 affair, 11 qiua11 nature, 11 El;ciax111111 practice and 11
participle, which is invariable, is nothing new for you as it is always 3tOA11 1011111 are archaic type Fem. nouns with plural forms ot urro8foetS,
exactly the same as the-third person sing. of the subjunctive. So we can ot cpuons, ot El;aaxriaets and ot n:01.EtS respectively. The Gen. sing.
easily form the whole of the perfect tense: l'orms are therefore t11S urro9foEWS, t11S q>uaews, t11S El;aaxt]aEws and t11c;
txw n:cin I have gone txouµr n:citt we have gone ;TOA.£IOS (L23, N2).
txns n:cin you have gone txnr n:cin you have gone 'l'hc verb l;avayeciqiw / rewrite or I write again is made up of "/QCl(Jl(J> /
txn n:citt he/she/it has gone txouv n:cin they have gone 11·rite and the useful prefix l;ava- which means again. When used as a
Remember that n:ciEL is both present and subjunctive as well as the prefix l;ava- may correspond nicely to re- in English.
perfect participle. The use of the perfect tense is also easy .It translates
M1•t(i, mpou 1tt]Q« t11v cibna Then, after 1 ( had) got the permit Herc
easily and literally into tf.W I have and n:cin gone, but, don't forget, as wt· have another useful conjunction aqiou after, once, but note that it i~
we said, the Greek past tense may also translate into an English perfect loll11wed by the past tense n:riea here, where we could use the past
tense. Although the Greek past tense is used when a definite time is
p1•1 l'cct ltad got in English. Note also that rraievw I take is often
mentioned: IliJya :x8Ec; I went yesterday, when no time is mentioned either 111111~1:iled as I get in English. Remember too that µnci is translated by
tense may be used: 'Exw 1taEL KLOA~ or TiiJya KLOA~. I have already been.
11/11•r, tlte11 or ((ftenvards as a preposition or as an adverb; acpou is only n
(b) Passive We can now study some more type 2 verb passive endings.
l II I 1111 llCI io 11.
The verb x0tµciµm I sleep is another verb that is always passive in form

7 Note that o voµtxoi;; is a general word for a lawyer, in the sense of Ma8r11.1a TplCVTa TI£VTC Lesson thirty five
someone who has studied law, while o btxriy<>Qoi;; is a lawyer in the sense
of someone practising the legal profession.
8 Cultural note
(a) To µwriµtQL the afternoon or literally the middle of the day refers to New words
the period between lunchtime and late afternoon. It is quite common for PEPmwvw I assure toi;;, tri, to he/she/it
Greeks to take a nap or siesta at this time, especially in the hot summer
dx;u I had tQUXetQW I crash, collide
months. 11 EllXtJ blessing tQEXW I speed, run
(b) H abnu E;UCJXt]CJEWS literally the permit of practising is the licence xu0lJ<JtEQw (3) I'm late, delayed o tQox;ovoµoi;; traffic policeman
which a lawyer must get from the state before he can begin practising his
11 xAiJ<JtJ ticket U3tEQP01.txoi;;-11-o exaggerating,
profession. 11 xux1..oqiOQLU circulation, traffic exaggerated
obriyw (3) I drive to qmv<iQL traffic light
11 ob11yriori driving l)J<ix;vw I look for
TtUQ<i vu than
Translation TtQOCJExnxoi;;-11-0 careful txni;; bixw you're right
My profession TtQO<JEXW I pay attention, notice vu 1t<iQEL ri rnxiJ damn! blast!
CJty<i slowly oro xu1.o in heaven's name
Nikos Despina, Ero and Petros have gone to the railway station to fetch my o otu1.oi;; pillar, column
mother-in-law. Petros is taking them in his car. I'm at home and I'm
rewriting a few pages of the book that I'm publishing. Andreas is
sleeping inside. Sometimes he rests in the afternoon, while Despina
and I very rarely sleep at this time. In the end, you know, I agreed
with that publishing house that my book should be printed (by them).
The terms that they offered me were the best that one can find. As Verbs
you know, I'm a lawyer. I've got a lawyer's office in Thessaloniki, in (a) Perfect There are some more examples of the perfect tense to study
the centre of the city. My speciality is marine law, but I accept cases here ~Ev txw 3tEQ«CJEL I haven't passed, txw P<i1..a I have put and EXEL
of a general nature too. I studied law at the University of cpt<i<JEl it has arrived. The perfect participles are all formed directly from
Thessaloniki. Then, after I had qualified (lit. got my permit to the third person sing. of the subjunctives 3tEQ<i<Jw from 3tEQv<iw, Pa1.w
practise), I went to London for postgraduate studies. I stayed there for f'rom P«~w and qit«CJW from qit<ivw respectively.
about two years and I worked in a Greek shipping office. I know quite (b) Subjunctive The subjunctive stems of the type 2 verb ;Extv<iw I set
a lot of people in England as well as in Scotland. rdf" and the type 3 verb xuOuotEQW I am /ate/delayed are regularly
formed by adding rio to the present stem ;EXLVlJ<JW, xu0lJ<JtEQfl<JW, but
the subjunctive of TtEQV«W is irregular in that the v drops in the
subjunctive and the syllable U<J is added to give 3tEQ<iow; hence the past
tense 3tEQUCJU and the perfect txw 3tEQ«<JEL. The verb tQUX«QW / crash,
collide is another verb which is the same in the subjunctive as in the
present tense.
(I:) Past The past tenses 3tQO<JE;u I noticed and yv6.JQtCJU I recognised,
/,1w111 are regularly formed from 3tQOCJEXW, subjunctive 3tQOCJE;w, and
yvo1Qi~w, subjunctive yvwQ(ow. Note, however, the irregular dx;u I had,
Ill~· past tense of txw I have. It is also worth noting now that txw has no
pl•1 feet tense in Greek. You can use either the present txw or the past
, lxci where English yses I have had.
td) The imperatives 1tt}ymvE go (sing.) and 1triyu(vuE (plural) are formed
I 111111 I he longer form 1triyu(vw I go not from the more common short
1111111 ;
II') Oct 11:QEJtEL vu Et<JtE ••• You will have to be . .. Note that 1tQrnEL with

124 125
9u in front of it forms the future tense. The more literal translation would (d) Note that both !;t(lw and yvroefl;w can be used meaning/ know when
be It will be necessary that you are ... we refer to a person or place we are acquainted with. Only stew is used
2 AQ'/ll<mµE vu ;txLV1]<1ouµE, We were late in leaving. Note the English when we refer to a fact that we know. fvwei~w can also be used in the
translation of vu ;extv11aou~tE here. sense of/ recognise.
3 Kui..lJ'tE(IU v' «QYll<JO\JµE :rtU(IU vu 't(IUXU(IOUµE. Bel/er that we be late (e) 06.µe Y!!ll'/OQ«, nmbt6.. Let's go quickly, children. Note how
than that we crash. Note the use of :rt«Q<i vu in comparisons when two loosely :rtmlhu can be used in informal language between friends and
actions (verbs) are compared, rather than two things. Compare this with relations, referring to males and females, young and old. In English we
To ~t1ti..E Eivut xai..lJ'tEQO u:rto 'to xoxxtvo. The blue one is better than the use chaps or boys or lads for males and girls for females.
red one, where a1to renders the English than. (f) 0 tQoxovoµo; is a policeman from the branch of the police which i~
4 oe 1taeaxai..w Note this stronger form of :rtnemw.i..w please, which responsible particularly for traffic.
might be translated as I beg you.
5 Aev 't(l€XW 1toi..i,, /'nl not going very fast. The verb 't(l€XW / run is often
used referring to vehicles in the sense of speeding or going fast, Translation
6 Note that Ero uses oeia'tE as a form of reprimand. We might translate
this as There you are or/ told you so here, but Petros uses oeiau in the The red light
sense we have already noted when handing someone something Here you Petros Oh my! What (a lot of) traffic there is today! We were already
are. late in starting out and I'm afraid we'll be delayed.
7 We have already studied the use of vu when pointing something out with Ero Better to be a little late than to crash. Go a little more slowly,
a noun following (Ll, NS). Now we see this use of vu with a pronoun Petros. Please.
following. Nu 'tll, There she is. Na To;. There he is. The pronouns used Petros You 're exaggerating. I'm not going so very fast.
after vu are the strong third person subject pronouns auTo;-11-0 with the Ero There you are. Now you've gone through (a) red (light).
first syllable au- cut off. The 'tll comes from UU't1] referring in this lesson Petros A red light? l didn't notice it. Where did you see the red light?
once to lJ A911v6. and once to 11 6.ouu; the rn; is from auTo; referring Ero I'm not the only one who saw it. The traffic policeman saw ii
here to o tQoxovoµo;. We could also say Tiov eivm ro ta;i; Nu to. too. There he is. He's coming over.
Where's the taxi? There it is. Petros Blast!
8 Aexaoxi:w XQOVtU 0011yw. I've been driving for /8 years. Note again t'olicenum Why did you pass the red light, sir?
the use of the present tense in Greek, where English uses a perfect tense Petros Unfortunately I didn't see it, officer. I had a bus on my left and
J' ve been driving. two other cars on my right. We all passed together. I've been
9 '1 6.0H« 0011y11aero; driving licence Note that here the Gen. of the
driving for eighteen years and I assure you I've never passed a
archaic type Fem. noun 11 0011y11a11 driving is used, literally the licence red light.
of driving. H 6.ouu xuxi..o<j)OQia;, literally the licence of circulation, /
,i/ir1•111an Give me your driving licence, please.
corresponds roughly to the vehicle registration booklet issued in Britain. t'ctros Here you are.
10 Petros is tense while driving through the Athenian traffic, and his I',,/;,·,· fl/(/ 11 And the vehicle licence.
language shows his nervous irritation. Nu 1tu(IH 11 eux11! is a mild curse f 'rt ros The vehicle licence ... Where in heaven's name have I put it? ...
roughly equivalent to Damn! or Blast! We have already met oro xai..o Ah! here it is. There you are.
goodbye used as a friendly farewell (L6, Nl2) but Petros uses it here as I', 1/1, l'/11111/ I won't give you a ticket this time. But you'll have to be much
another mild curse. Iloe oro xui..o rnv txro pui..n; Where in heaven's more careful. You 're a doctor, too. Go on.
name have I put it? Note the different tone of voice in which he says oro
xai..o here. 1111 li·11i11 has arrived.
11 Words and expressions
(a) H xi..11<111 ticket is used particularly for tickets given by the police for
traffic offences leading to a fine. It is not used for theatre or bus tickets. ,, .. ,,,,,,,
I', 11111 The train has arrived. Where can your mother be?
There she is.
(b) 'Exet; Mxt0. You're right. Be careful with this expression where I I ti Where do you see her?
the Greek txro is rendered by to be in English. /1 1•/1111 There on that seat, behind the column.
(c) Eiam U3tEQPOAlX1], You're exaggerating. Y1tEQPOAtxo;-11-o is an /', 1111 I You're right. That's her.
adjective, so the sense here is something like you' re ( an) exaggerating , ,. 11 •i1111 I recognised her from her overcoat.
/·'11 I I .ct's go quickly, children. She's looking for us, poor (thing).

126 127
M68r11,1a rpievro t~1 Lesson thirty six the Fem. sing. endings are the same as type 2 adjective endings. Only the
Masc. and Neut. sing. have different endings:
Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
New words Nom. (j)UQM<; (j)UQbui (j)UQ()\l (j)«Qbtoi'. (j)UQ()tf<; (j)«Qbtu
Voe. (f)UQM (j)UQbt6. (j)UQbu (j)UQbtoi (j)UQbtti; (j)«Qbt6.
UVl]CJ\JXW (3) I worry, I am uneasy rtQOAU~uivw I manage to, I succeed
Acc. (j)UQ()\l (j)U!}bta (j)UQ()U (j)UQ()to\l<; (f)UQbtE<; (j)U!}bto.
ri b11oaui coolness in Gen. ( (f)UQ()tolJ) (j)UQ()tO.<; ( (j)UQ()to\l) (j)UQ()tlOV (j)UQ()UOV (j)UQ()tlOV
ri t);oboi; exit, way out omµui:6.w I stop Note that the Fem. sing. and Neut. plural are the same in the Norn.,
E(j)O<JOV as long as, if ri uyQuaiu humidity, damp(ness)
Voe. and Acc. cases. Note also that the Gen. sing. forms are rarely used
l] stm:ri heat, warmth (j)UQbui;-t6.-u wide in the Masc. and Neut.
xuvovtxos-11-0 normal qimiw I'm at fault, I'm to blame 5 Ilmoi; Eivm uui:oi; o b!]6µoi;; What is that road? Note the use of :rcotoi;,
,:o XQUO cold which usually means which or who, but is translated by what here; 1tot0i;
>..tycixt a little XO.VEl SEITT:fl it's hot is Masc. here as it refers to o b116µoi;.
µE;(Qt to, as far as, until XQUO it's cold 6 IltQi'.:rtou µtuiJ WQU, E(j)Oaov ri xuxAO(j)OQi« dvm xuvovtXfl, About half an
1t6.v,:u always ornv WQU (uou) on time hour as long as the traffic is normal. Here we meet another useful
rtUQXO.QW I park conjunction E(j)O<JOV as long as, in the sense of if.
Note that ri xux>..O(()OQiu, literally circulation, is, like ri xi'.vriari
movement, often used to refer to traffic volume and flow. You may use
Notes 7 Words and expressions
(a) Ax is the written form of the sound frequently made to express
1 Verbs
dismay, horror or irritation.
(a) Perfect 'Exw rtUQXO.QEt / have parked is the perfect tense of
iWQXO.QW I park. This verb is the same in the subjunctive as in the (b) The diminutive form >.tycixt a little is naturally formed from Aiyo.
(c) The preposition µE;(Ql is an alternative for roi; ((Lll, N9) meaning to
present tense.
(b) Past The past tenses omµo.i:riot: he stopped and UVl](JU;(l]IJU I in the sense of up to, as far as or until.
worried are regularly formed from the type 2 verb m:uµui:w, subjunctive (d) 0u :rtEQtµEVE'tE µrtQO<J'tO. (J'tl]V X\J!}lU t);obo, f't(Jl HQw; You'll wait in
ai:uµui:riaro and the type 3 verb UVl]CJ\J;(W, subjunctive UVl]CJ\J;(fl<JW, Font of the main exit, 0.K. Ero? Note this use of E't<Jt in a questioning
tone of voice asking for confirmation of a suggestion.
(c) The subjunctive vu rtQOA«~ouµE comes from the verb rtQOAU~ui'.vro I
manage to, succeed in. This is another verb which drops the last syllable (e) Note that m:riv WQ« followed by a possessive µou, aou, ,:ou etc. is a
of the present stem to form the subjunctive stem. useful expression meaning on time: EiµumE ai:riv WQU µui;. We are on
time. Ei'.om <J'tl]V WQU aou. You're on time.
2 Weather
(a) Tr xmQO <J'tl] 0wauAovi'.xri; What's the weather like in (f) K«AW<; OQt<JES Welcome This is the sing. form of xnAwi; OQiauu
Thessalonlki? Note how Despina asks about the weather, literally, (LS). It is of course used to welcome a friend or relation, while xu1,.wi;
oQ(oui:t is used to greet a stranger or a number of friends or relations.
What weather does it make?
(b) K6.vtt stmri, It's warm/hot. Kcivu XQVO, It's cold. Learn these (g) Note that i:o rtobt, i:u :rcobtu may refer to either feet or legs. No
expressions by heart. Note the use of xo.vEt where English uses it is and 11111 distinction is made in Greek.
that Greek uses nouns, ri sfoi:ri heat and ro XQUO cold, not adjectives
here. Similarly: 'Extt uyQuaiu. It's humid. 'Exu b11oat6.. It's cool. Here
again nouns, ri uyQuai'.u humidity and ri bQO<Jta coolness, are used; the
·1 f fllwlation
literal translation would be There is humidity and You've got coolness.
3 Mui; auyxroQEi<; rtou UQYfl<JUµE. You forgive us for being late. Note \\ I fl'OIIIC
again the use of the joining word nou introducing the reason why,
literally You forgive us that we were late. I I,, Welcome, mum. Forgive us for being late.
4 0 (j)UQM<; bQoµoi; The wide road, Arto 'tO\JS Hyoui; (f)UQ()l01JS b11oµoui; 11,11 It was my fault, mother. I went through a red light in order to try lo
One of the few, wide roads Now let's have a look at type 3 adjectives get here on time and a traffic policeman stopped me.
with all their different endings. You will see that all the plural as well as lil,i,1,1 Oh! Poor children! To tell you the truth, I was a little worried.

128 129
Despina, my child, how are you? Ma8r11.1a TPICIVTO eq>Ta Lesson thirty seven
Despina Fine, Mum. And I can see that you are well too.
A thin a I'm fine. My legs ache a little these days. It must be the damp.
Petros What do you say? Shall we go? I've parked quite far away. You
wait in front of the main exit, 0. K. Ero? New words
Ero 0.K., Petros.
o.vai:oltxo;-iJ-6 eastern itUAl again
Is it warm or cold? 1J uvot;1J spring lJ navmov guest house
aaqmlw; certainly, of course :rtav,:ou everywhere
Atliina How long does it take from the railway station to your house? ~O()Eto;-a-o northern to Iluo-xa Easter (time)
Petros About half an hour, as long as the traffic is normal. 1J l'iEXa()lU about ten o flEL()mu; Piraeus
Despina What's the weather like in Thessaloniki, mum? Is it warm? l'iunxo;-iJ-6 western :rtE<JTE tell
Athina No, it's cold and it's damp. You've got (it) nice and cool here. Tell Etl'io:rtouo (3) I inform to :rtlofo boat, ship
me, what is this wide road, Petros? I've passed (along it) at other evvoor (3) I mean o :rt()UXtO()a; agent
times but I always forget the name of it. 1:votxtu~w I rent, let ro :rt()aX'tO()Eio agency
Petros It's Alexandras Avenue. One of the few broad long streets that E;unou besides :rtw; of course, certainly
Athens has got. ES1J'/W (3) l explain 1J I:t()upo; Serifos
11 1)µE()0µ1)via date tOU()l<J'tlXo;-iJ-o IOUri St
,:o xaloxat.()l summer u:rt6Aot.:rtoi;-1)-o rest, remaining
x.t.Eivw I book, reserve <paivoµm (subj. <pavw) I appear
x,:l. etc. 11 <po.aaQia fuss, noise
ot Kuxw:l'iE; the Cyclades X()lJcnµo;-1)-0 useful
µuAL<J'tll in fact ;(WQi; without
11 Muxovo; Mykonos
ro VtJ<Ji island ooo mo ... rooo mo the more ...
v6no;-a-o southern the more
ro ;cvol'ioxEio hotel To :rtoA.u at most
<l<JO so much

(a) Passive subjunctive Na <pavw and nv :(()EUX<JTEi are further examples
of the passive subjunctive. The endings for the passive subjunctive are,
remember, the same as for type 3 verbs in the present tense. The
-ubjunctive stem from <paivoµm / seem, look, appear is irregular rpav-
and from :(()ElU~oµcu / need X()ElllCJT-.
Note also that av if is usually followed by the subjunctive.
(h) The verbs evvoo / mean, ul'ioitot.W I inform and ES1J'/W I explain are
I ypc 3 verbs.
(~·) Negative imperative Mriv a()yiJanc. Don't delay. We have
ulreudy met µ11 used to form the negative imperative. Note that as with
h,•(v) a final v is added to µ11 when the next word begins with a vowel or
x, re, T, µ:rt, VT, yx. Note also that µ11 is normally followed by the
~11hjunctive. Let's compare some imperatives with their negatives:

130 131
Singular Plural Singular Plural (d) A<pou to ou~rittJaw, 9« EQ9ffi. After I have discussed it, I'll come.
<ptJyE <ptJyen; leave µfl <pUyELS µfl <ptJyE'tE don't leave Note that «<pou after is followed by the subjunctive when future actions
3tE(>iµEVE 31:El)LµEVETE wait µ11v 31:El)tµEvn; µriv 3tEl)tµEVEtE don't wait are referred to.
UVOLSE avoi;tE open unv «VOlSELS µriv <lVOLSE'tE don' I open 7 Words and expressions to note
'XAEL<JE XAEL<M'.E close µriv XAE(on; µriv 'XAElOE'tE don't close (a) to :itOA\J at most or as a maximum
(d) nt<M'.E tell is the plural imperative of itE; from AEW I say, tell. (b) Ilw;! Of course.' Note another use of :itw; (with an accent), not as
2 !:En µ:itOl)W vu oa; <p«vw )((>l]crtµo;; How can I help you? This is a a question word, when it normally translates as how, but as an emphatic;
polite idiomatic way to offer your services; the literal meaning here is In confirmation that what the previous speaker has said is true; note the
what can I appear useful to you? intonation carefully.
3 Kaµt<i bE-X«(>LO. µE(>ES Some ten days or so The noun 11 bEX«QL« is (c) The verb xAElVffi / shut, close is also used in the sense of I book,
obviously formed from bi-xa ten and means about ten or ten or so. The reserve for rooms, places, tickets etc. M:itOl)EttE va i:ou; xAEL<JEtE
ending -(a)(>t<i may be added to numbers to form nouns of this sort bwµano; Can you book them a room?
giving an approximate number, and often used in conjunction with -xaµt<i: (d) Note that µ<iAt<JT« yes can also be used as an emphatic assurance that
-xaµt<i nxoo«QL« some twenty or so, xaµt<i EVEVf1Vt«(>L« about ninety. something is true: 0« rn x<ivffi a11µEQ« µn>.t<M'.«. I' II do it today in fact.
4 Note again the use of the article and the Acc. case in time expressions (e) xtA. is short for xm ta AOL:it<i, literally and the rest (of the things),
where English uses a preposition: to Il<iox« at Easter (time), mv UVOLsll and corresponds exactly to etc(etera).
in spring, ro x«Aox«i(>L in summer. Remember also tl]V T(>t'tl] on (f) Note Na aa; :itffi again, used here in the sense of I'll tell you.
Tuesday, rov Iouvio in June. Note that ro Ila~« is another invariable (g) Note that 11 :it«vat6v guest house is an invariable Fem. noun of
Neut. noun. foreign origin. Nouns of foreign origin are usually, but not always,
5 'Ooo rooo ... The literal meaning of these words is as much ... so Neuter.
much but used with comparatives they may translate into English as 8 Cultural Note
the more ... the more ... 'Ooo :itLO Yl'lJYOQ« uou bwonE n; 11µEQ0µ11vit;, The Cyclades are a group of islands to the south of Athens in the Aegean
rooo mo Euxol« 9« ~l)OUµE aui:o rtnu 9t>.ouµE. The more quickly you Sea containing some favourite tourist spots like Mykonos. Serifos is less
give me the dates, the more easily we' II find what we want. Note that well known as it is Jess tourist orientated.
ooo is used with the subjunctive in these sentences. Piraeus is the port of Athens where one can take boats to many of the
6 Conjunctions Greek islands.
(a) Noµi~w :itw; 9« a«; Ul)E<JEL. I think that it will please you. You will
note that here :itw; (without an accent) is used as a conjunction where
you have learned to use on (L16, N3).
This is no problem as ,i:w; and Ott are completely interchangeable as rranslation
conjunctions after verbs like voµi~w, and mauuw, so you can use A I the tourist agency
whichever you like.
(b) Aiw vu :itaµE <JE x«vEVu vnot. I say that we should go to some island. \/,l('llt Sit down please. What can I do for you?
You will note that vn is the conjunction used after AEffi here, not 6tt or N/1'0.1· I'll tell you. At Easter a couple of friends of ours are coming from
:itw;. In this case there is a difference because vu :it<iµE is not a statement Germany. They'fl stay in Greece for some ten days or so. Two, or, at
of fact, but merely a suggestion, translated by we should go. Compare most, three days in Athens and the rest (of the days) I say that we
this with AeEt :itw; 9« :it«Et OE x«VEVU vnot, He says that he'll go to should go all together to some island.
some island. Here :itffi; 9u :itaEt (on 9« :it<iEt is the same) is 'a statement I 111•11t Fine. Have you got an island in mind?
of fact, not a suggestion. \/1/,11.1· Look. Our friends have been to Mykonos and ldra. What we want,
(c) Note again the use of :it«Q<i in comparisons (L3S, N3) when what both we and they, is a quiet island without fuss (and noise). You
happens in two places is compared rather than the two objects or places know what I mean.
themselves. Note also that no vu is needed, when there is no verb 1111•11/ Of course! Of course! I understand what you want. I suggest Serifos
following the :it<ll)<i: 0 X«tl)OS etvm mo a(youQo; <J'tl] I:tQt<po :it«(>« am in the Cyclades. It's a very quiet island. Besides in spring the
~O(>Et« vriat<i. The weather is more certain in Serifos than (it is) in the weather is more certain on a southern island than on our northern or
northern islands. Remember that «:ito is used when two objects or places western and even eastern islands. Of course in summer the weather is
are directly compared: H !:EQt<po; Eivm mo -x«AtJ a,i:6 ta «AA« vnoui. good everywhere. In Serifos there are hotels, guest houses and
Serifos is better than the other islands. houses that rent out rooms.

132 133
Nikos How long does the boat take from Piraeus? Ma8rwa TplOVTO OXTW Lesson thirty eight
Agent About five hours. I think that you will like (it on) Serifos.
Nikos Tell me something else. Can you, if (it's) necessary, book them a
room in a hotel here in Athens?
Agent Of course. The sooner you tell me the dates, though, the easier it will New words
be to find what we want.
tJ a,J.ayq change to JtE(lrt«ttJµa walking
Nikos Right. And for Serifos, if we decide to go there in the end?
tJ avuyx11 need, necessity rtuJtEtJ(t) I believe
Agent Again we'll arrange everything. Only don't delay in informing me.
mta(laii:11to;-t]·O indispensable to n:ouxuµum shirt
Nikos Agreed. I'll phone them, today in fact, to explain to them what you
an:tvavn opposite 11 fiQWtOXQOVt« New Year's Day
have told me. And after I've discussed it with my wife, I'll come
artoAuto;-11-0 absolute crt'1xw get up, stand up
along here for hotels. boat etc.
flQEXEt it rains, it's raining to q>E!.)tµJtot ferryboat
Agent Thank you very much.
11 ~axita jacket, cardigan <pOQ«W (subj.rpogeoui) I wear
to X!.)l~lCl pity x«vw (subj. x<iuw) I miss
µo>.t; just xaQil;w I give, I make a present of
I] µrtOtCl boot xnµwvt<ittxo;-11-0 wintry
01.oxAt]Q0;-11-0 whole, complete XOVt!.)OS·'l·O thick. fat
o,tl. just what
to n:avttAOVl trousers xuOE 1t0tE; how often?
TO JtE!.)LObtXO magazine 01.01 01 <iv0!.)(t)JtOL everyone

1 Verbs
Past tense
(a) The past tense of P«~(t) I put ( on), subjunctive P«iAw, is iflala, of
cptuyw J leave, subjunctive <puy(t), iq>uya and of x«v(t) / miss/lose,
subjunctive X«CJ(t), ixaaa. These are more examples of those verbs that
add i to the subjunctive stem to form the past stem. Remember that the E
drops in the first and second person plural pa>.aµE 11•e put ! on), q>uyatE
you teft, x_auaµE ll'e missed. Note that pu~w can also be translated as/
p u! on referring to clothes; no preposition is used in Greek.
(b) The past tense of the type 2 verb cpO(IUW / wear is <pO(IWCl, and of the
type 3 verb µ1tO(IW I can, µn:oewa. We have already mentioned that type
2 and 3 verbs add a syllable to form the subjunctive and the past tense.
The added syllable is usually 11u, as in aeyw, va a(lyqCJ(t), «QYtJ<1a, but
note that a few verbs acid eo instead of 11u; so q>OQUW becomes vu
<POQECJW and µ1tOQW becomes vu µ1tOQECJ(t). Learn these verbs as you
meet them.
Ml>>.1; icpuyt. /1 has just left, Note this use of µ61.1;j11st with the past
tense. English uses the perfect tense usually withjust, but Greek can use
either the past or the perfect tense with µ61.1;. Remember the other use
or ~16>.t; as soon as as a conjunction (L32, N6).
l{(~OE nott txn; How often is there (one)? Note that x«6E rtott
literally every when corresponds exactly to how often in English.

134 135
4 'O,n l't(!El'tEl yu1 l'tEQl'tU'tl]µo. Just what it should be for walking. Note Ma8111,1a TplClVTC &VVICl Lesson thirty nine
this new use of o,n, with a comma, in the sense ofjust what or exactly
what. There is no space between the comma and n.
5 Study again the use of rcou as a conjunction or joining word:
Xo.i(!oµm rcou µrcoefonµE vu qiuyouµE. I'm glad we could leave. New words
Tl] l;nxei:u nou µou ):UQtati; the cardigan that you gave me
tJ ruto<pmrtJ decision mel;w I press, force, push
Also note the use of rcwi; as a conjunction again, as an alternative to on:
Iltai:Euw rcwi; etvm arco.eo.i1:ri1:o. / believe (that) it's indispensable.
lJ o.eewa,:m illness rcti0w (subj. 11Eiaw) 1 persuade,
o.<pou since convince
6 'tlJV IlQW'tO):(!OVui at the New Year Once again we see the use of the
«'>riµoawi;-o.-o public (JUVE(!yal;oµm I work with,
definite article and the Acc. case in a time expression where a
«'>riµonxoi;-11-0 junior, primary cooperate
preposition is used in English. The New Year is a time of great
o btx,:ai:oeo.i; dictator auvtxi'.l;w I continue, carry on
celebration in Greece and many people exchange presents then rather
E'{XQLVW I approve tJ axfotJ relation, connection
than at Christmas.
EVW although ro axo1,.do school
7 Words to note
0 xo.jlyai; row, quarrel awa,:oi;-11-0 real
(a) To <pEQtµrco,:ferryboat is another invariable Neut. noun.
rn Auxno secondary school
(b) Note to 1mv1:EAOvt trousers carefully. The English word is always
lJ AU(Jl] solution E):W abtxo I'm wrong
plural, but in Greek to. means several pairs of trousers. m µo.011µ0.nxa mathematics
(c) l:11xw get up, stand 11p is an irregular sing. imperative to learn by

Translation Verbs
(a) Passive The third person plural of the type 2 passive verb qiojlaµm /
The ferryboat for Egina am afraid is cpojlouv,:m. We have now met all the endings for these verbs
Maria in the passive, so let's study them all together and compare them with
Excuse me, what time does the ferryboat leave for Egina?
type I passive verbs such as lleiaxoµm:
Employee It has just left.
<pojlaµm <pojlouµo.ITTE (l(!LIJXOµm (JQWXOµO.ITTE
Maria Really? What a pity! How often is there (one)?
<po(Jaom <po(Jaai:E (JQtOXEOIJ.l (J(!tlJXEO'tE
Employee Every hour.
<pOjJa,:m cpo(Joi,v,:m (J(!tlJXE'tm (l(!tOXOV't<ll
Maria Thank you.
Minas (b) Passivesubjunctive vuµE omv xoueo.a,:d These
Here I am. I got you your magazine. What time are we leaving?
are the passive subjunctive forms of CJUVEQyal;oµm I cooperate and
Maria We have just missed the ferryboat. I'll treat you to a coffee in that
xoueal;oµm I get tired. Remember that the passive subjunctive has the
pastry shop opposite. We've got a whole hour.
same endings as the present tense of type 3 verbs, and that the stem
A wintry day often ends in er or 0. Let's look at a complete verb in the passive
subjunctive now:
Minas Wintry day today. It's raining and it's cold. Just what it should be for (vu) XOU(!UIJ'tll) (vu) XOU(!UIJ'tOllµE
walking. (vu) XOU(!O.IJ'l:Eti;
(vu) XOU(!O.IJ'tEl'tE
Maria Fortunately you phoned me to tell me about the weather, and so I put ( vu) XOU(!O.(J'tfl ( vu) XOU(!IJ.(J,:0\JV
on trousers and a thick pullover. I wore my boots too, as you can sec. We have already met exw Mxw I'm right; now we have the opposite exw
Minas And I'm wearing mine. And I put on a thick shirt (along) with the abtxo J' 111 wrong.
cardigan that you gave me at the New Year. AxoumE µE. Listen to me. Jlfoi:E µou. Tell me. Remember that object
Maria I've got an umbrella too, if it's needed. I'm very glad that we could pronouns come after a verb in the imperative. Note that o.xova,:E has a
get away from Athens for a little while. direct object pronoun, literally hear me, while :itfotE has an indirect
Minas All people have an absolute need of change and fresh air. object pronoun, tell to me.
Maria That's true. I believe it's indispensable too. To TEAEiwou 1,i'.yo µEya1,oi; is literally,/ finished it a little old. Remember
Minas Get up. We're leaving. It's time. that µEyaAoi; means old as well as big.

136 137
5 MuA1ota o qiiAoi; µou itQOTEivu In fact my friend suggests Note again Ma8r11,1a ocpevrc Lesson forty
the use of µ<iAuJTa in the sense of in fact.
6 O. lhxoi µou brv To E"{XQivouv. My (people) don't approve of it. Here
or btxoi µou refers toot uvOQcoitoi uou meaning my people or my family.
7 H uxfori relation, connection, 11 an:oqi«Ol] decision and Tl AtlOlJ solution New words
are more archaic type Fem. nouns with the plural forms or uxfoni;, ot
an:oqiuani; and or Auani;. avan:avnxoi;-iJ-o comfortable 11 aaxAaµ«Qa nonsense
UQXET« enough, quite axtqJToµm I'm thinking
8 The subjunctive va n:Eiaw comes from the verb itdOw I persuade/
ai; let o avµµa0tJTlJS schoolmate, classmate
13Qwµtxoi;-ri-o dirty To Taauxt ashtray
9 The past tense itQOTElVE he suggested comes from itQOTEivw which does
ElJT\JXl-aµtvoi;-ri-o happy TW<JUQUXO<JTOt;·t]•O fortieth
not change in the subjunctive.
rnx«Qtot1iµtvoi;-ri-o pleased, Tivoi; whose
10 To briµonxo IJXOAEio is the primary or junior school attended by Greek
children between the ages of six and twelve. content o xwQoi; room, space
11 Note that aqiov can also be used in the sense of since or as. ln L34 we iJb;1 already
xol3co I cut, cut out, cut down Oa tn xamqiEQW I'll manage it
saw aqiov used to mean after.
µa1..wvco I tell off, scold ooo xmQo as long as
1tQO(maOw (3) I try

Who is right?
Andreas Yesterday I had a row with my father again. That man, although he (a) Future We are already quite familiar with the use of Oa followed by
is so good, becomes a real dictator on certain subjects. Listen to me the subjunctive forming the future tense, but it is now time to note that
and tell me if I'm right or wrong. I finished secondary school last Oa may be followed by the present tense when the future action is
year. Now I'm nineteen years old. I was a little old when I finished regarded, not as a complete action, but as a continuous incomplete or
because I missed a year at primary school after a very serious repeated action. When Oa is followed by the present tense, it will often
illness. The problem is that my father is pressing me to study law. translate into the English future continuous tense (will be -ing).
Since there is the office, he says, we can work together and I can 0 AvtQfoi; Oa µtvn oro mtin Evoi; qiiAo\J rou. Andreas will be staying at
carry it on when he gets· tired (of it). Law doesn't interest me, a friend's house. Eav Oa x0tµuam orov xava:rtt. You'll be sleeping on
however. I don't want to go to university. I'm good at mathematics, the sofa, Here the actions of staying and sleeping are continuous for an
I've got ideas and I'm good at public relations. I speak, read and indefinite period or an indefinite number of times, so·the verbs following
write English. A friend of mine has a tourist agency in Athens. Last are in the present. Compare these with: Eat1 Oa xmµ110di; Ebro <JtJµEQU,
summer I worked in his office and saw that this work suits me. In You'll sleep here today. 0 AvTQfoi; Oa µdvn TQELt; µEQEi;, Andreas will
fact my friend proposed that we work together. My (parents) don't slay three days. Here the actions of sleeping and staying are seen as
approve of it, however. They are afraid, or rather they believe, that complete wholes, so the subjunctive is used.
it isn't a safe profession. I've. made my decision, though. The thing (b) The passive verb axtq>Toµm /' m thinking has the sense of my mind is
is now to persuade them that what I want to do is the best solution working on; don't confuse it with voµi~co l think in the sense of I have
for me. ·
the opinion or/ believe.
(c) 'Exco itQOaitaOiJaEL, I have tried. This is the regularly formed
perfect tense of the type 3 verb itQOaitaOro, subjunctive itQOaitaOiJaw.
/\1,v iJmv XUAfJ tJ tbfo uou vu EQOni;; Wasn' idea that you should
r•11111e a good one? Note again the use of v« and the subjunctive
I rnnslated as should.
A~ xanviaw tva 't<Jl"{UQO, Let me smoke a cigarette. The little word
·~~. normally usedwith the subjunctive like Oa and vu, is usually
l11111slated by let. It is used to make a suggestion (even to oneself).
Hi,nilarly: Ai; xa:rtviaouµE. Let's smoke. A; xan:vfan. Let him smoke.

138 139
4 Tov Ouµ<iµm ro Arn'tEQll• I remember /him) Left eris, Rember this use Athina Here, this one is clean. Take it. Why don't you cut out cigarette
of the object pronoun before the verb together with the object noun after (smoking), Ero?
the verb. This has the effect of announcing the object of the sentence in Ero Do you think that I haven't tried? It seems that I'm not strong
advance, thereby giving it more emphasis. enough. Petros often tells me off. Anyway ... Some day 1'11 manage
5 .1.ev eiµm UQXU<i buvu,:~. I'm not strong enough. So far we have met (it).
UQxna only in the sense of quite (Eivm UQXE'ta uva:itaunxo;. It's quite Athina Are you content with your work?
comfortable), but note that UQXUa can also mean enough; the sense here Ero Certainly. Both Petros and I are very content.
is /' rrt not strong enough to give up smoking.
6 An:6 'tJJ bouAn<i oou dam £\ll(UQW'tJJµevri; Are you pleased with your
work? Note the word order here and the use of the preposition a:rto;
eui,:aQtai:rtµho;-11-0 pleased, content, satisfied is followed by un:o which
is translated by with in English.
7 Words and expressions to note
(a) 'Hbrt already is an alternative to xtoAa;.
(b) Note that '1 aai,:AaµaQa nonsense can be used in the singular or
plural, aui,:AuµaQt;, while nonsense in English is normally singular.
(c) Don't confuse o l(WQo; room in the sense of space with ro bwµ<ino
room as part of a house.
(d) The expression ooo xmQo, literally as much time, corresponds to the
English time expression as Jong as, as much time as.
(e) The verb xof}w / cut can be used in the sense of l give up or/ cut
(f) Tivo;; Whose? is a useful invariable question word.
(g) 0a ,:a xui:mpEQW. I'll manage /it). Note this common expression
using the plural pronoun ,:a which is translated by it in English.

A discussion
Ero Well, Mum? Was it or wasn't it a good idea of mine that you should
come to Athens?
Athina Yes, my child. I'm very happy to have my daughters, sons-in-law
and grandchildren near me. (It's) only that I'm thinking that ...
Ero What are you thinking?
Athina That you've already got so many people in your house and ...
Ero Nonsense! There's room. You'll be sleeping on the sofa in the living
room. It's quite comfortable.
Athina And my Andreas, where will he go, poor thing?
Ero Let me tell you. As long as you are with us, Andreas will be staying
at the house of a friend from Thessaloniki.
Athina Whose?
Ero Lefteris. Spanoudis is his surname. They were schoolmates, I think,
Athina I remember Lefteris. Does he live far away?
Ero No, he lives here in Pangrati with his brother, Pandelis. Let me
smoke a cigarette. Mm ... this ashtray is dirty.

140 141
Ma8r11.1a ccpcvrc EVO Lesson forty one the comparative form of xuwc;-11.-6; now we meet )(ElQOtEQo;-11-0 worse,
worst which is the irregular comparative and superlative of xaxo;-11-6.
Instead of )(ElQOtEQO we can use mo xax6.
5 II<ivta x<in t)(El, He's always got something (wrong with him). Note
New words this idiomatic use of x<in t)CEl meaning something is wrong with someone
ubuvu,:o impossible o µ1tEA<ic; trouble, bother or something.
tJ cttctsiu disorder o VEUQ<>c; young man
6 Note that the Acc. plural form of o un<iAAlJl,oc; is ,:ouc; un:aH111.ou; with
11 yoµoA<i<Jtt)(ct rubber the stress moved one syllable forward. All Masc. nouns in -oc stressed
lJ :rcctQcttt)QlJOtJ remark, observation
'I YQct<pOµJJ)CUVll typewriter on the third from last syllable in the Norn. sing. are stressed on the
:rcctQO\J<Jt<i~w I present, introduce
'I buxru>.oyQ<icpoc; typist o 1tEA<in1; customer
penultimate syllable in the Acc. plural. Similarly o <iv8Qw1toc;, i:ovc;
OJJµtouQyw (3) I create uvOQron:ou;. Note, however, that. adjectives do not change in this way;
11 1tAlJQO(f)OQtct information
evvuruun half past nine the stress is on the same syllable throughout xat«A.AlJAou; u:rca>.1..111..ou;.
o :rcovoxrcpu1,.oc; headache
11 Em)CElQlJOlJ enterprise, business 7 IlotE ~Eataivnm, itotE XQtJWVEl, Sometimes Ire's hot, sometimes he's
:rc6tE ... :rcotE sometimes ...
11 E1tO)(l1 period, ti me sometimes cold.
Euy1:-vtx6c;-11-6 polite (a) Remember that itotE means when in a question, but itotE .... 11:ou in a
<Jl]µEQtvoc;-11-6 modern, present
~Efftct(voµcu I'm hot, I'm getting statement is translated by sometimes ... sometimes.
to atu>.6 pen
hot (b) The English to be + the adjective hot is rendered in Greek by the
11 t«sl] order
tbwmxoc;-11-6 private verb ~rnmivoµm and to be + the adjective cold by the verb XQ\JWVW.
to rpav~iat0p transistor
xut<iA,,lJAOS·lJ·O suitable, proper 0 (j)QK£A.o; file Note that while ~E<J'taivoµaL is passive, XQUWvw is active.
x<itw uno under 8 one; :rcAtlQO(f)OQtE; xu·t ta nat'tt)QUl for (giving) information and tickets
to )(ctQti paper
XQUµµtvoc;-11-0 hidden We could say Kat ata uam)pia here, but it is not necessary to repeat a
)CflQOtEQo;-11-0 worse, worst
XQvwvw I'm cold preposition when it refers to two things connected by Km, so the ae is
11 1.ts11 word missing. Here ae is used implying in the position or at the desk where
EXEivo; nou the one who
tu 1,.6ym words, speech information and tickets are given. Note also that lJ 1tA.lJp0<popia may be used
x<in t)Cfl there's something wrong in the singular or plural in Greek, while in English information is always
to µo1,.uf3t pencil with singular.
µovt~lct permanently
O We have studied times and learned to say xm µw11 for half past the
hour, but we can now note that there are two ways to express this in
Greek: EVVt<iµtat or evvt<i xm µtffll, Note that in the single word form
Notes -~tl<Jl has no accent and the final letter has changed to t: similarly
£<pt«µl<Jt, O)('tWiU<Jl.
1 Verbs IU Words and expressions to note
In the last lesson we noted that Ou may be followed by the present tense, (a) Abuvato impossible is the opposite of buvat6v possible. Note that
instead of the subjunctive, if the speaker thinks of the action as the prefix u- at the beginning of a word gives a negative idea, suggesting
continuous or repeated indefinitely. We can now see that the same is tnu: lock o.f' U01JVUtOc; not strong Or weak, UOlXO not right Or \Vrong, UtUSlU
for vu: Ano ctllQlO 1tQt1tn vu tQ)COVtcu atJJV WQct rocc, From tomorrow lock of order or disorder.
they must come on time. Here the idea is that every day they must comr (b) H n:UQUtt)QlJOtJ ( complaining) remark is another example of archaic
on time. Now compare this: AUQlO 1tQ£1tH vu tQ9ouv ornv WQct to1Jc;. I ype Fem. nouns, plural ot 1CUQUt11Qt)<JElc;.
Tomorrow they must come on time. Here one action at one time is (c) Nu a«c; 1tUQOUat<iaw Let me introduce to yn11 The vu here has the
referred to, so the subjunctive is used. ,cnsc of let me, a sort of command or instruction by Pandelis to himself.
2 Kuvtvuc; b£v £Q)(£tm notr ornv WQct rou, No one ever comes on time. (d) To atu>.6 pen and to tQUVSl<J'tOQ transistor are invariable Neut.
Note the use of xuvrvuc; and notr together with the negative b£v in the nouns, plural ta atu>.6, ta TQav~iatoQ.
same sentence. (1•) huo 1,.6ym two words By two words here Pandelis really means a
3 Eyw £iµcu £xEivoc; nou £Q)Cnctt1tQwtoc;. I'm the one who comes first. N1111 /1•11• (angry) words. Note that 11 AESl], plural Ot A.tsnc;, and the plural noun
that ExEivoc;-tJ-o, which we have met as the adjective or pronoun that or 1/1111 w 1,.oym both mean word( s). H AtsTJ refers to individual unconnected
one, when followed by nou means the one who. words, while ta 1,.6yta refers only to connected words in speech or
4 To )(HQO'tEQO The worst We have met xctA1Jt£QOS·tJ·O better, best a~ \\11 iling and has no singular.

142 143
Translation M6811µa copevrc l)uo Lesson forty two
A private enterprise

Pandelis My name is Pandelis Spanoudis. I'm the owner of a tourist office.

It's a lot of trouble, my friends, to have your own (business) New words
enterprise at the present time. (It's) impossible to find suitable sE(}ll(j)H it runs (of colours)
l1 rutobttsl) receipt
employees. First of all no one ever comes on time. I'm the one who
(}yas(I) ((}ya1-.(I)) I take off, take out Tl ua1-.ton sauce, gravy
always comes first. Then the disorder in this office is terrible. to utbEQ(l)µa ironing, pressing
yEQoi;-11-0 firm, strong
Order is an unknown word in here. Let me introduce my employees
to xn0aQUJµct cleaning uteyvoi;-11-0 dry
to you. Mary, the typist. Her typewriter is permanently hidden uuµ(} I advise
to xa0nQtoi:TIQlO cleaner's
behind papers and files. Under all that there are pencils, pens, (j)EQV(I) (subj. (j)EQW) I bring
(to) XU(j)E brown
rubbers. Dina at the information and ticket (desk). She works one
to XOQinn girl o (J)O(}oi; fear
day in two. She never comes before half past nine. The worst
to xouµn:i button Tl (j)OUoi:a skirt
(thing) is that she always has a transistor beside her which is
o 1-.exei; stain
playing continuously. l 've made a remark to her many times, but
(to) µo(} mauve be uou 1-.ei; tell me
she insists that she can't work without music .and that it creates a
(to) µn:es beige ym vu bouµe let's see
nice atmosphere for the customers. Then there's Yiorgos, the
V(l)Ql'tEQn earlier
young man that I have to go to the banks and various offices. He's
polite but he's always got something (wrong with him). Sometimes
he's got a headache, sometimes his leg hurts, sometimes he's hot,
sometimes he's cold. Today I'm going to say a few words to them,
though. They've got to understand that this situation must stop.
From tomorrow they must all come on time. They must work with 1 'E<pEQn I brought is the past tense of (j)EQV(I), subjunctive (j)EQ(I). The first
order, quietness and without a lot of breaks. and second person plural forms are, of course, (j)EQctµE, (f)EQcttE.
2 The colours µnes beige, xa<pe brown, µo(} mauve are all invariable
adjectives or Neut. nouns: to xmpi\, ro µo(}, TO µ:rces.
3 0a (JO\J rnv s«VU(j)EQ(I). I' II bring it to you again.
0a oou 1:n txw hotµa. /' II have them ready for you.
Note that when we have both direct and indirect pronouns before the
verb, the indirect object pronoun comes before the direct object pronoun.
Remember the use of sava- as a prefix meaning again, back or re-.
4 buo 1-.exi\bei; two stains The plural of o 1-.exei; is or 1-.exebei;; this is a
type of Masc. noun we have not yet studied. There are a number of
Masc. nouns ending in -ei;, or ·ct<; which have the plural ending -i\bei;,
-abei; in the Norn., Voe. and Acc. plural. We have already met a few of
I hem: 0 Xct(f)E<;, or XU(j)EbE<;, 0 µ;, or µ1te1-.abei;, 0 µest,;, Ol µesi\bei;,
o xuvan:ei;, or xnvnn:ebei;. You will find these nouns in full in
Appendix AM4.
Note another single word comparative form VWQtTEQn earlier from the
udverb V(l)QL<; early. There is also the two word form mo V(l)Qt<;.
11 Words and expressions to note
(11) ftn vu bouµe Let's see is a common idiomatic expression.
(Ii) ~E µ011 1-.ei; Tell me is another common idiomatic expression. Note
111111 it is negative in Greek, something like Won't you tell me, but it has
more or less the same meaning as IlE<; uou. Tell me.
(t') II cmobnsri receipt is another archaic type Fem. noun, plural or

144 145
(d) ro XOQLTOL girl Note that nouns with the ending -i:r:at are always Ma8rUJa aapavra rplc Lesson forty three
Neut. even when they refer to females.
(e) KUQLE l:1tUQO uou lit. My Mr. Spiros The addition of uou in such
expressions adds nothing except a suggestion of friendly familiarity to the
meaning. New words
ot Ayyd.ibflbE; the Angelidis (family) sexv6.w (subj. I forget
6)J.o any longer, any more ooo as long as
Translation P!!«btvo;-11-0 evening fl l'tAEllQ« side
ot Ad,cpof Delphi l'tQWlVOS·rt·O morning
At the cleaner's tu dbfl appliances, goods Tl l't'tl]<Jfl flight
fl exbQoµit excursion, trip aTEVOXWQLEµm (3) I am worried
Maria Good morning, (Mr.) Spiros.
mefyoll(m urgent (Fern.) 0 auµpou1.o; adviser
Proprietor Good morning, Maria. How is the studying going?
E1tUJ'tQECJlW T return, come back 'tQ«P«w (subj. 'tQ«Prisw) I last,
Maria It never ends. (Mr.) Spiros I've brought you·some clothes for
11 t'tatQEL« company, firm drag on, pull
dry cleaning.
Elll(«QUJ'tOS·fl·O nice, pleasant u1toaxoµm l promise
Proprietor Let's see what you've brought.
0auµfono;-a-o splendid, wonderful
Maria Two (pairs of) trousers, two skirts and an overcoat. Tell me, is
µEoflµEQmvo;-it-6 midday 6.xouae vu 1\n; listen, look
there any fear that the brown might run into the beige? 1tQEnEl v« yivEL it must be done
Proprietor I don't think (so). l advise you to take off these buttons, though. tc MnEWQ« Meteora
TO Movaxo Munich l'tQWi l'tQWi early in the morning
They don't look very firm to me.
VOµLXOS·ll·O legal
Maria All right. I'll take them off and I'll bring it to you again. Ah, yes!
This (pair of) trousers has two stains. Here, on the right.
Probably they must be from sauce.
Proprietor O.K. Well, I('il) write (it down): dry cleaning and pressing. Take
your receipt. They will all be ready in three days.
Maria Isn't it possible (for me) to get them earlier? 1 Verbs
Proprietor What do you need more quickly? (a) l:'tEVO)(WQLEµm / am worried Here we see a new type of passive
Maria The brown trousers and the mauve skirt. ending. The verb O'tEVO)(WQCO I wony (someone) is in fact a type 3 verb,
Proprietor 0.K. I'll have them ready for you tomorrow evening. but type 2 and 3 verbs do not differ from each other in the way they form
Maria Thank you, (Mr.) Spiros. Bye. the passive from the active. Most type 2 and 3 verbs have passive
Proprietor So long, my child. endings with the characteristic vowels LE in the sing.: a'tEVOXWQtfom you
are worried, a'tEVO)(WQLE'tm he/she/it is worried. We'll study the plural
later. Similarly the type 2 verb aya1tco becomes ayamEµm / am lo Fed,
ayamtam you are loved, ayan:LE'tm he/she/it is loved. Compare these
endings with the other type 2 endings we have met in the passive
cpop6.µm,, cpopci'tm. (Note that the verbs that take the -6.µm, etc. endings have no active form.) Remember that it is the type I
verbs, stressed on the stem, which have the passive endings -oµm, -eom,
·f'tm; PQiaxoµm, PQioxrnm, PQt<JXE'tm.
(b) The verb u1toaxoµm I promise is another verb which is always
passive in form in Greek. The subjunctive is u1tOO)(E6w hence the perfect
reuse is El(W un:oaxe0e( 1 have promised, un:oaxe0Ef being the perfect
participle from the third person sing. of the subjunctive.
(\:) The type 2 verb 'tQ«P«w / last, go on, pull, drag out has the
~11hjunctive form 'tQ«(}itsw with the added syllable TIS instead of the more
\ISllal 11<Jj the perfect tense is therefore El(W 'tQ«(}'ISEl,
(d) IIQEn:EL vu yivEL. It must be done. Note that the subjunctive form of

146 147
the passive verb yivoµm / become is yivw. This is another of the verbs remark before an explanation; 'Axouoe vu c'>ni; Listen has the same use
(called special verbs in this course) which although passive in form in the and meaning. In English too we could say Look or Listen here.
present are active in form in the subjunctive. The other special verbs that (b) Remember TO 11:!.)WI. the morning; the expression 3tQWi 3tQWi means
we have met are te,:oµm / come, subjunctive teOw, and xuOoµm, I sit/ emphatically early in the morning. Remember too that wi is pronounced
stay, subjunctive xaOfow. as two vowels while or is pronounced as a single vowel uvoiyw.
Note also the meaning of 11:QE:71:Et vu yivn. fivoµm has many idiomatic (c) µta ETULQEta flAEXT!.)lX<i>v nbrov an electric appliances company The
uses, some of which we already know; it is often used in the sense of Gen. plural is used here, literally a company of electric appliances. The
happen, take place or become, but here the best translation is it must be Neut. noun TO Etboi; means kind, sort, but the plural Ta Ei.<>ri often means
done. products, goods or appliances.
(e) The subjunctive form of !;rxvum I forget is !;r,:uow. Note that the v (d) 0uuµaota! Splendid! Wo1:.derfu/.l Here again we see an adverb used
drops from the present stem and the added syllable is ao. The regular in Greek where English uses an adjective; remember Q!.)utu! Splendid!
subjunctive £3ttOTQE\jlm comes from EntOTQE<pW I return, come back. and Ku>.a Good! O.K.! 0auµaota is the adverbial Neut. plural form of
2 We met £1t£iyov, the Neut. form, in Lesson 21 and now we meet Oauµa11t0i;-a-o wonderful.
rn:dyouoa the Fem. form of the same adjective. (Remember also (e) Note that the nouns TO 1t!.)mi, TO µEOflµEQL, TO (}Qnc'>u all have
tvbmcpteouoa in L32, N8a.) These two adjectives, although useful, are, adjectival forms 1t!.)Wtvoi;-11-o morning, µEOllJlEQLUvoi;-11-0 midday and
as we said, from Katharevousa not Demotiki. They are rarely used in ~!.)Uc'>LVOS·tJ·O evening.
speech except in the Fem. and Neut. sing., so you need only concern (f) H 3tTl]CJ11 is another archaic type Fem. noun with its plural or 1tT11oni;.
yourself with the endings -ov and -ouou, 9 Cultural note
µta EVbtacpEQOUoa un:o0ECJ11 an interesting matter/case Delphi with its ancient ruins is certainly one of the most beautiful and
tva rvbmcpt:QOV yeuµµa an interesting letter interesting sights in Greece, while Meteora is a group of monasteries built
µta tndyouoa unoOwri an urgent matter/case spectacularly on the pinnacles of needle-like rocks in the north of
tva tnriyov YQUµµa an urgent letter Greece. Note that both OL ~EA(j)OI. and TU METEWQU are plural place names.
3 'Ooo ri.µaoTE OTflV A011va As long as we are in Athens Note that ooo Remember we said that place names were often plural in former times
on its own can be used to mean as long as; in L40 we saw ooo X<UQO and that some keep the plural form even today.
used with the same meaning.
4 Ot Ayyd.ibric'>ri; The Angelidis (family] Note this use of the plural of
the family name o (xuewi;) Ayyr>.i.c'>rii; to refer to a whole family, just as
we say (Mr.) Smith, the Smiths. Note also that Ayyt>.ic'>rii; is another Translation
Masc. noun like the ones we met in L42, N4 which add -bri; in the
An urgent matter
plural. Many family names form their plural in this way.
5 Av ~QW Ot011 UlJQLO, Ou µ11:01.>fow vu En:LOT!.)E\j!W mv IlaQUOXEUl], If I Nikos I had a phone call yesterday from Katy, my secretary. Fortunately
find a place tomorrow, I'll be able to return on Friday. Note again the· we haven't had any serious problems all this time.
use of av if with the subjunctive, followed by a verb in the future tense l uspina That's nice
in the main part of the sentence. This construction corresponds to Nikos The only bad (thing) is that there's one case of an electrical
English conditional sentences using if with the present and then the appliances company that can't wait any longer. It has already
future tense to refer to future possibilities. dragged on a long time.
6 Acpot'., ;E!.)EtS on ... 3tQE3tEt vu' Since you know that ... it must be /l1•1pina What do you mean?
done. Note again this use of acpou in the sense of since, where the Nikos I mean that I absolutely must meet the other side's legal adviser.
sentence appears unfinished. This construction, common in the spoken I Jr•spi11a In Thessaloniki?
language, is a way of emphatically contradicting the previous speaker. Nikos Unfortunately, yes.
The consequence is left unsaid, as it is considered obvious; in this case / lr•,111i11a But since we said that you'll forget the office as long as we're in
the consequence is Ou it will be done. Athens ... Besides we've promised mother a trip to Delphi and
7 M:v µnopEi va 1ttp1µtw:i a>.>.o. It can't wait ,;my longer. We have met Meteora before the Angelidis (family) come from Munich.
a>.>.o<;-ri-o with the meaning other, else and next, now note this use of the Nikos Why are you worried, my love? Since you know that when
Neut. sing. a>.>.o in the sense of any longer, any more. something is urgent it must be done ...
8 Words and expressions to note I 1, 11ii11(1 I'm not worried but ...
(a) We have already met Koim!;r vu bui; Look used as an introducto, y NII, II.I' Listen! If I find a place on the morning flight tomorrow, I'll be able

148 149
to come back on Friday with the midday or the evening (flight). So M68r11.1a aapavra 1taa&pa Lesson forty four
we ('II) set off early Saturday morning, if you like. What do you
Despina 0.K. So I'll phone for rooms in hotels.
Nikos Splendid! And Andreas can ask his friend for some reputable New words
company that hires (out) cars. Tell him to book us a car for the
weekend. axoua« I heard o µ11:ou(f)Ei; sideboard, buffet
Despina Agreed. I'll tell him. 01 mto(JXE\JEi; .luggage , baggage :rtEQV«w (subj. :rtEQ«iaw) I pass
Nikos I'm going to phone about my ticket. UaE leave, let 11:ou8EV«i anywhere, nowhere
~tal;oµm I'm in a hurry a:rtal;w I break
t~a>.a I put (past tense) 'to (Jl)Q'tUQt drawer
Eiba I saw ha 'tE'taQ'tO a quarter of an hour
tlpal;a I looked (for), searched o xaQ'tOqJu>.axai; briefcase
l;uyil;w I weigh
1J xa8ua'tEQ1J(Jl) delay, lateness KaM m1;Hh. Have a good journey.
xuwµtvoi;-11-0 booked, reserved AEi;; Do you think so?
µ11(v) not

1 (a) Bml;oµm. /' m in a hurry. Note that this passive verb is translated
by to be and the phrase in a hurry: ~ial;rnmyou're in a hurry.
(b) Past tense Note Eiba I saw/have seen from ~AE:rtW I see, subjunctive
bw, another irregular past tense to learn.
Note also t~a>.a I put from ~al;w, subjunctive ~a>.w, and Elj)al;a / looked
(for) from lj)Ul(VW, subjunctive 1j)u1;w, two more verbs which add E to the
past stem as they would otherwise be two syllable words.
Finally note axovaa I heard from axouw I hear, subjunctive axouuw.
(c) The subjunctive of the type 2 verb :rtEQVClW / pass is :rtEQ«<Tw. We can
now note that type 2 and 3 verbs may add 11a, ri1;, Ea or ai; to form the
subjunctive stem. Most add no like 8a QW'tllaw, but some add 111; like 8a
'tQaf}ri1;w, others add Ea like 6a µ11:ogfow and others add no like 6«
1;El(aaw and 8a :rtEgciaw.
(d) Imperative Mriv 1;Exuani;. Don't forget. Remember that µri or
µ.11v followed by the subjunctive forms the negative imperative. 'AuE is
the irregular sing. imperative of a(f)f!VW / leave, let.
2 Ta t~a>.a O'tO (Jl)Q'tO.Qt ym vu µri a:rtci<Jouv. l put them in the drawer so
that they wouldn't break. Remember ym vain order to (L30, NlOk); it
may-also translate into so that. Note how the following verb in the
subjunctive is translated using would here. Note too that <J:rtal;w is always
active in Greek; we might well translate this using the passive so that
they wouldn't get broken. We also have to note a new use of µ.ri(v); a
negative verb after vc or yia vc is rendered by µri(v) not by bE(v).
,I Study the pair 11:av'tou everywhere and 11:ov8Eva anywhere, nowhere.
They are both invariable and can be compared with 11:6.vm always and
:rtO'tE ever, never. Like :rtO'tE and d:rto'tE, :rtou6EV6. is used with bE(v)
before the verb in the negative:
150 151
Ilt1YE<; :itovOEva; Did you go anywhere? AEV itllY« :itovOEva. / didn't go the sideboard in the dining-room.
anywhere. 'EXEL<; :itan itOtE; Have you ever been? AEV EXW itUEl itOtE. Nikos I've looked everywhere, l tell you.
I've never been. 0EAEl<; ti:itotE; Do you want anything? AE Ou.w ti:itotE. / Despina Let me see. Perhaps I put them in the drawer so that they wouldn't
don't want anything. get broken (lit. break).
4 AEv EXEL<; «Qy11an; Aren't you late? Notice the use of the perfect tense Nikos Do you think so?
here where English uses the present (L26, N2b). Despina Come on. Here they are. Take them. Aren't you late?
5 H 3ttJ1<JTt EXEL x«Ou<JtEQlJ<JTt· The flight is delayed. Note that in Greek Nikos No. But I'm in a hurry because I want to drop in Fexis'office for a
you say that the plane has a delay, not is delayed. couple of minutes. Well ... I'm ready. Bye, my love.
6 I:' E<JU<; O« itAlJQW<JW; Shall/ pay (the money) to you? Here the Despina Bye, Nikos. Have a good journey.
indirect object is rendered emphatically by <JE shortened to a' before the E Nikos Thanks. Don't forget the hotels and the car.
of the strong, object pronoun wa;. Despina No, no. Don't worry.
7 Koit«;E<; µ11:itw<; Eivm :itavw oro tQ«itE~axt; Did you look I wonder (to
see if) they're on the table? Remember the use of the polite question The flight is delayed.
word µ11:itw<; I wonder or perhaps (LS, N12). The translation needs to add
something like to see if here. Employee (Yes) please. (Can I help you?)
8 Words and expressions to note Nikos I phoned for a seat on the midday flight to Thessaloniki.
(a) At:<;; Do you think so? Of course AE<; means literally do you say? Employee Name?
Note also that Nikos reports what he has said to the employee with AEro Nikos Kazakos. Nikos Kazakos.
where English would use the past/ said. Employee One moment ... Yes. The seat is booked. Have you got any
(b) Il<iQ' ta. Take them. Here the final E has dropped from the sing. luggage?
imperative itUQE before the r, a common occurence in speech; the Nikos Only this bag and this briefcase.
apostrophe replaces the missing letter. Employee It isn't necessary for us to weigh them. Just a minute while I make
(c) The Masc. noun o µ,i:ou<pE<; sideboard is another noun like o AEXES out your ticket.
with the plural form or µ1tou<pEbt:;. Nikos Shall I pay you?
(d) Note K«M tn;ibt. (Have a) good journey. When wishing someone Employee Sorry? I didn't hear.
luck, there are many expressions in Greek using x«Ms-11-6 before a Nikos I said: «Shall I pay here?»
noun. Also K«Ao a«~~ntox-UQL«xo. ( Have a) good weekend. Employee Yes. Ah ... the flight has been slightly delayed.
(e) or «TtO<JXE\JES luggage, baggage Note that «itO<JXWE<; is plural, Nikos How slight (a delay is it)?
while luggage and baggage are singular in English. Employee About a quarter (of an hour).
(f) Note that EV« tEt«QtO a quarter can, without any additional words,
mean a quarter of an hour.
(g) 'Aos vo bro xt t:yw. Let me see. Note that no object pronoun is
needed in Greek here. The literal translation is something like Let that J
see too.
(h) Jlooo µtxQ11; How small? We have met a number of expressions
using itO<JO now: Ilo<JO X«lQO; How long? IIO<JO xavn; How much is it.
Note that :itoao can also be used 'before an adjective.

I'm in a hurry.
Despina What are you looking for?
Nikos My glasses. I can't find them anywhere. I wonder if you've seen
Despina I wonder if you've looked (to see if) they're on the little table by

152 153
6 Atyov,:m n:oAAu. A lot is said or A lot of things are said. The verb Atw
M68riµa copcvrc nevrs Lesson forty five
I say, tell, call has the normal passive endings but the passive stem is
ley- so the passive in full is: Uyoµm, ltywm, itynm, AEyoµcmn:,
Atyt:ITTE, Atyovrnt.
7 We have studied Masc. nouns which add a syllable in the plural, like o
New words /..Ext;, Ol uxtbE<;, 0 µn:EA«<;, OL µ:n:EA«bt:;, 0 (XlJQlO<;) Ayyd.ibt1<;, OL
'1 UQJ.LTEX'tOVlXfl architecture o:n:otoabri:n:otE whoever, whichever, AyyEAibribt:;. Now note that there are a few Fem. nouns which follow
TO Tuuvnmo Gymnasio (school) any this pattern: ri ,•TavT«, or vTaVT«bE<; nannies. Similarly 11 µaµu, m
YlJQW an:o around o,n whatever µaµubt:;.
o E:7ttJ.ElQ1Wa'tiu; businessman TO :7tE~obQ6µto pavement 8 Words and expressions to note
ri moxri season ri :n:luniu square (a) Hou AETE is a common spoken expression equivalent to you know (lit.
EQY«~oµm (subj. EQyaaT<i>) I work, TO axuluxt little dog that you say).
I am employed 0 OllV'tU;lO\JJ,O(i; pensioner (b) H µ:n:ou'tLX is another invariable Fem. noun of foreign origin.
xa0w<; xm as well as to 'tOUQwnxo YQU(f)Eio travel agency (c) rvQw a:n:o is another useful preposition followed by the Acc. case.
o xaAAl'tEJ.Vl]<; artist to <p0tvomuQO autumn (d) Note that Syntagma can be referred to simply as TO l:uvrnyµa or
TO KoAwvuxl Kolonaki o :x.uµ<i>va; winter using the Gen. as 11 :7tAU'tELU I:uV'tuyµaTo<; lit. the square of Syntagma.
xoµ;-11-0 elegant, smart (e) To Ko1wvuxt t:x.n X,Qwµa. Kolonaki has got colour. Here the sense
µt:yuAlJ'tEQO<;·l]·O bigger, older axoµa xm even is that Kolonaki is a lively place full of character.
11 µ:n:ouTix boutique nou AETE you know (f) We have met axoµu translated as in addition, yet and still; now note
11 vruvru nanny axoµu xm TO <p0tvo:n:WQO and even in the autumn where axoµa xm
tran~lates into even.
9 Cultural Note
Notes (a) The rvµvumo and the Auxuo are both secondary schools; the former
is for the first years of secondary education and the latter for the final
1 The verb EQY«~oµm / work or/ am emploved, subjunctive EQyaaTw, is three years.
another verb that is always passive in form in Greek. It is no different in (b) Most districts of the towns and cities as well as the villages in Greece
meaning from the active verb boulww which also means I work. have a central square around which you normally find pastry shops and
2 ME TO AEU'tEQlJ riµaa'tuv Ollµµa0ritt;. / 111as a schoolmate of Left eris' or coffee bars where people sit and talk. Kolonaki, as Andreas makes clear,
Left eris and l were schoolmates. Study this construction which is is a very fashionable and expensive area in central Athens, often
translated literally as We were schoolmates with Lefteris although considered the snobbish area, and therefore the subject of a lot of gossip.
Andreas is speaking only of Lefteris and himself.
3 The one word comparative and superlative form of µEy«io;-ri-o is
µEyaAlJtEQO<;-ri-o older, bigger; there is of course an alternative two word
form mo µEyUAO(i;·l)•O. Translation
Note that µEyuAUTEQO<; and xaHtEQO<; are the only type I or 2 adjectives
which add •\J'tEQO<; to form the comparative; the others all add ·O'tE()O<;. In the square
4 On:omhri:n:o'tE WQU Whatever time The adjective or pronoun ,\11dreas I'm in Kolonaki at a pastry shop and I'm waiting for my friend,
o;,:owabrin:ou consists of on:ow;-a-o, which varies like n:ow;-a-o and Lefteris. Lefteris and I were schoolmates at the Gymnasio and the
the invariable hrin:otE. It may translate into whatever, whichever, Lykio. Now he's studying architecture in Athens. He's living with
whoever or any in the sense of it doesn't matter what/which/who. his older brother, Pandelis. I think that I've spoken to you about
MitOQEl<; vu it«QEl<; on:owbri:n:o'tE J.EW(fJOQEio. You can take any bus. Pandelis. He's got a travel agency and I'm thinking of working with
On:owabri:n:o'tE 'Enrivu; 0a ooo n:u. Any Greek will tell you. him. Kolonaki, you know, is a very well-known district in the
5 'O,n xal vu :n:u xavEi<; Whatever one says Here we see a new use or centre of Athens. It's near Syntagma Square below Lykavittos. It's
o,'tl (with a comma) in the sense of whatever. Note that o;,:owabri:n:ou got small roads, smart and expensive shops -boutiques they call
(N4 above) refers to a specific noun, while o,n followed by a verb meuu- them- as well as lovely pastry shops around the little square. At
whatever in a general sense, not referring to a specific noun: Na n:«QEl<; all seasons of the year, (and) even in autumn, when it's not raining,
o,n 0t1u;. Take whatever you want but Na :n:UQEl<; on:owbrin:o'tE l}tl}Aio and in winter, if the weather is good, a lot of people sit at the tables
etin;. Take whichever book you want.
(which there are) on the pavements. At whatever time you go, the M68r)I.JO O'OPOYTO &~I Lesson forty six
tables are full. Here you'll meet businessmen and students; artists
and pensioners; ladies with little dogs and nannies. Whatever one
says -and a lot is said- Kolonaki has got colour.
New words
yuQi~w I go round l;av«QXi~w I begin again
11 btaAEl;rt lecture to n:a1.att palace
En:n:twus in the end, at last n:a1.,os-u-o former
to 9fotQO theatre 0 :rmn:n:ovs grandfather
to µ£QoS place TO IlaQiCJt Paris
to uouoeto museum n:EQWCJOtEQos-11-0 more, most
(µE) vota~n it matters (to me), I :rtQOxn-rm (it is) going to
care about to CJ\JVEl>QtO convention

(a) Mou llQECJE. / liked it or It was pleasing to me. We are already very
familiar with the present µou «QECJEt / like it or it is pleasing to me; since
the subjunctive of «Qfow is the same as the present tense, the past tense
involves only a change of stress and ending UQECJ« / pleased or/ was
(b) EixE vu bwon buo bt«A£l;ns. He had two lectures to give.
'E:rtQt:n:E vu n:aw oro yQ«qJEio. I had to go to the office.
Note the difference in meaning here: txw vu xavw has the sense of/
have something to do (without obligation) while :rtQ£n:Et va xavw suggests
obligation: it is necessary or I must/have to do something.
'En:Qt:n:E it was necessary, I had to is the past tense of n:Q£n:Et; the
xubjunctive is the same as the present tense (L16, Nlc).
(c) Passive :E:EXVtoµaCJtE We forget ourselves has the sense that we
forget everything else and we are forgotten by everything else. We can
IH)W study the complete set of endings for type 2 passive verbs in -te~tm.
'I'hc passive of the type 2 verb ;t:xvaw / forget is:
a,xv,tµm / am forgotten SEXVtoµaotE we are forgotten
~•XVLfom you are forgotten SEXVl£CJ'tE you are forgotten
•• xvtetm he/she/it is forgotten SEXVtovv-rm they are forgotten
t 'umpare these with the other type 2 passive endings we have learned
t'111eu, -«om etc (L39, NI).
(d) Nore that the stem of axouw I hear, listen to which ends in a vowel
h1xot'1-) combines with the ending -ELS to form axovs you hear in the
111111d person sing. The plural endings also combine with the stem so the
1 11111plc1c present tense looks like this:

11 111{ic,, axovµE
It 111(1; (lXO\J'tE
II 'II lll'L axouv

(e) The verb :n:eoxu'tm is another impersonal verb like :n:ebtu which Andreas Yes, I went all round it. Streets, museums, palaces, shops, theatres.
exists only in the third person sing. The meaning is something like going It's a splendid city.
to in the sense that something is likely or due to happen: neoxrmu va Athina You stayed nearly three months, didn't you?
!;avaexfoouµr. We are going to begin again. neoxEL'tat vu (flUyouv. They Andreas More. You see, Dad wanted to stay after the convention in order to
are going to leave. This construction is often used to describe future meet various former acquaintances. He had two lectures to give at u
plans. university too. What about you, grandmother, have you ever been
(f) Tr <JE VOL«~ouv 'tu :n:eoJU.l)µ«'t« 'tou; What do his problems matter to to London?
you? The verb voLa~u, vota~ouv is another impersonal verb which can Athina No, my child. Only to Paris in (19)55 with your late grandfather.
be used only in the third person sing. or plural with the sense of it Andreas There's mum with the coffees.
matters, they matter. It can also be translated by the verb care: Ar µr Despina TeU me, why didn't you come yesterday afternoon, .sir , when we
voui~u. J don't care (about it) or It doesn't matter to me. Au'ta µi:: were expecting you?
voLa~ouv. / care about those things or Those things matter to me. Andreas I couldn't. I had to go to Pandelis' office. When we are talking
2 The one word comparative and superlative form of :n:olu;, :n:01.AtJ, :n:o>.u about the problems of the office, we forget ourselves.
much, many, a lot (of) is :n:i::etaaoueos-11-0 more, most. The alternative trespina You forget yourselves! Do you hear, mother? They forget
is mo :n:o>.u; note that mo can never stand alone: themselves! And what do Pandelis ' problems matter to you, eh?
'Exu :7tEQL<J<JO'tEQU >-E<p't« or 'Exu mo :n:ona 1.E<p'ta. He has more money. Don't you understand what is good for you in the end?
Or :7tEQL<J<JO'tEQOL av8ero:n:ot or OL mo :7t0AAOL av8ew:n:OL Most people. sndreas If we're going to start the same discussion again, I'm leaving.
3 0 µ:n:aµ:n:a; father is another Masc. noun in -as which drops the s of the /uhina I think that you're not right, Despina. Come on. Sit down here both
Norn. sing. and adds -bi::; in the plural oL µ:n:aµ:n:abe;. Similarly o of you and we'll talk about it.
:n:a:n::n:ou; becomes or :n:a:n::n:oubi::; grandfathers. We have now met Masc.
nouns in -as, -Es, -11;, and -ou; (as well as the Fem. noun 11 vmvtn
nanny) which add -br; in the plural. All these Masc. nouns simply drop
the s to form the Voe., Acc., Gen. sing. (See Appendix AM4.)
4 X8r; 'to u:n:oyruµa nou <JE :n:EQtµevaµE Yesterday afternoon when we
were expecting you Note again the use of nou as a conjunction, here
translated by when, after a time expression.
5 'Orcv µL>.aµi:: When we (are) speak(ing) Note that omv, like 8a (L40,
Nia) and vu (L41, NI), is followed by the present when the action is
looked upon as repeated or continuous, not as a single complete whole.
6 Words and expressions to note
(a) Note that 'to µteos can mean place as well as part.
(b) H bL«AES11 lecture is another archaic type Fem. noun, plural OL
(c) To 55 is of course a short form meaning in 1955.
(d) Despina calls Andreas XUQtE sir ironically when asking for an
explanation of his absence.
(e) To YllQL<J« o>.o. I went all round it. Note that yuei~w can mean/ J.:11
round as well as 1 return. The 'to here refers to 'to Aovb(vo.

I liked it a lot.
Athina You didn't tell me, Andreas. Did you like London?
Andreas Very much, grandmother.
Athina Did you go to many places?

158 lS9
Maeru.1a oapavTa &q>Ta Lesson forty seven roemo'tEQOS·TJ·O, following the pattern of µeyaA\l'tEQOS·TJ·O,
VOJQt'tEQoc;-11-0 etc. Forms in -u,:oc; do not make any comparison; they
simply suggest a high degree of the quality suggested by the simple
adjective. It is like the difference in English between most beautiful and
New words the most beautiful. (This is a most beautiful view as opposed to This is
aveto CJ~ good bye the most beautiful view in the area.) We can replace OJQatO't'atoc; by ltOA11
Aditro I am lacking, absent, missing
weafoc; without change of meaning but not by mo weafoc;, while
tJ anoOrixri storeroom oM«Qttoc; March
tJ yuAt]VlJ peace, calm wemotEQOS can be replaced by mo OJQafoc; but not by itoAv OJQafoc;.
,:oµovoxAtvo single room
Compare these: H MaQia Eivm OJQatO'tCl'tlJ, Maria's very beautiful. E(vcu
o Aextµl}Qtoc; December o 1;evoMxoc; hotelier
-ro cHxAtvo double room
OJQUlO't£QtJ MO 'tlJV Hew. She's more beautiful than Ero. H EUv11 ElVIU
tJ1tQoxuiajlo1,,11 deposit
EAiti~ro r hope 1J OOQatO'tEQTJ aito 'tLS 'tQELS, Eleni is the most beautiful of the three.
tJam~ov season
4 Aito tva OtAnt:; Do you want one of each? Note the expression aitc'l
EU)CUQtO"tl]µhoc;-11-0 satisfied, io ,:evxoc; issue
pleased tva one of each; we could also say Ot1,,w aito bvo. 1 want two of each:
uitoAoyi~ro I reckon, estimate
o Iavou«Qtoc; January o (f>ej}QOU«Qtoc; February
aito 'tQia three of each.
5 Note that the months of.the year are all Masc. nouns in -oc;, and that
XClVOVLXci normally roQmo,:u,:oc;-11-0 very beautiful
they are all easily recognisable because of their similarity with the
o xcu:ci1,,oyoc; catalogue
English words. You will find the complete list in Appendix F3.
1J XO:'tlJYOQtU category, class MO tvu one of each
6 Words and expressions
1J XQCl't1JC1lJ booking, reservation µux itou since, as
(a) KaTci ,:o µrntJµEQL Around midday Remember xa,:a meaning about
or around referring to a time (L19, NSg).
(b) H XQ<l'tTJOTJ booking, reservation is another archaic type Fem. noun,
plural OL XQCl'tt]CJEtc; while tJ am~ov, is another invariable noun of foreign
Notes origin.
(c) Remember o xa,:awyoc; menu or list; it also translates as catalogue.
1 Verbs (d) ~ naipvro a1t6 t1JV Afntva. I'm calling youfrom Athens. Remember
(a) MtJV O.V1J01J)CEt'tE xaOoAou. Don't worry at all. Note that here µ11v is the expression naipvro ttJA.Eq><OVO 1 phone; here Despina leaves the word
followed by the present tense, not the subjunctive. We have already ttJA.Eq><OVO to be understood.
learned that the present follows Ou and vu when the action is considered I Cultural note
to be continuous; the same is true for µtJ(v) and in fact for all other In Greece all hotels are officially classified, according to the facilities
words which are followed by the subjunctive when a complete single they provide, as luxury, first, second, third or fourth class.
action is referred to. Remember also MtJV TO 01J~l]tcic; (L33, N6) literally
Don't (continue to) discuss it. Note that UVlJ01J)CCO I am worried/uneasy is
always active in form while a,:rvoxroQco / worry (someone) can be active
or passive: a,:evoxroQtEµm I am worried. fnmslation
(b) Mou AEiitouv µEQLXa 'tEV)ClJ, 1 am missing some issues. Be careful Houk ns two rooms.
with the verb AEutro which means I am missing in the sense of/ am
lacking or I'm short of. Here the subject 'tEVXTJ is after the verb; the I/, 1/1•//1•1' Hotel Galini. Can I help you? (lit. Please)
literal meaning is Some issues are missing to me. Note also AEutEL o I ,, 111/11n I'm calling you from Athens. My name is Kazakou. Can you lcll n1c
AvtQfoc; Andreas is missing (i.e. he is absent/not here). if there are any rooms for Saturday evening?
(c) Note uit«Q;EL, the subjunctive form of uitaQXEL there is, it exists. I/, 111•/l,•r There are, madam.
2 Mm itou bev eiµmJTE itavro CJ'tfJ am~ov, brv itELQa~n. Since we are not I 1, 1/1/,111 Also can you tell me what class your hotel is?
into the season, it doesn't matter. Mm itou efo,:e ebco, Ou ,:o xcivouµE
uµforoc;. As you are here, we'll do it at once.
in the sense of since, as.
Note the use of µta xou , ,, ,, ,,,,,,
I I ,,, 111'1'

1t ,,. /l,•1
Second (class)!
Well, book us a double and a single (room) in the name of Kazakos.
About what time do you reckon on arriving?
3 !!QatO'taToc;-11-0 Very beautiful It is evident that this word is formed ! ' •/'ill/I Around midday. Not before twelve, though. Perhaps I should send
from roeaioc;-a-o beautiful. It is in fact another kind of superlative, but you a deposit?
not a comparative. The single word comparative and superlative form is

160 l(tl
Hotelier It isn't necessary. Normally we don't accept reservations by phone, Ma8r11,1a oapaVTa OXTW Lesson forty eight
but as we are not into the season, it doesn't matter.
Despina Tell me, have the rooms got a beautiful view?
Hotelier Very beautiful, Mrs. Kazakou. You'll be very satisfied.
Despina I hope there won't be any problem. New words
Hotelier Don't worry (about it) at all.
Despina All right. Goodbye. j}yaivro I go out o 3tEQt3t'tEQ«S kiosk man
to yav-n glove to 3tQ<OlVO breakfast
At the offices of a magazine to ElXOO«QlXO twenty drachma piece o QOAOS role, part
to exai:oo'tCXQlXO hundred drachma OtJ!lnvnxos-11-0 significant,
Employee Can I help you? note important
Despina I've been abroad and I'm missing a few issues of your magazine. xa6t]µE(_nvos-11-o everyday, daily tJ ouv116Ela habit
Employee Which issues exactly? to x.1,.iµa climate tJ 'toix>.a (piece of) chewing gum
Despina The last (one) of December, the two of January, the two of XOlµaµm I go to sleep ro qJAl't~«vt cup
February, the two of March and the first (one) of April. xux.1,.oqioQw (3) I circulate, go xaMw I spoil, break up, change
Employee One moment while I look at the catalogue. One of each do you round 'to XlAtCXQlXO thousand drachma note
want? !llXQO'tEQOS·tJ·O smaller, smallest ta \jHA« small change
Despina Yes. !;avaUro I say before, say again
Employee Wait a moment. I'll go and get them for you from the store room. !;avaxaMro I change again 'tOao to xaAll'tEQO so much the
To naQrutovo complaint better
To itEVtJV'tCXQlXO fifty drachma note
ro nev'taxoa«QlXO five hundred
drachma note

(a) Ta AE(fl't« 3tQ£3tEt vn X\JXAO((JOQOllV. Money must (continue to)
circulate. Mt] uou ~T('tCXS, Don't keep on asking me. These are further
examples of the use of the present tense after vu and µt] when
continuous or repeated actions are referred to, not single actions or
uctions seen as complete wholes.
(b) TQwyaµe 11:01.\l 3tEQtoootEQ(!, We used to eat much more. Uiva11E
T<JO:l, We used to drink tea. KQll<Ovav O\JVEXEl<l, They used to be cold rill
th« time. 'EnmQva µm oµitQEAn, I used to take an umbrella. 'E~ya~E tu
ylxv'tla 'tO\J, He used to take off his gloves. Now that we are gelling
IINl!<l to the idea of continuous or repeated actions as opposed to
1•11111plete or single actions, we can take another step forward and study
1111· past continuous tense. For the past, the Greeks again distinguish
lu-rwcen the single or complete action and the continuous or repeated
1H lion. The simple past tense, remember, is formed from the subjunctive
~11·111 and refers to single or complete actions in the past. The new tense,
1111• past continuous, is not difficult to form as it uses the same endings as
1111• p11sl tense but the present tense stem instead of the subjunctive stern.
II 111 used to refer to continuous or repeated actions in the past and is

162 163
often translated by used to. Be careful, however, as English often uses (d) 0 ltEQt:rttEQUS kiosk salesman is another noun which adds -bi:s in the
the simple past tense for a repeated past action where Greek must use plural: Ot ltEQtlttEQ«bE;.
the past continuous. (e) Note ta '\j)tM small change (as opposed to large denominations of
As in the past tense, the stress is normally on the third syllable from the money). Don't confuse this with ta QE<rta (L6) which means change in
end in the past continuous, and the same rule applies for adding i:: to the sense of what is given back when you give more than the required
words which would otherwise consist of only two syllables. Compare amount in payment of something.
Present Past Continuous
lt<llQV(l) t:lt<llQV<l 1 used to take
lttVOlJµE n:ivaµi: we used to drink Translation
!Jya~n i::(Jya~E he used to take off
XQlJroVOlJV XQU(l)V«v they used to be cold Have you got change?
Note that tQ(l)(l) adds y to the stem in the past continuous t:tQcoya J used Andreas Good morning, (Mr.) Ilias.
to eat, and that verbs like xavco, i::1.,w and dµm which have no separate Kiosk man Good morning, Andreas.
subjunctive form, are the same in the past continuous as in the simple Andreas Two packets of cigarettes, a newspaper and a small packet of
past i::xava, i:ixa, t)µ; these may be translated as J did, I had, 1 was chewing gum.
or by I used to do, I used to have, I used to be according to the context. Kiosk man Here you are.
We can now note that t)9d.a J wanted which we met in L29, Nl is in Andreas You must have change for a thousand drachma note.
fact the past continuous of atico. The simple past tense form 9t:AfJ<J« is Kiosk man Don't (keep on) ask(ing) me for change early in the morning,
rarely used.
Andreas. I've told you before. Haven't you got anything smaller?
Now study two verbs in full in the past continuous tense:
Andreas You shouldn't have any complaints with me, Mr. Ilias. I always
XQ\JCOV(l XQlJ(l)V<lµE EtQCOj'(l tQ(l)j'<lµE
give you small change. Today is the first time that I haven't got
tvlusk man All right. All right. Come on, take your change. A five hundred
(c) The subjunctive forms of the passive verbs xot1,taµm and 61J1,taµm are
drachma note, three one hundred drachma notes. two fifty
XOll,ltJ9ro and 9l.lµtJ9ro respectively.
drachma notes and a twenty drachma piece. Are you satisfied?
(d) The type 2 verb xaiaco has the subjunctive form 1.,a1,aaw and past
Audreas You're the best man in the world.
tense 1.,a1,aaa. Note that x«Mw means I spoil or damage but referring to
/../11.l'k man Only (that) I've got to remember to change again. Just this
money it means to change or split up into small denominations.
morning I changed five one thousand drachma notes at the bank.
2 Note these nouns denoting money ending in ·llQtxo; to Y.,tAtllQtXo
sndreas So much the better. Money should circulate.
thousand drachma note, to n:i:vtaxoa«Qtxofive hundred drachma note,
to EKatO<JtaptKO hundred drachma note, to itEVT}Vt«ptKO fifty drachma note
and to EtKooa.ptKo twenty drachma coin/piece.
WIIC'n we were in London
3 (a) The one word comparative and superlative form of mo 1,ttXQOS·tJ·O is 11, 111/110 I'm thinking how significant the role of climate is in our daily habits.
1,ttXQOtEQOS·IJ·O smaller, smallest. In London it was much colder, of course. So for breakfast we used to
(b) TeroyaµE ;,:01,i, itEQt<J<JOtEQO. "".e used to eat much more. Note the eat much more than in Greece. V:,fe used to drink two or three cups of
use of n:01,i, before itEQt<J<JO"tEQO meaning much more or far more. hot tea, while here we drink one coffee. There we never used to go out
4 Words and expressions without overcoats. I always·used to take ail umbrella with me too, like
(a) H taixAa chewing gum can, like <pQOlltO, be used in the sing. or English people. Andreas and Nikos used to be cold all the time. Nikos
plural ot taixus (pieces of) chewing gum. used to take off his gloves only in the bathroom and when it was time
(b) l:olJ to £1.,CO savan:d. I have told you (it) before. Note that s«va- lo go to sleep.
before a verb can be translated by before when the verb is in the past
and again when the verb is in the· future.
(c) Toco to xaAutEQO So much the better A useful expression which
translates easily into the English equivalent.

164 165
unfulfilled (he didn't stay one week). Here was going to is the best
Ma8r)IJC oapavTa EVVICI Lesson forty nine
translation. Compare this with .n:(loXEt'tm vu am/is/are going to for a
future action (L46, Nie).
2 Tt vu ,n1; What can he say? Note this common use of va following Tr
New words as a question but suggesting that nothing can or could be said or done in
the situation. Also Ti vu xo.vw; What can I do ( about it)?
aµa if, when vmQOS·l]·O young 3 o bEl;t]<; the right (one) Here again we see an adjective used with an
apx_mOA.O"flKtx;-TJ-O archaeological OOOS •TJ •O a S article as if it were a noun. Note that the endings for bE!;iiS·•«-i. differ
jJamxos-ri-o basic' main itaQateivw I extend, prolong from other type 3 adjectives we have met (qia(lbui;-ta-u) in spelling but
bt:Ms-ui-i right 1tQOO.n:a0ro (3) I try, attempt not in pronunciation. The Nom., Voe. and Acc. endings of adjectives like
TJ bmµovri stay O'UµjJaivw to happen, take place bEl;l]s are spelt with TJ in the Masc. sing, and with 1 in the Neut. sing.,
lJ b1m:QO(j)l] eating, diet O'U<Jl'l]VW (subj. O'U<Jl'l]<JW) while adjectives like qiaQbui; are spelt with u in the Masc. and Neut.
btacpwvro (3) I disagree I introduce, recommend Otherwise the endings are the same. You can study these adjectives in
TJ E"{"/OVl] granddaughter TJ \J')'tia health full in Appendix B3.
TJ EV'tQtfJii massage 0 x.roQOS place, site 4 At:v tx.n 'tO<TTJ \J')'QU<Ji.a o<JT) txouµE EµEi.i;. There isn't as much humidify
El'tlOXEit'toµm I visit 0 roµos shoulder as we have. We met 'tO<JOS·TJ·O meaning so much/many in L17; now
o 9t:os god study this construction with t6oos·TJ·O used together with O<JOS·TJ·O
9EQ<litEtJW (subj. 9EQ<litEuow) I cure, l'TJV roQa itou (just) as meaning as much/many ... as: AEv txw to<Ja AEqi,:6. o<Ja (EXEt<;) E<JtJ. I
treat r. 1rnµjJaivt:1; What's wrong? haven't as much money as you (have). 'Exw 'tO<JO\JS qii1,,oui; ooO\JS (EX,EtS)
lJ A.E1noµE(IEW detail 'tO<JOS·TJ·O ... o<JOS·TJ·O as much EOU. I've got as many friends as you.
... as 6 AE 9o. µou eov (Jl)<Jl'l] <JELS xt Eµtva; Won't you introduce him to me too?
Note the use of both the strong eµtva and weak uou forms of the indirect
object pronouns. They are used together for emphasis.
II 'Aµa may be translated by if or when or even if and when. It may
replace av in conditional sentences, especially when conditional
Notes instructions are given. 'Aµa rrai; <T'tTJV itOATJ ay6Qa<Ji uou O\JO
y(/aµµa'to<JT)µa. If you go into town, buy me two stamps. It may replace
1 Verbs
otav especially when expressing the idea every time when. 'Aµa bEv
(a) Past continuous
l;tQouv xan, tptai.Et ,:o qiayT)tO. When they don't know something, food
I:\JVUVtT)<JU to M«QXOitO\JA.O 'tTJV roQa nou tjJymva. I met Markopoulos
is to blame.
just as I was coming out. Here we meet the past continuous tense of
IJyaivw I come/go 0111 again, but this time we see a new function of the
r Words and expressions
(a) 'Ewt Ei.vm 01 ymtQoi.. lit. Doctors are so. The expression E't<Jt
tense. In L48 jJyaivaµE referred to a repeated action in the past and was dvm is common and usually best translated as That's how it is/they are
translated by we used to go out; here tjJymva refers to a single action
or That's what it is/they are like.
which was in progress at one particular time in the past (the time I met (b) x6e<; to l't('Wi. yesterday morning Compare this with O'l]µEQU to .n:Qco{
Markopoulos) and is translated by/ was coming out. Note these two
I/tis morning and x.Ot:i; ,:o J\Q«bu last night.
uses of the Greek past continuous; one translated by either used to or the (c) TL (Jl)µjJa(vEt; What's wrong? I:llµ means literally it happens,
simple past tense, the other by was/were and the ing form of the verb. t11kes place, but this expression is commonly .used in the sense of Wltal'.1·
Ti faave <TtTJ 0w<JaA.ovix~; What was he doing in Thessaloniki? Since
1111? What's the matter?
xavw has the same form in the subjunctive as in the present, the simple (d) Tt µou EXEl xcivEt! Note that this is an exclamation not a question.
past tense txava is the same as the past continuous.
Note also tTJV roQa ,toll, literally the time that, translated by just as.
(b) Passive subjunctive
yta vu ucumecptouv so that they could visit/in order to visit The verb
El'tl<JX£1t'toµm / visit is another verb that is always passive in form in
Greek but not in English. The subjunctive stem is UCt<JXtcp't·,
(c) 'Hrov vc µ uovo µm EjJboµaba. He was going to stay only 0111•
week. Study this use of iJ-cav va to refer to a past planned action which ww,
Translation Ma81'UJO TIE:VrJVTO Lesson fifty
Grandmother and granddaughter
Athina Ah! That dampness in Thessaloniki! (Look) what it has done to me!
Maria What's wrong, granny? New words
Athina My shoulder is hurting again. ;uei~oµm I shave (myself)
«vttxro I endure, stand
Maria The left (one)? ;uei~ro I shave (someone)
ro jJOUtUQO butter
Athina No, the right (one) this time. Fortunately here in Athens it isn't as 600 as
to ya,.,« milk
damp as in Thessaloniki. 1tEV't11XOO'tOS·it-6 fiftieth
Maria to Mvtt tooth
Yes, that's true. What does your doctor say? ,i:Uvro I clean
to x«OE'tl everything
Athina What can he say? Massage(s) and diet. That's what doctors are like. arixwvoµm I get up
to xou't«.#.,t spoon ·
When they don't know how to cure something, then food is to µ'(µou) to me otya quietly, gently
blame. 'to toot toast
to µ«x«(Qt knife
Maria They try, granny. They aren't gods. Correct diet is important for a q>OQ«.CO I put on
to µi,.,t honey
person's health though. X't'EVi'.~oµm I comb (myself)
11 µ,i:wt'.,~a overall, lab. coat
Athina Anyway ... By the way, how are you getting on with your young XtEvi~ro I comb (something/one)
to voooxoueto hospital
doctor? Your mother says that he's very nice. to \jlroµi bread
to v'tous shower
Maria We get on fine. And that's because we agree on basic (things) and vtuvoµm I dress (myself)
we disagree over details. x6.vro tv« v'tous I have a shower
vtuvro I dress (someone)
A thina Won't you introduce him to me too?
; I wake up
Maria Of course. Whenever you like.

Just as I was coming out

Nikos Yesterday morning in Aristoteles Square I met Markopoulos just as
I was coming out of an office.
Despina That professor of Archeology? Notes
Nikos Yes.
Despina Verbs
And what was he doing in Thessaloniki? If I remember well, he was Passive So far we have met the passive forms of Greek verbs through verbs
only going to stay for a week in Greece.
like xmµ6.µm/ sleep and E.7tlOXE.7ttoµmJ visit which are passive in Greek bu!
Nikos He told me that they decided to extend their stay in order to visit
not in English, and through verbs like IJei'.mwµm I am found and ,.,tyo,uu I
certain archeological sites in northern Greece.
am called which may be active or passive in both Greek and English. Now
study another use of the passive forms in Greek, v,:t'.,voµm I dress myself, 111
express a reflexive idea where the action is performed on itself by the subject
of the sentence. Often, but not always, English uses reflexive pronouns
(myself, yourself etc.) in translating these verbs:
;uQi'.~oµm I shave (myself), arix~vE'tm he gets up (lit. he raises himselj}.
A(j)O\J xnvtotro After I comb (myself) The verb XtEVi'.~ro / comb becomes
X't'Evi~oµm/ comb myself/my hair in the passive and XtEVLO'tro in the passive
s11 bjunctive.
Note the invariable re x«OEti everything used with the article to. Compnre
I hesc two groups:
,o xaOni'. everything; xatt something; d,i:on nothing, anything
1ruv't'O\J everywhere; xan:ou somewhere; ,i:ou6Eva nowhere, anywhere
M' UQEOEtto µt,.,t./ like honey. Note that µou is often shortened to µ'whl.'11
t lw Iollowing word begins with a vowel. Similarly oou may be shortened to«':
o' ,~vfoEt you like.

168 169
4 Kavw ()(JO mo myn µ11:opw. I do (it) as quietly as I can. Study this use of M68r11.1a n&v~VTa tva Lesson fifty one
oeo, invariable here, with the comparative of an adverb or adjective, but
without roco (L37, NS), translated by as ... as. Note that the English
translation does not require the comparative but it requires a second as.
Similarly: ooo 11:w YQllYOQa µ11:opEI'.; as quickly as you can, ooo 11:t0 xw..a New words
µ11:opouv as well as they can.
to a~tal;t car, vehicle µnxto;-11-0 mixed, comprehensive
Note also that mya has two meanings: slowly (L35) and quietly here.
5 Words and expressions tJ aa(jlaAna insurance 11:apabibw (subj. :rcapabwaw) I hand
tO 'fE'fOVOS fact over
(a) To vtou; shower and TO toot toast are invariable Neut. nouns of foreign
ta btobta toll post napan:avw additional, extra
origin, while to y6.1a is an unusual type of Neut. noun, Gen. rou ya1.aTo;.
buoµt<Jl two and a half to IlE~o Peugeot
(b) The verb (j)Opaw can mean/ wear (L38) or/ put on; the context makes the
meaning clear. tJ f'YYlltJ<Jfl guarantee, deposit 11:tqrrw (subj. nfow) I fall
(c) Ta 1eµE we talk/chat is obviously the present tense form of the expression qxaipw; in good time, beforehand 11:poaExnxa carefully
tJ Evmxa'.aatJ hiring, renting 11:poon:Epv<iw I overtake, pass
we met in L30. 0a ta n:ouµE. We'll talk about it.
tJ Evtun:w<JtJ impression TO auµPo1mo agreement, contract
(d) Kavw eva VTOUS, / have a shower. Note the use of xavw where English
Em<JTQE(j)W I bring back, return unoyp<i(jlw I sign
uses I have.
xovtEuw (subj. xovtfapw) I get near To (j)OQttJyo lorry, truck
(e) The one word comparative form apyotEpa later is an alternative to mo
apya. xovnvos-11-6 nearby, neighbouring XlAtabES thousands
xovnvoTEQOS·tJ·O nearer, nearest

Every morning
Ero In the morning I wake up early. Usually I get up at seven. I go to the
I Notes
bathroom, clean my teeth and have a shower. Then I go into the kitchen and Verbs
prepare my breakfast. I drink a hot coffee without milk and I eat a little bread (a) Past continuous TTJV wpa xou npoan:EpvouaEjust as it was overtak-
or toast with butter and honey. I like honey very much. Then I go into the ing We can now study the formation of the past continuous of type 2 and 3
bedroom and I dress (myself). lf Petros is still sleeping, I try to do (it) a~ verbs. Remember that type I verbs simply add the past tense endings to the
quietly as I can. After I comb (my hair), I go down to the laboratory at about a present stem xpuwvw, xpuwva moving the stress back to the third syllable
quarter to eight. I look (to see) if everything is in (its) place, I put on my lab. from the end. Both type 2 and type 3 verbs, however, form the past continu-
coat/overall and have a look at the morning paper. At eight (o'clock) Lit~11 ous by inserting the syllable ouo (always stressed) between the present stem
comes and we open (up). Petros gets up a little later than me. He shave- and the past tense endings: ayan:w, ayanouaa; µ1Mw, µtAouaa; µn:opw,
(himself) and then he too has a shower. Only he has a cold one. Winter (and I ~lltOQOU<JU.
summer. I don't know how he stands it. Then he dresses (himself) and got·\ (b) Ti eytVE; What happened? The special verb ya'.voµm is often used in the
to the kitchen. He makes his breakfast himself and washes the cups, plate- third person in the sense of happen. Ti ya'.vum; What is happening? What's
spoons and knives. Then he comes down, we chat for a minute and he leaves up? is an alternative for Ti (JUµjlaivn; (L49, N7c).
for the hospital. Remember that yivw, the subjunctive of ya'.voµm, is not passive in form; the
past tense, formed regularly from the subjunctive, is not passive in form
either. Similarly, the special verb epxoµm/ come is not passive in form in the
vubjunctive ep6w or the past 11pffa.
(c) KovtEljlE vu nfon Ennvw µa; it almost crashed into us, lit. It got near to
/i1/li11R on us. Study the use of xovtEuw, subjunctive xovteljlw, carefully.
l'hc meaning is/ get near, but followed by vu and another verb, it is often best
I rnnslated by using almost or nearly before the following verb; Kovreue, vu
11•1.ftlO<JEL, He has almost finished. Note also 11:fow the irregular subjunctive
111' 11:t<~tw / Jail, used here in the sense of crash into.

170 171
(d) Tl llyaµt:; What were we saying? Note that the past continuous ofllro Employee Of course. When will you return the car to us, Mr. Kazakos?
adds a y to the present stem, as does the passive 1.tyoµm. Compare this with Nikos I hope on Monday at midday. If it's necessary, though, to keep it an
1'QWro I eat which similarly adds y in these forms £TQroya, 1'QWyoµm. additional day, what must I do?
(e) YnoyQ«hj.t1'Esign is the regularly formed plural imperative ofunoyQa(j)ro. Employee You (will) inform our nearest office in good time. If you like, we'll go
(f) 0a µa; £nt1J1'Q£lj,£1'£1'0 aµal;t. You' fl bring the car back to us. Note that out (and) I'll hand it over to you. Have you driven a Peugeot before?
Eltt<JTQE(j)ro can mean/ bring back/return as well as/ come back and that TO Nikos No, never.
aµal;t is an alternative for TO au1'oxiv11-co.
2 T£01JEQtS£; four thousand We have met the adjective xiMot-£;-a On the National Highway
a thousand (L29) which varies according to the gender and case of the noun
referred to. Now note that, curiously, a number of thousands is rendered, not Athina I have the impression that you drive more carefully than Petros.
by an adjective, but the Fem. plural noun XtAtabES, So we can say buo Nikos I don't know. It's a fact, though, that I don't like speeding.
XtAtabES aVTQES two thousand men, TQUS XtAuibES yuvaii<ES three thousand Despina We are arriving at the toll post. Do you want change, perhaps, Nikos?
women or lt£V1'££; jhjl1.iafive thousand books. Nikos No, l have (some).
3 Comparative 1'0 i<OV1'LV01'£QO "(Qa(j)Eio ·µas our nearest office The Despina How long do you reckon that we'll need to get to Delphi?
one word comparative and superlative xoV1'tV01'EQOS·11-o is from the adjec- Nikos Another two and a half hours. Oops!
tive xovTtvos-11-0 nearby, neighbouring. The two word form is of course mo Athina What happened?
xovnvos-11-0. Nikos Didn't you see? The lorry nearly crashed into us just as it was passing
4 The Neut. noun to yEyovo; fact is an irregular type of noun, plural m us.
yEyovoTa, which we shall see more of later. Athina Ah, these lorries!
5 Words and expressions Nikos Anyway. What were we saying?
(a) H £"("(lllJ111J guarantee, deposit and 11 £VWltW111J impression are more ttespina That we need two and a half hours to (get to) Delphi.
archaic type Fem. nouns, plural E"("(\J1]11£tS, EV1'\Jnwoui;.
(b) µELXttJ acr(j)aAEta comprehensive insurance The adjective µ£LX1'0S·1]·0
means mixed, but referring to insurance it means that all parties are insured.
(c) 'E)C£1'E l;avaob11y110Et IlE~o; Have you driven a Peugeot before? Herc
again the prefix l;ava- is best translated as before. To IlE~o is an invariable
noun, obviously representing the Greek pronunciation of the French Peugeot
(d) On! This is the written form of the sound made by Greeks to express
shocked surprise.
(e) Note that buoµwt referring to the time of day means halfpast two (Eivm
buoµwt) but when not referring to the time it simply means-two and a half
6 Cultural note The National Road, 11 E9vti<l] OM;, is the main through
road, in parts similar to a motorway, which starts in the Peloponnese,
by-passes Athens and stretches up to Thessaloniki and the Yugoslavian
border in the north. There are a number of toll posts where drivers must stop
and pay for the right to use the road.

The hiring of a car
Employee Your agreement is ready. This is the insurance here. Sign here, plcnvi
Nikos Certainly. The insurance, you said, is comprehensive?
Employee Yes.
Nikos Let me leave you a deposit. Is four thousand (drachmas) enough?

M68111.1a TT&V'lVTO ~UO Lesson fifty two the form Jtotavou can be used. Here Nikos' question refers only to
Despina and Athina.
4 rooJtO\J vu O'lJVaV'tlJO'Et', tva cpapµaxEio until you come to (meet) a
chemist's We have met both ~LEXQL and w; used as prepositions
New words meaning until and followed by a noun, e.g. µtxpt/w; TO PQa.h. Note that
roO'JtO\J vu means until when it is used as a conjunction followed by a
avEP<i~w (subj. avEP<iow )I bring/ tWOEQLITT]µtO'L half past four
carry up verb.
tQna11µun half past three 5 TQEtITT]µtoL half past three, TEO'OEQLITT]µun half past four Remember
1J ApuxoPa Arachova To cpapµaxEio chemist's
there are two ways of expressing half past the hour in Greek, in one
PEPmornm of course, (very) 1J cp)..ox<i'tf( rug, carpet
certainly word or using xm µLITT]. Note that the two numbers which end in a
o xwptavo; villager
consonant, tpn; and TEO"OEQLS, add -l]µtot in the one word form, while all
lJ ywvia corner TO )'.WQLO village
the numbers which end in a vowel, add -juou Ecpta.µtO"t, oxi:roµtO"t. You
EXtO', av unless \j)JJJ..OTEQOS·l)-o higher can revise telling the time in Appendix F4, if you wish.
to Wtta.topto restaurant roO'JtO\J vu until
to x)..nbi key 6 0n JtW ,:ou µtxpou /' /I tell (to) the boy Note that the indirect object
can be rendered by the Gen. case, as here, or by O'E with the Acc. case:
o µtxpo; boy, waiter, porter iaa iou on the contrary 0a Jtro O'TO µtxpo. 0 µtxpo;, lit. the young ( one), is commonly used to
o '0)..uµJto; Mount Olympus XUVE bE!;tu turn right
refer to a young or new employee who does odd jobs, especially in
oooc-n-o as much/many as TOO'o ... OO'O as ... as
restaurants and hotels.
o IlapvaO"O'OS Parnassus mountain xatQE'tE good afternoon
Jtota.vri; whose
7 Words and expressions
(a) The expression EXto; av, lit. except if, is normally translated by
to poMt watch, clock
(b) 'Iou iO"a on the contrary is a common expression used to show that
the speaker believes or wants the opposite of what has just been said.
(c) Ka.vE bE!;tu, lit. make right, is an alternative for otQt\jJE bE!;tu turn
1 (a) Eivm rooo \jJl)J..OS OO'O o '0)..uµ;to;; Is it as high as Olympus? Note right.
that rooo ... ooo are invariable when used with an adjective in between, (d) The subjunctive avEPUO'W is from avEPa.~w I bring/carry up.
translated by as ... as. Compare this with L49, N4 where 'tOO'O',·lJ·O ... (e) Remember the greeting XaipEtE from Lesson I meaning either Hello
OO'OS·lJ·O .•. translated as so much/many ... as, are used with a noun in or Goodbye; note that it may also mean Good morning or Good
between and both vary according to the noun referred to. afternoon.
(b) naQE OO'E', Ot)..n;. Take as many as you want. When 00'0',·1)·0 is (f) Take care not to confuse JtQOTEivw I suggest/propose with type 2 verb
used on its own referring to a noun, it varies its ending accordingly and " JtQOttµm / prefer.
translated by as much/many as (see Note a above). Here ooE; refers to n Cultural notes
the Fem. plural noun ot tO'tX"-ES, (a) The flokati is a rustic style rug or carpet which is very popular in
2 Comparatives Greece. These rugs are made mostly in the villages.
(a) 0 '0)..uµn:o; Eivm mo \jJl)M;. Etvm To \jJtJJ..OTEQO Pouvo 'tlJS (b) Olympus, the home of the mythological Greek gods, and Parnassus
E)..)..cibn;, Olympus is higher. It's the highest mountain in Greece. Herr are two of Greece's most famous mountains.
we have together the one word and two word forms of the comparative (c) Note that while Nikos uses the polite plural form, the villager replies
and superlative of \jJfJJ..OS·lJ·O, Note also the use of the Gen. TlJS E).Mbcr~ to him in the friendly singular; country people use the singular much
after the superlative referring to the place; English usually uses the more commonly than the more sophisticated city dwellers.
preposition in in these cases.
(b) Remember wpmotnto;-1)-0 very beautiful or beautiful to an extreme
degree (L47, N3); PEPmornTa very certainly is similarly formed from 1111
adjective ptpmo;-11-0 certain, sure. Here the adverb form is from the I'lhnslation
Neut. plural of the adjective. lu the car
3 Ilotnv11; Eivm; Whose are they? Remember Tivo; whose (L40) whi, It
is invariable; n:otCIVlJS is an alternative but only when, as here, refen i11J1 I 1il/1u1 Isn't that mountain Parnassus?
to females. When males or a mixture of males and females are referred 111 I 1, 111/11r1 Yes, it's Parnassus.

174 175
Athina Is it as high as Olympus?
Ma8r)IJO TTCVr)VTO rpia Lesson fifty three
Despina No, Olympus is higher. It's the highest mountain in Greece.
Nikos Whose are these (pieces) of chewing gum?
Athina Mine.
Nikos Can I take one?
New words
Of course. Take as many as you like.
Despina I suggest we should stop for a meal in Arachova. It's a very nice a;exaatoi;-11-0 unforgettable 1tEQ1tatw I walk
village. Then (lit. thus) we can have a look at the lovely rugs they mttOavoi;-11-0 incredible, superb n11Mw I jump
make there. Unless Nikos prefers to carry on. o An:oUwvai; Apollo o 1tQOyovoi; ancestor
Nikos On the contrary. We all need abreak, I think. ta aQxaia ancient sites 11 IluOia Pythia (priestess)
UQXUioi;-a-o ancient to onueto spot, point, place
In the village bm1-eyw (subj. btaU;w) I choose to aoujl1.uxt souvlaki
o hiaxoi; discus to souvlaki shop/tavern
Nikos Excuse me. I wonder if there's a restaurant near here? lJ Eµ,tELQia experience 11 auµ(louU1 advice
Villager Yes. Go straight on until you come to (meet) a chemist's. At the to tE1.oi; end
E1tava1-aµ(luvw I repeat
chemist's turn right. At the second corner on the left you'll see a JI rniaxn\rr1 visit to to:rdo site, landscape
restaurant. It's called "The Perfect". to EUQl]µU discovery, find touiuxtato at least
Nikos Thank you very much.
iJma I drank
xaOevai;-µw-eva everyone, mo nEQU further up/away/on
At the hotel 1.iyo soon, shortly
everything OE

Nikos Good afternoon. ro xtM kilo atyu atyu slowly, gently, quietly
Hotelier Good afternoon, sir. Can I help you? µovahtxoi;-iJ-o unique oro tEAoi; finally
Nikos We've booked two rooms for today. Kazakos is the name. 0 vo:oi; temple
Hotelier Yes. One double and one single room for one evening. n:a1.Euw I wrestle
Nikos Right. 1taQayye1.vw (subj. 1tO:QayyEi1-w) I
Hotelier The rooms are at your disposal. I'll tell the boy to carry up your order
Despina Have they got a nice view, as we said?
Hotelier Of course, madam. Here are your keys.
A thin a What time is it, Despina? Notes
Despina Half past three.
Nikos Verbs
Your watch has stopped, dear. It's almost half past four. (a) Past perfect We meet a new tense in this lesson Eixav bm1-e;EL they
had chosen, formed by using the past tense of txw with the invariable
past participle which, as we already know, is the same as the third
person sing. of the subjunctive. The verb bta1.eyw has the subjunctive
form bta1-e;w and hence the past participle btaU;n. Although the Greek
past perfect translates literally into the English past perfect (past tense of
to have and the past participle) in fact the uses do not always correspond
in the two languages. The Greeks often use the past perfect, where
English uses the past tense, to emphasize that an action took place a long
time ago. In this instance, in fact, the English translation could be simply
they chose.
(b) Past Continuous 'EtQExav, n:11bouaav, EQtxvav, nu1.Euav. They used
to run, jump, throw, wrestle. Here are more examples of the past
continuous tense used in the sense of used to. All are formed regularly:
I he type 2 verb n11huw adds the syllable ouo to the present stem (LSI,
Nia), while the type I verbs tQEXW, Qixvw, :rtClAEUW add the past tense

176 177
endings directly to the present stem, and add the prefix t to those forms 7 Cultural notes
which would otherwise consist of only two syllables. The past continuous (a) Delphi is famed as the site of the Temple of Apollo. Pythia was the
form tmxvaAdµ(Java I used to repeat is regularly formed from title given to the priestess who delivered predictions and advice, said to
i::rtavaAaµ(J«ivw. be from Apollo, the sun god, to such famous people as Alexander the
(c) Past tense The past tense stem of T()WW / eat is qiay- formed by Great.
adding y to the subjunctive stem, hence tqiaya I ate, qi«iyaµt we ate. (b) Souvlaki shops or small taverns are found all over Greece and are
Rember that y is also added to form the past continuous and the passive about the Greek equivalent to English fish and chip shops. Souvlaki
(L51, Nld). consists of small pieces of meat, usually cooked over charcoal on a
The type 2 verb :rtttv«iw I am/get hungry, like :rtEQV«iro, adds no to form wooden skewer. A few souvlaki with chips and retsina is a quick, cheap
the subjunctive stem; hence the past tense forms :rti:ivmm, :rtttv«ioaµE. and pleasant way to have a snack. Souvlaki, like fish and chips, may be
The past tense of avt{Jaivw I go up is avt{Jtpm and :rtaQ«iyynAn I eaten on the premises or taken away wrapped in paper.
ordered is the past tense of :rta()ayytAvro, subjunctive :rta()ayyEiAw.
The irregular past tense of nivw is 11ma I drank.
2 Study and revise the use of 6:rtou as a conjunction meaning where or
in/at/from which. (See also L22, N5.) Translation
3 EVOtaqJE()OVTa EU()tJµa,:a interesting discoveries We have met the
An unforgettable experience
singular forms tv6taqit()ov (Neut.) and EV6taqitQouoa (Fem.), now note
the Neut. plural form of the same word tv6mqit()oVTa. Remember also Athina Yesterday we spent all the morning at the ancient sites of Delphi. It
£:rttiyov urgent, which becomes E:rtEiyov,:a in the Neut. plural. was an unforgettable experience, for me at least. The site was unique.
4 0 Ka8tv~ everyone, each one, everything is a variable pronoun like I'm sure that our ancient ancestors had chosen it very carefully. First
x«i:rtot0i;-a-o someone and xavhai;, xaµt«i, xavtva anyone, no one, we went to the place where the temple of Apollo was. They showed
anything. In fact Ka8tvCJ4;, Ka9tµia, Ka8tva is formed from the stem Ka9- us the spot where the Pythia used to repeat the words of the god for
and the indefinite article, just as xavtvai; is formed from the stem xa- or those who wanted his advice. Then we went to the museum. There
xev- and the indefinite article; both vary according to the gender and we saw many (and) interesting things discovered (discoveries) in the
case of the noun referred to; H xa9i:µt«i EtVat WQaia. Everyone /of the area. Some of the statues in the museum are incredible (superb).
women) is beautiful. Etvm aKptfJO· ro Ka9tva KOVEl ,:iAlEc; 6pa,:µtc;. Finally we went up to the stadium - which is a little further up -
They are expensive; every one of them costs a thousand drachmas. where the Ancient Greeks used to run, jump, throw the discus
5 Mo :rtEVTE.five each Remember ruto tva one of each (L47). Here the and wrestle. When we got hungry at midday we went and ate at a
meaning is different, each person having five of one thing, rather than souvlaki shop. Everyone ordered five souvlaki and a portion of chips.
one person having one of many things. We drank a kilo of retsina too. Then we walked slowly as far as the
6 Words and expressions hotel. Today, we are going in the car to visit Meteora. We'll set off
(a) a:rttOavoi;-t'f·O incredible, (unbelievablyj superb, a!;t,:a<JTo<;-t'f·O soon. I've just put my things in my case and I'm looking at the view
unforgettable Remember the prefix a- (L41, NlOa); here are two more from the balcony once more. This visit to Delphi will remain
examples and it is worth noting that this prefix often corresponds to unforgettable for me.
prefixes like un-, in-, im- in English.
(b) Some useful expressions to note are: os Aiyo in a little/short time 01
soon, !tlO rr.tpafurther on/up/away and CTl"(Cl CTl"(Cl which means slowly, gently
or quietly.
(c) Note that curiously Greeks buy wine by the kilo -ro xtw (2.2 pounds)
while in most countries it is bought by the litre. In practice the differcun
between a litre and a kilo of wine is negligible.
(d) tu a(),:aia ancient (places) The type 2 adjective a(),:aioi;-a-o
ancient is often used as a noun in the Neut. plural, meaning ancient
things or places.
(e) H E:rtioxi:¢11 visit is another archaic type Fem. noun, plural or
E:rtlOXE\jJEti;. .

178 179
Ma8rn.1a m:vi)vTa reoospc proval of what has been done, and is translated by something like These
Lesson fifty four
things aren't right or It's not right or it won't do.
(b) To uaavCJEQ lift is another invariable Neut. noun of foreign origin.
(c) TO :n:6.vw bwµ6.tto the room above, to e:n:avw the one above We have
New words met 1tavw (oe) on as a preposition and as an adverb up, above, but note that
here it is used as if it were an invariable adjective meaning upper, above, and
cdJ,a~w (subj. u,,J.a!;w) I change ri :11:Qt~a socket to e:n:uvw is used as if it were a pronoun, also invariable, meaning the one
uva~w (subj.uvmpro ] I switch on <n:QWVw (subj. CJtQWCJw) I spread, above. We can also say TU rn:avw the ones above.
TO (l{J(lVCJEQ lift make up (d) <>Al) Kl OAlJ µ1a µtpa one day only, lit. all and one day. Note this
TO £:n:nvw the one above tinota anything, nothing idiomatic use of 61..~·fl-O Ki 6>.~-1)-0 in the sense of all told/altogether only:
ri XQEµ<lCJTQU clothes hanger to cpws light 6}..o Kl 6}..o tva µfiva only a month altogether. Naturally 6A~ agrees with the
o >.uµ:n:tt'IQas bulb ;cu>.aaµtvos-ri-o spoilt, damaged noun referred to here.
l1 µri;cuvri machine (e) Xu>.aaµtvos-ri-o means spoilt or damaged but talking of light bulbs we
o VL1tt1]QClS washbasin, sink Llt:V flVCll :11:Qayµuta UUT<l, It's just would say the bulb has gone or burnt out.
ri vtou>.a:n:a wardrobe not right. It just won't do. (f) H sUQlCJ'tlXlJ µ1)-;cavl) lit. shaving machine is obviously an electric shaver.
ri sUQtCJTtXtJ µri;cuvri electric shaver o>.os-11-0 xt OAOS·lJ·O only,
:n:avw above, upper (adj.) altogether, all told

I haven't any objection.
Woman Here's your room. Your mother's is on the second floor.
1 Verbs But I asked the owner for the rooms to be next to each other.
(a) Past perfect Ei;ca slJtTJO'El I had asked, Ei;ca E~lJYTJO'El I had explained. Woman I don't know anything (about that). Do you want me to show you the
These are further examples of the past perfect formed regularly from Ei;ca and other (one) too, or do you prefer to wait until (Mr.) Nikos comes back?
the past participles (L53, NI). Note again that English would use the past Despina Which (Mr.) Nikos?
tense here. Despina uses the past perfect to emphasize that the asking and The owner.
explaining took place beforehand. Woman
Despina It just won't do. I explained to him that my mother is elderly. How can
(b) The verb <n:Qwvw, subjunctive <JtQWCJW, means I spread, but CJTQWVW to he give her a room on the second floor when you haven't got a lift?
XQE~<ltl means I make I up) the bed. Look. The room above is a double room too. You can take it yourselves
2 Woman
Ei;ca ~l]T1]CJE& a1t6 TOV tbl0Xt1]tl] ta bwµana va tivm bmAa. I I had) asked and the lady (can) keep this one here. And I'll make up the second bed
the owner for the rooms to be next to teach other). Note the construction myself.
with ~lJT<lW I ask. The preposition u:n:6 is used before the person asked (hen· /\thina Despina, I haven't any objection to taking this one, if you want to go to
rov lblOXTlJTlJ), while the thing asked for (here ta bwµatta) is the direr! the one above. Besides, we're only staying one day all told.
object of the verb without any preposition in Greek to stand for the Englivh I uspina All right then.
for. I asked Ero for a cigarette. Zt'ltriaa EVU WlY<lQO a:n:6 'tl]V HQW, Note ab11
b(:n:Ml used on its own means next to each other. l'he bathroom
3 Av 6eAn£ XQEµ<lCJTQES, µou Aft£, If you want hangers, you'll tell me.
Avoiyftf To 1taQ<i6uQo, :n:aQaxa>.w; Will you open the window, please? \V1111wn. This is (room) number eight.
Note this use of the present tense to give polite instructions or make a polin l>,•111i11a Oh, it's big!
\\'111110 n
I told you so. Here's the wardrobe. If you want more hangers, (you'll)
request. We could use the imperatives :n:fott µou and avoi!;tt here, but I li1
use of the present tense is less demanding, like our polite use of will. tell me.
4 TO vouµEQO o;cTw (room) number eight Note the use of the definite art« Ji N/l,11s Will you open the window, please?
Just a moment. Let me finish. Here's the bathroom and the toilet.
before expressions using numbers. The article is not used in English lw11 \\'111//(111
Similarly l1 <lCJXl]CJl) buo exercise two. N/1,os Is there a socket for my electric shaver?
5 To cpw; light is another irregular Neut. noun, plural ta cpwTu. \\ , 1111011 Near the basin.
6 Words and expressions N/1-o.~ The light doesn't work (lit. switch on).
(a) Lltv dvm l'tQ<iyµaTa auTn. This expression is used to express di\111• I\ 11///11/1 The bulb will have gone. I'll change it for you tomorrow.

M68r11.1a TI&V~VTO TJ&VT& 5 'to tJ:l'tOAOt:l'tO to,i:to the rest of the landscape Here the adjective
Lesson fifty five
u,i:01,.omos-11-0 remaining is translated better as the rest of.
6 I:'tl'IV XOQU(J)tJ ,i:oHwv an:o au'to\JS On the top of many of these In
English we use a double Gen. here r of many of these), while Greek uses
New words a.n:o showing a selection from the total: Uya an:' 01,.afew of all ( of them).
7 Ebw xm :l'tOAW XQOVta many years ago We met Ebw xm in L17, Nia,
o A911vaios Athenian to µovaO"ttJQl monastery translated by for when referring to a period of time stretching up to now.
11 AxQ03tOA11 the Acropolis 0 µovaxos monk Here it is translated by ago and refers to a period of time stretching back
av'ti9na on the contrary, on the µ:l'taivco (subj. µ,i:co) I go in, enter into the past from now.
other hand :l't<XAtOtEQ« previously 8 µE xutt xa1,.u9tu with some ( kind of) baskets Note this use of the
a1;i1;co I am worth :l't«Q' OAo-11-0 in spite of invariable XU'tt before a noun giving the idea of some ( kind of).
a,i:0To11os-11-o steep to (J'IJ'{XQ6t11µa group, cluster 9 Words and expressions
o f}Q«XOS rock to axotvi rope (a) The expression yta x«Ql'I followed by the Gen. case means for the
o mvtos self o 'tOUQlO"t«S tourist sake of. The literal meaning of 11 x«Q11 is favour.
to Evbtaq>£QOV interest 'tQaf}uco I p u II, drag (b) Ei):a l;avmtfu:1 1taA16n:pa. I had been there before (previously). The one
to Otaµa spectacle 11 X«Q11 favour word comparative 1t«At6ttpa from the adverb 1ta1>.1aformerly, previously
o 0rnaaAovtxtos person from xti1;co (subj. xtfaco) I build means literally more formerly. Note that to translate l;ava- before and
Thessaloniki 1t«At6n:pa would be like saying the same thing twice.
ro xaAa9t basket '{ta X«Q11 for the sake of (c) '1:«Q' OA<X autafor all that or in spite of that Note again that Greek
o XO:l'tOS effort, trouble Ei>W Xat ago often uses the plural autu where English uses the sing. that.
AEtJxos-11-0 white Note, too, that :l't«Q' OAa is a combination of n:«Q« and 01,.a; the 01>.a,
from 01,.os-11-0, is variable according to the noun which follows but
always in the Acc. case: n:aQ' OAO to XQ\JO in spite of the cold, n:aQ' OA11
'tl'I 1;fot11 in spite of the heat, :l't«Q' OAES 't~ n:aQ<l'tl'IQll«JElS in spite of the
Notes complaints, n:aQ' OAOUS tous q>of}ous uou in spite of my fears.
(d) We know the adjective Evbtaq>£QOV, Fem. EVbtaq>£QOUaa, interesting
1 Verbs
but note that TO Evbtaq>£QOV interest is another Neut. noun like 'to
(a) Eixa 1;avmtun I had been before is another example of the past
perfect. This time the use is exactly as in English for an action which µ£Al>.OV.
(e) A!;i1;u tov xon:o. It's worthwhile/worth the effort. Note that the
took place before another action in the past: they went to Delphi two
verb a!;t~co is translated by the verb to be and the adjective worth.
days ago, but Despina had been there before that.
(f) fn this lesson tQ«~uco is used in its literal sense / pull, drag (see L43,
(b) I:v111JaivEt A911vaiot vu µ~v txovv avtf}Et :1'tO't£. It happens that
Athenians have never been up. We learned that 1111(v) is used to make Nlc).
the negative of the imperative M11v 'to (J'IJ1;11Tus. Don't discuss it. Now 10 Cultural note
The Acropolis, which dominates the centre of Athens, is of course one of
note that µ11(v), not bE(v), is used to make the negative after va. The the world's most famous historical monuments. The old White Tower in
past participles avtjlEt and µ:l'tEt are from avEf}aivco, subjunctive avtf}co, Thessaloniki is also a famous landmark. It was built in the fifteenth
and '1:l't«ivco, subjunctive µ:l'tco.
2 or mo :l'tOAAoi a:l'to Eµus most o] us Note the use of the definite article century by the Venetians.
before mo :l'tOtAoi here, where no article is used in English. Ot
'1:EQt<J<JO'tEQOt could also be used here remember.
3 AtµE O''tOV E<XlJ'tO µas We say to ourselves Note 'tOV mu'to carefully. It
is always Masc. and is rarely used in the Norn. case. Us ed with the fran slation
possessives µou, <roll, rou etc. it forms the reflexive pronouns myself, It's worth the effort.
yourself, himself etc: Atn O"tOV E<XlJ'tO 'tflS• She says to herself Ai:vE
O"tOV E<XU'tO 'tO'IJS. They say to themselves. I l1'.l'fli11a We went to Delphi for my mother's sake. I had been there
4 previously with Nikos and the children. In spite of that I can say Iha!
AEv txovv xaµtu <JXECJTJ They have no relation at all Note that xaµut
I liked it more this time. Yesterday we went to Meteora for the first
here gives strong emphasis to the negative none at all. The rocks at
time. It's like this, you see; the tourists who visit Greece go to all
Meteora are indeed completely different from the countryside around.
Lesson fifty six
the places of (lit. that have) interest. Most of us Greeks, on the other Ma8rll,IO TI&V!lVTO &~I
hand, don't know them all. Perhaps because they are near us and we
tell ourselves that we can go whenever we want (to). So, many times
it happens that Athenians haven't been up to the Acropolis and
people from Thessaloniki haven't been inside the White Tower. New words
Meteora, as I was telling you, is a group of very high and steep rocks oues not even
that don't bear any relation with the rest of the landscape. On the to a.tan salt to :n:a.yaxt ice cube
a.vawyo;-11-0 proportional, suitable
top of many of these rocks monks built monasteries many years ago. :rttt\JXUlV(O (subj. :n:nuxm) I
«QYW (3) I'm slow
The few things they need, they bring up with some (sort of) baskets succeed
to a.cndo joke O\J"fXUQ11tllQlU congratulations
that they pull up with ropes. The spectacle, however, is (one) of the
ta. yn-tOtta. birthday
most impressive I have seen. It's worthwhile visiting this place tUXEQO<;·tl·O lucky
whenever you can. 11 tx:n:t11 ~11 surprise 11 q,a.vta.oia. imagination
to ~OQl force
to xtcp, good spirits, good mood
yia tQa.:n:t~, for a meal
xivt~ixo;-11-0 Chinese µ.E to ~OQt by force, against the will
11 xou;iva. (the art of) cooking
µ.tu xa.t since, as
to µa.ydQEf.l.U cooking, cookery ouu yi' «cndo definitely not
vocniµ; very delicious

1 Verbs
(a) Conditional tense 0« :rtQottµouoa.. I would prefer. The past
continuous form of :rtQOtiµw is formed regularly :n:Qottµouoa.. When Ou is
used with the past continuous tense, it forms the conditional tense,
usually translated by would and an infinitive. Remember that Ou forms
the future tense when used with the subjunctive.
As we said in lAS itOEAU is in fact the past continuous form of Ottm so
Oa. itOEA« is the conditional tense. This is translated by I would like, as it
is used as a more polite way of saying Ottm I want.
(b) Conditional sentences Remember that we have already met one type
of conditional sentence (U3, NS): 0a. tQOm, uv µn:oQE<Jffi I' LI come, if I
can where Greek uses the future tense and uv followed by the
subjunctive, and English uses the future tense and if followed by the
present. Now note a second type of conditional sentence where, in both
languages, the conditional tense is used and a past tense after oshf: in
Greek the past continuous is used, while in English the past or past
continuous is used. This type can be used as a more polite form of the
first type: 0« o«; :n:dQa.~E, o» tll«~« tiy11 µ.ouo1x11; Would it annoy you,
if I put on a Little music? We could also say: 0« o«; :n:nQet~n, uv tlatw
Hy11 µ.ouoixit; Will it annoy you, if I put on a Little music?
(c) The verb :n:nux«ivm I succeed has the subjunctive form :n:nuxm and
hence the past tense bEv :n:Etll'.XE it didn't succeed or it wasn't successful-
2 AE Ottn; vu <JE 1lo11011om; Don't you want me to help you? Remember
this construction which is rendered in English by an object pronoun me
and an infinitive. The literal translation here would be Don't you want
that I help you?
3 Oure yt' curtELO, Not even for a joke. This is in fact an informal way of Thanasis You didn't tell us what you have prepared. Or is it a surprise
refusing: Definitely not. Note also this use of OU'tE in the sense of not perhaps?
even. Minas Three Chinese dishes. Chinese cooking is my speciality.
4 Mux xm bEv E):El xaHi; a:,:foEti; µE 'to µaydQEµa. Since she doesn't have Mary Lucky Maria. I mean since she doesn't get on well with cooking.
good relations with cooking. The suggestion here is that Maria isn't Minas I don't agree. Maria cooks some food very well. Besides cooking
very good at cooking. Note the use of µta xm since, as which is an is something that can't be done against one's will. It needs the
alternative for µux ,i:ou (L47, N2). right mood and imagination.
5 AE yivum µE 'to ~OQt. II can't be done against your will. Remember Maria The discussion might be very interesting but our drinks are slow
av yivnm if it is possible; now note bE y(vum it isn't possible or it can't (coming).
be done. Note also the expression µE ro ~OQL by force or against the will. Minas I'll go and prepare them and come back to continue (it).
6 Tu xavw 61,a Eyro. / do everything myself. Note that EYW is translated
best by myself here. Remember that rov rnvto µou cannot be used to Congratulations
refer to the subject of the sentence. However the subject pronouns tyro,
rnu etc. can be used to render myself, yourself etc. in the Norn. case. Maria Would it annoy you, if I put on a little music?
7 0t},n xtqit. It needs good spirits/the right mood. Note that Ot.1,w I Thanas is Not at all. I think that good food needs suitable music.
want is often used in the sense of I need. Congratulations, Minas. It's all extremely delicious.
8 Mou 6ivt,~ to a1.at1, <rt 1tapaK11MO; Will you give me the salt, please? Note Minas Are you telling me the truth? I was thinking that the main dish
again the use of the present tense to make a polite request. wasn't very successful (didn't succeed).
Maria Will you give me the salt, please?
9 Words and expressions Here you are. Well, not this (one), but next Tuesday, I invite you
(a) Note that 11 xou~ivu can mean both the kitchen and, by extension, the Mary
to my house for a meal. It's my birthday.
art of cooking, cuisine.
(b) Noauµo't«'t<l extremely delicious is, of course, from VO<J'ttµoi;-11-0.
(c) I'm 'tQ<l:itE~L lit. for table is commonly used, especially in invitations
in the sense offor a meal.
(d) M:itoQd vu dvm EvbtaqiEQOuau. It might be interesting. Note that
µ:itOQEi vu may sometimes mean it might.
(e) 'Exw 'ta ytvt9Ata uou. It's my birthday. Ta yEvE9Ata is always
plural. Note the use of txw in this expression translated by it is.
(f) H tx:itA11;1l surprise is another archaic type Fem. noun.

What would you like?
Minas I'm very glad that you managed to come too, Thanasis. Shall we
drink something before the meal?
Thanasis Yes, I'd like a whisky with ice (cubes).
Minas What about you, Mary?
Mary Me, I'd prefer a little ouzo with lots of water.
Minas I've got nice hors d'oeuvres for ouzo. I'll have one too. You, my
love, what would you like?
Maria I want a little whisky too. With water.
Minas I'm going right away.
Maria Are you sure you don't want me to help you?
Minas Definitely not (lit. Not even for a joke). In ;ny house I do
everything myself.

186 187
Lesson fifty seven 6 Ttnote to El;atQEnxo Nothing exceptional Note again the use of llu:
M68rn.1a TI&V'lVTC &q>TCI
definite article where none is used in English. Note also that
El;atQE'ttxoc;-11-0 can mean exceptional, special as well as excellent ( I .H).
7 Words and expressions
New words (a) Ilroi; :rtaµE; How are we? Note this friendly use of Ilroi; m.i~u,;
instead of Ilroc; :rta'tE; when asking how someone is. English too can IIM'
tt abd.qrii sister (nurse) µn:a! bah! the first or second person here.
aUJOavOJlaL I feel tt voooxouc nurse (b) Ilwi; vn; How do you expect me to be? This use is rather likr
avu:rmOttuxoi;-iJ-6 unpleasant, tt obttyi.a instruction
Tr vu n:n; What can he say? or What do you expect him to say? (I A'>,
unlikeable :rtaQ«XaAro I ask politely, beg N2), suggesting pessimistically that nothing can be expected.
o O.QQWO'tOS sick person tt :rtEQt:rt'tW<Jtt case, situation
(c) Ta. i.bta.. The same. Here the Neut. plural of ibwi;-a-o is used
tt aoOEVTJS patient (female) tt :rt(!Oto'taµivtt matron, woman in meaning all things are the same.
au<n:ttQOS·iJ-6 strict charge
(d) Mn:a! Bahl is the written form of a sound made to express cynical .
llt/lmos-tt-o sure, certain OUl(VO'tEQ« more often disagreement; the English sound is very similar.
o yuQOS round qJQOV'tt~ro I look after, take care of
(e) Note that :rt«QCf.XCf.Aro please can be used as a type 3 verb, subjunctive
El;atQE'ttXOS·TJ•O exceptional :rtCf.Q«xaAtaro, meaning I ask politely or I beg.
tt 8EQJlOXQ«<1ia temperature Ebro :71:E(!(l over here
(f) H al>EAqJTJ can be used just like sister in English to refer to a senior
o 96Qu/los noise nurse. H abe>.qrii :rt(!Ofo'taµtvtt is the sister in charge or more simply tlu:
(g) The one word comparative O'Ul(VOtEQ« is an alternative for mo O'Ul(va
more often.
Notes (h) Note the expression Ebro :rtEQCf. over here; remember too mo :rt£Q1X
[urther on/up/away (L53). We can also say EXEL n:tQa. over there.
1 Verbs
(a) Conditional sentences
Av JltAOlJOCf.'tE <rtttV :rt(!Oi<n:a.µtvtt, Oa µ£ :rtQOOEl(«V. If you would speak to
the matron they would look after me. This is another example of the lnmslation
second type of conditional sentence· (L56, Nlb ). In English we can say if'
you would (speak) when making a polite conditional request or simply if \ I llll' hospital
you (spoke). /', //ti,\'
(b) Mtt µou µtlau. Don't (go on) speakiing) to me. This is another Good morning, Mrs. Andreou. How are we today?
example of the present tense following Jltt in the negative imperative, as
l'ilti, Ill How do you expect me to be, doctor? The same.
/ '1 /I fl I' Your temperature, I see, is normal. Don't you feel a little better
the action is considered to be continuous.
(c) The verb mo06.voµm / feel is another verb which is always passive i11
/'1!1/1 Ill Bah! And besides I'm hungry, doctor. They don't give me enough
form in Greek.
2 Note tt xa0Eµta the Fem. form of o xa8tvai; everyone or every one of
/ 11' I/ I I I But we have said that your case needs a strict diet. You must help us
them (L53, N4 ). Here the Fern, form is used as it refers to the female
n I ittle too.
nurses. /•,, II, //1
3 The noun o O.QQWatoi; sick person/man is from the Masc. form of the The nurses aren't polite with me. They have no patience at all.
adjective O.QQW<n:OS·tt-o sick, ill. Note that when, as here, it is used as 11 I' '" 'i Corne now. They do whatever they can, poor things. Every one of
noun, the stress moves forward in the Acc. plural: qJQOV'tl~El «QQrooto111i. I hem looks after fifteen sick (people).
11,•111 I I' you would speak to the matron, I'm sure that they would take
When it is used as an adjective the stress does not move: «QQ(l)<J'tOuc;
more care of me.
qJOl'ttttti;. /l;t I
4 The noun a.o0EVTJS patient may take the Masc. or Fem. article accordinr I don't think it's necessary. However, I promise you that I'll ask
to whether the patient is male or female, xixtcr Maria to visit you more often. She's very pleasant, don't you
5 Ei.µm jJtfJmtt. I'm sure. Note that although the stem of.fJt/lmoi; emh
in a vowel, it is a type l , not a type 2 adjective. There are a small
urnt Ah I Don't talk to me about her. She's the most unpleasant of all.
number of adjectives like this.

188 189
Nothing exceptional Ma8r11,1a TT&VrJVTO OXTW Lesson fifty eight
Petros They are making a lot of noise over here. Won't you tell them to be
quieter (/it. make more quietly)?
Matron Certainly ... A little quiet, please. There are sick people who are New words
trying to rest.
11 ayyt"J..ia advertisement 11 U'U'/XOtvrovia public transport
Petros Thank you, matron.
11 a11:oo,:aUIJ distance 'to nuaapt four-roomed flat
Matron That's all right. How did the round go today?
to buapt two-roomed flat 'to 't!,)tapt three-roomed flat
Petros Nothing exceptional. The instructions are the same for tomorrow
TO EXa,:oµµtJ!,)lO million 't!,)Wro I waste
too. ·ro Evoixw rent u11:oxptroµtvo;-11-o obi iged
ro XE<jl«>.t head tJ <jlt"J..ouoq>ia philosophy
~l1tO!,)EL it. may be
., VOlXOXU!,)ll landlady a11:6 rnv a"J.."J..tJ 1t>.EUQ« on the other
o onotoc-e-o which, that, who(m) hand
10 1ta1,>ov the present twt Xt a"J.."; besides, in any CH~l'
1t£<jl'tU is situated, lies "J.. iyo 11:o"J.. (J more or less
m1µmi>vro (subj. <Jt]µmi>uro) I note 11:QO; 'to 11:aeov up to now, for the
down moment
"'UlE!,)lVo;-11-0 today's 11:oui,; (ro» µ11va) txovµE; what's
11 1r't~>.ft column the date?


I, Conditional sentences
Av ELXU µE!,)lX(l EXUtoµµtJ!,)lU bpaxµt;, 6a ayoea~a btxo µou btaµtewµcl. ~/'
/ had a few million drachmas, I'd buy my own flat, We met the second type
of' conditional sentence, using av with the past continuous followed by I he
conditional tense in the other part of the sentence, in L56, Nlb, where its use
was as a more polite form of the first type of conditional sentence. Now note
I hat the second type of conditional sentence can also be used, like the English
vquivalent, to refer to a hypothetical present situation (Maria doesn't have
millions, so she won't buy a flat).
'l'o lltaµEQtuµa <J'tO 011:0(0 µtvovµE The fiat in which we live The pronoun
o «mofo;-a-o which, that, whot m) is a katharevousa word which is also
h cqucntly used in the demotic language. It is most commonly used, as here,
111 I he Acc. case following a preposition. We could use 11:ou or 011:ou in place of
1110 011:oio here.
ouv tt'U'tO 11:ou txouµdike the one that we have Note the use of the pronoun
1111d1;-1'1-o translated by the one here.
\, Ou txouµE avayl<11 'ttJ U'Uyxotvrovia. We won't have need (oj) publi«
111111spor1. 'Exro avayx11 I have need, followed by a direct object, is :111
1rllt•r unt ive for xpua~oµm I need.
1•'1111, xcu 11:tvn µ£1,>E; '/JaxvovµE. We've been looking for five days. Note
11111d11 the use ofEbro xm and the present tense translated byfor and the perfect
Ir 11~1· irr English.

190 191
6 btxo uou bwµtQtaµa my own flat Note that btxos-11-0 can be used before For five days we've been looking in the papers in the «flats to let» (Iii.
a noun and translated into own. (See also L22, N3.) rentings of flats) column. I sometimes think that if I had a few rnilliu»
7 Aev txw AEq>t6. v' ayoQUCJW oure tvu µ1t6.vt0! I haven't ( enough) money to drachmas, I'd buy my own flat, in order not to have any landlady over 111y
buy even a bathroom.' Note again the use of Ol!tE meaning (not) even. head to tell me what I must and what I must not do. On the other hand ii·~
8 Dates certain that when you have your own flat you are obliged to stay i11 lht·
(a) IloCJES (rou µ11va) txo\JµE C11JµEQU; What's the date today? Note how same place always. And me, I like change. Anyway ... Besides for t lu:
we ask the date in Greek, lit. How many (of the month) have we? The words moment I haven't (enough) money to buy even a bathroom!
to\J µ11va may be omitted without affecting the meaning.
(b) EiKoal tfoat:p~ A1tpi1.iou. The twentyfourth of April. To give the date you What's the date today?
use the cardinal numbers, without the article, and the Genitive of the month.
Deni What's the date today?
Note that the Feminine form tfoCJEQtS is used as the Feminine noun lJ µtQa is
Maria The twenty-fourth of April.
referred to.
Eleni Already, eh?
9 Numbers µEQtx6. exatoµµuQtu bQaxµts a few million drachmas Note
Maria Time passes, my dear. That's certain.
that to ExatoµµuQtO, plural ta Ex«toµµuQtU, is a Neuter noun which there-
Ueni And it doesn't come back again. That's more certain.
fore, unlike the adjective "J.,LAlOt-ES-ll thousand, cannot vary according to the
Moria (Why) don't we leave the philosophy and look at today's advertisements?
gender of the following noun. Compare tva ExatoµµuQto bQa:x:µts a million
We may be luckier than yesterday.
drachmas with "J.,LAtES bQaxµts a thousand drachmas. f:'/e11i
10 M1tOQEL vu Etµaau WXEQES, We may be lucky. Note carefully this imper- Let's see. Two-roomed flat ... four-roomed flat ... Ah, here's a three-roomed
sonal use of µ1tOQEL the third person sing. of µ1t0Qci> I can, meaning may or flat in the area we want. It doesn't say anything about rent. Give me a minute
to note down the telephone number on our list.
might. The literal meaning here is It may be that we are lucky. Similarly
Al11ria Tell me it. We'll phone right away.
M.1tOQEL vu EQ60\JV. They may come (lit. It may be that they come). Compare
this with M1tOQOUV vu EQ60\JV. They can come.
11 Words and expressions
(a) Note .these idiomatic uses of 1tEq>tEt lit. it falls and tQci>µE lit. we eat:
Iltq>tEL µaxQt6.. It's far away. TQcoµE l'tOAAlJ WQ«, We waste a lot of time.
(b) 1.(yo :n:oAu more or less (lit. little a lot)
(c) «l'to tJJV 6.AAJJ l'tAE\JQU on the other hand (lit. side)
(d) ft(Jl xt «AAtWS in any case, besides (lit. so and otherwise)
(e) l'tQOS to ,tUQOV for the present, so far To l'tUQOV the present, is another
irregular Neut. noun like to µt1.1.ov the future.
(f) H «1toama11 distance is another archaic type Feminine noun, plural ot
(g) Remember that l't«tQVW (ttJAEq>wvo) can be used to mean I ring, phone.
(h) To t:voiuo is often said and written as to voiKt.

We are moving house.
Maria We want - Eleni and 1- to move house. The flat in which we live now
isn't bad. The problem is that it is (lit. falls) a long way from the Universli 1
and we waste (lit. eat) a lot of time at the bus-stops and on the buses
That's why we are looking for(lit. to find) a three-roomed flat, more or In,
like the one we have, at a short distance from the University. In that WII\
we won't (have) need (of) public transport and we'll be able to go on fo11t

192 193
M68r11,.1a TT&VflVTa &vv16 Lesson fifty nine t1ta6a is commonly used to mean/ suffered the consequences of makiu u
a mistake. The object pronoun 'tlJV refers to the Feminine noun lJ 1;ti,ult
damage which is left understood.
2 Directions 0a ltQO;(WQlJ11E'tE EX«'to µhQa. You (will) proceed a h undror!
New words metres. When giving directions in Greek the future tense may be ustd
1m6a(vw (subj. rtci6w) I suffer, instead of the imperative (L23), while in English the imperative or the
o EVOtXlUO'tlJ<; tenant
present tense is normally used.
EUQtJ;(WQO<;·lJ·O roomy, spacious undergo
3 Words and expressions
lJ 1;l)µui damage 'to 1ta'tciQ1 attic, loft
(a) IJXE'tlxci µE with reference to, regarding or about
'to 6EQµoa(cpwvo water heater, boiler O";(Enxci µE regarding, about
cpwnivo;-11-0 light, ·bright (b) Ow; aa<; i..ivE; What's your name? Remember the way to ask
lJ tbtoX'tl]'tQUl owner (female)
;('tUrtciw I hit, ring, knock
someone's name in Greek (lit. How do they call you?) (See Ll3 Nlb).
ro XClAOQlqJEQ (central) heating
(c) The type 2 verb ;(Wltciw, subjunctive ;('tUltl)IJW, means literally / hit.
'ta xo1VO;(QlJO'tC1 communal (service)
but is also used for/ ring or knock at a door.
charges 'tlJV trta6a I suffered the
consequences, I paid for it (d) Remember xm 01 buo both (L31, N7).
ro xoubovv1 bell
(e) Ta 11:01voxptJ<1'ta the communal ( service) charges lit. the common
'to µE'tQO metre
expenses are always a topic to discuss when one rents a flat in a block of
apartments. These common expenses represent the monthly sum each
tenant must pay as his/her share of the central heating, lighting and
cleaning of shared halls and corridors, upkeep of garden (if any) etc.
Notes (f) dtv E;(W UltOlj/lJ µou. / don't know off-hand'(lit. I haven't got (it) in
1 Verbs mind).
(a) Passive svn omµtp1aµa 7tOl> tvo111:tru;ua1 a fiat which is to let
Note that tvo111:1al;uai, the third person sing. of the passive of the verb
tvo111:u1~w / let, rent, lit. it is (being) rented may be translated by the English
expression to let.
(b) Past passive Evo1x1ci6'tl)XE It was/has been let, f}t«O'tl]X«µE we l'ranslation
hurried/ were in a hurry 11 's been let.
Now we have to take another step forward in the use of verbs; the past
tense of the passive is formed by adding the syllable lJX to the passive Mt1ria I'm phoning regarding the advertisement for a flat that is to let.
subjunctive stem and then adding the normal past tense endings (the I olre Unfortunately it was let this morning.
same as the endings for the active past). So tvo1x1ci1;nm, subjunctive M,1,-/0 Ah, I see (lit. so). Never mind. Thank you.
EVotxmO'tEL, becomes tvo1x1ci6'tlJXE in the past, and fl1ci1;oµm, I ,111·1• You're welcome.
subjunctive flmO'tw, becomes fl1cia'tlJXC1, Let's study a complete verb in
the past passive. lustructions on the phone
f}tC.lO'tlJXCl f}tClO'tl]XClµE
f}tC.lO'tlJXE<; f}tuO"'tl]XCl'tE ,\J,1rin Are you the owner?
f}tC.lO'tlJXE f}tC.lO'tlJXClV I, 1111111 No, I'm a tenant. .I'm leaving at the end of the month.
Note the stress falls on the third syllable from the end in the past ll,11/0 I understand. What's the address?
passive, just as it does in the active past. I, 1111111 Evzonon 64. Do you know how to get here (lit. come)?
(c) Ka'tciAaf}a. I/ have) understood. Note that the subjunctive of H,11111 Approximately. We'll come on the bus.
xamAaf}aivw I understand drops the last syllable of the present stem 1, 11,1111 Look. When you get off the bus, cross over (lit. pass opposite). Go
xamMflw; hence the past tense xa'tciMf}a. Note also that Greeks back a little and turn into the first road on the right. Proceed about 11
normally use the past tense in this situation, where English more usually hundred metres as far as the kiosk. At the kiosk, turn left. O.K?
uses the present tense/ understand. Remember Ka'taAcif}a'tE 'ta \ (III /11 0. K. I hope we'll be there in three quarters (of an hour). Ah yes.
µa611µa'ta; in your written exercises. What's your name? I mean, which bell shall I ring?
(d) The verb 1ta6a(vw / suffer, undergo also drops the last syllable of 1111 I, ·llrl/1/ I'm called Grigoriadis. The third bell from the bottom (lit. below) on
present stem in the subjunctive, n:ci6w. The idiomatic expression 'tlJV the left. The flat is on the second floor.

194 195
It's not bad. M68r11,.1a &~~VTO Lesson sixty
Tenant And here is the other bedroom.
Eleni I see that both bedrooms have cupboards.
Tenant Yes. Through here is the bathroom.
New words
Maria It's a bit small, of course.
Tenant Yes, it is. And here is the kitchen. t:!;f)XO<Jtoc;-l)-0 sixtieth to it()O'/Q«µµa programme
Maria The kitchen is roomy. It's got quite a lot of cupboards and it's light, i::itoµtvwc; therefore, consequently ta!;tbtwnxoc;-iJ-o travel
Tenant The communal expenses aren't high (lit. many). They go up quite a 1::mj:l1::j:lmcovw I confirm
lot in the winter, certainly, with the central heating. it«()«>.aµj:l6.vw (subj. it«()«>.6.j:lw) I
Maria Where's the water heater? collect, pick up
Tenant It's in the attic. Well, how does it seem to you?
Eleni It's not bad. What do you say, Maria, shall we take it?
Maria Don't be in a hurry. Last time we hurried and paid for it. What rent
are they asking? Notes
Tenant I don't know off-hand. I'll give you the owner's phone (number) so
that you can discuss it. She's a very nice person. This is just a short practice lesson and there are only a few points to
1 Ill)()£ tfJ>.Eqiwvo o Ani::Aibric;. Angelidis phoned. You should now be
used to the fact that in Greek it is quite common to find the subject artc1·
the verb even in a statement. Of course it is not wrong to put the subject
before the verb here, as we do in English.
2 Arv Etl(Ec; EQ6£t. You hadn't come (back). This is another example or
the past perfect, regularly formed, and used just as in English.
:I Note the subjunctive of :rt<l()«wµj:l6.vw / collect, pick up; again the lasl
syllable of the present stem is dropped :rta()a>.6.j:lw.
11 0a µ:rtO()O\J<JEc; vu tfJAE(flWVl]<JEtc;; Could you phone? This is another
example of the conditional tense used to make a polite request.
Mou £tit£ on E()JCOVtm. He told me they were coming. Note that when
reporting what someone has said, Greek may use the present tense, when
the action has not yet taken place, while English more often uses the
past, although here, in fact, we might just as well say: He told me t!t<'y
are coming. Similarly EiitE :nwc;, av bi;v El(El xa6u<JtE()fJ<JfJ, Oa dvm om
«f()Ob()oµw ... might be translated· as He said that if there was no dclny,
they would be at the airport ... or if there is no delay, they will be a! tlu:
airport, Also Tou Ei:rtEc; Ott Oa it6.µ£ ... might be translated as Did yon
tell him we would go ... or that we will go ...

I I nuslation

1111,)"rc coming the day after tomorrow.

/1, 111/11(1 Angelidis phoned from Munich half an hour ago. You still hadn't
come (back).
M,11.I' What did he say to you?

196 I t/J
Despina He told me that they'll be coming the day after tomorrow on the M68ru1a &~~vTa tva Lesson sixty one
morning flight.
Nikos Did he tell you what time they'll arrive (be arriving)?
Despina Yes. He said that if the aeroplane is not delayed (lit. has no delay),
they'll be at the airport at half past ten. New words
Nikos Did you tell him we'll go to pick them up?
avalaµ~avro (subj. avaM~ro) I '1:EQLYQO.cpro I describe
Despina Of course.
undertake n:tcp-cro (subj. n:foro) I fall
Nikos Good. Therefore we have no change in the plan. Could you phone
to mtO'tEAE<Jµa result 'I n:in:a pipe
the travel bureau to confirm hotels etc.?
to a-cu:x:riµa accident m,xvo;·TJ·O thick
Despina Yes, if you like.
yaM!;LO;-a-o blue, azure "CO moµa mouth
YXQi!;o;-a-o grey <J"CQaµn:ovli!;ro I sprain, twist
yuQro <JE about, around ro u'iJo; height
bta-ca!;ro (subj. bm-casro) I order, to cpQubt eyebrow
command to :X:nAO.Xl little rug
xa6ro; (just) as ro :x;i:pl hand
TO µan eye
To µova-ca.xi moustache brv E:X:EL ariµaaia it doesn't matter
µn:ltxoµm I get entangled/caught EYlVE it's as good as done
up tva Xl E~boµT)vta '1:EVtE one metre
sav60\j·l0.·0 fair (haired) seventy five centimetres
san:lroµEVO\j·l'J·O lying down, 1toti: (µou) never in (my) life
spread out to ibw µE the same as
n:a:x:u;-ia-u plump, fat

(a) Past passive There are more examples of regularly formed past
passives in this lesson. (See L59, Nlb.)
First study yvroQL<J"Cl)xan you got to know each other formed from
yvroQi!;ro, passive yvroQi!;o~m, passive subjunctive yvroQL<J"CW.
Note this common use of the passive for reciprocal actions where English
commonly uses each other. Mn:u:x:trixa I got entangled is from µn:lexci),
passive µn:lfaoµm, passive subjunctive µn:lr:x:-cro.
(b) Remember the verb n:ovaro l hurt or I am in pain (L32). Note that we
usually say it hurts meaning something hurts us rather than / or you hurt,
(c) Ka6ro; t~ymva, tn:rna. As I was going out, I Jell. This is another
rxnmple of the past continuous tense used to describe an action in
progress at the time another action took place. Note that xa6ro; (just) 11.,·
v1111 be used as an alternative to rvro or triv WQa n:ov. Remember that
xutho; xm means as well as (L34).
(d) Note, also, the past tense tn:rna I fell from n:tcp-cro, subjunctive n:foc,,,
1111d ~Lhasa/ ordered where the first a of the subjunctive stem bLatc'.x l;111
1 hungcs to E in the past.

198 199

2 Eivm 'f\JQW oro tvo. x, t:1}60µ1JVTO. 3tEVTE. He's around one metre and Andreas What jobs?
seventy five centimetres. Note how a person's height is given (using Nikos First of all you'll have to go to the airport to pick up the Angel id is,
the metric system of course), not mentioning the word metre or Andreas You are forgetting something, father.
centimetres as these words are obviously understood. One seventy five is Nikos What?
about five (feet) eight (inches). Andreas That I have never seen them in my life.
3 Eivm so.v8ui. She's fair (haired). Note the adjective !;o.v8o;-ui-6 Nikos Oh? I had the impression that you got to know each other last yt.:111.
carefully. There are a few adjectives which may have two forms in the It doesn't matter. I'll describe them to you. Angelidis is forty seven
Fem. sing.; the normal type I ending ii or the ending ia. So, in the Fem. years old. He's about one (metre) seventy five (centimetres), a litt lc
sing., we can say !;o.v8ui or !;o.v811; similarly we can say 6,x11 or 6,xui, plump, with thick grey hair, thick black eyebrows and a black
xax1J or xo.xui. moustache. He's usually got a pipe in his mouth. His wife is xlim
4 Ilo.xu;-ui-iJ plump, fat is another type 3 adjective on the same pattern as and fair (haired), around forty. She's got blue eyes. She's about tlu-
µ«XQ\JS·l<t•\J. same height as Yiannis, her husband. What do you think? Will you
5 'Exn TO ib,o U\/JOS ue rov «VtQ<l TlJS· She's the same height as her manage to find them?
husband. Note the use of El(&l here where English uses is, and secondly note /uidreas Yes, I think (so).
the preposition in the expression to tOLO µ& the same as. Nikos Then you'll take them to the hotel.
6 Words and expressions
Andreas It's as good as done. No problem.
(a) To xo.Mixt little rug is the diminutive of To )CO.Ai carpet, rug.
(b) XTU3t1J«m TO l(EQ1. uou, / hurt my hand. Remember we said that
l(TlJ1taw can mean/ hit, knock or ring, but note that it can also be
translated by / hurt.
(c) The verb o.va1.o.µl}avw I undertake, like 1to.Qa>.o.µ~avw / receive, pick
up, drops a syllable in the subjunctive o.vo.>.al}ro.
(d) 1t0ti: (uoo) Note this use of 1t0ti: with the possessives translated by
never in (my) life; also 3tOTE 'tl]S never in her life. ·
(e) dEV El(EL Ol)µo.uio.. It doesn't matter (lit. It has no meaning).
(f) 'f\JQro ma OO.Q«VTo. about forty/around the forties Note the
preposition 'f\!QW <JE about, around, often used with the definite article as
an alternative for 3tEQi3tou. Similarly, 'f\JQOJ mt; 3tEVTE cpOQES about five
(g) Note how Andreas uses the past tense ty,vi::, lit. it happened, meaning
O.K. I understand and it's as good as done.

An accident
Andreas Does it hurt much, dad?
Nikos Quite a lot.
Andreas How did it happen?
Nikos As I was going out onto the balcony, my foot got caught up in the
little rug and I fell down. Result: I sprained my foot and hurt my
hand a little.
Andreas Have you got to stay lying down?
Nikos Yes, today, and perhaps tomorrow too. That's what your uncle
ordered (lit. So ordered your uncle). Consequently you will have 111
undertake some jobs in my place.

Ma8r11,.1a £~'1VTa ~UO Lesson sixty two Compare this with L60, NS where the actions were still in the future
when they were reported.
4 Words and expressions
(a) The verb n:E6a(vco / die has the irregular subjunctive n:E6o:vco.
New words (b) Note the expression Ta pyo:~co rriQa meaning I get by, succeed
somehow or manage.
lJ o:bua leave, holiday lJ :rtffiAlJIJfJ sale, selling (c) To µ«QXEnvyx marketing is commonly used in modern Greek, but is
avayxo:~oµm I am obliged, forced lJ l:o:µos (the island of) Samas obviously the Greek transcription of the English word. It is, of course,
av xm although O'U"/XQOvcos simultaneously, at the invariable.
an:aaxo.1..ffi (3) I occupy, keep busy same time (d) 'Eqiuya an:o 'tlJ !:o:µo. / left Samas. Remember that the verb <pd1yc,,
o yo:µos marriage, wedding 'tUX'tO:rtotw (3) I arrange, fix up is often followed by an:o while I leave needs no preposition in English.
y£Vvttµm I am born o 'toµfos sector (e) Note that the noun lJ o:bua can mean leave or holiday as well as
yQaqitxos-iJ-6 picturesque 'ta 'tQOqitµa provisions, food products permit, licence (L34). Note also that while the spelling is the same as ll1l'
'to EQyom:o:aw factory lJ 'tO'rnlJ pocket Fem. sing. and Neut. plural of the adjective o:bEtos-a-o empty, there is a
lJ EUQW:TtlJ Europe 'to un:oyEto basement
xa'to: against, opposed to
slight difference in the pronunciation. The noun is pronounced as three
ro un:oxa't<XIJ'tl]µa branch syllables a-ot,-a while the adjective is pronounced as two syllables, the tt
'to µaQxnivyx marketing lJO''tEQa an:o after joining the a (to form ya) a-ot,a.
n MtlJl] Ava'to.1..iJ The Middle East (fl'tcoxos-iJ-o poor
VO'tlOaVa'tOAtxos-iJ-6 south eastern o XlJµtxos chemist, chemical engineer
n:aV'tQElJOµm I get married lJ XWQa country ·
lJ n:a'tQiba (home) country, fatherland
n:E6aivco (subj. n:E6o:vco) I die 'ta pyo:~co :rtEQa I get by, manage
lJ :rtEQuttnm adventure A few words about me
I ///1111is My name is Yiannis Angelidis. I was born on Samas, in a small bur
picturesque village. When I finished school, I left Samas and went lo
Notes Athens because I wanted to study. My parents - they are dead (lit.
have died) now - were poor. They didn't have (enough money) lo
1 Past passive send me even the rent of the basement where I lived. So I was
rEvviJ6lJxa / was born from y£Vvo:co / bear, give birth, passive yEvvitµm, obliged to work and study at the same time. I got by, though, and
subjunctive passive y£Vvl]6ffi, five years later I left with a degree in chemistry (lit. the degree of :i
Avayxo:IJ'tl]xa I was obliged from avayxo:~oµm, subjunctive avayxaa'tw. chemist) in my pocket for postgraduate studies in Germany. After
Tax'ton:oiiJ6lJX« I got fixed up from 'taX'to:rtotw I arrange, fix up, passive quite a lot of adventures, which certainly don't interest you, I got
subjunctive 'tUX't0:rtOtl]6W, fixed up in a big company making (lit.' of) food products with
Il~VWEU'ttJXaµE We got married from· :rtUV'tQEUoµm, subjunctive branches in many countries in Europe and the Middle East. Al first
:rtaV'tQEU'tW, worked in the factory but then I went (passed) into the sales and
Note that often Greek passives may be translated into English by using marketing sector. Today I'm the marketing manager for the countries
the verb get/got. of south eastern Europe. (During) all these years I have made qui It: u
2 Av xm iJµouv xa'ta 'tOU yaµou, n:aV'tQEU'ttJxaµE Although I was against lot of journeys to my (home) country which I never forget. On one ol'
marriage, we got married. Av xm although is a useful new conjunction these journeys I met Poppy. Although till then I was opposed lo
to learn. Note also xa'to: which can be used to mean against, opposed 111 marriage, we got married within two weeks and left for Germany.
as well as about (Ll9). When it has the meaning against, however, it is This year I took my holiday earlier so that we could spend Easter in
followed by the Gen. case and there is a stronger stress on the second 11 Greece with our friends the Kazakos (family). Nikos informed us 1hn1
of Xa'tO:, he would arrange everything regarding our stay. But I have occupied
3 Mas EtbO:rtOllJO'E on 6a xavovt~E 0.1..a .•• He informed us that he would you enough. Bye.
arrange everything ;., Note the use of the conditional tense here when
reporting what someone has said. Here, although the arranging was in 1111
future when Nikos informed him, the arranging is now in the past.

202 203
M68flµa &~rJVTa rplo Lesson sixty three How do you do, Mrs. Angelidis? I came because my poor father
had an accident.
Poppy An accident? (Is it) serious?
New words Andreas He sprained his foot. Fortunately it isn't serious, but it hurts a 101.
He couldn't get up.
AU3taµ<n I'm sorry, I regret qiwva~w (subj. qiwva~w) I call, Poppy I'm very sorry to hear that.
lJ 3tl'Ql'YQUQJ1] description shout Andreas If you don't mind (have no objection) we'll leave together now 1'01
your hotel. The taxi is waiting.
Yiannis Tell me, how did you recognise us?
Andreas My father described you.
Notes I didn't recognise your voice.
1 Verbs Yiannis Could I speak to Mr. Kazakos?
(a) Lil'V µ1COQOUOE vu 011xwOd. He wasn't able to get up. Here we see ircspina He's in bed. Who's asking for him, please?
the past continuous of the type 3 verb µ1COQOJ and the subjunctive of the Yiannis Yiannis Angelidis.
passive verb u11xwvoµm / get up. ttespina Is that you, Yiannis? I didn't recognise your voice. It's Despina.
(b) Au,taµm I'm sorry, I regret is another verb that is always passive in Yiannis And I didn't realise (it was) you right away. How is Nikos? Your
form in Greek. It follows the same pattern as Ouµaµm and xotµciµ<n. son told us (about) it at the airport.
(c) 3tEQlE'YQU1j/E he described Note that the past tense of 3tl'Ql'YQU<pw trespina Fortunately he didn't come to much harm. One minute, let me call
(just like 'YQU<pW) adds the f when, without counting the prefix 3tl'Ql, him.
there are only two syllables. Yi111111is Leave him. Don't disturb him.
(d) 0a µ,tOQOUoa va µtAl]OW orov XUQtO Ku~cixo; Could I speak to Mr. l tcspina No, no! He asked me to get him up when you phoned. I'll help hi111
Kazakos? Note again the use of the conditional tense for a polite to come (to the phone). Wait a minute.
2 Au,tciµ<n 3tOlJ to uxouw. I'm sorry to hear it. Remember this use of
3tOlJ when explaining the reason for something, lit. I'm sorry that/because
I hear that.
3 Iloto; rov ~lJtUEl; Who is asking for him? Remember that ~ritciw I ask
for takes a direct object in Greek.
4 Remember that otav is usually followed by the subjunctive in sentences
where in English when is often followed by the past tense. Mou ~t'JtlJUE
vn 'tOV Ul]XOJUW otav tlJUQJWVlJUE't'l', He asked me to get him up when
you phoned.
5 EoiJ dam, ruxvVfl; is that you Yiannis? H At<rno1va dµm. It's Despina.
Remember this use of the first or second person in Greek, where English uses
the impersonal it.

The description was correct.
Andreas Excuse me, are you Mr. Angelidis?
Yiannis Yes.
Andreas I'm Andreas Kazakos. The son of Nikos Kazakos.
Yiannis Ah. Pleased to meet you. (This is) my wife.

Ma8r11,.10 &~rJVTO T&OO&pa Lesson sixty four EUX<XQt<J'tt]Ottxn the regularly formed past tense from EUXUQt<J'tttOw, the
subjunctive of rnxap1antµm, and oo0ttKE the past passive of 6ivw,
passive bivoµm, passive subjunctive boOw. In addition flQt611xav tli<'y
were found is the past passive of JlQfoxw, passive flQi<JXoµm, passive
New words subjunctive jlQEOw.
'to ayyEio vase, pot 2 You will have noted that there are quite a lot of adjectives ending in
ta xoaµ11µa'ta jewellery
tt ai6oum:x hall, gallery, room •µEVOS or -µµEVOS-fl•O; xaµOJµEVOS·fl-0 made, done, X<l'tll<J'tQEµµEVOS·ll-CI
µaQµaQtvws-a-o (made of) marble destroyed, )CUM1<1µtvos-ri-o spoilt etc. These are in fact the passive
llQVOUµm (subj. UQVttOw) I refuse IJ µoAUV<Jtt pollution
fJQtOttxa (from flQiaxoµm) I was participles of the verbs xavw (sometimes said, and written, xaµw),
'to voµt<Jµa coin
found xa'tU<J'tQE<pw and The use of the passive participle of a verb as au
to OVElQO dream
YEAaw I laugh adjective is common in Greek.
o IlaQOtvwvas the Parthenon
o Y'"i'°S plaster 3 'Qau is a useful conjunction to note meaning and so or thus.
7tQayµanxos-11-o real, genuine
MOttxa (from bivoµm) I was given 11 1tQayµanx6'tttta reality 4 XQOVUl 110uav vc EQ6ouv <J'tf!V E1.Mba. For years they had been
Etbtxa especially wanting to come to Greece. Note here the use of the past continuous
TtQOYQaµµati~w I make a plan, where English would use the past perfect continuous tense. There arc no
tt txOrntt exhibition programme
EVOOUOL(l~(l) J thrill/fill with continuous forms of perfect tenses in Greek.
ta IlQ07ttJAma the Propylaea, entrance
enthusiasm 5 Words and expressions
<1'tlJQi~w I support
E7tllVElAtt µµevws repeatedly (a) Note that tt aiOouaa means room but in the sense of hall or gallery;
'tEAEU'tata recently
o rnt<JXE7t't1JS visitor remember that to bwµauo is the word to use for a normal room in a
ruxaia by chance
'to EQYUAEio tool tt t'llXIJ luck house.
'tO EQEX0Eio the Erechtheum (b) TQaflaro <pOJ'tOYQ<X<piEs. I take photos. Note the idiomatic use of
<ptAtxos-11-0 friendly, of friends
EU'.)CUQt<Jntµm I am pleased 'tQaflaw lit. I pull in this expression.
xaiQoµm (subj. X<XQW) I enjoy (c) Note that xaiQoµm when it has an object can be translated by /
tt 'Hn:EtQOS Ipiros '.)CtES yesterday
'to Oauµa miracle, wonder enjoy: vn X<lQW 'to Oauµa to enjoy the marvel.
lj)EU'ttxos-tt-o false, fake
xaµwµevos-JJ-O made, done (d) yta X«Qtt EVOS q>LALXOU ~EUY<XQWU for the sake of a couple offriends
wan (and) so, thus
or KaQuanbts Caryatids (statues) Note that the adjective q>tAtxos-11-0, although it may also mean friendly,
xamatQEµµhos-tt-o destroyed, often means simply that the person(s) referred to is/are friend(s).
oao yta as for
ruined (e) Note that xns is an alternative in spelling and pronunciation for xO••s.
'tQaflaw <pW'tO)'QU<pia l take a photo Cultural note The three main features of the Acropolis are the
Parthenon, one of the world's most famous temples, the Erechtheurn, 11
smaller temple beside it with its splendid Caryatid columns, and the
Notes Propylaea, the massive entrance to the Acropolis. lpiros is a
mountainous province in North West Greece, bordering Albania.
1 Verbs
(a) 'ExouµE rnt<JXE<p'tti We have visited The perfect tense of a passive
verb is formed just like the, perfect tense of active verbs; txw followed h11
the third person sing. of the passive subjunctive. I runslation
(b) Atv µn:oQfoaµt v' <XQVttOouµE We couldn't refuse The verb
llw Acropolis
<XQvouµm, subjunctive UQVttOw, is another verb that is always passsivc i11
Greek. Note that it is a type 2 verb (stressed on the ending) but of a new /
,11111y Yesterday we went up to the Acropolis. The truth is that it wasn ·1 011
kind with the ending -ouµm in the first person sing. This is the third and our programme of visits, as we have visited the Acropolis several
last kind of type 2 passive verb that we have to study. We have already times (lit. repeatedly). We went for the sake of a couple of Gcrn11111
studied verbs like ayamtµm and Ouµaµm in full; we shall study verbs 111 friends who(m) we met by chance at our hotel. They so much want1:d
-ouµm in full later. We also met 't<XX'tOTtOtl)Ottxa I got fixed up in L62 us to go with them that (lit. and so) we couldn't refuse. Thus we s11w
which is from another verb of this type 'tax'ton:owuµm. the Parthenon again, the Propylaea (and) the Erechtheum. For ycnrs
(c) EuxaQt<J'tt]Ottxa n:ou µou MOttxE tt ruxatQl'.a. I was glad that the the Germans had been wanting to come to Greece and now that their
chance was given to me. Here we have two more past passives; dream has become reality they are thrilled. They are taking photos

206 207
everywhere and laughing all the time like small children. In the past, Ma8r11,1a &~~VTO TT&VT& Lesson sixty five
you know, visitors had the good fortune to see the real Caryatids, the
maidens that is, who support the Erechtheum on their heads. Now
there are fake ones made of plaster in their place. The real ones -the
marble ones- are in the museum now, half destroyed by pollution of New Words
the atmosphere. As for me, although we hadn't planned our visit, I
was very pleased to be given the opportunity (lit. that the opportunity 11 un11M>"fQUqi(a correspondence 11 1t<IQO\J<Jt<l presence
was given to me) to enjoy from close up again this architectural o yEvtxos bLEu0u,•riis managing 11 1tfLQ<I experience
wonder called the Parthenon. Yesterday we went to the Archeological director 1tQOXfl'tm it is about
Museum too, especially to see an exhibition of antiquities which were E<M'.W xat even ro l'tQO<JWl'ttxo personnel, staff
found recently in lpiros. The two rooms with the jewellery and the X<IA\Jl'tt:W (subj. xaAulj)w) I cover l'tQox9ts the day before yesterday
vases thrilled us. The third (room) with the tools and coins wasn't so xau1:os-11-o boiling, urgent 11 auaxflj,11 conference, discussion
interesting (lit. didn't have so much interest). 11 XQt<nJ judgement

1 rm l'tOLO 9tµa l'tQOXELt:m; What's it about? We met the impersonal
verb l'tQOXnt:m in L46 meaning going to. Here we see a second use of
the verb meaning it is about; the literal meaning here is For what mo/IN
is it about?
2 0a 6t1,.a,:1,; Would you like? This is the conditional tense of 9tiro in the
second person plural; the initial 11 on the singular forms, of course, dror»
out in the second person plural.
3 Remember that 1tEQtµtvw can be translated as 1 expect or I wait for
according to the context.
4 fo,:w xm yta ALYES WQES even for a few hours Note the useful
expression ta,:ro xm which usually means even.
6 xau,:<i 1tQ01J1,.11µa1:a pressing problems The adjective xau,:o;-11-6 means
boiling but referring to problems clearly pressing or urgent is the
6 Note 1tQOX9ES (the day) before yesterday the opposite of µE9U\JQtO (tlu:
day) after tomorrow.
7 When it is already clear from the name whether a person is male or
female, a small x may be used for X\JQLOS or xtJQt<l instead of Kos or Kix.

Whut is it about?
\,•rretary Managing director's office. Can I help you?
Y/111111is I'd like (to speak to) Mr. Panopoulos. My name is Yiannis
,·,r, rruny Mr. Panopoulos is out. He's at a conference. Would you like to
tell me what it is about? Perhaps I can help.
l'/111111/s Look. I'm the company marketing manager for south east Europe.
208 209
I came from Munich the day before yesterday, and ... Ma8r11.1a E~rJVTC £~1 Lesson sixty six
Secretary I'm very sorry, Mr. Angelidis. Mr. Panopoulos is expecting you
Yiannis Fine. What time will he be free so that I can drop in (there)?
Secretary I know that he has to see the personnel manager at eleven. Would New words
you like to come at half past eleven?
Yiannis Agreed. I 'JI be there at half past eleven. fl ava0ElOQ110fl review to µttQO measure, step
avaq:itQoµm I refer/address myself OlXOVOµLXO<;·'l·O economic,
11 avt:tµEtlO:n:LOY) measure, financial
I'm at your disposal. confrontation 1tEQOLV0<;·11·0 last year's
fl aito\jl'l view, opinion 11 1to1.ttLX'1 policy
Mr. Panopoulos Welcome, Mr. Angelidis. I'm sincerely pleased that you are au!;avoµm I increase itQO'l"fOUµEvoc;-11-0 previous
with us even for (just) a few hours. So we'll have the yta on the subject of, about 1tQ6aq:iatoc;-11-o recent
opportunity (lit. the opportunity is given to us) to examine l) yvmµri opinion 11 1tQlOt11 uiri raw material
some of the company's pressing problems together. I'm sure to liavELO loan o QU0µ6c; rate, rhythm, tempo
that your experience and your good (lit. correct) judgement 11 liLEtJ6uv-r:Qta manageress 11 CJtQllt11YLX'l strategy
will help us a lot. liQUCJtLXO<;·'l·O drastic CJU"{XQlVW I compare
Yiannis Thank you for your kind words, Mr. Panopoulos. I'm glad 11 ELaaywy11 importation CJUvtoµoc;-ri-o brief
that my presence here may be useful. Anyway it's a fact to Emtoxw interest rate 11 u1.11 material
that today we can cover matters that would take much more 0 LCJOAO"{LOµoc; balance sheet
time by correspondence. I'm at your disposal. xat« according to, in ayartt)tE µou my dear chap
Mr. Panopoulos Splendid. Shall we go into the conference room (lit. room of xat« -r:11 yvmµ11 uou in my opinion
11 xat«Owri deposit
conferences)? XQatLxoc;-11-6 national, state CJE OJCEOfl µE in comparison with
11 xu~EQV'lOfl government

1 Verbs
(a) fVWQL~6µaou xaUt. We know each other well. Remember this use
of the passive for reciprocal actions// know him, and he knows me) onrn
translated by each other in English.
(b) 0a o<ll; 1taQaxa1.ouoa l would beg you Remember the formation nf
the past continuous of type 2 and 3 verbs, the syllable -oeo being added
to the present stem; Oa 1taQaxa1.ouoa is of course the conditional Lc11S(;
of 1tllQUX<ll.lO.
(c) Avaq:iEQOlO is the passive subjunctive of avaq:itQoµm I refer (my.,·(•(/).
(d) The verb au!;avw I increase is always passive in form, nu!;avowu.,
when it has no object; the passive subjunctive is aul;riOm, hence the
perfect tense txouv au!;riOd they have (been) increased and the past
tense aul;11011xav they (were) increased.
~ Na oac; ouot11ow -r:11v XUQl<l KaioyEQia. Let me introduce Mrs. Kaloyerin
to you. Remember this use of va meaning let me.
:i 11 litEuOuvtQLU 1tw1.11otwv the sales manageress Note the use of the
Genitive plural here. lit. the manageress of sales.
11 ooo mo CJUVtoµa µ1tOQELtE as brief as you can Remember this
construction using 600 mo which is translated by as ... as.
5 Remember the irregular noun TO ytyovo;Jact, plural Ta yEyovoTa.
6 Words and expressions M68r11,.1a E~r)VTO Eq>TCI Lesson sixty seven
(a) xaTci TtJ yvcoµtJ µov in my opinion We have already met xaTci
meaning about (L19) and against, opposed to (L62); now we see it used
in the sense of according to but best translated here by in. In this sense
it is followed by the Accusative case. New words
(b) We have already met the adverb '1:EQ<Jt last year; now note that there (l,tO\jJlV0;-11-0 tonight's Aai'.xo;-11-0 folk, popular
is also an adjectival form of this word '1:EQmvo;-11-0 usually translated by EA«cpQOS·ll ·O light o µmTQ head waiter
last year's. E~V!tflJIEtW (3) I serve µflQl by
(c) Note that TO µETQO metre is also used, especially in the plural, in the to xavaeivt canary TO ,tt(lVO piano
sense of measures or steps. H avnµncomOlJ can also be translated as to xtvi:eo club QO~ pink
measure in the sense of measures taken to confront or face a problem. 11 XtOaQ« guitar xoenmxo;-11-0 dance (adj.)
(d) AyMtJTE µov lit. my dear can be used in a rather patronising way, to xui1nµo booking
just as we say my dear chap or my dear fellow. TO ibw µou xava it's all the same to 1111•
(e) Remember that when a surname is clearly feminine, XVQia may be
shortened to x, hence here x. KaAoyEQia.
1 MEXQl n; btxa Oa txovµE EQ6Et. By ten we'll have come. Here we
The conference meet the future perfect tense, formed quite simply by using Oa with the
present tense of txw and the past participle (third person sing. of the
Mr. Panopoulos Let me introduce Mrs. Kaloyeria, our new sales manageress subjunctive). The future perfect is used in the same way in both Greek
to you.
and English. Note also that µflQl can be used in the sense of by or 11p to
Yiannis How do you do? a certain point in time.
Mrs. Kaloyeria How do you do?
Mr. Panopoulos 2 The adverb a,i:o\jJE tonight (like iEQIH) also has an adjectival form
You know Mr. Pavlakis, the marketing manager, and Mr. (l,tO\jJlVOS•tJ•O tonight' S.
Fortis, the financial manager. 3 To ibw µov xavn. It's all the same to me (lit. ft makes the same to 11u!).
Yiannis Of course. We know one another well. Gentlemen, I have to 4 The invariable noun o µatTQ, taken from the French maitre d' hotel. is
tell you that I 'II be with you for two -at most three- commonly used to refer to the head waiter in a high class restaurant or
hours. That's why I would beg you to be as brief as you can club. Note that TO XEVTQO may mean club as well as centre.
and to address yourselves only to the most important 5 The adjective QO~ pink is another invariable word of foreign origin.
Mr. Pav!akis After the recent state measures concerning the importation
of raw materials and interest (rates) for loans and deposits, 11
review of our financial policy is necessary. Many facts Iranslatlon
indicate to us that the government will proceed with other
stricter measures. All that, in my opinion, means that we must It's all the same to me.
examine our whole strategy from the beginning.
Mr. Panopoulos I won't agree with you, my dear chap. I think that no Nikos Welcome! Come (in). Let me introduce my brother-in-law to you.
drastic measures are necessary. At least, not yet. Petros Yiannopoulos. Poppy and Yiannis Angelidis.
Yiannis We'll come back to your view, Mr. Pavlakis. How are sales l l,11111is How do you do?
going, Mrs. Kaloyeria? /'011py How are you?
Mrs. Kaloyeria In comparison with last year's, they have increased. They l'rtros How do you do?
didn't increase at the rate we expected, however. Nikos Did you find the house easily?
Yiannis I see. May I have a look at the last balance sheet, Mr. Yiunuls Very. How is the leg?
Fortis? N//,0.1· Much better.
Mr. Fortis Certainly. Here is the previous one too, if you want to l'vtros There's a problem about our outing tonight (lit. tonight's outing)
compare (them). couldn't get a table at the club that we wanted with the guiturv. J 11,
you want me to try some other (club) with folk music? Or do y1111
'I j
prefer to go to a club with old dance music? Lesson sixty eight
Yiannis What do you say, Poppy?
Ma8rUJO E~r)VTO OXT<i>
Poppy Since you ask me, I must say that folk music doesn't interest me
much. I prefer something lighter.
Nikos (And) You, Yiannis?
New words
Yiannis To tell you the truth, it's all the same to me.
Petros All right then. I'll ring up right away to book a table. I'm sure that avi,;mvtQOS·lJ·O unmarried n:OVlJQO. slily, cunningly
they'll fit us in (lit. serve us). You see, the owner is a client of mine. lJ U(!QU~WVLU<J'tlXlO. fiancee ro <Jfl(!lUA serial
0 UQQU~(l}VlUCTtlXOS fiance <1uV1JOu1µtvos-11-o used, accustomed
The booking of the table 11 y1.uxa sweetness 11 <nJ<JXEUfl set, apparatus
yol]tEuttxos-11-0 charming, o n::x;vtxo; technician
Headwaiter "The pink canary". Can I help you? CfJU<Jtxo. naturally
Petros We want a table for six near the piano. :x;aµ I smile
ot Etbt]<JElS news (bulletin)
Headwaiter For tonight? X«Qttroµtvo;-11-0 enchanting,
11 Exn:oµn:ri broadcast, transmission
Petros Yes. charming
EVOX.MO (3) I trouble, worry, annoy
Headwaiter One moment. Yes, I have (a table). What time will you be coming? to \j)tµa, lie
11 µova!;io: loneliness
Petros We'll be there (lit. We'll have come) by ten. 1tUQUXOAOU0ro (3) I watch, follow
Headwaiter Name, please?
Petros Petros Yiannopoulos.
Head waiter Right, sir. We'll be expecting you.
1 'Ox• Ott µ' Evo:x;ui.. Not that it worries me. Note again the use of o:x;i
to mean not. Remember that bEv is only used when followed by a verb.
2 Eiµm <JUVl]fhaµtv11 a' autt] tl]V xato.<Jta<Jl], I'm used to this situation.
Note that <JUVl]Otaµtvo;-11-0 accustomed, used is followed by the
preposition <JE,
3 To <Jt](!lUA serial is another invariable noun of foreign origin.
4 H <JU<JXEUl] l]taV :x;a1.aaµtv11, The set was out of order/not working.
Although :x;a1.aaµtvo;-11-o means literally spoilt, damaged, the best
translation here is out of order or not working.
5 Tou; Ema on maOo.voµm xouQa<1µtv11. l told them that I felt tired. Nole
again that in reported speech Greek often uses the present tense where
English more usually uses the past.
6 ooo n:w «QYO. Ot1.ouv as Late as they like Note again that O<JO is used once
only in Greek while in English as is used before and after the adverb.

Alone with the television
Atluna Tonight the children have gone out with Nikos' and Despina's friends
from Germany. They are going, Petros told me, to some night club
that has food and old music. They asked me if I wanted to go with
them, but I told them that I felt a little tired, and that I preferred to
stay home. Between ourselves I told them lies, because the truth is
that I would like very much to go out and listen to a little music in a

214 2J5
nice club. But I know that they would prefer to be alone to talk, Lesson sixty nine
M68rU,10 &~~VTO &VVICJ
laugh and stay as late as they like. It's like this; an elderly (person)
should know how to accept his loneliness. Not of course that it
worries me to sit at home alone. I'm used to this situation. Then
there's the television too. I like watching television. I watch two
New words
serials, three other programmes and the evening news. Fortunately I
can see my favourite serial tonight. I say fortunately, because the set ro mQ xovdawv air conditioning aflrivro (subj. aflriaro) I turn/switch
was not working for two days and the technician came and fixed it o llVEµLCJ'tflQll<; fan off, put out
this morning. Now the young man who has the main part is llVoi:yro (subj. llvoi!;ro) I open, turn 01JXro0w (from 01Jxwvoµm) I get 1111
enchanting and his fiancee is very charming. But the best (one) of all on q,vanro I blow
is the unmarried aunt. She acts so naturally that woman. When she llQXEi it suffices, is enough 0 wovor; time
smiles slily and shuts one eye, she's sweetness (itself). Jln~ro I install, put in
to t!;obo expense llQXEL Vil as long as
xnwE sit down xm Vil even if
XQ\JWVro I catch cold K<ivro t~ooa I spend money
o ioyta'tfl<; accountant, book keeper ovq,! ouf!
o 1oyo<; word ,:ov XQOVO\l next year
1J OQE;1J desire, appetite

1 Verbs
(a) Note the subjunctive form 01JXro0ro from the passive verb 01JXWVO~tm
I get up and the regularly formed past tenses of the passive verbs
~Eamivoµm I get hot, subjunctive ~ECJ'tll0ro, past ~ECJ'tCl01JXll and
vnoaxoµm I promise, subjunctive vnoaxt0ro, past vnoaxt01Jxll.
(b) Past conditions
Av bE µllr; ElXll'tE \l1tOCJXE0Ei, bE 81l EAE'fll ,:in:o'tE, If you hadn't promised
us, I wouldn't have said anything. Study this construction carefully;
the past perfect tense of vn:oaxoµm corresponds exactly to the English
past perfect if you hadn't promised, but, curiously, the conditional tense
of itro is used where the conditional perfect/ wouldn't have said must bl:
used in English here, since the condition concerns the past. Greek may
use the conditional tense for both past and present or future conditions,
while English uses the conditional only for present or future conditions
and the conditional perfect for past conditions. Compare these: Av
Qro,:ovaE, 81l ,:ov f)..Eyll. If he asked (now or in the future), I would tell
him. Av EiXE Qffi'tflCJEl, 81l rou EAE'fll If he had asked (in the past), I
would have told him.
2 AQxt:ivu µ11 q,vaciuEn:civro µov.As long as it doesn't blow over me. The
impersonal verb, llQXEi, lit. it suffices, is enough, followed by vu usually
translates into as long as or provided that.
3 Km vu ro Ei1tu, bE yivEi:m. Even if l said it, it isn't possible. Note I his
use of xm vu in the sense of even if.
4 Words and expressions
(a) The verb llVoiyro, subjunctive llVoi!;ro, means literally I open, but
216 217
referring to such things as radios, lights, fires etc. it often translates as Have you got any time?
switch on. The verb o:vci!lffi has much the same meaning. The verb
Andreas Hello, Pandelis. Hello, girls.
1J1ll]Vffi, subjunctive 1J1ll]CJffi, has the opposite meaning 1 turn/switch/put Welcome. Come on, sit down. Have you got any time (to spare) to
off/out. Pandelis
look at some figures together.
(b) Note that xeuwvw can mean 1 am cold or 1 catch cold.
Andreas I've got an hour at my disposal. Is that enough?
(c) To me xovrtorov is (obviously) another invariable noun of non-Greek
origin. Pandelis Yes, yes.
Mary It's a good job (lit. fortunately) that your friend comes to the· office
(d) Note the expression rou xeovou next year, the opposite of '1:EQCJL last
and smiles at us. You never smile.
(e) Note xcitCJE sit down an alternative for xciOwE. KciOoµm has two
equally acceptable subjunctive forms xa6(aw and xatCJw; hence the two
imperative forms.
(f) fun( to AE<; auto; Why do you say that? Note again the use of both
the strong and weak object pronouns for emphasis.
(g) Note that o xeovoi; can mean time as well as year. Remember too that
o xmeoi; can mean time as well as weather, and 'I wea can mean time as
well as hour.
(h) Note that to XOQLTIJL, although Neuter in gender, means girl and is an
alternative for 'I xont>.a.

You don't keep your word.
Mary Ouf! We've got very hot in here. Shall I turn on the fan, Mr.
Pandelis Eh, what did you say?
Mary Shall I put on the fan, I said?
Pandelis I've no objection, as long as it doesn't blow over me. I've no desire
to catch cold. And since you are getting up, turn off the light in the
corner and switch on the other one.
Mary All right. You don't keep your word though.
Pandelis Why do you say that? ,
Mary Because in the winter you promised us that you would put (in) air
conditioning and we haven't seen anything yet.
Pandelis I don't remember having said such a thing,
Mary If you hadn't promised us it, I wouldn't have said anything. But I
don't forget easily.
Pandelis Even if I said it, it isn't possible. Business isn't going very well.
Next year perhaps.
Mary That's what you always say when you don't want to spend money
(lit. make expenses). We know you (lit. have understood you).
Pandelis (That's) enough. Get me our accountant on the phone. And bring
me the letters to sign.

218 219
M68rn,1a &l3~0JJ'1VTO Lesson seventy 5 [Ipw, with or without va, can be used just like before in English, as a
conjunction as well as a preposition or adverb.

New words
1J avaµv1J<11J memory, recollection 1CQ0<1wmxa personally
At the club
tJ yaQUia prawn a' 'to it to you
1J yvwQtµia friend, acquaintance 1J <JUµqiwvia agreement, bargain Despina Whenever you want to leave, tell us. I know that you have scvcrnl
eflboµtJxOO'tOS·tJ·O seventieth <JUvobww I accompany other places to go to tomorrow and you'll have to get up early.
1J t:l'tl't\J;(LU success, hit 1J 'tQayoubta'tQta singer (female) Poppy You're right. Besides, the day after tomorrow we shall be setting
E\J;(UQUJ'tlEµm I enjoy myself qiavl)xa (from qiaivoJtm) I seemed off for the island very early. What do you say, Yiannis?
8uµi~w I remind 1J (J)QayxqiotJQ'tl) Frankfurt Yiannis Yes, we'll have to be going. Tomorrow we'll spend our whole
o xtfhlQtO'tUS guitarist (l)QE<JXOS·lJ·O fresh morning walking, looking and shopping. Just a moment, let me gl"I
XQauiµm I am preserved, keep (lit. ask for) the bill.
myself 7tEQVllW WQaia I have a good time Nikos Ah, the bill is ours. In Greece, you are our guests.
o >..oyapiacrµ6~ bill Yiannis But why?
o maviO'tas pianist Nikos Because that is the right (thing). We'll make a bargain though.
When we come to Frankfurt, you'll take us to the most expensive
restaurant. I promise you I 'II remind you of it.
Notes Yiannis Agreed then.
I u-spina How did you like the singer, Poppy? (lit. How did the singer seem
1 Verbs
to you?)
(a) 0a 1Cf!E1Ct:t vu m1yaivouµe. We will have to be going. Note that the l'oppy Quite good. Although she is over (lit. has passed) forty five. she's
long form m1yaivw is used to make a continuous tense of the verb mxw. well preserved. The pianist and the guitarist who accompanied her
0a 1CQi1tu va 1taµe would normally be translated as We will have to go. were very good.
(b) We have already met passive participles of verbs, ending in I >1•,1·11i11a Did you like the food?
-µivos-11-0 and often used as adjectives or nouns e.g. xauoµivo, guests l11111py Of course, very nice. Their prawns were excellent and their fish
(those who have been invited) from xa> I invite. Now we meet active extremely fresh.
verbal participles (the verbal forms ending in -ing in English), which are I /r11111is Honestly we had a very nice time. Personally at least I enjoyed
less common in Greek and, unlike passive participles, invariable. Active
myself very much listening to all those old hits.
participles are easily formed by adding -ovms to the present stem of type l'1111py Did they remind you of some old (girl) friend, my love?
1 verbs and stressed -rovms to type 2 and 3 verbs: xona~w, xot'ta~ovms I lr11111is No, dear. All the memories I had before we got married stopped 111
looking; '\j)wvi~w, '\j)wvi~oV'tUS shopping; 1CEf!1CU'tW, 1CEQ1tU'tWV't<lS wa lking . the entrance to the church on our wedding day.
Note that axovw with a stem ending in a vowel, adds y before the ending
axovyov'tas listening; similarly 'tQrow, 'tQroyov'taS eating, and Uw,
Hyov-ras saying.
(c) Note the past tense form qi'a vl)xa I seemed from the passive verb
qiaivoµm, subjunctive qiavro, and EU;(UQL1J'tt)81Jxa / enjoyed myself. was
pleased from E\J;(UQlO'ttiµm, subjunctive E\J;(UQLO't1J8ro.
2 0a a' 'to 8uµiow. I will remind you of it, lit. I'll remind it to you. Note
that the indirect and direct object pronouns oeu and 'to are usually
combined to form a' ro. Similarly nou and 'tlJ combine to form o' 'tlJ and
oou and 'ta form a' 'ta.
3 Remember the use of 1tros in the sense of of course (L37).
4 Remember too the ending ·O'tU'tOS·lJ·O meaning very or extremely:
(l)QECJXO'tU'tO extremely fresh. Remember too (l)QEOXO'tEQOS·tJ·O fresher,
more fresh.

Ma9rn,ra &l3~oµf)vTa &Va Lesson seventy one 2 xa,:a roo voµoaxebiou against the bill Remember the preposition xmc,
against followed by the Genitive case.
3 To voµoaxtbw \j)lJ(j)tO'tlJXE, The bill was passed. Note \j)l)(j)i~ro I 1•1111•
has the sense of vote in or pass, carry in the passive.
New words
4 I:uvobEVOTav rut6 mvi; un:ouQyoui;. He was (being) accompanied hy 1/11•
lJ AµEQtXt] America 'to voµoaxtbto bill, draft of law mtntsters, Remember that the passive is followed by the preposit iuu
avd8uoi;-11-o opposite an:6 where English uses by.
0 ob11yoi; driver
lJ avi:tn:oAi'tEVOlJ opposition (party) 5 lJ AEWqJOQoi; A9t]vai;-I:ovviov the Athens (to) Sounion road Nole lhul
'1:<XQ<XAtaxoi;·tJ·O coastal, beach
-ro aQ9Qo article the Genitive case is used here, lit. the road of Athens-Sounion.
lJ n:01.nEia state, nation
lJ f3toµ11xavia industry 6 Note that Greek doesn't really have an equivalent to English too but
o '1:QECJf3EVTt]i; ambassador
lJ BovAtJ parliament o 3tQOEbQoi; president U'1:EQl301.txoi;~t]-O exaggerated may give the idea: µE U3l'EQf30Atx11
TllXll'tlJTU at too high a speed.
lJ YEWQyia agriculture o '1:QW9vn:ouQy6i; prime minister
btxoµat I receive, welcome IJXO't(OV(l) I kill 7 The verbs btxoµm and unobtxoµm are very similar in meaning, but
o bt]µ<XQXOi; mayor n l:ou11bia Sweden Mxoµm is more passive suggesting/ receive (officially) while un:0Mxo111(1
To l:ouvw Sounion is more active: I greet, welcome.
lJ b11µoxQa-ria democracy, republic
TO bvCJTUXlJµa accident o avvEmf3aT11i; fellow passenger
lJ Exn:aibwori education, training lJ mxu'tl]Ta speed
El;WTEQtxoi;-t]-O external, foreign TEXVLxoi;-t]-6 technical J'renslation
rnioriµoi;-11-0 official 'tQauµa'ti~ro I wound, injure
ECJW'tEQtxoi;·tJ·O internal, domestic TQOµEQoi;-t]-o terrible Ev1•11ing news
oi HvwµtvEi; IloAtTEiEi; the United vn:EQf301.txoi;-tJ-O exaggerated, too
States high I ,i/,·1• Good evening. We begin with home news. The President of the
lJ xanu9vvori direction tmobtxoµm I greet, welcome Republic welcomed the new ambassadors of Sweden and the United
1:0 xoµµa party 0 U,tOUQYOi, minister
States this morning. Yesterday and today the Prime Minister (of the
µE8voµtvoi;-11-o drunk \jJl)(f)i~ro I vote (in) country) visited three towns in northern Greece. He was accompanied
TO MtAavo Milan by the Ministers of Agriculture and Industry. In Parliament the bill 011
technical education was finally passed. The opposition parties had
serious objections about certain articles and in the end they voted
against the bill. At the airport at midday today the mayor of
Notes Thessaloniki welcomed the mayor of Milan who is in Greece for a11
official visit. A terrible accident took place at five o'clock this morning
1 Verbs on the Athens-Sounion coast road. A private car which was travelling
(a) Past continuous passive We now take the last major step in studying at too high a speed crossed onto the other side (of the road) and
the various Greek verb forms. Passive verbs, like active verbs, base the crashed into a lorry which was coming in the opposite direction. The
past continuous tense on the present stern, but they have a different set driver - who was drunk, it appears - and the three fellow passcngcr-.
of endings: <nJVOOEu6tav he was ( being) accompanied, from <nJVOOEOO>, passive in the private (car) were killed. In addition the driver of the lorry waH
avvobeuoµm; EQXO'tav it was 'coming, from the special verb tQxoµm seriously injured. And now foreign news. In America ...
(note that the special verbs are active in form in the subjunctive and past
tense, but passive in the present and past continuous). As you see the
third person singular ending for the past continuous passive is -6,:av
(always stressed on the o),
(b) There are a few more examples of the past passive here: b[X'tl]XE hc
received, welcomed from btxoµm, subjunctive bex1:ro: \j)lJ(j)tO'tl)XE it wa.1·
passed, voted in from \jll)(j)i~ro, passive subjunctive \j)lJ(j)tMro:
CJX01:ro611xav they were killed from CJXOTrovro, passive subjunctive
axo1:ro6ro: TQauµaTLCJ'tl)XE he was wounded, injured from 'tQm,µa'ti~ro,
passive subjunctive 'tQavµa'tlMro.

Ma8r11,Ja £(3~01,JrjVTC ~UO Lesson seventy two Athina No, Nikos. I'll stay here two or three more days and then I 'II go
back home.
Nikos We'll call you from Serifos to wish you a happy Easter (lit. wixl:
you for Easter).
New words Athina As you think. I hope you all have a good time. And take care, do11'1
go into deep (water).
~a96~-ui-u deep XQErovw I charge, debit Despina Mum! Advice again? Your children have grown up, you know.
to f3Qabtvo evening meal
ro bt:cp'tEQllXt booklet x«AtJ avi:aµroori goodbye, farewell A slight mistake
t:uxoµm I wish, hope xa,:a Aa0o; by mistake
Yiannis There's a mistake in our bill.
Katt~a~ro I bring/take down it<XQ«Aiyo almost
Employee A mistake?
ro xoµobivo bedside table
Yiannis Yes. You have charged us for three evening meals while we've 011ly
eaten here two evenings.
l:"111ployee Let me look at the receipts a moment ... You're right. By mistake wr
have put another customer's receipt together with yours. We beg yo111
1 K«AlJ avi:aµroori is yet another way of saying goodbye in Greek. The pardon.
literal idea is something like Let's hope we meet again. Yiannis That's all right. These things happen. Here's the key of the room.
2 The verb Euxoµat / wish, hope is another verb that is always passive in Ftuployee Thank you. Is your luggage ready?
form, subjunctive wxriOro. Yiannis Yes, it's upstairs.
3 Imperative I• uiployee Fine. l 'Il call the boy to bring it down and put it in the taxi for you.
(a) Na 1tpootxue. Be careful/Take care. Remember that vu can be Yiannis Splendid. Oh dear! I almost forgot my little book with the phone
used as an alternative to the imperative. Remember too that va is numbers. I left it on the bedside table.
followed by the subjunctive for a single, non-continuous action, but by I 11111/oyee The boy will fetch it for you.
the present for a repeated or continuous action. Here Athina is telling
them to be careful continuously.
(b) Na µriv itrtY«ivnE. Don't go. .Here both va and µ'I are used to
make the negative imperative. The va could in fact be omitted without
change of meaning. Here again the present tense is used (the full form
itrtY«ivnE not the short it«i:E which is also subjunctive) as the idea in
Athiria's mind is continuous.
4 crvµf3ollAE<; (pieces of) advice Note that while advice in English is
normally only used in the singular crvµf3ollAtJ is commonly used in the
plural. Remember also ,:a cpQovi:afruit, or itATJQOfPOQLE<; information.
5 Note these two useful expressions: xa,:a A«Oo; by mistake and it«Q«Aiyo
almost, lit. but for a little.
6 oi:a f3a0ta The Neuter plural of f}a0u<;-t«-u deep is used meaning deep
things or places but the reference is to swimming in deep water.

Despina Bye, mum. I'll phone you from the island.
Athina Bye, my dear. Have a good trip and see you again (soon).
Nikos Goodbye, Athina. Will you be here when we get back?

224 225
Ma8ru1a £'3l>o1,1f)vTa rplc Lesson seventy three It musn' t be. This is the opposite of IlQEJtEt vu It must be. flQE3tEt vu
xavn XQUO. It must be cold is the opposite of AEv JtQEJtEt va xcivE1 x1.1i10
t;ro. I'm sure it isn't cold out.
6 Y:rtUQ:XEt xa0owu \j)mµi; ls there any bread ( at all)? Note that
New words xa0o>.ou is used for emphasis in questions as well as in negative
ot n1:xa!_>t<Jl'LES thanks llYlElVO(;j•l]·O healthy
xa>.w (3) I invite 0 xaaan:11c; butcher
7 Ilo>.u <J' EU:XUQt<JtouµE. We thank you very much. Note the emphatic
ro xt!_>aaµa treat XQW<Jtam I owe position of ,i:o>.u at the beginning of the sentence.
µax«Qt if only, I wish 8 Words and expressions
o µav«fltJS greengrocer yta atacrou hold on, wait a minute (a) Max«Qt lf only is a commonly used word. It is often followed by
tJ µnaxoµt<Jlj house-moving xa>.11 OQE;tJ have a good meal, vu and the past continuous, when it means if only or I wish that. Mnxo.1.11
<J1Jvbua~w I combine, join enjoy the food vu µ:rto!_>ouaEc; va flo11611aEtc;. I wish you could help. MaxaQt vu 11µouv
to WQt cheese µax«Qt va if only, I wish JtAO\l<Jt0c;. / wish I were rich/If only I were rich.
(b) Ka>.tJ OQE;tJ. Enjoy your food. This is a very common expression
said to someone eating or about to start eating. It literally means Good
appetite and expresses the wish that the person(s) addressed will eat with
Notes a good appetite and enjoy the food.
(c) Note that both xa>.w and JtQO<Jxa>.ro mean to invite.
1 Imperative
yta crtaaou hold on This is the friendly second person sing. form of
ym <J't'a0Et't'E that we met in L14. In fact crtaaou and <J't'a0Eil'E are the
singular and plural forms of the imperative of the passive verb crttxoµm / Irnnslatlon
stand, come to a stop, subjunctive <J't'a6w. The plural imperative of
passive verbs is exactly the same as the second person plural of the \f the new flat
passive subjunctive, while the singular normally ends in -oou and is I leu i Thanks very much for your help in the house-moving, Minas.
stressed on the penultimate syllable. Similarly: vn vtu0Eic; or vruoou, vu 1//1111.1· Corne on now. Thanks aren't necessary. The main (thing) is this (011l'),
vw0EttE or vtu0EitE get dressed from vrevoum,
When will you invite me for a meal in the new flat?
2 Dates Remember how to ask and give the date (LSS, NS). Now note J /1•11/ As soon as we have arranged our things. But, hold on! In any case I
<J't'tc; brobExa An:Qu.i'.ou on the twelfth of April. Where English uses the owe you a treat from last week for my birthday.
preposition on before a date, Greek uses ee combined with the Fern. Act \ //1/11 I When was your birthday?
article, followed by a cardinal number and the Genitive of the month. I l,•11/ On the 12th of April. So we can combine the two. Shall we say for
Similarly: <J't'tc; 't'QElc; Iouvtou on the 3rd of June. <J't'tc; btxa Auyoucr't'ou 011 this corning Saturday?
the 10th of August. 1/111,11 (I've) no objection.
3 To µaUQO Eivm mo uytnvo an:o 't'O aan:Qo. Brown bread is healthier than I /1•11/ Let's ask Maria too, though.
white bread. 11,11,11 By the way, where has Maria gone?
(a) Note that, strangely for us, Greeks talk of µauQo \j)mµi (lit. black I /, 111 To the butchers' and the greengrocers' I think. She shouldn't be 10111-1,
bread) although it is the same colour as what we call brown bread. l/111;11 You know, I'm a little hungry. Is there any bread (at all)?
(b) to aan:Qo white bread Remember that Greek can use an adjective f /,,11/ Yes, there is. (It's) only (that) it's brown. Do you eat it?
with an article before it as if it were a noun. Remember, too, this use or ii Hli /\ Oo I eat it? she says. Brown (bread) is healthier than white bread
the definite article in Greek when referring to a whole species generally, nnyway.
where English needs no article at all: 't'O a<JJtQO refers generally to all I /,11/ Well, I'll go and get you some bread, cheese and a little fruit.
white bread.
4 0 xacram1c; butcher and o µava~tJS greengrocer are two more nouns II uuly
which add -bEc; to the Acc. sing. to form the plural: os xaaan:tJbEc;, or
•\1,11 /11 llcllo. Are you here, Minas? Enjoy your food.
Hl1t,11 Thanks. I came to see what the situation was.
5 AEv JtQE3tEl v' <XQYl]<JEt. She shouldn't be long (lit. It mustn't be that
she's late). Note this use of AEv JtQE3tEt in the sense of I'm sure ... 11t1/,

226 2')'/
Maria Ah, Minas, there's a lot of work (to do) still. I wish you could help us M68rnJa el36oµf)vrn reocepc Lesson seventy four
a little.
Minas But that's why I'm here. (From) where do you want us to start?
Maria With (lit. From) the sofa and the two armchairs and the little table.
New words
avtxoµm I tolerate, put up with 11 Auit11 sorrow
mto6Eixvw I prove µotQa~oµm I share with/in
aoxoiouµm I am busy/occupied '1 vo1xoxuQa housewife, landlady
o Eyw10Tt1<; egoist VtQOlt(lA0<;-11-0 shy
EVOXA11'tlXO<;·t1·6 annoying s«itAWVW I lie down
tmitoAmoi;-11-0 'superficial srnxovi~w I dust (off/out)
~'lAEuw I am jealous (of) to 1tpo<K01to face
0EWQW (3) I consider, regard as oµoJ.oyw (3) l confess
011iuxoi;-11-6 female TmQmoToi;-iJ-6 well-matched
xfutoTE sometime, once TO TEQ«i; monster
0 Ai>yoi; reason toiµ:rcaw 1 have a bite (to cat)

AaxoAouµm µE / am busy/occupied with is another of the type 2 pusxivv
verbs in -ouum.; remember too «Qvouµm (L64) and ·taxToitowuµm.
Note again that, as in the text here, the present tense in Greek is oftcu
translated by the perfect tense in English.
Ta xaOiJxovm duties, functions is the plural form of TO xaOiJxov (1,32).
These are archaic endings used in only a few words in the modern
Eixa a-ya1tiJ1m I fell in love (lit. / had loved) Note again how the past
perfect may be used in Greek where English uses the simple past. (The use of
the past tense in Greek here would not be wrong, however).
,1 'lawi; va q>T«iw xi tyw. Perhaps I might be to blame myself. Rcrncmlx-i
this use of vu to make the statement more doubtful. 'Iawi; q>Ta(w would lw
less doubtful. Perhaps I am to blame.
Kan:OTE sometime is invariable just like xan something, TO xaOn(
everything and xa,i:ou somewhere.
,1 Words and expressions
(11) nan tvai; XQ6voi; :rtEQi:rcou about a year has passed is a useful
idiomatic expression (lit. Ir goes a year about).
(h) Note that 11 vo1xoxuQ« can mean landlady or housewife according to
(c) The verbs avtxoµm I tolerate, put up with and Cl<JXOAouµm / r1111 h11., ,,
111 c always passive in form in Greek.
(d) To tEQai; monster is another unusual irregular type of noun with
C h:n. sing. TO\l tEQ«Toi; and plural ta TEQ«ta, 1:wv tEQntwv.
(1') The adjective EVOXA11nx6i; is another adjective which may have cit lw1
I lie -11 or the -ta ending in the Fem. sing. Note also EitmoAmoi;-11-0
whlch has the 11 ending in the Fem. sing., although the stem ends in ;i vowel

228 2n
Ma8rn,1a &l3~01,1fjvTa ntvT& Lesson seventy five
What's to blame?
Eleni Since (early) this morning I have been busy with the duties of the
classical Greek housewife. First I cleaned and dusted (out) the house. New words
Then I went down and shopped (for) various provisions and wine. At
TO Y[YOVOS event o auyyEVflS relation
midday J had a bite of something (to eat) with Maria and then I lay
yt0Q'ta~w I celebrate tJ auyxivriari emotion
down for a little (while). In the afternoon I cooked and prepared the
11 yLOQ'tfl celebration o au,J.oyo; association
salad. Now I'rn sitting down a bit to relax. I'm very glad that Minas is
o bibuµo; twin
coming tonight. I love him and regard him as a friend like Maria. Maria uovo xm uovo only
and Minas are for me the best-matched couple I have known. bL:rd.o;-11-0 double
11 9EroQia theory · µ:rcea~o ('ttJS) good for (her)
Sometimes, I confess, I'm a little jealous of them. I too would like to
ovoµaanxo;-11-0 (concerning the) vn 'ta Exatoo,:ian; may you Ii ve to
have at my side a man who would understand me and share my joys
name bu hundred
and sorrows. Once, two years ago, I fell in love with a man, but he
1mea:rcov1i:µm I complain QOVl(l :rcoXla Many happy rct11111~ ')
proved (to be) superficial and an egoist. Since then -about a year has
011:oubaio;-a-o important, great
passed- I have made several other acquaintances, which however
haven't led anywhere. Perhaps I might be to blame myself. But why?
I'm not shy. I get on pretty well in my relations with people. Everyone
tells me that I have a very likeable face. I don't know how true that is,
but I can see myself that l 'rn no monster. I'm not short. I'm rather tall Notes
and slim. I'm polite. ·I'm not troublesome. One thing only I don't Past continuous passive Remember auvobt:uo'tCI.V he was being
tolerate. That boys should look on you only as female not as a person. accompanied and EQ'JCO'tav he was coming (L71). We now meet some
If that is the reason, then I'm afraid that I'll always have problems. more of the endings for passive verbs in the past continuous:
atJxrovoµaa'tav we used to get up, E'toiµa~oµao,:av we used to get
( ourselves) ready and texovtav they used to come. Remember that the
past continuous is based on the present stem. We now know the endings
·o'tav third person sing., -ovruv (unstressed) third person plural and
-oµaa'tav first person plural.
~ 'AaE 'ttJV. Leave her. Remember aaE the sing. imperative form or
a<p11vw. The form a<ptJOE also exists but usually it is shortened to ( or
even aa'; the plural form is of course a<pflO'tE.
,1 Xeovm :rco)J,a xm vu ta t:xa'toatwn;. Many happy returns and may yon
(live to) become a hundred. The expression Xeovta :rco,J,a lit. Many
years, is heard very frequently and is clearly equivalent to our Many
happy returns. However, Xeovia :rtOAAa is used not only on birthdays hut
on any festive occasion such as on name-days, at Easter, Christmas and
the New Year. The expression vn 'ta EXa'toO'tian; expresses the wish
that you increase the years to a hundred. The word EXCl.'tOO'tLOElS comes
from a verb based on EXCl.'tO a hundred which is rarely used except in thi~
II Words and expressions
(a) To yEyovo; can mean event or fact.
(b) M:rtQU~o 'tlJS· Good for her. The word µ:rtQa~o is frequently
followed by a possessive forming a congratulatory expression:
11:rtQ«~o oou well done or good for you.
(c) n«ea:rcov1i:µm / complain is another verb that is always passive in
l'orm in Greek.
5 Cultural note The Greek ovoµacrnxJJ YlO(.)'tlJ, lit. name celebration,
refers to saints'days. Every Greek is baptised with the name of a Ma8r"U,10 £'3~0IJF1VTO £~I Lesson seventy six
Christian saint and every year he holds a celebration or party on the day
of the saint whose name he or she bears. As Minas informs us, birthdays
are usually less cause for celebration than name-days in Greece.
New words
o At:xan:Evtmiyoucrtoi; the first ti n:aea1.ia beach
Translation fifteen days of August n:ta any more, any longer
o Emtcicpwi; Good Friday procession ti cpaxJJ lentil
Many happy returns! ,:o xaq>EVEio coffee shop ti xwea main village
ro µa(.)OlJAt lettuce
Minas Many happy returns and may you (Ii ve to) be a hundred. This is a 11 Mt:yci>.ri El3boµuba the week ym xaM xm yta xaxo might as
little present for you. Only so that you don't (keep on) complaining before Easter, Holy Week well
that no one remembers you, that there are no genuine friends these VtJO"'tWCO I fast, keep Lent l'tClEl X<ll(.)Oi; l'tO\J it's a long time
days and all your other theories. 11 oµi:Atta omelette since
Eleni Thank you very much, Minas. If l have a real friend, it's you. r,i oon:em dried vegetable seeds tocrri wea n:ou all this time that
Minas 0.K. 0.K. Where's your (girl) friend?
Eleni Inside. She's writing some letters for your (student) association.
Minas Good for her. That's why we voted her (in).
Eleni ·Do you want me to call her?
Minas Notes
No. Leave her to finish.
Eleni Will you have something to drink? Past continuous passive We can now study two more endings for the
Minas Later. Well now, l remember(ed) how we used to celebrate our past continuous passive: the first person sing. -oµouv and the second
birthday together, my brother and I. We were twins, you know. person sing. -oooov, n:At:voµouv I was washing (myself), vruvoeouv you
Eleni I didn't know you had a brother. were dressing (yourself).
Minas Yes. My brother died when he was ten. We used to get up early, you :I. ncit:t xmeoi; n:ou bt: VtJO"'tEUCO nui; l haven't kept Lent for some time or
know, comb our hair (lit. ourselves) and get ready for the big day. It's a long time since I kept Lent or more literally Some time has pnssc»!
Although the name-day is usually a more important event, for us the that I don't keep lent any more. Note again the use of the present
birthday was the most important day of the year. Perhaps because the tense translated by the perfect tense in English. Note also An:6 µtXQO
celebration was double. At midday when my father came, other n:mbi Vt10"'tWro Since ( I was) a small child I have fasted, where an:o is
relations would come too, all of them with their presents. Yes, I still translated by since. Finally note the little word n:ux, often used after a
remember with what emotion we used to open our parcels. negative verb, meaning any more, any longer: Atv ro 9£>.tt ma. He
Eleni Can I open the one you brought me? doesn't want it any more.
Minas Of course. I'm sure you won't like it, but like the good friend you arc. 'Hrnv rooo Evbmq>E(.)OV n:ou ;txciotrixa. It was so interesting that I
you won't tell me so, will you? forgot myself. Note this use of rooo ... nou meaning so ... that.
II Tool) wea n:o\J n:>.tvoµouv All that time that I was washing The litcrnl
translation of the expression 'tO<J1J wea n:ou would, of course, be so 111111·!,
rime that.
Words and expressions
(a) yta xaM xm ym xaxo lit. for good or evil This expression is
normally translated by (we) might as well.
(h) The noun <JU~uyoi; marriage partner may be used with the Fem.
nrticle when referring to the wife or with the Masc. article when referring
to the husband. Therefore o oi,~uyoi; is an alternative for o civ-reai; and 11
1ru~uyoi; is an alternative for ti yuvaixa.
(c) Note that ti xwea which may also mean country, is commonly used
hy islanders and country people to refer to the main village or town on
their island or in their area.
6 Cultural note
We are late.
(a) Easter is the main religious festival of the year in Greece and there
are many national customs associated with this period. For many Greeks Poppy Come on Yiannis, we are late. The Kazakos (family) is waiting 1'01 11•,
it is traditional to fast during Holy Week (the week leading up to Easter in the coffee shop.
Sunday), which is known as Mry<iA1J Eflboµ<iba. Fasting in this context Yiannis Yes, yes, right away.
mearis not eating meat, cheese or other dairy products and cooking Poppy Excuse me, but all that time that I was washing and dressing (m yxvlf )
without using oil. A variety of dishes prepared from dried vegetable what were you doing?
seeds, such as various types of beans, peas and lentils (known as Yiannis While you were washing and dressing I was reading the newspupcr ,
O<Jl'tQW) are eaten during the fast. The leading article was so interesting that I forgot myself. I'll Ix·
In the Orthodox Church Easter is not necessarily celebrated at the same ready in two minutes.
time as in Western Christendom. Poppy I'm going down. Don't be Jong, please.
(b) The Emt<i(J)toc; is the traditional procession and church service that
takes place on Good Friday.
(c) o Arxa;i:evtauyouatoc; refers to the first fifteen days of August. The
fifteenth of August is in fact the Virgin Mary's day (The Feast of the
Assumption), another major religious celebration, which is a national
holiday in Greece. Some of the more traditional Greeks observe the same
fasting rules for this day, or even for all fifteen days, as for Easter week.

Aren't you fasting?
Poppy What shall we eat?
Despina I want a (portior. of) lentils without oil.
Poppy I'll order an omelette with cheese and a lettuce salad.
Despina Aren't you fasting, Poppy?
Poppy No, it's a long time since I kept Lent. Besides (all) dried vegetable
seeds generally upset my stomach.
Despina Well, I have fasted in Easter week since I was a small child, and in
the first fifteen days of August. And (I don't have) oil even.
Poppy Really? Would you give me a little bread, please?
Despina Here you are.
Poppy Shall we go to church tonight?
Despina Yes. We said we'd go up to the (main) village for the Good Friday
procession since the weather is nice.
Poppy Fine. I'd say we should go up on foot then.
Despina I've no objection. We might as well ask our husbands too, though.
Poppy After the meal I'm going for a little walk on the beach. Do you
want to come with me?
Despina To tell you the truth I don't like walking after a meal. I'll go and lie
down for a while.
Poppy As you like.

234 .n~
Ma8ru.1a £'3l>oµi)vTa £q>T6 Lesson seventy seven Easter soup, µayEtQtt<Ja, prepared from the insides of lambs and cutcn
after the church service. The big day is Easter Sunday when, from c,11Jy
in the morning until the afternoon, all over Greece you will see lambs
being roasted on spits in the open air in preparation for the Easter meal,
New words
11 Ava<J'taa11 Resurrection to µnavw bathe, swim
«1tQ601tto5-11-o unexpected, ta vta news
unforeseen Translation
n:aywvw I freeze
TO UQVi lamb The first swim
1tEQiqi11µa splendid
«<JtEtEuoµm I am joking
mavw (subj. n:taaw) I catch Poppy It's a fantastic day today. What do you say? Shall we go for a
11 flouna dive tOAµw I dare
0 baaxaA05teacher swim?
tQEAaivoµm I go mad Despina Are you joking, Poppy? The sea must be very cold still.
9auµa<Jm marvellous
')/JJVW (subj. ¢11000) I roast Poppy I don't think so. Besides we aren't going to stay in for long. We'll
XAEtot65-l)-o closed
11 xouj3tVTa conversation, chat do one dive and come out.
Eiµm XQUwµtvos I have a cold Nikos I'm coming too. Shall we go and put on our bathing costumes?
XQuwµtvos-11-0 having a cold n:tavw xou j3tvta I start a
11 µayEtQitaa tripe soup ttespina Have you gone mad, Nikos? You'll freeze.
conversation Nikos You're exaggerating, Despina. It's not the first time I have swum in
to µayu'> bathing costume, trunks ero µna;u in the meantime
11 MEy«AlJ IlaQ«<JXElllJ Good Friday the sea in April.
n n:a9at£; what's up/wrong? Yiannis I'd come too but I haven't brought my trunks with me. The two
to µn:ax«Atxo grocer's
shops that sell things like that are closed today. It's Good Friday.
you see.
Notes I uspin a But what's up with all of you? I don't dare take off my cardigan
and you are going for a swim?
1 Verbs Nikos That's why you have colds so often, my dear.
(a) AatEtEuoµm I am joking is another verb that is always passive in
form. Ao unexpected invitation
(b) TQEA«9l]XE5; Have you gone mad? This is formed from tQEAaivw l Well, dear (chap), I've got some pleasant news.
drive/make mad, passive tQdaivoµm / go mad, passive subjunctive Tell me (lit. Let me hear).
TQEAa9w. Nikos
I /111111is You remember the nice gentleman we got into conversation with
(c) 0a EQ)Cc>µouv / would come This, of course, is the conditional tense yesterday in Mrs. Maria's tavern?
of the special verb tQxoµm formed from 9a and the past continuous. The retired teacher?
2 Nil,os
Efom <JlJ)CVO. XQuwµtv11, You often have colds. The passive participle l 1111111/s That's right. Well, we met (each other) again this morning in the
XQuwµtvos-11-0 from XQ\Jmvw is used to express the idea of having a grocer's and he's invited us all to his house on Easter Sunday.
cold: Eiµm XQuwµtvo5. I have a cold. Compare this with KQuwvw. I a111 They're roasting their own lamb.
3 N/1,11.1· Splendid. In the meantime Despina has arranged with Mrs. Maria for
Words and expressions
four portions of tripe soup on Saturday after the Resurrection
(a) To µayu'> bathing costume, swimming trunks is another invariable
Neut. noun of non-Greek origin. service.
l'/t11111is Marvellous.
(b) Tt n:a9atE; What's the matter/wrong/up with you is a useful
expression; Tr tn:a9E5; is the sing. form.
(c) mavw xouj3tVTa I start a conversation (lit. I catch conversation)
(dlNote that µnavw can mean a bathe or a swim as well as a bath or :i
4 Cultural note Easter fasting ends after the Ava<J't«<Jfl, the service for
the Resurrection of Christ, which ends soon after midnight as Easter
Sunday begins. The custom is to break the fast gently with a special

236 2.1'/
M68r11Ja e(36oµf)vTa oxr<i> Lesson seventy eight that one is sure that something has happened beforehand.
3 Words and expressions
(a) Xewtor; avfotl) is a traditional Easter greeting which may be heard
literally millions of times all over Greece during Easter Sunday, s1ar1i1111
New words from midnight on Saturday after the Resurrection service. When son1(•0111•
aywr;-a-o holy, sacred says this to you, the traditional reply is Al116cor; uvfotlJ.
lJ lurnueyiu church service
avaxotvcovw I announce (b) 0 JtUJt«r; priest is another noun which adds -bEr; in the plural or
to MEyalo l:a(J(Juto Easter Saturday
aJtayoeEuw I forbid, prohibit ltUTC«bEt;.
to µEyaq>wvo loudspeaker
mtavtro (subj. UltUVtlJO'W) I answer, (c) Tu q>cota is the plural of to q>ror;.
ta µwavu,cta midnight
reply 4 Cultural note
o naJtar; priest
lJ aotuvoµia police (a) The lighting of candles after the Resurrection service is another (Irct-k
ta n:ueou,cv11µatu fireworks
to atoµo person, individual custom; it is a colourful sight, especially in the countryside, when the
O'fJlJotor;-11-6 unlit, extinguished
to auyo egg Greeks make their way home from the service trying to keep their
tO'ouyxei~w I strike/hit together,
lJ aul11 courtyard crack candles alight as they go.
UUO'tlJQWr; strictly (b) Another Greek Easter custom is to dye hard-boiled eggs red. During
qiavta~oµm I imagine
to (J«QEloto cracker Easter Sunday and the days following enormous numbers of these egg:-.
lJ xoewbiu choir are eaten, and the eating is always preceded by a kind of game when
o bmlavor; neighbour, one next to \jlaJ.J..w (subj. \jlalw) I chant
t0 t6tµo custom, tradition everyone present has an egg with which he tries to crack the shells of 1 Ill'
EXEivor;-11-0 the latter eggs held by the rest of the company, while keeping his own egg i ntacr.
Al116cor; llVEO'tlJ He has truly risen
lJ E;EbQU platform The last person left holding an unbroken egg is naturally the winner of
XQtO'tor; UVEOtlJ Christ has risen
Emxivbuvor;-l)-o dangerous the game.
to XEQi candle

1 Verbs
c 'hrist has risen.
(a) 0a q>avtu~oO'a<nuv Jtott; Would you ever have imagined? We see
here the second person plural ending for the past continuous of the I '/,11111is Today is Easter Saturday. At this moment we are in the church
passive: -oonorcv. Let's now look at the whole set of endings: courtyard listening to the Resurrection service over the loudspeaker,
-ououv -oucomv because inside the church there was no room. The time is seven
-OO'OUV -OO'UO'tUV minutes to twelve (before midnight). Everybody is holding candles
·OtUV •OVtUV still unlit - and waiting to take the holy light from the priest. There,
Study the endings and you will note that, if we substitute 11 for the initial now they have put out the lights in the church and the courtyard.
6, they are the same as the past tense of Eiµm (except for the third The priest must have given the holy light and the people are lightinH
person plural): their candles one from another. Soon we'll be lighting ours too from
11µouv riµa<n«\'. those next to us. Then the priest and the choir will come out, they'll
l]O'OUV lJO'UO'tUV go up onto the platform and chant the "Christ has risen" (psalm).
l]tUV 1]tUV Really, would you ever have imagined that in this little church on
So q>avta~oµm, another verb that is always passive in form, goes like this small island there is a choir of twelve persons? Well, as soon 11s
this in the past continuous: they begin to chant "Christ has risen" everyone will kiss his family
(l)UVta~oµouv (l)UVta~oµa<nav or his friends and wish them a Happy Easter ("Christ has risen").
q>avta~oO"ouv q>avta~oO'aotav And the latter will reply "He has truly risen". Usually at this
(l)UVta~OtaV (l)UVt(l~OVtaV moment the children and the young men throw crackers and
(b) Note that ljJaHro I chant is written with only one l in the subjunctivi fireworks. Every year the police announce that "it is strictly
there is no change in pronunciation. forbidden", but in most churches this old but rather dangerous
2 IlQEltEt vu tbwO'E He must have given Note that ltQEltEt vu, when custom is continued. Afterwards they all go home to eat tripe soup
followed by the past tense, is normally translated by must have; mea1111111 and to crack red eggs together.

238 2J9
Maerwa eJ3ijoµ~vTa evvta Lesson seventy nine (d) Evvec is a frequent alternative to evvui: t:l}<>oµt'lv'tu evvee seventy
nine, oy<>ov'tu 1::vvfo: eighty nine.
7 Cultural Note
(a) As we said, it is traditional for Greek families to cook a lamb in thr
New words open air on Easter Sunday. The lamb is cooked on a spit over a charcoal
'to Atyuio the Aegean (Sea) fire. The cooking takes several hours and everyone takes a turn turning
µuxciQt I hope
uµqitl}cinw I doubt the spit slowly by hand, so that the meat is cooked evenly.
o opi~ovrni; horizon
UQyci slowly (b) KmtoQE'tat, the grilled entrails of a lamb, is another famous Greek
11 Il1::1,.onovv11aoi; Peloponnese
Cl<JXt)µoi;-11-0 ugly, bad 1tpo11youµm I come first speciality.
YAEV'tOO I make merry (c) The pensioner is able to guess which region of Greece Nikos' family
UXAf(Qci hard
yupi~w I turn (round) tJ aoul}1,.u spit comes from because of the ending of his name. Greek surnames often
t:vvfo nine ro O'\JVVE(f)O cloud reflect, through the ending, the region from which families originate.
'to xoxopt'tm grilled lamb's entrails m;t<>Euw I travel
11 XOAUO'fl hell

Notes Lamb on the spit
1 Ilpo11youµua'tE We come first This is the first person plural of the l'ensioner Will you have some hors d'oeuvres, Mr. Kazakos? Or don't you
passive verb 1tpo11youµm i comefirst , As you see, the first person plural like grilled lamb's entrails?
ending for passive verbs in -ouµm is -ovµuITTE. Similarly uaxo1,.ouµm I Nikos Of course (I do). Hmm ... delicious.
am busy/occupied, U<JXOAouµa<Jt£ we are busy. l'unsioner Yes. It's my wife's speciality. Are you from the Peloponnese, Mr.
2 Ae µ' UQfoet tJ A611va. I don't like Athens. 0U'tE xt eµtva µ' «QfoEt. I Kazakos?
don't like it either or It doesn't please me either. Note this use of oun Nikos My father was from the Peloponnese. [ was born and I grew up in
xt/xm to agree with a previous negative statement. Compare these: Thessaloniki. What about you?
To 6t1,.w. I want it. Kt eyro (ro 0£1,.(1)), / want it too or So do I. Aev 'to l'rnsioner I'm from here. I've only been (lit. travelled) to Athens and to two
6t1,.w. I don't want it. Oeee xt t:yro (ro 6t1,.w). I don't want it either or or three Aegean islands. And to·tell you the truth I don't like
Neither do I. Athens at all. In summer, especially, it's hell.
3 Remember µaxciQt (vu) in L73. Note that µuxciQt vu followed by the Nikos You're right (lit. not wrong). I don't like it either. Anyway here
subjunctive refers to something possible and is usually translated by I the weather has been very nice since Friday.
hope, while when followed by a past tense it refers to an imaginary l'vnsioner I hope it stays like this today and tomorrow. Although I doubt (it).
present or unfulfilled past situation and is usually translated by I wish. Nikos Why do you say that?
MuxciQt vc µeivu hat. I hope it stays like this. Muxcipt vu tµEvE E'tat. / l'rnsioner Do you see those little clouds in the distance on the horizon?
wish it had stayed like that. MuxciQt vu 11µouv :rtAOuawi;. I wish l were Nikos Yes, I see them.
rich ( I am not). MaxciQt vu yivw 1t1,.ouawi;. I hope I become rich l'vnsloner Well, those little clouds are bad news. By this evening the weather
(Perhaps I will). 0a tp0u; Mme«Qt. Will he come? 1 hope so. may get worse.
4 Ae a' UQEUEt; Don't you like it? Ilroi;. Of course t l do). Remember thi\ Nikos Do you think it'll rain?
use of rtroi; as an emphatic of course. l',•111/011er Let the weather do whatever it likes. It won't spoil our good
5 Qi; ro l}pa<>u By the evening Note that wi; like µEXQt can mean by (ii mood for us though. We'll eat, drink and be merry, won't we?
certain point in time) as well as until (L67). Nikos We will. I think it's my turn to turn the spit.
6 Words to note /
111s/1111er 0.K. Turn it slowly. I'm going inside to fetch two glasses so thnt
(a) M:rtopEi ve l(UAciaet o X<UQO<;, The weather might get worse. Nore we can drink a little wine with our hors d'oeuvres. We come first
that xaww I spoil when referring to the weather means to change for ,;,, as we are working harder than the others.
worse, break up.
(b) Note that <XQY« can mean slowly as well as fate.
(c) Note that yuQi~w can mean I turn (round) as well as l return.

240 2'1 I
M68r11.1a oy66vra Lesson eighty Translation
The kitten
Despina Mrs. Margarita wants to give me a kitten. Her cat had four a few
New words weeks ago. What do you say':' Shall we take it?
to yaQi'.qiai.o carnation Nikos Personally I have no objection. Only think (about) how you will
oxaQqiaAcovw I climb
to yatlixt kitten take it as far as Athens and what you'll do (with) it as long as wc'rr-
oxt¢ou think
yEvvuw I give birth/bear o <JK6Ao<; dog there. You know very well that your sister and Petros don't like
to ErUXELQl}µa argument either cats or dogs.
ri tQEAa madness
to ~coo animal Despina I could perhaps ask her ...
'tQEMX fantastic
xUfJw (subj. x.M¢w) I steal Nikos Then the most important (thing) is what will happen in Thessaloniki.
to tQmvta<pUAAo rose
VtQt:rrnµm r am ashamed qiavtuoou imagine
We'll definitely have problems with our neighbours. It's not easy
oyc'>orixoo,:os-11-6 eightieth o (flQllXtl}S fence for you to have an animal in a big block of flats like ours.
n:aQac'>rxoµm I admit
Despina Leave the arguments, Mr. lawyer. Once before (lit. another time) n
ri rtOAUKatouciu block of friend of mine wanted to give me a kitten and you persuaded me
flats not to take it. Why don't you admit that you don't want it and we'll
leave it at that (lit. finish)?

Yiannis Ah, you're here, are you? These flowers are for you, Poppy,
1 The verb yEVvaw / give birth is, of course, the active form of yEvvtrµm / f'oppy What lovely roses! Thank you very much, dear. Where did you find
am born. them?
2 :Exr¢ou think is the sing. imperative of the passive verb oxt<ptoµm, Yiannis I stole them from a garden.
subjunctive axE<ptco. Remember that the sing. imperative of passive verbs Nikos Aren't you ashamed? We'll get a bad name on the island.
usually ends in -oou (L 73, Nl); here the a is of course hidden in the l'/r11111is Flowers are there to be offered (to people), my dear chap, not to die
consonant ¢ (n: and o). The plural form is oxE<ptEttE, the same as the alone. There were some fantastic carnations too. But I know that
second person plural of the subjunctive. Similarly <petvtaaou and Poppy prefers roses. (Just) imagine that I had to climb a fence (that
<pavta<JtEltE are the imperative forms of the passive verb <pavtai;oµm / imagine was) nearly one and a half metres (high).
3 Remember the use of '1:QtV (an:6) meaning ago: :rtQtV an:o ALYES µEQES a Nikos Love is a beautiful thing, my friend.
few days ago, and the use of 600 meaning as long as: 600 EiµaotE EXEt
as long as we are there.
4 Na to :rtllQOUµE; Shall we take it? Remember that vn followed by the
first person sing. or plural may be used to make a suggestion in the form
of a question. Remember, too, that vu followed by the second person is
an imperative and used as an order or instruction; Na to n:aQEtS, Take it
5 Tris etOEQ<fllJS (JOU xm tOU IlE'tQOU OEV tOUS aQEOOUV OUtE Ol yans Olltl' "'
oxuAm, Your sister and Petros don't like either cats or dogs. Remernhci
the construction with aQEOU using the Genitive of the noun as well as 1111
object pronoun; the more literal translation would be Neither cats nor dog\
are pleasing to your sister and Petros. Remember too the use of outE ... oi111
after a negative verb meaning not ... either ... or or neither· .. nor.
6 The noun ri tQEAa means madness or craziness, but, without an article. ii
is used as an adjective in popular language meaningfantastic, terrific.

242 243
MC181'11JO oy~OVTO &VO Lesson eighty one Translation
We're going back to Athens.
Despina (It is the) Tuesday after Easter. It's all over. Today already we're
New words going back to Athens. The (travel) agent told us that the boat
TJ arroflo:0Qa jetty, wharf aui:ti; ni; µEQEi; these days, the last reaches Seriphos at two o'clock in the afternoon, which means th:11
TJ a<pUTJQia terminus few days it arrives in Piraeus at about seven o'clock. We'll see if it comes on
1:0 xaQaflt boat, ship flyo.~w cpw,:oyQacpiEi; I take photos time today. Yesterday, Monday, when most people left, the ship
1taQa1tivw I drink too much EJCEl uuvvEcpui it is cloudy was four hours late (lit. had four hours' delay). In other words, if
n:aQU1:QltllO I overeat µE a>.Aa Myta in other words we had left yesterday we would have arrived in Piraeus at midnight!
mavw (subj. mo.uw) I reach 1:EAEiwuav ,:a lj)tµa,:a it's all over And at that time it's very difficult to find a taxi. Now we are at th1:
ul}µaivw I mean ro ibto xm the same is true for, so .. terminus and we're waiting for the bus to go up to the main village
TJ uuvvEcpui cloudiness, cloudy to take some photos, because yesterday it was too cloudy. Then
weather we'll come down and have a little bite to eat at Mrs. Maria's,
TJ uuvi:Qocpto. company. because in the last few days we've eaten and drunk too much. After
companionship that we'll take our things from the guest house and go to the jetty to
wait for the boat. I must tell you that we have had a very good
Notes time, both Nikos and I. So have our friends, with whom we have
had very good companionship.
1 Conditions
Av (l)E\JyaµE 1(0Ei;, 0a cp,:avaµE ,:a µwavuxi:a. ff 11•e fwd left yesterday.
ll'e would have arrived tit midnight. Note that the use of tenses in
conditional sentences is much more flexible in Greek than in English.
Although this sentence refers to the past, the past continuous and
conditional tenses are used. We saw in L69, Nlb that for past conditions
we can also use the past perfect after av so here we could just as well
say Av EixaµE cpi,yn instead of Av cpEuyaµE. It is interesting to note that
the past continuous and the conditional tenses can be used for both past
conditions and for hypothetical present or future conditions. Av cpEuya~u·
i:wQa/auQlO, 0a cp,:avaµE ta µEuavuxTa. If 1l'e left now/tomorrow, 11•e
would arrive at midnight.
2 TiaQacpayaµE xm 1taQa11maµE We ate and drank too much. Note that
the prefix ri:aQa- added to a verb often gives the sense of over or too
much: also 1tO.Qaxavw / overdo,
3 Remember the use of o orroioi; after a preposition (L58, N2): µE Toui; on:oio,,,
xavaµE xa>.11 uuVTQO(flta with whom 11·e had good companionship.
4 Words and expressions
(a) TE>.Eiwuav Ta lj)tµo.Ta lit. The lies hitve finished is an expression rneaniup
the holiday is over and soon we'll be back to reality and normal working lik
(b) Bylisw (fll01:0YQO.<piEi;/ take photos is an alternative for the expression \~I
have already met TQal}aw qiwTOyQacpiEi;.
(c)To ibw xm ot cpt>.ot µai;So have/did ourfriends Note this use ofto 1h1t1
xm meaning the same is true for but translated more simply by so ...
(d) To XUQ«Jh and TO 1tAoio are equally common alternatives meaning l//l'J'•
boat or ship.
(e) EixE uuvvecptli. It 11·as cloudy or The weather u•as cloudy, lit. There 11•,1,

244 245
Ma8r11,.1a oy66VTa 6uo Lesson eighty two (e) I:tya 'tlJV ltOQt<l (Close) the door gently or Don't slam the door is ;1
commonly heard and written expression.
(f) To ltOQ't µ:rtnyxas boot is another invariable noun of non-Greek origi».
(g) 0 tnl;ttSlfS is another noun which adds -bES in the plural or
New words tnl;ttslfbES taxi-drivers.
(h) Zai..umo is the subjunctive of t;aW;oµm 1 get dizzy/sick.
o UEQUS air, wind ,:o QOAOL meter
a<nEto;-a-o funny 11 oai..n lounge (of ship)
bavEisco I lend 0 tnl;tts11s taxi driver
o ibw; o himself ta XQ11µntn money Translation
to xaltEAO hat
o xaltnavw; captain xm ta i..oma and so on, etc(etera). On the boat
ro ltOQt µJtayxas boot (of car) Kavco to oJtoubni'.o I show off Nikos I'm back. I've brought the two coffees and the beer. The
11 ltOQ'ta door Jtooo '/Qll(f)Et to QOAot; what's on orangeades have all gone (lit. finished).
to ltOQtocp6i..t wallet the meter? Despina It doesn't matter. I'm not very thirsty.
Nikos You look cold, Despina. Shall we go down to the lounge?
Despina No, I prefer us to stay out in the (open) air. I'm afraid I'll get sick
below. There ... I'll put (lit. throw) my cardigan over me.
Notes Nikos Whose is this chair?
1 Mou cpnivEtm 6tt XQUWVEt;. You look cold. Note how µou cpnivE,:m lit. Despina That lady's with the funny hat. She wasn't feeling well and went
below to lie down. Fortunately.
it seems to me is used just as we use (you) look. Similarly Mou cpnivEtm
6tt srnmi'.vovtm. They look hot. Nikos Why fortunately?
2 Remember ltOtnvou whose and its Fem. form :rtOl<lVlfS• Despina Because from the time you went away she didn't stop talking. Yo11
see she's (one) of those (women) who make out they're important.
3 .1.E <nnµatlJOE vo µti..aEt. She didn't stop talking. Note the use of the
She had a lot of cases, she says, and she couldn't get them on the
present tense, not the subjunctive, after otnµataco vu. Both omµntaco
and nQxisco vu are normally followed by the present, as the following boat alone. But, as soon as she said who she was, the captain
himself went down to help her. He lent her money too because she
action is seen as in progress at the time it stops or starts: 'AQ):t<JE vu
µ He started talking. had left her wallet at the hotel, and so on and so on.
4 KntEPlJXE o i'.bto; o xn:rtnavto;. The captain himself came down. Note Nikos I see.
the use of i'.bto;-n-o preceded and followed by the definite article,
meaning; himself/herself etc. when emphasizing that a particular person What's on the meter?
performed an action: H tbtn 11 MnQi'.a ro EtltE. Maria herself said it. '/'(I xi-driver Gently (with) the door, please.
Compare this with ibto;-n-o same which is not followed by the article o Yiannis All right. How much does the meter say? (Because) I'm not
ibw; X<lltEtavto; the same captain, '1 ibta MnQ(n the same Maria. Note wearing my glasses.
that the use of o i'.bto; o is quite different from rov wut6 which is used Poppy I've got some change, Yiannis. Leave it, I'll pay. You get our
when an action reflects back Jo the performer: MtAUEt orov Enu,:6 rou. case from the boot.
He is speaking to himself. Remember, in any case, that the latter is not
normally used in the Norn. case; (LSS, N3).
5 Words and expressions
(a) Krivm to oJtoubni'.o 1 show off, 1 make out I'm important is a common
expression. Note that xavco is often used in the sense of/ pretend, 1 act
as if.
(b) Ta XQ11µn1:n is a commonly used alternative for ta AE(f)'tll money; non-
that both words are normally plural.
(c) Km ta AOtlta, often written xti... or XAlt. for short, means literally and
the rest, but etctetera) or and so on are normal English equivalents.
(d) To QOAot can mean clock, watch or meter.

246 247
Ma8r11Ja oy~6VTa rpie Lesson eighty three Poppy I have to get two or three more things from the shops. And
tomorrow evening the Petropoulos' have invited us to their house for
a (the) farewell dinner.
Yiannis I've got that in mind. Someone is knocking at the door. Yes? Who i~
New words it?
Voice Cleaner's.
a1toxmptn<HTJP•~-a-o farewell o auµJl1Jlaaµor; compromise Poppy One minute ... Come in ... Is it all here?
Pee6w (subj. of Peiaxoµcu) I am auµp,paauxor;-11-6 compromising Voice Yes.
found 'tEAHW'ttXor;-11-6 final, decisive Poppy Have you got any money at all on you, Yiannis?
ro bd:rtvo dinner 11 u:rtOXWQlJIJl} withdrawal, concession Yiannis Yes. Is a five hundred drachma note enough?
11 btoiXl}IJl} administration u:rtoxwero (3) I concede, withdraw Poppy Let me look at the receipt a moment.
xouJlevn<i~w I chat, discuss
-ra 01xovoµ,xa economics xal<i x<ivetr; good idea, well done A compromise?
axomµor;-11-0 opportune,
convenient Andreas Tomorrow I'm thinking of having a final discussion with my father
about what I'll do. The last time we discussed (it) he made a
concession. He said I can study economics or business
administration since I don't like law. He insists, however, that I
Notes finish my studies first and that I work afterwards. He is certain, he
says, that if I get mixed up with jobs (from) now (on), I'll never find
1 Eivm axomµo va :rtouµe buo loyta ue ro btEU6UV'tl], It's opportune that the time to go to university. From what I see I'll have to make a
I have a few words with the manager. Note again the use of the first concession (lit. withdraw) too so that a compromise solution might
person plural :rtouµe to refer to both the real subject/ and to the person be found.
included in the conversation; the meaning is that the manager and I have
a few words.
2 Kala xavnr;. Well done. This is a common expression expressing
approval of someone's action, lit. you are doing well.
3 µta aul;11-r11a11 ym -ro n 6a xavw a discussion about what I'll do Note
the use of ro here; lit. about (the) what I'll do.
4 va nlnroaw nr; a:rtoubtr; uou xm µnu vu EQy«a-rro. that I finish my
studies and that afterwards I work. Remember that µe-r<i, commonly
used as a preposition meaning after, can also be used as an adverb, when
it means afterwards or then.
5 roa:rtou vu (j)UyollµE before we leave Note that wa:rtou vu, which often
means until, may also be translated by before.
6 va Pee0t:( µ,a AUIJll that a solution might be found The subjunctive of
Peiaxoµm, the passive of Peiaxw, is Pet:0ro.

In the hotel room
Poppy Will you be dropping into the company offices again?
Yiannis Yes. I think it is opportune (for me) to have a few words with the
marketing manager again. Why do you ask?
Poppy I'm writing down what we have to do before we leave.
Yiannis Ah, good (idea).

248 24?
Ma8rU,IO oy~OVTO T&OO&pa Lesson eighty four Yiannis You only have to let me know in good time, Nikos. Our house is :it
your disposal.
Nikos All right.
Yiannis Well (children), I think that we should say goodbye because we
New words haven't much time left (lit. in front of us). Besides we have to buy
one or two bottles (lit. drinks) from the duty-free (shop).
av,:( instead of 0 voµo; law
a:rtoxmQ£Tffi I say goodbye ro ltUQXlV"(X parking place, car park
aQXEl it's enough avvi:oµa shortly, soon It's opposite the car park.
acpOQOAO"(l)TO;·l)·O untaxed, duty-
bEv ixw :rtaQa I have only to
Nikos What do you say? Shall we take the bus instead of going by taxi?
6a yivEl xm avi:o (we)'ll do that It'll drop us in Syntagma.
or blaxo:rti; holidays
(too) Despina Why not? Do you know where it goes from?
xau~a~w I set down, drop (of
Nikos Over there, I think, opposite the car park.
transport) xai:a :rtoAu to a large extent
Despina Let's go.

1 At:v txtl<; napa va µt: t:l001tOltJ<Jt1;. You have only to let me know.
Note this use of txw in the negative followed by napa meaning I don't have
to do anything but ... normally translated by I have only to ... , all I have to
do is ...
2 flad oxl; Why not? Remember this use of OXl meaning not, bEv being
used only with verbs.
3 av,:( vu naµE µE i:al;i instead of going by taxi Note avi:i vu followed
by a subjunctive in Greek translated by instead of followed by a gerund
(verb ending in -ing) in English.
4 Note xai:a :rtoAv largely, to a large extent and 9a yivEl xm avi:o lit. that
will happen too, an expression showing acceptance or agreement which is
about the equivalent of we'll do that in English.

At the airport again
Despina How the days have passed, I must say!
Yiannis It's a law of nature, my dears. Whatever begins must end too. It's
enough that it ends well.
Poppy Anyway these holidays both began and ended well. And we owe
that (lit. that is owed) to a large extent to you.
Despina Come on now, Poppy. We didn't do' anything special. It's been a
great pleasure for us to see you again and to spend Easter together.
Yiannis Thanks again for all you have done for us. We'll be expecting you
in Frankfurt definitely.
Nikos We'll do that. Maybe soon in fact. What do you say, Despina?
Despina Of course. I'd like to very much.

250 251
M68rwa oyl>6vTa rrsvrs Lesson eighty five 8 (a) Note the expression jla~ro ns (f)WVES lit./ put voices, meaning/ sltont
at (angrily).
(b) When expressing disapproval of someone's behaviour it is co11111HlrJ 111
refer to him/her as a yawoupi donkey, ass.
New words
o aatll(f)UA«x«s policeman to mxom:bo plot of land
to yai:bouQL donkey, ass 3tL« now, from now on, still Translation
to btvtQO tree (Jl)Yxtaµtvos-11-0 upset, worried
to Al)µ«QXElO town hall to (Jl)VEQYEio gang of workmen, Do you love trees?
11bt«(f)llµWl} advertisement workshop Moria I'm very upset, Minas.
buoxvw I get rid of, throw out mo~ro (subj. awaw) I save, rescue Minas What's the matter with you?
EA«xunos-11-0 very little/few 11 (f)Wna fire, heat, ring (of stove) Maria An apartment block is going to be built in our street, a little further
0 EQYOAajlos contractor down than ours.
o Kat111.oy~ phone book jla~ro ns (f)WVES I shout at
Minas So what? (lit. And so?)
µa~Euw (subj. µa~Ell'w) I collect, Maria And so this morning a gang of workmen came to cut down the two
gather pine trees (that there are) in front of the plot of land. Two of the very
few trees still left (lit. that have still remained) in our street. As soon
as we saw them, Eleni and I went down and shouted at them. We
collected some other neighbours too and in the end we managed to gt·I
Notes rid of them.
1 The passive subjunctive xnatEi is from xti~ro I build, passive xti~oµm. Minas And, of course, you are thinking that tomorrow they'll come back
2 xatw mto tl} btxux µas below ours Remember that some adjectives with some permit from somewhere together with a policeman and
ending in -xos may take the ending-mas an alternative to -11 in the Fem. they'll cut them down.
sing. Both bLxtj and C,txLa are commonly heard, and equally correct. Moria Exactly. We must save them, Minas.
3 Auo a,io ta EAU:(t<Jt« btvtQ« erou txouv µdvEt ma. Two of the very few Mi1111.1· Let's go to my house. We'll call the town hall. I know someone in
trees that are left now. We met ma in L76 used in a negative sentence there who may be able to help. We'll phone all the newspapers too.
and translated by no longer/more. Now note that it can also be used in Did you take (lit. hold) the name of the contractor?
the affirmative when it means now or still, suggesting not only now but Mnria Yes. I'm afraid that he must be (one) of those asses who coul.dn 't cart
from now and stretching into the future. less about anything. If he sees his name in the papers, he may take ii
4 IJ>uy«µE; Shall we go? Note this popular usage of the past tense of as an advertisement.
cpuyw in the sense of Shall we go? or Let's go. The idea is that we are /ll/1111s We can only try. Shall we go?
leaving immediately so we have as good as left. Remember too tytvE it's Murio Yes. Let's go.
as good as done.
5 Phone numbers I ,ooking for the phone numbers
37-2-74 Remember that phone numbers are normally given in pairs of /II aria What number is it?
numbers. Note, however, that when there is an odd number of digits, the M/1111.1· 37-2-74.
last three numbers may be given as hundreds bmxoaw Ejlboµtjvm
M url« All right, I've written it down. Give me the number of the other pap~·,
tfoaEQ« or as a single digit followed by a pair buo, Ejlboµtjvm tfoaEQ«.
You may find the latter simpler than the former. ~ 1/110.1· Just a minute ... You take the phone book (while) I take the water off
6 0« 3tUQOUµE tl)AE(f)WVO to Al)µ«QXElO. We' II call the town hail. 0a the ring and make our coffee.
tl)AE(jl(OV'l<JOUJlt at 01.t<; t~ t<pl}Jltpi6r<;. We' fl phone all the papers.
Note that while the expression 1taipvw tl}Uq,rovo is normally followed by a
direct object without a preposition, the verb tl}Atq,rovci> is followed by the
preposition at. Note these examples too: Tl}At<p<OVl}<Ja erov Ilttpo, but IliJjMt
tl}AE(jl(OVO tOV Ilttpo.
7 Note that the E has been dropped from bw<JE in Awa' µou.

252 25,1
Ma8r11.1a oy~oVTa &~I Lesson eighty six 4 Words and expressions
(a) µou TQWEl n:ollit ~Ev~iv11 it uses a lot of petrol Note the 11:-.c ul
TQWEL it eats here; in English- we would say it uses, consumes or even
drinks petrol.
New words (b) En:t:Lbrt because, since, as is an alternative for yuxti or aqio·u h11( 111111•
11 axQi(lna accuracy that t:'1:ELMJ often begins a sentence while yLad does not.
OLxovoµLxo;-11-0 economical
TO btcia-r11µa time, period (c) fm 't'lV axQi~Em literally means for exactness, to be exact. b111 b
n:civw an:6 more than, over
11 t:µm0Tomv11 trust, confidence translated best here by in fact.
n:aQ' oi..o n:ou although
E'1:t:Lbrt since, as, because (d) ym vu 11auxaaw The verb 11auxa~w means I get quiet or ca/111
n:AllQO(flOQW (3) I inform, tell
11 ruxmQia chance, opportunity, down but here the meaning is clearly/ get away from or avoid the bo1h1•1
Tiµw;-a-o honest
bargain of going to garages.
TO XtAL<>µETQO kilometre
11auxa~w r get quiet, get away from (e) 0ciao; is an island in the northern Aegean not very far from
11 0ciao; Thasos Thessaloniki.
yLa TlJV axQi(lna in fact
(f) H t:uxmQia has the basic meaning of chance, opportunity but is 01'11·11
used in the sense of bargain.
(g) Note that otxovoµLxo;-it-6 can mean economical as well as .fi11r111< in],
Notes (h) Note that the literal translation of Tfoat:Qa auvt:QyEia is /'1•1•
changed four garages.
1 Av TO t:ixa an:oqiaafot:t mo '1:QLV, Oa To dxa n:ouAtJ<JEl TWQa, If I had
decided earlier, I would have sold it by now. We have already
mentioned the flexibility of tenses in past conditions (L69 and 81). In this
case the construction used is exactly the same as in English; the past Translation
perfect after if av dxa an:oqiaaian and the conditional perfect in the 'I'he old car
other part of the sentence Oa dxa n:oui..11an. The conditional perfect in
Greek is formed quite simply by using 8a with the past tense of txw and l'rtros Despina and Nikos are leaving for Thessaloniki tomorrow. I w:i:-, v1·1y
the past participle. pleased that they stayed at our house for a little while and ! hat v«:
In fact, to sum up, we can say that past conditions in Greek may use any had the opportunity of seeing them. I love both of them very 11111d1
combination of these tenses: av with the past continuous or the past but we very rarely see each other. In August, if we manage ii, Wl'
perfect, together with the conditional or the conditional perfect in the may have our holidays together on (the island of) Thasos. To111011 ow
main clause. then, since I'll be very busy, Ero will take them to the airport in 0111
So here we could also say: car. You know, I'm thinking of selling that car. h's still in very good
AV TO an:oqiaot;a, Oa TO n:oui..ouaa. condition although it's done over 100,000 kilometres in five ycurx.
Av To t:ixa an:oqiaaian, Oa To n:oui..ouaa. The trouble (lit. bad thing) is that it consumes (for me) a lo! of p\'f rnl
Av TO an:oqiciat~a, Oa TO d:xa n:oui..11an. That's why I say r should sell it and buy a more economical car. J11
It doesn't matter which form you choose; the meaning is the same. fact, a friend suggested buying it from me a little while ago al a v1·1 y
2 (li..rnoµaa-rt: we see each other Remem_ber the use of the passive good price. But then I wasn't sure whether I wanted to sell ii, 1111d ~o
where in English we use each other. he found something else at a bargain (price) and took it. If I had
3 n:aQ' ow n:ou txn xcivn n:civw an:6 100.000 XLAL<>µETQa although it has decided earlier, I would have sold it (by) now. Anyway I want lo h11y
done over 100,000 kilometres a new one to get away from garages at least for a time. In my op1111011
(a) The conjunction n:aQ' oi..o n:ou is an alternative for av xm although, in there's no greater bother than finding a good garag