1 Biological Science

Definition of biological science. Biological science is a branch of science which is defined as the study of life. It provides the fundamental study for biotechnology industry. Biological science has great impact on our lives and stands to have greater impact on them in the future. Classification of biology. Biological science can be classified into microbiology and macro-biology. Microbiology studies the microstructure of organisms of living things. It focuses on cell theory (cell structure), origins of cells (biochemistry), mechanism of disease (medical sciences), and principles of drugs (pharmaceuticals and pharmacology). Macro-biology studies the linkage, history, theory of evolution of life, and genealogies between the people, between people and animal, and between animals.
Review of terminology in biology, especially genome biology Cell and Cell Theory

The fundamental working units of every living organism. It is defined as a water-based compartment filled concentrated chemicals and bounded by a thin, flexible structure called membrane. Each cell contains a complete copy of an organism's genome, or blueprint for cellular structures and activities. Cell can be classified into many different types. For example blood, skin, nerve cells. All cells can be traced back to a single cell, called fertilized egg. Based on the cell structure, one has multicellular organisms such as human contains trillion of cells and unicellualr organisms such as yeast and bacteria. Organisms are consist cells. The smallest organisms known today are bacteria which are about 200 nanometers, while tallest organisms known are sequoia trees which are about 100 meters. Based on the number of cells, organisms are classified into unicellular (one-celled) organisms and multicellular (many-celled) organisms.

The chemical elements are 60%H. 25%O. and well as biomechanical engineering. (1) individuals within a population vary in their characteristics. combination of microbiological studies and computational science makes possible to simulate cell development and dynamic interaction using advanced technology of molecular dynamics and modeling.e. It relies on microscopy. 10 % lipid. Status and process become the two major components for cell theories and evolution theories. and 3%N.Cell is composed of 90% water. physics. (2) the variable traits are inheritable or passed on to offspring. With these . dry weight. The 10 % remaining molecules. serves as the origins of genome biology. Cell theory: Cell theories have several major components. contains 50% protein. and engineering. 12%C. 15% nucleic acid. which can summarize the current scientific and engineering in contemporary biology (1) Description of cell pattern. and other advanced laboratory technologies. Recently with development of computer science. This component covers the evolution of life. (3) Dynamic linkage between pattern and process is a new revolution in biological study in order to better understand cell microscopic structures from the view of the principles of biochemistry. All species are related by common ancestry and have changed over time in response to natural selection under three conditions. (2) Identification of mechanism or process that is responsible for creating cell pattern.. NMR. genetics. The cell formation is articulated from preexisting cells. (3) certain heritable traits help individuals survive better or reproduced more. and bioinformatics. Evolution theory: Evolution theory also has pattern component and process component. and 10 % miscellaneous. i. 15 % carbohydrate. which most of all use experiments to observe the cell structure or dynamically observe the mobility of cells.

There are two popular theories. which is an essential part of the machinery that cells use to grow and reproduce. U. The change in the characteristics of a population over time is defined as evolution in biology... The goal of the research is to discover a diagram that depicts evolutionary history by a phylogenetic tree. These fourribonucleotides are arranged in a linear sequence. Based on evolution theory. G and C. Since then. Tree of life: Classic model of tree of life. protista (several groups of unicellular eukaryotes). eukaryotes cells have a a membranne-bounded nucleus. One is Linnaeus's two-kingdoms taxonomy theory which classifies organisms into two catalogs: plants and animals. plantae. The sequence of ribonucleotides in the molecule varies from species to species. and animalia. a population's characteristics will change over time. symbolized by letters A. Alternatively taxonomy was primarily conducted by Carl Woese based on chemical components. but less similar in organisms that are less closely related. fungi. biologists reconstruct a tree of life. on which branches that are close to one another represent species that are closely .conditions met. Woese and co-workers's search program was based on a simple premise that if the theory of evolution is true. Contemporary model of tree of life. SSU RNA is a large. A-U-A-U-C-G-A-G-. scientists began to analyze what the similarity and differences in the sequences implied about relationships among species. then SSU RNA sequences should be very similar in closely related organisms. while prokaryotic cells don't. ability to move. His research group found a common molecule that exits in all organisms. complex molecule made up four smaller chemical compositions called ribonucleotides. This hypothesis is based on presence of nucleus. Another is Whittaker (1968)'s popular proposal of five-kingdoms taxonomy theory which classifies organisms into five catalogs: monera (all prokaryotes). The molecule they found is a small unit rRNA. or SSU RNA. or manufacture food. The logic here is that SSU RNA sequences change over time in response to mutation and other processes.

is a double-stranded double-helix of molecule of deoxyribonucleotides which contains or carries the genetic information of a cell. a phosphate group and one one of four possible nitrogenous bases: adenine. each molecule contains the sugar deoxyribose. rRNA tree of life has three group. match up with the template strand of mRNA to order the amino acids correctly. Archaea and Eukarya. Next three nucleotide segments of RNA. which are attached to specific amino acids. Reference see -> Glossary of biology . This process. each a slightly different function. or thymine. and one of four nitrogencontaining bases (adenine. called domains. similar to DNA. often called DNA molecule. DNA and RNA Deoxyribonucleotide is a nucleotide consisting of the five-carbon sugar deoxyribose. rRNA (ribosomal RNA). branches that are father away represent species that are more distantly related. called translation occurs in the ribosome. called universal tree in biology. new taxonomic level. a phosphate group. RNA (ribonucleic acid) is an information encoded strand of nucleotides. we can generate a rRNA tree of life. It can be polymerized to form deoxyribonucleic acid. estimated from SSU RNA sequence data. These amino acids are then bonded together to form a protein. but with a slightly different chemical structure. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). which is composed of proteins and the third kind of RNA. mRNA (messenger RNA) is the mediating template between DNA and proteins. cytosine.related. By comparing SSU RNA sequences. Therefore researchers establish large data sets and use computer program to find the arraignment of branches that most consistent with the similarity and differences observed in the data. called tRNA (transfer RNA). guanine. or thymine). They are Bacteria. The information from a particular gene is transferred from a strand of DNA by the construction of a complementary strand of RNA through a process known as transcription. It encodes the information for the proteins and is able self-replicate. There are three main forms of RNA. guanine. cytosine.

containing all of its genes and associated DNA. Genome is distributed along chromosomes. and amino acids 54-479 are encoded on the X chromosome. and genetics Genome: The genome of an organism is its set of chromosomes.Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in human red blood cells. Minor form: NH4--------------------CO3 (The sequences encoding the gene are on the X chromosome. which are made of compressed and enwined DNA. genomics. These role are:    Enzymatic Structural components Regulatory roles Original Concept of the Gene: One gene = one enzyme This concept does not hold for those proteins that are heteromeric or consist two of two or more different subunits. Gene: Many molecular definitions of a gene relate to their role in directing the production of specific proteins. The major form this peptide is encoded from information from two chromosomes.Genome. This stems from the analysis of mutants where it was shown that the absence of a specific protein was related to the mutation. genes.) . Proteins are key components in the central dogma as polymerases but they also have other key metabolic roles.) Major form: NH4xx------------------CO3 (Amino acids 1-53 are encoded on chromosome 6. Example: RUBISCO (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) CO2 + 5-C-sugar --------------------> 2 3-C-sugars RUBISCO is a multimeric protein of 16 peptides 8 small subunits (nuclear encoded) 8 large subunits (chloroplast encoded) --thus two genes are responsible for this enzyme Revised Concept: One gene = one peptide Newest Discovery .

Protein structures and functions Representation of molecular and protein structures \Wika Mula sa Tagalog na Wikipedia. ang malayang ensiklopedya Mga istudyanteng nakikipagtalasan sa pamamagitan ng paghaharap at paguusapan. if you are willing to accept that not all genes reside on a single continuous stretch of DNA. .Conclusion: This gene fits the one gene = one peptide model stated above. Isang lalaki at babaeng nakikipagugnayan sa pamamagitan ng mga senyas ng kamay.

Ang wika ay isang bahagi ng pakikipagtalastasan. Kalipunan ito ng mga simbolo. . Sa pamamagitan nito. damdamin at mga hangarin sa pamamagitan ng isang kaparaanang lumilikha ng tunog. at kabuuan din ito ng mga sagisag sa paraang binibigkas. at mga kaugnay na batas upang maipahayag ang nais sabihin ng kaisipan. nagkakaunawaan at nagkakaisa ang mga kaanib ng isang pulutong ng mga tao. nagkakaugnayan. Ginagamit ang pamamaraang ito sa pagpapaabot ng kaisipan at damdamin sa pamamagitan ng pagsasalita at pagsulat. Isa rin itong likas na makataong pamamaraan ng paghahatid ng mga kaisipan. tunog.Ang cuneiform ang isa sa mga nalalamang sinaunang anyo ng nakasulat ng wika.

Etimolohiya [baguhin] Nag-ugat ang salitang wika mula sa wikang Malay.nagmula ang salitang lengguwahe o lengwahe sa salitang lingua ng Latin. teknolohiya at industriya. mawawalan ng saysay ang halos lahat ng gawain ng sangkatauhan.Mga nilalaman [itago] 1 Kahalagahan 2 Etimolohiya 3 Mga anyo ng wika 4 Kasaysayan at teoriya 5 Mga katangian 6 Mga antas 7 Mga kagamitan o 7. sapagkat nagagamit ang dila sa paglikha ng maraming kombinasyon ng mga tunog. "Wika" ang lahat ng mga ito kung gagamitin ang malawakan na kahulugan ng wika. sa diplomatikong pamamaraan ng bawat pamahalaan.[1]Mahalaga ang wika sa pakikipagtalasan maging sa pagtungo.1. samakatuwid ang "wika" . Subalit kabilang din rito angpagsusulat. Katulad ng language tawag sa wika sa Ingles . pagsasayaw. [1] Sa ilang pagkakataon. at paninirahan sa ibang bansa. mga wikang pasenyas. Samantalang nagmula naman sa Kastila ang isa pang katawagan sa wika: ang salitanglengguwahe.2 Inpormal o di-pormal 8 Mga sanggunian Kahalagahan [baguhin] Kung wala ang wika. sapagkat nagagamit ito sa pakikipag-ugnayan katulad ng sa pakikipagkalakalan. (Tingnan ang mga sining na pangwika). paghahanapbuhay. [1] Mga anyo ng wika [baguhin] Pinakapayak sa mga anyo ng wika ang paggamit ng mga salita o pagsasalita. sining ng pagpipinta. at maging ang matematika.1. Tinatawag ding salita ang wika. larangan ng musika.sa malawak nitong kahulugan .1 Pormal 7. tinatawag . na nangangahulugang "dila".1 Kategorya ng paggamit ng wika   7. Ito rin ang daan tungo sa pagkakaisa ng mga tao.ay anumang anyo ng pagpaparating ng damdamin o ekspresyon. may tunog man o wala. ngunit mas kadalasang mayroon. at pakikipagpalitan ng mga kaalaman sa agham.

[1] Mga katangian [baguhin] Ito ang mga karaniwang katangian ng wika: 1. mula sa Ingles]) ang wika. [bigkas: ling-gow.wikang ginagamit ng isang partikular na lugar o pook. Isa sa mga teoryang ito ang nagsasabing "ginaya ng mga sinaunang tao ang mga tunog na narinig niya sa kalikasan. . diyalekto. at paano nagsimula ang paggamit ng wika. may antas. Mga antas [baguhin] Kabilang ang mga sumusunod sa mga kaantasan ng wika:  Kolokyal/pambansa . 7. may balangkas. 2.ordinaryong wika na ginagamit ng mga kabataan sa kanilang pang-araw-araw na pakikipag-usap na kadalasang malayang pinagsasama ang mga wikang Inglesat Filipino    Kolokyalismong karaniwan . arbitraryo.ginagamit na salitang may "Taglish" Kolokyalismong may talino . binubuo ng makahulugang tunog. pinipili at isinasa-ayos. 3. Subalit mayroong mga hinuha at kuru-kuro ang mga dalubhasang nagsipagaral ng paksang ito. o lingo (sariling-wika ng isang grupo. at ginagamit araw-araw. 10. 8. may pulitika.[2] Kasaysayan at teoriya [baguhin] Hindi lubos na nalalaman kung saan. Dahil sa iba't ibang interpretasyon o gawi sa paggaya ng mga "tunog ng kalikasan" na ito kaya nagkaroon ng maraming mga wika sa mundo. nakabatay sa kultura. salita. makapangyarihan 9.ginagamit sa loob ng silid-aralan o paaralan Lalawiganin/panlalawigan . 11. 4. kailan. 5. kagila-gilagis. 6.ding dila (piguratibo). ginagamit." Halimbawa ng mga tunog na ito ang mga kahol ng mga asong-gubat o ng mga bumubukal na sapa.

Pambansa o karaniwan . ito rin ay maaring nabuo sa pag-baliktad ng mga salitang Kolokyal/pambansa.pinakamababang uri ng wikang ginagamit ng tao. 2. Pampanitikan o pangretorika . na nabuo sa kagustuhan ng isang partikular na grupo na nagkakaroon ng sariling pagkakakilanlan. maaaring kasabayan ng taong nakikipagugnanayan. karaniwang matatayog. Ginagamit ito sa mga usapang pormal. Nagaganap ang pagpapaunawa sa pagitan ng dalawa.mga salitang gamitin sa mga akdang pampanitikan. at masining. gayundin sa pamahalaan. o higit pang bilang ng mga tagapagsalita o tagapaglahad na hindi nakapagsasalita o nakasesenyas mula sa pinagmumulang wika. Ginagamit ito sa mga hindi pormal na usapan. Madaling maunawaan ang pangungusap kahit gaano pa kahaba o ano man ang anyo nito. malalalim. o pamantayan dahil kinikilala. Pormal [baguhin] Ang pormal ay ang mga salitang istandard.  Pagpapaliwanag o pagpapaunawa ang tawag sa gawaing pangkaisipan upang matugunan ang pakikipagugnayang ginagamitan ng mga pananalita o mga hudyat o senyas ng kamay. karaniwan. tinatanggap at ginagamit ng higit na nakararami lalo na mga nakapag-aral ng wika.  Pampanitikan .mga karaniwang salitang ginagamit sa mga aklat pangwika o pambalarila sa mga paaralan.wikang sumusunod sa batas ng balarila at retorika. Kategorya ng paggamit ng wika [baguhin] Ang dalawang kategorya ng paggamit ng wika ay pormal at inpormal o di-pormal. Ang araling pangkomunikasyon ang disiplinang pang-akademya kung saan pinag-aaralan ang pakikipagtalastasan. Narito ang mga uri nito: 1. makulay. o matapos ang bawat bahagi ng paglalahad ng taong nakikipagugnayan. Malinaw ito kaya madaling naiintindihan ng bumabasa o nakikinig ang kahulugan nito. Mga kagamitan [baguhin] Ito ang pitong kagamitan ng wika:  Isang proseso ng pagpapalitan ng impormasyon na kadalasan na ginagawa sa pamamagitan ng karaniwang sistema ng mga simbolo ang komunikasyon. tatlo. Narito ang mga uri nito: .  Ginagamit ang wika sa pagpapahayag ng pangungusap. Inpormal o di-pormal [baguhin] Ang inpormal o di-pormal ay mga salitang karaniwang palasak at madalas gamitin sa pang-arawaraw na pakikipagusap. Pabalbal/balbal (salitang kalye) .

mga bokabularyong diyalektal. Ang pagpapaikli ng isa. 2. dalawa. mga salitang nabuklat sa lansangan.mga salitang ginagamit sa mga pagkakataong inpormal. 3.1. Balbal . . Lalawiganin . Kolokyal .mga salitang nahango lamang sa pagbabago o pag-usod ng panahon. o higit pang salita ay mauuri rin sa antas na ito. Gamitin ito sa mga partikular na pook o lalawigan lamang.

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