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# List of Formulae

Algebra

## For the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 :

-b � b 2 - 4ac
x=
2a
For an arithmetic series:
1 1
un = a + (n - 1)d , Sn = n ( a + l ) = n [ 2a + (n - 1)d ]
2 2
For a geometric series:
a (1- rn ) a
un = ar n -1
, Sn =
1- r
( r �1) , S� =
1- r
( r < 1)
Binomial expansion:
�n� � n� �n� � n� n�

( a + b ) = � �a n + � �a n-1b + � �a n-2b 2 + � �a n-3b3 + ... + � �b n ,
n

�0� � 1� �2 � �3 � �n�
�n � n!
where n is a positive integer and � �= .
�r � r !(n - r )!
n ( n - 1) 2 n ( n - 1) ( n - 2 ) 3
( 1+ x) x + ... , where n is rational and x < 1 .
n
= 1 + nx + x +
2! 3!

Trigonometry
cos 2 q + sin 2 q = 1 , 1 + tan 2 q = sec 2 q , cot 2 q + 1 = cosec 2q
sin ( A �B ) = sin A cos B �cos A sin B
cos ( A �B ) = cos A cos B msin A sin B
tan A �tan B
tan ( A �B ) =
1 mtan A tan B
2 tan A
sin 2 A = 2sin A cos A ; cos 2 A = cos 2 A - sin 2 A = 2 cos 2 A - 1 = 1 - 2sin 2 A ; tan 2 A =
1 - tan 2 A
P+Q P -Q 1
sin P + sin Q = 2sin cos sin P cos Q = � sin ( P + Q ) + sin ( P - Q ) �
2 2 2� �
P +Q P -Q 1
sin P - sin Q = 2cos sin cos P sin Q = � sin ( P + Q ) - sin ( P - Q ) �
2 2 2� �
P+Q P -Q 1
cos P - cos Q = -2sin sin cos P cos Q = � cos ( P + Q ) + cos ( P - Q ) �
2 2 2� �
P+Q P -Q 1
cos P + cos Q = 2 cos cos sin P sin Q = - � cos ( P + Q ) - cos ( P - Q ) �
2 2 2� �
1
Area of triangle = ab sin C or s (s - a )( s - b)(s - c )
2
Cosine Rule a 2 = b 2 + c 2 - 2bc cos A , b 2 = a 2 + c 2 - 2ac cos B , c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab cos C
a b c
Sine Rule = =
sin A sin B sin C