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DOCUMENT NO 371

A.P.A.C. Ltd.
Archaeological Perspectives Analysis Consultancy
ARCHAEOLOGICAL
WATCHING BRIEF
WB/CA/17

Land to rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon

Prepared For:
Newport City Council

Planning Application No: 14/00882

Prepared by C E Smith
QA by Dr. N Phillips
Nov 2017
A.P.A.C. Ltd Cross Street, Caerleon WB/CA/17

Summary

A planning application for the erection of two detached dwellings, with associated landscaping,
access and infrastructure, on land to the rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon was
submitted to Newport City Council by Mr Michael Farkas The planning reference is 14/00882.

A pre-planning application field evaluation undertaken within the assessment area by APAC Ltd in
2013 highlighted the potential for intact archaeological remains to be present. Thus the planning
permission was granted with the condition that an archaeological watching brief be carried out
during any groundworks at the site in order that any archaeological finds or features could be
adequately recorded prior to removal through the development process.

The assessment area is located in an area of Caerleon previously occupied by the Roman legionary
fortress built in c.AD74.

The groundworks undertaken within the assessment area were comparatively shallow, only exposing
intact deposits in plan rather than cutting into them. Hand cleaning of the exposed deposits revealed
a finds assemblage comprising ceramics, tile and animal bone all of seemingly Roman date. Later,
post-medieval, finds were recovered from the overburden material above.

Copyright Notice:
A.P.A.C. Ltd. retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577) to reproduce map information; Copyright remains otherwise
with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover Photograph: Frame 100-1380 View of architectural fragment 1
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Contents
Contents ................................................................................................................................................... 3
Figures...................................................................................................................................................... 4
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 5
2 Site Location and Description ....................................................................................................... 5
3 Geology and Topography .............................................................................................................. 5
4 Brief archaeological and historical background ............................................................................ 6
5 Aims and Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 7
6 Scope of the Work......................................................................................................................... 7
7 Methodology ................................................................................................................................. 7
8 Watching Brief Results ................................................................................................................. 8
9 Finds .............................................................................................................................................. 9
10 Discussion and Interpretation ...................................................................................................... 10
11 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................. 11
12 Staff ............................................................................................................................................. 11
13 Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... 11
14 Bibliography and References: ..................................................................................................... 12

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Figures
Fig 1 General site location map
Fig 2 Detailed site location map showing assessment area in relation to SAM & LB sites
Fig 3 Assessment area in relation to layout of Roman legionary fortress
Fig 4 Plan of foundation trenches, soakaways and service runs within assessment area
Fig 5 South-west facing section drawings of soakaways 1 & 2

Plates
PL01 Pre-excavation view across plot 1, looking north
PL02 Pre-excavation view across plot 2, looking north-east
PL03 View along north-western foundation trench, plot 1, looking north-east
PL04 View along south-eastern foundation trench, plot 1, looking north-east
PL05 View along south-western foundation trench, plot 1, looking north-west
PL06 View along north-eastern foundation trench, plot 1, looking north-west
PL07 View along north-eastern foundation trench, plot 1, looking south-east
PL08 View along north-western foundation trench, plot 2, looking north-east
PL09 View along south-eastern foundation trench, plot 2, looking north-east
PL10 View along south-western foundation trench, plot 2, looking south-east
PL11 View along north-eastern foundation trench, plot 2, looking north-west
PL12 Post-excavation view across plots 1&2, looking south
PL13 Post-excavation view of soakaway 1 section, looking north-east
PL14 Post-excavation view of soakaway 1 section, looking south-west
PL15 Post-excavation view of soakaway 2 section, looking north-east
PL16 Post-excavation view of soakaway 2 section, looking south-west
PL17 Post-excavation view along service trench adj. Plot 1, looking south-west
PL18 Post-excavation view along service trench adj. Plot 1, looking south
PL19 Post-excavation view along service trench adj. Plot 2, looking north-east
PL20 Post-excavation view along service trench adj. Plot 2, looking south-west
PL21 Plan view of AF1 – Stone column fragment
PL22 Side view of AF1 – Stone column fragment
PL23 Obverse plan view of AF1 – Stone column fragment
PL24 Oblique view of AF1 – Stone column fragment

Appendices

Appendix I Digital photograph list & contact sheet
Appendix II Finds index & assemblage photographs
Appendix III Context list & matrices

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1 Introduction

This report has been prepared by C E Smith, A.P.A.C. Ltd, from the results of an archaeological watching brief
undertaken in response to the construction of two new dwellings, with associated landscaping, access and
infrastructure, on land to the rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon.

The assessment area is centred on NGR ST 3417 9066 (Fig 1). The planning application number for the project is
14/00882 and the local planning authority is Newport City Council. The Event PRN for the watching brief is
E005846.

Prior to any intrusive groundworks taking place a written scheme of investigation (WB/CA/17 – Doc 357) was
submitted to, and approved by, the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust acting in their capacity as
archaeological advisors to Newport City Council.

APAC Ltd have previously undertaken a field evaluation (Phillips, 2013 – PRN E005506) on the site. Results from
the two trench evaluation showed a deposit of dark silt overburden material, up to 1.2m deep, overlaying an orange
clay horizon in which Roman material was located.

The assessment area, totalling 94m², was divided into two separate plots (henceforth Plots 1 & 2). The foundation
trench for each plot measured a total of 35m in length by 0.6m wide at its base. Depths varied from 0.9m to 0.45m
dependent upon the ground level.

Excavation and recording of the foundation trenches on Plots 1 & 2 was undertaken on the 12th and 13th of October
whilst the services, including soakaways, were excavated on the 23 rd, 26th and 31st October 2017.

2 Site Location and Description

The assessment area comprises an area of open ground located to the rear of Prospect House, where the north-
eastern end of Cross Street joins Myrtle Cottages. The land is a former garden plot belonging to the adjacent
Prospect House. Prior to use as a garden the plot was occupied by single storey structures belonging to a dairy
(Phillips, 2013).

Plates 01 and 02 show pre-excavation views across the assessment area.

The foundation trench for Plot 1 measured a total of 35m in length, 0.6m wide at its base, up to 0.8m wide at its top
and was located parallel with, and one metre from, the base of the wall running north-east to south-west, forming
the north-western boundary of the site (Fig 2).

The foundation trench for Plot 2 similarly measured a total of 35m in length, was 0.6m wide at its base and 0.8m
wide at its top. It was located three metres to the south-east of Plot 1. Both plots were laid out on a north-east to
south-west alignment.

Soakaways 1 and 2 were each located to the north east of plots 1 and 2 respectively. Each measured 3.7x1.6m and
were 2m deep. A total length of 82m, by 0.6m wide, was excavated for service runs around plots 1 and 2. The
service trenches varied in depth from 0.3m to 0.75m below the current ground level.

3 Geology and Topography

The underlying solid geology of the assessment area is formed by the St Maughn’s Formation, Argrillaceous Rocks
and interbedded [subequal/subordinate] sandstones. These sedimentary rocks are fluvial in origin (British
Geological Survey, 2017).

The assessment area is located on the approximate boundary between two different overlying soil types. To the
north-east loamy and clayey soils with naturally high groundwater, consistent with coastal flats, are present, whilst
to the south-west, the soils are characterised by freely draining, slightly acidic, loamy clays and silts (Soilscapes,
2017).

Caerleon is situated on the north bank of the river Usk, to the immediate west of the Usk’s confluence with the
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Afon Llwyd, on an area raised above the surrounding fields.

4 Brief archaeological and historical background

A large Iron Age fortification, Lodge Hill Hillfort, occupies a hilltop at the north-western edge of Caerleon
commanding views over the over the mouth of the Usk Valley and parts of the Severn Estuary. The triple banked
defensive circuit, with numerous outworks, encloses approximately 2.2 hectares (Howell & Pollard, 2000).
Evidence of defensive slighting exists within the earthen defences which testify to the hillfort likely being out of
use, at least defensively, by the time the legionary fortress was established in Caerleon c.AD74.

The establishment of the 2nd Augusta’s legionary fortress of Isca (Caerleon) was undertaken following the
abandonment of the 20th Valeria Victrix’s earlier fortress at nearby Usk (Frere, 1987) and evacuation of the 2nd
Augusta’s earlier base at Gloucester. This was done under the generalship of Sextus Julius Frontinus and allowed
the 2nd Augusta a closer staging post for operations against the Silures as well as establishing easier communication
routes both inland to central Wales and by both land and sea to the fertile Vale of Glamorgan (Salway, 1998).

Consolidation of the legionary fortress in stone, from an originally earth and timber structure, took place certainly
before AD100 (Frere, 1987) and possibly prior to the construction of the large amphitheatre in Caerleon in c.AD90.
With the establishment of the legionary fortress as a permanent base for the 2 nd Augusta, as well as harbour and
storage complexes developing on the banks of the river Usk, a civilian canabae settlement outside of the forts walls
began to develop.

The fortress at Caerleon would have acted as the permanent base for the 2 nd Augusta up until AD208 when the
legion was moved to Carpow as part of Septimus Severus’s Scottish campaign, where they would remain before
returning to Caerleon in c.AD235. The fortress was subsequently abandoned at the end of the 3 rd century AD
(Soulsby, 1983).

The Roman withdrawal from Britain in AD410 would have seen a severe decline in activity across the town as
evidence for the reoccupation of Lodge Hill Hillfort in this period attests to (Howell & Pollard, 2000). The
archaeological record shows a general dearth of evidence for activity from the post-Roman period across Caerleon.

A large motte was constructed immediately outside the south-eastern corner of the fortress in c.1069-70 and
‘Carlion’ itself was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as a small manor belonging to William de Scohies
(Soulsby, 1983). Caerleon changed hands from Norman to Welsh several times throughout the 12 th and early 13th
centuries.

A town had definitely developed by this point utilising building material and the street pattern of the Roman
fortress. The town fell to William Marshall in 1217. William Marshall the Younger strengthened the castle in stone
at this point erecting a curtain wall with round towers. The castle thus resisted the 1231 attack of Llywelyn the
Great, though the town is said to have been reduced to ashes (Soulsby, 1983. Pettifer, 2000). This destruction of the
town likely explains the absence of any borough charter being granted until 1324.

The town was again attacked in 1402 by Owain Glyndwr. The castle fell into a state of disrepair afterwards thus
marking the end of Caerleon’s military importance.

Several previous archaeological excavations have taken place close to the assessment area which has contributed to
understanding the layout of the Roman fortress (Fig 3). A partial excavation was undertaken immediately adjacent
to the assessment area (PRN E000416) by the National Museum of Wales in 1964 which recorded a Roman
structure. Excavations in 1937 and 1956 (PRNs E000380 & E000437) located a turret along the inside edge of the
Roman fortress wall to the south of Myrtle Cottages, adjacent to Prospect House.

The assessment area is located over the area of an intra-mural road running between the inside edge of the fortress
wall and the edge of a barrack block and the site of the fortresses hospital buildings. This falls outside of the
nearest scheduled areas which are an area of Myrtle cottage barracks 26m to the south west (MM242) and a large
area (MM230) located 50m to the west (Fig 2).

The previously undertaken field evaluation on the site (Phillips, 2013 – PRN E005506) showed that intact deposits
of archaeological significance, containing Roman and some later material, were located within the assessment area
at depths of over one metre from the current ground surface.

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5 Aims and Objectives
The aims of an archaeological watching brief, as defined by the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (CIfA,
2014) are:
 To ensure that any buried remains located within the development area are fully investigated and recorded if
revealed as a consequence of the site works;
 To provide an opportunity for the archaeologists present to signal to all interested parties, before the
destruction of the material in question, that an archaeological find has been made for which the resources of
the watching brief itself are not sufficient to support treatment to a satisfactory and proper standard;
 If such a find is made, representatives of both the client and the regional Development Control
Officer/County Archaeologist will be informed and a site meeting organised, as appropriate.

In accordance with the agreed Written scheme of Investigation the general aims of the watching brief were to:

 Establish the presence/absence of archaeological deposits within the assessment area.
 Elucidate the character, distribution, extent and importance of any identified archaeological deposits.
 Produce a detailed record of the work undertaken so as any archaeological deposits are preserved by record

6 Scope of the Work

The watching brief was undertaken on all groundworks including the cutting of foundation trenches, service runs
and soakaways

All remains of potential archaeological or historical interest were considered, whatever their date.

7 Methodology
Watching Brief

Excavation of the foundation trenches was undertaken using a 13 ton Hitachi 360 mechanical excavator under
close archaeological supervision. The machine was fitted with a 0.6m wide toothless bucket.

Excavation of the soakaways and service runs was undertaken using an 8 ton or a 3 ton Takeuchi mechanical
excavator under close archaeological supervision. The machine was fitted with a 0.6m wide toothless bucket

For the foundation trenches, a formation depth of 0.75m below the proposed finished ground level was required.
Trench depths were assessed using a laser level throughout the course of the groundworks.

A total length of 70m of foundation trench was excavated. This was an average of 0.7m wide and 0.65m deep
though it varied in places along its length owing to friable overburden material.

Service trenches, a total of 82m in length, were all 0.6m wide though varied in depth from 0.3m to 0.75m deep.

All areas were photographed using digital photography (16mp+) with images taken in high resolution Jpeg format
and converted to TIFF format for archive storage.

All on site illustrations were undertaken on drafting film using recognised conventions and scales (1:10, 1:10, 1:50
as appropriate).

The location and depth of all excavated areas were recorded using a survey grade GPS system.

All encountered contexts were recorded on APAC Ltd pro-forma context sheets.

All finds were bagged by context with the finds retained for subsequent processing.

All works were undertaken in accordance with the CIfA’s (2014) Standards and Guidance: for an archaeological
watching brief (2014) and current Health and Safety legislation

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8 Watching Brief Results

Plot 1

Mechanical excavation of Plot 1 was undertaken in mixed weather and dry ground conditions. Overburden
deposits in all areas were composed of a friable, dark brown/black, silt with frequent modern inclusions. Natural
deposits were not exposed in any area of the trench. Post-excavation views of the foundation trench are shown in
plates 03 to 07. The trench plan is shown on Fig 4.

Removal of dark brown/black overburden (100) showed this deposit to vary in depth from 0.9m at the north-
eastern end of Plot 1 to 0.65m at the south-western end. This horizon was found to contain post-medieval and
modern material throughout. At the eastern end of the trench deposit (100) was observed to directly overlay a
mottled light brown/orange compact clay horizon with occasional to frequent subrounded stone inclusions (101).
Subsequent hand cleaning of this horizon revealed several fragments of ceramic building material as well as
several sherds of Roman ceramic and fragments of animal bone. The surface of deposit (101) coincided with the
required foundation depth thus allowing this horizon to be observed in plan only.

Along the south-eastern foundation trench on Plot 1, a mid-brown/reddish clay silt, (104), was observed beneath
overburden horizon (100). Again, the upper levels of this deposit coincided with the required foundation depth so
no further investigation was possible.

Elsewhere within the Plot 1 foundation trench, the depth of overburden deposit (100) exceeded the required trench
depth so no further deposits of archaeological significance were observed.

A single linear feature [102], 3.5m in length by 0.25m wide, was noted running east to west across the base of the
southernmost foundation trench in plot 1, cut into both deposits (101) and (104). This contained a mixed orange
clay and dark silt fill (103) along with fragments of a modern ceramic drain.

The single foundation trench forming plot 1 measured 35m in total length and was 0.6m wide at its base. Owing to
the friable nature of the overburden deposit (100) the trench width at the top varied from 0.7m to 0.85m wide.

Plot 2

Mechanical excavation of Plot 2 was similarly undertaken in mixed weather and dry ground conditions.
Overburden deposits in all areas were composed of a friable, dark brown/black, silt with frequent modern
inclusions. Natural deposits were not exposed in any area of the trench. Post-excavation views of the foundation
trench are shown in plates 08 to 11. The trench plan is shown on Fig 4.

Removal of dark brown/black overburden (200), observed as (100) on Plot 1, was again found to overlie the
entirety of the plot. Mechanical excavation of the foundation trench at Plot 2 showed (200) to overlie a compact
mottled brown/orange clay (201) with occasional subrounded stone inclusions at the north-eastern end of the
trench. Hand cleaning of this deposit revealed fragments of ceramic building material and sherds of Roman
ceramic. As with Plot 1, the required foundation depth again coincided with the depth of this intact archaeological
horizon thus resulting in the layer being exposed in plan only.

Removal of deposit (200) from the remainder of the foundation trench at Plot 2 showed it to overlie a mid-
brown/reddish clay silt (202). Although this deposit was cut into along its length by approximately 0.1m, the depth
requirements of the foundation trench were reached thus precluding further excavation.

An area of disturbance, [203], was noted cut into the intact clay horizon (201) at the eastern end of the trench. It
was also seen to cut the overburden deposit and was filled with a mixed clay and silt fill (204). This was
interpreted as the cut of one of the 2013 evaluation trenches.

The single foundation trench forming plot 2 measured 35m in total length and was 0.6m wide at its base. Owing to
the friable nature of the overburden deposit (100) the trench width at the top varied from 0.7m to 0.85m wide.

A post-excavation view of the plot 1 and 2 foundation trenches is shown in plate 12.

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Soakaways 1 & 2

Soakaways 1 and 2, located to the immediate east of foundation trenches 1 and 2 respectively, were each
excavated mechanically with the sections subsequently being cleaned by hand (Plates 13 to 16, Fig 5).

Each soakaway measured 3.7m in length, 1.6m wide and was 2m deep. Each followed the same stratigraphic
sequence. Removal of the 0.4m deep, dark silt, overburden deposit (300/400) revealed a compact orange clay
horizon with occasional, thin, horizontal, grey clay lenses running through it (301/401). In each soakaway this was
found to be approximately 0.4m deep and to overlay a thicker (0.2m to 0.3m) grey clay band (302/402). This
alternating of grey and orange clay horizons continued in each soakaway to at least a 2m depth (untested beyond
this depth).

Again, in both soakaways at a depth of 1.2m, a grey clay band (304/404) with evident tip lines from deposition
was noted.

No finds were recovered from either soakaway excavation.

Service Trenches

A total of 82m of service trench were excavated within the assessment area, varying in depth from 0.3m to 0.75m.
Across the majority of the area the depth of service trench did not exceed the depth of the dark silt overburden
(500) and did not cut into any deeper, intact, deposits

In two areas the service trench, cut to the deepest depth of 0.75m, exposed the surface of a dark brown, reddish,
silt subsoil deposit, (502). This was similar to the subsoil deposits (104) and (202) seen in the plot 1 and 2
foundation trenches.

9 Finds

All of the finds recovered during the course of the watching brief were retained and recorded by context. The finds
in their entirety are catalogued in Appendix II along with additional annotated photographs of each assemblage.

Ceramics & Ceramic Building Material

The ceramic assemblage from the watching brief work comprised a total of 72 pieces of earthenware tile and 16
sherds of pottery. The assemblage contained 13 sherds of Roman pottery and 72 pieces of tile sent to Peter
Webster for specialist analysis. The remaining three, later, sherds consisted of a single piece of North Devon
Gravel Tempered Ware (ND) from AD1650-1750 and two pieces (one a complete inkwell vessel) of English
Brown Glazed Stoneware (BSW) of 18th to 20th century date. Peter Webster’s comments on the Roman material
are below:

The pottery from upper levels on this site can do little more than act as a pointer as to what might be found if
deeper excavation ever took place. Even though fragments of only 13 Roman pottery vessels were represented,
these spanned the period of occupation of the Caerleon fortress from the early samian form 29 (a form which went
out of production c.A.D.85 and must, therefore, belong to the first decades of Roman occupation), through 2 nd
century Black-burnished ware to fragments of Black-burnished jar with obtuse angled lattice, a feature of the later
3rd century or later. Among the quantity of ceramic building materials found was a tile with a cross section likely
to indicate that it was a box-tile, a type used mainly for hypocaust flues, suggestive of a heated room, conceivably
a bath-house nearby. Otherwise the ceramics are typical of the fortress as a whole with a mixture of pottery made
in South Wales and that brought in either from Gaul or southern Britain. Most vessel fragments are either from
cooking wares or flagons (and possibly brought to the site with their liquid contents)

Clay Tobacco Pipe

A total of 28 clay tobacco pipe fragments were recovered during the course of the watching brief, all from
overburden horizons (100/500). Of the 28 fragments, two were diagnostic pipe bowls whilst the remainder was
composed of stem fragments. The diagnostic bowls are discussed below:

A single clay tobacco pipe bowl was recovered from the mixed overburden deposit (100) within the Plot 1
foundation trench.
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The bowl is c. AD1660-70 in date and has a west-country type flared heel. A makers mark ‘AR’, stamped on the
heel, can be attributed to Abraham Reeves; a founder member of the Bristol pipe makers guild in 1652 (Walker,
1971, Jackson, 1974).

A single clay tobacco pipe bowl was recovered from the mixed overburden deposit within the service trench (500).
This was a poorly made and plain example. Stylistically dated to the early 19 th century.

Worked Stone

A single piece of worked stone (AF1- See PL21-24) was recovered from the mixed overburden deposit (500)
within the service trench between Plots 1 and 2. The single piece of sandstone, cylindrical in shape, comprised a
likely column fragment. It measured 0.58m in diameter by approximately 0.4m in height. One end was perfectly
flat whilst the other end was seemingly damaged. A small notched incision was noted at the exact centre of the
columns flat end and may represent the masons marking out point.

The cylindrical, external face of the column was undecorated. Although recovered from the overburden horizon
(500), the architectural fragment is of likely Roman date.

Faunal Remains

Only a small faunal remains assemblage was recovered during the watching brief consisting of a single cut marked
rib bone (likely pig) and a boars tusk. Both were recovered from context (101), a Roman horizon at the base of the
Plot 1 foundation trench.

Finds Summary

The finds recovered during the watching brief at Cross Street, Caerleon, point to the area being used in a largely
domestic capacity in the Roman period (ceramics, animal bone, roof tile) which is perhaps unsurprising given the
proximity of the fortresses barrack blocks to the site.

The Roman architectural finds, the worked stone and the fragment of box tile within the tile assemblage, are
unlikely to have come from the barrack blocks and are likely to have originated elsewhere in the vicinity, most
likely the adjacent hospital building or the bath house.

Whilst no medieval finds were recovered from the site, the later post-medieval finds show a distinct lack of
ceramics or animal bone compared to the amount of clay tobacco pipe perhaps suggestive of a garden plot or
working area.

10 Discussion and Interpretation

Plot 1

Excavation of the foundation trench at Plot 1 has shown that, whilst intact deposits of likely Roman date are
present, they exist in this area at a minimum depth of 0.8m below the current ground surface and were thus not
impacted upon by the development process.

Plot 2

Excavation of the foundation trench at Plot 2 has similarly shown that, whilst intact deposits of likely Roman date
are present, they exist in this area at a minimum depth of 0.7m below the current ground surface and were thus not
impacted upon by the development process.

Soakaways 1 & 2

Excavation of the soakaways showed the alternating clay band deposits beginning at 0.4m depth and extending to
at least 2m below the current ground surface. The relative regularity in clay bands, combined with the horizons
exhibiting tip lines being evident at the same depth in both excavations, would appear to suggest a uniformity of
deposits within this area. The location of the soakaways in relation to the layout of the Roman fortress (Fig 3)
suggests they are situated close to the inside of the fortress wall, on the line of an intra-mural road between the
fortress wall and the internal buildings. The banded clay deposits in soakaways 1 and 2, conspicuously devoid of
finds, would appear to relate to building up of the ground level in this area. This may relate to either sub-surface
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road make-up layers or, perhaps more likely, localised ground levelling within the fortress.

Service Trenches

The watching brief undertaken during the service trench excavations showed that intact archaeological deposits
are located at depths of between 0.7m and 0.8m across the assessment area. The service trench excavations had
only a minimal impact on intact deposits.

The likely column fragment (AF1), recovered from the interface between overburden (500) and subsoil (501), was
photographed and recorded and the Caerleon Legionary Museum notified. It was left on-site at the landowners
request.

Interpretation

The earlier APAC Ltd field evaluation (Phillips, 2013) undertaken within the assessment area showed the site to
be overlain by an approximately one metre deep deposit of dark, friable, silt overburden with intact material
beneath. This has again been shown in the results of the watching brief. Roman material (including architectural
fragments), albeit redeposited, is also contained within the overburden material.

The presence of subsoil material (104) in Plot 1 and (202) in Plot 2 directly underlying the overburden deposit was
noted only in the south-western halves of the observed trenches (Fig 3). Elsewhere within the trenches the
overburden deposit was seen to immediately overlie the intact clay horizons (101 & 201). This would appear to
suggest that levelling of the area has been previously undertaken, partially removing the subsoil deposit in the
north-eastern half of the assessment area. The ground level also visibly falls away to the north-east of the
assessment area.

The intact Roman clay deposits in the area, at least in the area of the soakaways, can be shown to be up to 2m
deep.

11 Conclusions

Although undertaken in an area replete with nationally significant archaeology, the comparatively shallow depth
to which groundworks were undertaken within the assessment area has limited the amount to which the
development process has impacted upon these to an absolute minimum.

It can thus be concluded that significant and intact archaeological deposits are present within the assessment area
though at a depth of at least 0.7m below the current ground surface.

12 Archive

The original archive for the watching brief will be retained by APAC Ltd.

Secondary archives will be deposited with Gwent Records Office and digitally with the Royal Commission for
Ancient and Historic Monuments, Aberystwyth. A copy of the final report & project design will be deposited with
the regional HER (Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Swansea).

All finds were returned to the client.

12 Staff
The watching brief was undertaken by Chris E Smith BA (Hons) MA MCIfA.
Post-excavation finds processing was undertaken by Adam Phillips.

13 Acknowledgements

Thanks to Michael and Craig Farkas access to the site and to Adam Phillips and Peter Webster for their finds
work.

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14 Bibliography and References:

APAC Ltd. 2017. Written Scheme of Investigation for a Programme of Archaeological Work. Watching Brief
WB/CA/17 – Land to the rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon. Doc No. 357

British Geological Survey - www.bgs.ac.uk – Accessed 17th October 2017

Chartered Institute for Archaeologists. 2014. Standards and Guidance: for an archaeological watching brief

Frere, S. 1987. Britannia - A History of Roman Britain. Pimlico, London

Howell, R & Pollard, J. 2000. Caerleon – Lodge Wood Camp. Archaeology in Wales. Vol 40 pp81-83

Jackson, R, G. 1974. Bristol Clay Pipes: A study of makers and their marks. Research Monograph 1. City
Musuem, Bristol

National Soil Resources Institute - http://www.landis.org.uk/soilscapes/ - Accessed 17th October 2017

Pettifer, A. 2000. Welsh Castles. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge

Phillips, N. 2013. Land at Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon. Archaeological Evaluation Report. APAC Ltd
Doc No. 192

Salway, P. 1998. Roman Britain – Oxford History of England. Oxford University Press, Oxford

Soulsby, I. 1983. The Towns of Medieval Wales. Phillimore, Sussex

Walker, C. 1971. The Bristol Clay Tobacco Pipe Industry. City Museum, Bristol

Zinkiewicz, D. 1986. The Legionary Fortress Baths at Caerleon. Vol 1 – The Buildings. National Museum of
Wales Press, Cardiff

The copyright for this report shall remain with A.P.A.C. Ltd.

A.P.A.C. Registered Address: 36 Hatherleigh Rd, Abergavenny Monmouthshire NP7 7RG.
Tel: 07734962919. Mobile: 07734962919 Email: apac.philips@btinternet.com
Company Registration No 5041541 VAT Reg No 826 3628 19
Director: Dr. N. Phillips D.Phil. M. Phil. BA (Hons).Cert Ed/FE MCIFA.

12
Land to rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon

Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd Copyright Licence (No. 100046577)
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Map Data © 2013 Google

Fig 1: General location map
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Land to rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon

Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd Copyright Licence (No. 100046577)
Legend
Cadw LBs by No.
Cadw SAMs by No.

et
Assessment area boundary

re

M
St
and plots

ill
ur
th

St
Ar

ree
0 40m

t
1
2

M
ill
Stre
te
et
tre
sS

es
os

ag
Cr

ott

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an
C

eL
le
ytr

stl
M

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Fig 2: Plan showing location of assessment area and plots 1 & 2 within Caerleon in relation to Cadw SAM & LB location
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Land to rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon

Cross Street

Mill Str
t ee
ages
Myrtle Cott

Castle Lane

Fig 3: Location of modern street pattern and plots 1 & 2 in relation to the layout of the 0 100m
Roman Legionary Fortress (After Zinkiewicz, 1986)
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Land to rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon

OD Heights (m) 0 5m
1 - 15.50m
2 - 15.44m
3 - 15.53m
4 - 15.51m
5 - 15.60m 04 100
6 - 15.54m 101
7 - 15.38m
8 - 15.47m
9 - 15.55m
10 - 16.15m
11 - 16.14m 01 10
12 - 16.15m 03
13 - 16.09m Plot 1
11
14 - 14.34m
100
15 - 14.17m
16 - 15.75m 103
17 - 15.43m 101 A
18 - 15.55m 20
104 02
19 - 15.47m
20 - 15.50m 500
102

14
Boundary
309
Wall Soakaway 1

B

202 08
201 09

501 Boundary
203 Fence
13

Plot 2 12
204
19 05 C
07

06 15
202 201
500
408
18
17
Soakaway 2
16 D
500

Fig 4: Site plan showing location of foundation trenches, soakaways and service runs within assessment area and OD levels (1:100@A3)
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Land to rear of Prospect House, Cross Street, Caerleon

A

B
300

NW SE
15.64m 15.64m
301

302

303

305

307
308
306

C 309
D

400

NW 401 SE
15.47m 15.47m

402

403

404
404

405

406

407

408

Fig 5: South-west facing sections of soakaways 1 (top) and 0 1m
2 (bottom). 1:20@A4
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 1: Pre-excavation view north across plot 1 portion of assessment area.
Scales 2x1m, Looking north

Plate 2: Pre-excavation view north-east across plot 2 portion of assessment area
Scales 2x1m, Looking north east
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 3: View along north-western foundation trench, Plot 1 Plate 4: View along south-eastern foundation trench, Plot 1
Looking north-east, Scale 1x2m Looking north-east, Scale 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 5: View along south-western foundation trench, Plot 1 Plate 6: View along north-eastern foundation trench, Plot 1
Looking north-west, Scale 1x2m Looking north-west, Scale 1x2m
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 7: View along north-eastern foundation trench, Plot 1 Plate 8: View along north-western foundation trench, Plot 2
Looking south-east, Scale 1x1m Looking north-east, Scale 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 9: View along eastern foundation trench, Plot 2 Plate 10: View along south-western foundation trench, Plot 2
Looking north-east, Scale 1x2m Looking south-east, Scale 1x2m
A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 12: Post-excavation view across plots 1 & 2 within assessment area
Looking south

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 11: View along north-eastern foundation trench, Plot 2
Looking north-west, Scale 1x2m
Plate 13: View of south-west facing section of soakaway 1. Scales 1x1m & 1x2m

Plate 14: View of north-east facing section of soakaway 1. Scales 1x1m & 1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 15: View of south-west facing section of soakaway 2. Scales 1x1m & 1x2m

Plate 16: View of north-east facing section of soakaway 2. Scales 1x1m &1x2m

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 17: Post-excavation view along service trench adj. Plot 1 Plate 18: Post-excavation view along service trench adj. Plot 1
looking south-west looking south

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 19: Post-excavation view along service trench adj. Plate 20: Post-excavation view along service trench adj.
Plot 2, looking north-east Plot 2, looking south-west

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 21: Plan view of architectural fragment 1 (AF1). Scale 1x0.3m

Plate 22: Side view of AF1 - Scale 1x0.3m

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Plate 23: Plan view of obverse of AF1, Scale 1x0.3m

Plate 24: Oblique view of AF1, Scale 1x0.3m

A.P.A.C. WB/CA/17
Appendix 1 - Site Photograph List & Contact Sheet
A.P.A.C. Ltd Cross Street, Caerleon WB/CA/17

Appendix I – Photograph list and Contact Sheet

Camera – Kodak Pixpro AZ421

Frame Description View L/P Date Plate
No. No.
100-1322 Pre-excavation view across site NE L 12/10/17 1
100-1323 Pre-excavation view across site N L 12/10/17 -
100-1324 Pre-excavation view across site E L 12/10/17 2
100-1325 Pre-excavation view of Plot 1 NW L 12/10/17 -
100-1326 Pre-excavation view of Plot 1 W L 12/10/17 -
100-1327 Pre-excavation view of Plot 1 N L 12/10/17 -
100-1328 Pre-excavation view of boundary wall W L 12/10/17 -
100-1329 Pre-excavation view across site S L 12/10/17 -
100-1330 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 W P 12/10/17 6
100-1331 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 E P 12/10/17 -
100-1332 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 SW P 12/10/17 -
100-1333 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 SW P 12/10/17 -
100-1334 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 NE P 12/10/17 4
100-1335 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 W P 12/10/17 5
100-1336 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 E P 12/10/17 -
100-1337 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 NE P 12/10/17 3
100-1338 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 SW P 12/10/17 -
100-1339 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 NW P 12/10/17 -
100-1340 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 1 NW P 12/10/17 7
100-1341 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 S P 12/10/17 8
100-1342 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 SE P 12/10/17 -
100-1343 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 NW P 12/10/17 -
100-1344 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 NE P 12/10/17 9
100-1345 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 SW P 12/10/17 -
100-1346 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 NW P 12/10/17 11
100-1347 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 SW P 12/10/17 -
100-1348 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 SE P 12/10/17 10
100-1349 Post-excavation view along foundation trench – Plot 2 NW P 12/10/17 -
100-1350 Post-excavation view across site S L 12/10/17 12
100-1351 Post-excavation view across site W L 12/10/17 -
100-1352 Post-excavation view across site W L 12/10/17 -
100-1353 Post-excavation view of Plot 1 soakaway NE L 23/10/17 13
100-1354 Post-excavation view of Plot 1 soakaway N L 23/10/17 -
100-1355 Post-excavation view of Plot 1 soakaway E L 23/10/17 -
100-1356 Post-excavation view of Plot 1 soakaway W L 23/10/17 -
100-1357 Post-excavation view of Plot 1 soakaway SW L 23/10/17 14
100-1358 Post-excavation view of Plot 1 soakaway S L 23/10/17 -
100-1359 Post-excavation view of Plot 2 soakaway NE L 23/10/17 15
100-1360 Post-excavation view of Plot 2 soakaway N L 23/10/17 -
100-1361 Post-excavation view of Plot 2 soakaway E L 23/10/17 -
100-1362 Post-excavation view of Plot 2 soakaway S L 23/10/17 -
100-1363 Post-excavation view of Plot 2 soakaway SW L 23/10/17 16
100-1364 Post-excavation view of Plot 2 soakaway W L 23/10/17 -
100-1365 Post-excavation view along service trenches SE P 26/10/17 18
100-1366 Post-excavation view along service trenches SE P 26/10/17 -
100-1367 Post-excavation view along service trenches SW P 26/10/17 17
100-1368 Post-excavation view along service trenches NE P 26/10/17 -
100-1369 Post-excavation view along service trenches N P 26/10/17 -
100-1370 Post-excavation view along service trenches N P 26/10/17 -
A.P.A.C. Ltd Cross Street, Caerleon WB/CA/17

100-1371 Post-excavation view along service trenches S P 26/10/17 -
100-1372 Post-excavation view along service trenches N P 26/10/17 -
100-1373 Post-excavation view along service trenches SW P 26/10/17 -
100-1374 Post-excavation view along service trenches NE P 26/10/17 -
100-1375 Post-excavation view along service trenches NE P 26/10/17 19
100-1376 View of architectural column fragment (0.3m scale) - L 26/10/17 21
100-1377 View of architectural column fragment (0.3m scale) - L 26/10/17 -
100-1378 View of architectural column fragment (0.3m scale) - L 26/10/17 22
100-1379 View of architectural column fragment (0.3m scale) - L 26/10/17 -
100-1380 View of architectural column fragment (0.3m scale) - L 26/10/17 -
100-1381 View of architectural column fragment (0.3m scale) - L 26/10/17 23
100-1382 View of architectural column fragment (0.3m scale) - L 26/10/17 24
100-1383 Post-excavation view along service trenches NE P 26/10/17 -
100-1384 Post-excavation view along service trenches NE P 26/10/17 -
100-1385 Post-excavation view along service trenches SW P 26/10/17 20
100-1391 Post-excavation view along service trenches SW P 31/10/17 -
100-1392 Post-excavation view along service trenches SW P 31/10/17 -
100-1393 Post-excavation view along service trenches W P 31/10/17 -
100-1394 Post-excavation view along service trenches E P 31/10/17 -
100-1395 Post-excavation view along service trenches NE P 31/10/17 -
100-1396 Post-excavation view along service trenches SW P 31/10/17 -
100-1397 Post-excavation view along service trenches SW P 31/10/17 -
100-1398 Post-excavation view along service trenches NE P 31/10/17 -
100-1399 Post-excavation view along service trenches S P 31/10/17 -
100-1400 Post-excavation view along service trenches SE P 31/10/17 -
Appendix 2 - Finds Index & Assemblage Photographs
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II WB/CA/17
Finds Index

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
1 Trench 1 100 1 clay pipe bowl with partial stamp, Mr Abraham Reeves of Bristol 1652 12/10/17
Clay Pipe Makers Guild. (Smith, Pers.comm)
1 round white earthenware ball, possibly child marble 19th
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
2 Trench 1 100 1 stoneware bottle base 19th 12/10/17
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
3 Trench 1 101 1 sherd Black burnished ware rim R, mid-late 2nd c 12/10/17
2 sherds (refit) black burnished ware with slight latticed decoration R, late 3rd-4th c
1 sherd black burnished ware R
1 sherd colour coated ware with partial slip
1 sherd wheel thrown South Wales reduced ware
1 sherd Cream earthenware
1 sherd roman CBM
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
4 Trench 1 101 1 tusk 12/10/17
1 bone fragment, burnt with cut marks
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
5 Trench 1 101 25 sherds Roman CBM R 12/10/17
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
6 Trench 2 201 1 sherd south Gaulish Samian bowl base R – c.70-85 12/10/17
1 sherd South Gaulish Samian bowl R – c.70 – 110
1 sherd Caerleon ware R – 2nd to 3rd c
1 sherd South Wales reduced ware bowl base R
1 sherd Light buff earthenware, possibly South Gaulish
2 sherds roman CBM
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
7 Trench 2 201 4 sherds Roman CBM R 12/10/17
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
8 Service 500 24 clay pipe stems 17th-18th
trenches 1 sherd clay pipe bowl
1 green glaze clay pipe mouth piece
1 clay pipe
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
9 Service 1 sherd north Devonshire earthenware 17th/18th
trenches 1 glazed stoneware inkwell 19th
Find no Area Context Description Period Date
10 Service 40 sherds CBM R
trenches
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00154
100 1

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
1 Trench 1 100 1 clay pipe bowl with partial stamp, Mr Abraham Reeves of Bristol 1652 12/10/17
Clay Pipe Makers Guild. (Chris Smith)
1 round white earthenware ball, possibly child marble 19th
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00155
100 2

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
2 Trench 1 100 1 stoneware bottle base 19th 12/10/17
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00155
101 3

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
3 Trench 1 101 1 sherd Black burnished ware rim R, mid-late 2nd c 12/10/17
2 sherds (refit) black burnished ware with slight latticed decoration R, late 3rd-4th c
1 sherd black burnished ware R
1 sherd colour coated ware with partial slip
1 sherd wheel thrown South Wales reduced ware
1 sherd Cream earthenware
1 sherd roman CBM
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00157
101 4

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
4 Trench 1 101 1 tusk 12/10/17
1 bone fragment, with cut marks
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00160
101 5a

DSC00161

101 5b

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
5 Trench 1 101 25 sherds Roman CBM R 12/10/17
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00158
201 6

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
6 Trench 2 201 1 sherd south Gaulish Samian bowl base R – c.70-85 12/10/17
1 sherd South Gaulish Samian bowl R – c.70 – 110
1 sherd Caerleon ware R – 2nd to 3rd c
1 sherd South Wales reduced ware bowl base R
1 sherd Light buff earthenware, possibly South Gaulish
2 sherds roman CBM
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00159
201 7

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
7 Trench 2 201 4 sherds Roman CBM R 12/10/17
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00254
500 8

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
8 Service 500 24 clay pipe stems 17th-19th
trenches 1 sherd clay pipe bowl
1 green glaze clay pipe mouth piece
1 clay pipe
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00255
9

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
9 Service 1 sherd north Devonshire earthenware 17th/18th
trenches 1 glazed stoneware inkwell 19th
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00256
10

DSC00257

10

Find no Area Context Description Period Date
10 Service 40 sherds CBM R
trenches
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00258
10

DSC00259

10
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00260
10

DSC00261

10
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II FINDS WB/CA/17

DSC00262
10
Appendix 3 - Context List & Site Matrix
A.P.A.C. Ltd Cross Street, Caerleon WB/CA/17

Appendix III – Context List and Matrices

Plot 1

Context No. Description
100 Dark brown/black, friable, silt overburden with modern inclusions

101 Mottled light brown/orange clay, firmly compacted, with occasional subrounded
stone inclusions up to 0.1m with Roman tile and ceramic

102 Cut of modern drain

103 Mixed orange clay and dark silt fill of [102]

104 Mid brown/reddish clay silt with charcoal flecks. Remnant subsoil horizon

Plot 2
200 Same as (100) though observed in Plot 2

201 Same as (101) though observed in Plot 2

202 Same as (104) though observed in Plot 2

203 Cut of 2013 Evaluation trench

204 Mixed fill of [203]

Soakaway 1
300 Same as (100/200) though observed in Soakaway 1

301 Same as (101/201) though observed in Soakaway 1

302 Firmly compacted grey clay horizon

303 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon

304 Firmly compacted grey clay horizon with evident tip lines

305 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon with thin grey clay lenses

306 Firmly compacted grey clay horizon with orange clay lenses

307 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon

308 Firmly compacted grey clay horizon

309 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon
A.P.A.C. Ltd Cross Street, Caerleon WB/CA/17

Soakaway 2
400 Same as (100/200/300) though observed in Soakaway 1

401 Same as (101/201/301) though observed in Soakaway 1

402 Firmly compacted grey clay horizon

403 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon

404 Firmly compacted grey clay horizon with evident tip lines

405 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon

406 Firmly compacted grey clay horizon

407 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon with thin grey clay lenses

408 Firmly compacted orange clay horizon

Service Trenches
500 Same as (100/200/300/400) though observed in service trenches

501 Same as (104/202) though observed in service trenches
A.P.A.C. Ltd Cross Street, Caerleon WB/CA/17