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2 Apply the Seventh Index Law to write the expression with =4÷

positive indices. a3

a3

3 To divide the fraction, change fraction division into multiplication. =4×

1

= 4a3

1

= an.

FS

• Part c from Worked example 4 demonstrates the converse of the Seventh Index Law,

a−n

WORKED EXAMPLE 5

O

Simplify each of the following, expressing the answers with positive indices.

O

( n−2 )

2 x4y2 2m3 −2

a a2b−3 × a−5b b c

3xy5

PR

THINK WRITE

E

2 Apply the First Index Law. Multiply terms with the same base by = a2 + −5b−3 + 1

adding the indices. = a−3b−2

G

1

3 Express the answer with positive indices. =

a3b2

PA

4 2

b 1 Write the expression. b 2x y

3xy5

D

2x4−1y2−5

2 Apply the Second Index Law. Divide terms with the same base by =

3

TE

2x y−3

3

=

3

EC

=

3y3

( n−2 )

2m3 −2

R

R

2 Apply the Sixth Index Law. Multiply the indices of both the 2−2m−6

=

numerator and denominator by the index outside the brackets.

O

n4

1

3 Express all terms with positive indices. =

C

2 m6n4

2

1

=

N

4m6n4

U

• Numbers in index form can be easily evaluated if they are expressed with positive indices first.

Consider the following example.

WORKED EXAMPLE 6

THINK WRITE

2 Apply the Seventh Index Law to write 3−3 with a positive index. 1

=6×

33

FS

6

3 Multiply the numerator of the fraction by the whole number. =

33

6

4 Evaluate the denominator. =

O

27

2

5 Cancel by dividing both the numerator and denominator by the highest =

O

common factor (3). 9

PR

RESOURCES — ONLINE ONLY

E

Interactivity: Colour code breaker (int-2777)

Interactivity: Negative indices (doc-6064)

G

eLesson: Negative indices (eles-1910)

PA

Exercise 2.3 Negative indices

D

Individual pathways

TE

Questions: Questions: Questions:

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1a–i, 2a–i, 3a–f, 4, 5a–e, 6a–b, 1a–i, 2a–i, 3c–h, 4, 5a–g, 6, 7, 1, 2c–o, 3c–l, 4, 5d–j, 6, 7, 8c–f,

8a–c, 9, 11a, 12 8b–e, 9, 11a–b, 12, 13, 15, 18 9–18

R

To answer questions online and to receive immediate feedback and fully worked solutions for every

R

question, go to your learnON title at www.jacplus.com.au. Note: Question numbers may vary slightly.

O

1. WE4 Express each of the following with positive indices.

C

1

N

a−6

U

2 6a 7a−4 2m3n−5

i. j. k. l.

3a−4 3b−2 2b−3 3a−2b4

2. WE5 Simplify each of the following, expressing the answers with positive indices.

a. a3b−2

× a−5b−1 b. 2x−2y × 3x−4y−2 c. 3m2n−5 × m−2n−3 d. 4a3b2 ÷ a5b7

6m4n 4x2y9

e. 2xy6 ÷ 3x2y5 f. 5x−2y3 ÷ 6xy2 g. h.

2n3m6 x7y−3

TOPIC 2 Indices 37

2m2n−4

i. j. (2a3m4)−5 k. 4(p 7q −4)−2 l. 3(a−2b−3)4

6m5n−1

2p 2 −3 a−4 2 6a2 −3

m. n. o.

−3

a. 2 b. 6−2 c. 3−4 d. 3−2 × 23

6 4 × 3−3

e. 4−3 × 22 f. 5 × 6−2 g. h.

FS

2−3 2−3

1 160 × 24 53 × 250 34 × 42

i. × 5−2 × 34 j. k. l.

3

82 × 2−4 252 × 5−4 123 × 150

O

4. Write each of these numbers as a power of 2.

a. 8 b. 18 c. 32 d. 1

O

64

5. Complete each statement by writing the correct index.

PR

1

a. 125 = 5 ⋯ b. 16 = 4⋯ c. 17 = 7 … d. 216 = 6 ⋯

1

e. 0.01 = 10 ⋯ f. 1 = 8 ⋯ g. 64 = 4 ⋯ h. 64

= 4…

1 1

i. 64

= 2… j. 64

= 8…

E

6. Evaluate the following expressions.

(3 )

b. (54 ) c. (3 12 ) d. (15 )

−1 −1 −1 −1

G

2

a.

PA

7. Write the following expressions with positive indices.

a −1 a2 −1 a−2 −1 m3 −1

a. b. c. d.

D

d. (12 )

−8

a. 3−6 b. 12−4 c. 7−5

TE

e. (34 )

−7

f. (0.04)−5

EC

1 1

A. −x5 B. −5x C. 5x D. E.

1 x5 x−5

b. is the same as:

a−4

R

1

A. 4a B. −4a C. a4 D. E. −a4

a4

c. 18 is the same as:

R

1

A. 23 B. 2−3 C. 32 D. 3−2 E.

O

2−3

3m4

10. MC a. Which of the following, when simplified, gives ?

C

4n2

3m−4n−2 3n−2

A. B. 3 × 2−2 × m4 × n−2 C.

N

4 2−2m−4

22n−2

D. E. 3m4 × 22n−2

U

3−1m−4

b. When simplified, 3a−2b−7 ÷ 34a−4b6 is equal to:

4 9b 9a2 4a2 4a2

A. B. C. D. E.

a6b13 4a6 4b b13 b

6 −4 −3

c. When (2x y ) is simplified, it is equal to:

2x18 x18 y12 8y12 x18

A. B. C. D. E.

y12 8y12 8x18 x18 6y12

( by )

2ax 3 8b9

d. If is equal to , then x and y (in that order) are:

a6

A. –3 and –6 B. –6 and –3 C. –3 and 2 D. –3 and –2 E. –2 and –3

11. Simplify the following, expressing your answers with positive indices.

m−3n−2 (m3n−2)−7 5(a3b−3)2 (5a−2b)−1

a. b. c. ÷

m−5n6 (m−5n3)4 (ab−4)−1 (a−4b)3

12. Simplify the following, expanding any expressions in brackets.

a. (r3 + s3) (r3 − s3) b. (m5 + n5)2

(p x− 1)

FS

(x ) × x

a+1 b a+b p x+1 −4 p 8(x+1) p2

c. d. × ×

xa(b+1) × x2b (p 2x)4 (p 12x)0

(22r × 16)

2r × 8r

O

13. Write in the form 2ar+b.

O

14. Write 2−m × 3−m × 62m × 32m × 22m as a power of 6.

15. Solve for x if 4x − 4x−1 = 48.

PR

Communicating, reasoning and problem solving

16. Explain why each of these statements is false. Illustrate each answer by substituting a value for the

pronumeral.

1

E

a. 5x0 = 1 b. 9x5 ÷ 3x5 = 3x c. a5 ÷ a7 = a2 d. 2c−4 =

4

17. Solve for x and y if 5x− y = 625 and 32x × 3y = 243. 2c

G

35x

Hence, evaluate .

7−2y × 5−3y

PA

18. Solve for n. Verify your answers.

(3n)n × (3n)−1

a. (2n)n × (2n)3 × 4 = 1 b. =1

81

19. Are there any index laws from Section 2.2 that do not apply to negative indices?

D

TE

[Stage 5.3]

2.4.1 Fractional indices

EC

• Terms with fractional indices can be written as surds, using the following laws:

1

n n

1. a = √a

R

m

n n

2. a = √am

R

n

= (√a) m

• To understand how these laws are formed, consider the following numerical examples.

O

1 1

We know 4 × 4 = 412 2

C

N

=4

U

1

It follows, then, that 42 = √4.

1 1 1

Similarly, we know that 8 × 8 × 8 = 81

3 3 3

=8

1

It follows, then, that 83 = √3 8.

TOPIC 2 Indices 39

1

n n

This observation can be generalised to a = √a.

m 1 m 1

n n n n×m

Now consider: a = am × or a =a

1 1

n n

= (am) = (a ) m

n n

= √am = (√a) m

m

n n n

• Eighth Index Law: a = √am = (√a) m

FS

WORKED EXAMPLE 7

O

Evaluate each of the following without using a calculator.

1 3

O

a 92 b 162

THINK WRITE

PR

1

a 1 Rewrite the number using the Eighth Index Law. a 92 = √9

2 Evaluate the result. =3

E

m 3

n n

b 1 Rewrite the number using a = (√a) m. b 16 = (√16) 3

2

G

= 43

2 Simplify and evaluate the result. = 64

PA

WORKED EXAMPLE 8

D

( y4 )

2 2

1 2 1 3

x

TE

a m5 × m5 b (a2b3) 6 c

3

EC

THINK WRITE

1 2

a 1 Write the expression. a m5 × m5

3

R

2 Apply the First Index Law to multiply terms with the same base =m 5

by adding the indices.

R

1

b 1 Write the expression. b (a2b3) 6

O

2 Use the Fourth Index Law to multiply each index inside the 2 3

=ab 6 6

C

1 1

3 Simplify. = a3b2

N

U

(y4 )

2 2

3

x

3

1

2 Use the Sixth Index Law to multiply the index in both 3

x

the numerator and denominator by the index outside =

3

the brackets. 8

y

DISCUSSION

Why is finding the square root of an expression the same as raising the expression to the power of a half?

FS

eLesson: Fractional indices (int-1950)

Digital doc: SkillSHEET: Addition of fractions (doc-5176)

Digital doc: SkillSHEET: Subtraction of fractions (doc-5177)

O

Digital doc: SkillSHEET: Multiplication of fractions (doc-5178)

Digital doc: SkillSHEET: Writing roots as fractional indices (doc-5179)

O

Digital doc: WorkSHEET: Fractional indices (doc-5180)

PR

Exercise 2.4 Fractional indices

E

Individual pathways

! PRACTISE ! CONSOLIDATE

G ! MASTER

PA

Questions: Questions: Questions:

1–5, 6a, d, g, 7a, d, 8a, d, g, 9a, 1–5, 6a, b, e, h, i, 7a, b, c, f, 8a, 1–5, 6c, f, i, 7c, f, 8c, f, i, 9b, c, e,

d, 10a, d, g, 11a, d, g, 12, 13, b, d, e, g, h, 9a, b, d, e, 10b, e, h, f, 10c, f, i, 11c, f, i, 12–20

14a, d, g, 15, 16 11b, e, h, 12, 13, 14b, e, h, 15,

D

16, 17

TE

To answer questions online and to receive immediate feedback and fully worked solutions for every

question, go to your learnON title at www.jacplus.com.au. Note: Question numbers may vary slightly.

EC

1. WE7 Evaluate each of the following without using a calculator.

R

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 3 3 4

a. 16 b. 25 c. 81 d. 8 e. 64 f. 81

R

1 1 2 5 3

O

a. 152 b. m4 c. 75 d. 72 e. w8 f. w1.25

1

C

g. 533 h. a0.3

N

a. √t b. √4 57 c. √6 611 d. √7 x6 e. √6 x7 f. √5 w10

U

x

g. √5 w10 h. √11n

4. Without using a calculator, find the exact value of each of the following.

2 4 3 4 3 2

3 3 5 5 2 3

a. 8 b. 8 c. 32 d. 32 e. 25 f. 27

−2 3 6 1 1 1

3 4 2 12 2

g. 27 h. 81 i. 10 j. 36 k. 7 l. 123

TOPIC 2 Indices 41

5. Using a calculator, evaluate each of the following. Give answers correct to 2 decimal places.

1 1 1 1 3 4

a. 33 b. 52 c. 75 d. 89 e. 128 f. (0.6)5

3 3 2

2 4 3

2 3 4

g. h. i.

3 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 3 2

a. 45 × 45 b. 28 × 28 c. a2 × a3 d. x4 × x5 e. 5m3 × 2m5 f. 12b7 × 4b7

FS

2 3 3 1

g. −4y2 × y9 h. 25a8 × 0.05a4 i. 5x3 × x2

7. Simplify each of the following.

O

2 3 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 3 4

a. a3b4 × a3b4 b. x5y9 × x5y3 c. 2ab3 × 3a5b5

O

3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 3 3

d. 6m7 × 13m4n5 e. x3y2z3 × x6y3z2 f. 2a5b8c4 × 4b4c4

PR

8. Simplify each of the following. 4

1 1 2 1 3 6 3 3 1

m5

a. 3 ÷ 3

2 3

b. 5 ÷ 5

3 4

c. 122 ÷ 12 2

d. a ÷ a

7 7

e. x ÷ x

2 4

f.

5

3 3

4 7n2 m9

E

5

2x 25b

g. h. 4 i.

3 1

21n3

G

4x 5 20b4

9. Simplify each of the following.

PA

4 3 5 2 2 2 3 4 3

a. x3y2 ÷ x3y5 b. a9b3 ÷ a5b5 c. m8n7 ÷ 3n8

3 3 7 1

4 2 1 4 5 8 4

5a b p q

d. 10x y ÷ 5x y

5 3 4

e. f.

D

1 1 2 1

5 4

20a b 7p 3q 6

TE

3 3 2 1 1 1 4 3 1 1

a. (24) 5 b. (53) 4 c. (75) 6 d. (a3) 10 e. (m9) 8 f. (2b2) 3

EC

3 14 m n a b

n p c

g. 4(p 7) 15 h. (x ) i. (3mb)

11. WE8b, c Simplify each of the following.

R

3 2

( b)

1 1 1 3 3 7 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 1

2 3 2 4 a4 3

a. (a b ) b. (a4b) c. (x5y8) 2 3 5 4 3

d. (3a b c ) 2 3 5 2

e. 5(x y z ) f.

R

(n ) (c )

2 1

(2y4 )

4 3

O

2 2

5

m 5 b 4x7

g. 7

h. 4

i. 3

C

8 9

N

2

12. MC a. y5 is equal to:

U

1 1 1

2 5

A. (y2) 5 B. y × C. (y5) 2 D. 2√y E. (y5) 2

5

2

b. k3 is not equal to:

1 1 1

3 3

A. (k3) 2 B. √k2 C. (k2) 3 D. (√k) 2 E. (k2) 3

1

c. 5

is equal to:

√g 2

2 −2 5 −5 1

A. g 5 B. g 5 C. g 2 D. g 2 E. 2g 5

3 m 1

n

13. MC a. If (a4) is equal to a4, then m and n could not be:

A. 1 and 3 B. 2 and 6 C. 3 and 8 D. 4 and 9 E. both C and D

p

( bp )

m m

n

FS

a

b. When simplified, n is equal to:

O

m p mp m2

p n n np

a a a ap a

A. n B. n C. n D. m E. nm

O

m m m b 2

b b b bp

14. Simplify each of the following.

PR

a. √a8 b. √3 b9 c. √4 m16 d. √16x4 e. √3 8y9

f. √4 16x8y12 g. √3 27m9n15 h. √5 32p 5q 10 i. √3 216a6b18

15. The relationship between the length of a pendulum (L)in a grandfather

E

clock and the time it takes to complete one swing (T) in seconds is given

by the following rule. Note that g is the acceleration due to gravity and

should be taken as 9.8.

(g )

1

G

PA

L 2

T = 2π

a. Calculate the time it takes a 1-m-long pendulum to complete one swing.

b. Calculate the time it takes the pendulum to complete 10 swings.

D

TE

16. Using the index laws, show that √5 32a5b10 = 2ab2.

17. To rationalise a fraction means to remove all non-rational numbers from the

EC

a2

denominator of the fraction. Rationalise by multiplying the numerator and

3 + √b3

denominator by 3 − √b3, and then evaluate if b = a2 and a = 2. Show all of your

R

working.

2 1 1 2 2

R

m5 − 2m5n5 + n5 − p 5

18. Simplify .

O

1 1 1

m −n −p

5 5 5

C

19. A scientist has discovered a piece of paper with a complex formula written on it. She thinks that

someone has tried to disguise a simpler formula. The formula is:

N

( ab2 ) (a2√b)

√4 a13a2√b3 √a3b 2 b2 3

× b3 × ×

U

√a1b

a. Simplify the formula using index laws so that it can be worked with.

b. From your simplified formula, can a take a negative value? Explain.

c. What is the smallest value for a for which the expression will give a rational answer? Consider only

integers.

20. Why is it easier to perform operations with fractional indices than with expressions using surds?

TOPIC 2 Indices 43

2.5 Combining index laws [Stage 5.3]

2.5.1 Combining index laws

• When several steps are needed to simplify an expression, expand brackets first.

• When fractions are involved, it is usually easier to carry out all multiplications first, leaving one

division as the final process.

• Final answers are conventionally written using positive indices.

FS

DISCUSSION

Think about what you have learned from the interactivity above. Pair with a classmate to discuss what you have

O

learned. Share your perspectives with your class by adding a comment.

O

WORKED EXAMPLE 9

PR

Simplify each of the following.

(2a)4b4 3n− 2 × 9n+1

a b

6a3b2 81n− 1

E

G

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the expression. a (2a) 4b4

PA

6a3b2

2 Apply the Fourth Index Law to remove the bracket. 16a4b4

=

6a3b2

D

3 Apply the Second Index Law for each number and pronumeral to 8a4 − 3b4 − 2

=

TE

simplify. 3

4 Write the answer. 8ab2

=

3

EC

81n − 1

R

=

(34) n − 1

R

O

=

34n − 4

C

4 Apply the First and Second Index Laws to simplify and write your 33n

=

answer. 34n − 4

N

1

=

U

3n − 4

WORKED EXAMPLE 10

a (2a3b) 4 × 4a2b3 7xy3 2m5n × 3m7n4

b c

(3x3y2) 2 7m3n3 × mn2

THINK WRITE

a 1 Write the expression. a (2a3b) 4 × 4a2b3

2 Apply the Fourth Index Law. Multiply each index inside the = 24a12b4 × 4a2b3

brackets by the index outside the brackets.

3 Evaluate the number. = 16a12b4 × 4a2b3

4 Multiply coefficients and multiply pronumerals. Apply the First = 16 × 4 × a12+2b4+3

= 64a14b7

FS

Index Law to multiply terms with the same base by adding the

indices.

b 1 Write the expression. b 7xy3

O

(3x3y2) 2

O

2 Apply the Fourth Index Law in the denominator. Multiply each 7xy3

index inside the brackets by the index outside the brackets. =

PR

9x6y4

3 Apply the Second Index Law. Divide terms with the same base by 7x−5y−1

subtracting the indices. =

9

1

4 Use a−m = m to express the answer with positive indices. 7

E

a =

9x5y

c 1 Write the expression.

G c 2m5n × 3m7n4

PA

7m3n3 × mn2

=

coefficients and then terms with the same base. 7m4n5

D

3 Apply the Second Index Law. Divide terms with the same base by 6m8n0

=

TE

4 Simplify the numerator using a0 = 1. 6m8 × 1

=

7

EC

6m8

=

7

R

WORKED EXAMPLE 11

R

O

a × b ÷

a10 (a3b) 7 (6mn2) 3 6m−5n

C

THINK WRITE

N

U

×

a10 (a3b) 7

2 Remove the brackets in the numerator of the first 25a4b6 a2b5

= ×

fraction and in the denominator of the second fraction. a10 a21b7

3 Multiply the numerators and then multiply the denomi- 25a6b11

=

nators of the fractions. (Simplify across.) a31b7

TOPIC 2 Indices 45

4 Divide terms with the same base by subtracting the = 25a−25b4

indices. (Simplify down.)

25b4

5 Express the answer with positive indices. =

a25

b 1 Write the expression. b 8m3n−4 4m−2n−4

÷

(6mn2) 3 6m−5n

FS

= ÷

216m3n6 6m−5n

O

= ×

216m3n6 4m−2n−4

O

4 Multiply the numerators and then multiply the denomi- 48m−2n−3

=

PR

nators. (Simplify across.) 864mn2

5 Cancel common factors and divide pronumerals with the m−3n−5

=

same base. (Simplify down.) 18

1

E

6 Simplify and express the answer with positive indices. =

18m3n5

G

• Note that the whole numbers in part b of Worked example 11 could be cancelled in step 3.

PA

RESOURCES — ONLINE ONLY

D

TE

EC

Individual pathways

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1a–d, 2a–d, 3a–d, 4a–d, 5a–d, 6, 1c–h, 2c–f, 3c–g, 4b–f, 5c–f, 6–10, 1f–j, 2e–i, 3f–i, 4d–f, 5e–h, 6–10,

R

O

C

To answer questions online and to receive immediate feedback and fully worked solutions for every

question, go to your learnON title at www.jacplus.com.au. Note: Question numbers may vary slightly.

N

U

a. (3a2b2) 3 × 2a4b3 b. (4ab5) 2 × 3a3b6 c. 2m3n−5 × (m2n−3) −6

d. (2pq 3) 2 × (5p2q 4) 3 e. (2a7b2) 2 × (3a3b3) 2 f. 5(b2c−2) 3 × 3(bc5) −4

1 1 3 4 1 3 1 1 2 1 3 1 3 1

−4 −4 −3

g. 6x2y3 × (4x4y5) 2 h. (16m3n4) 4 × (m2n4) 3 i. 2(p3q 3) × 3(p4q )

1 2 1 1 3 2

−

5 3 3

j. (8p q ) × (64p q )

3 4 3

2. WE10b Simplify each of the following.

( 2x7y4 )

5a2b3 4x5y6 (3m2n3) 3 4x3y10 6

3a3b−5

a. b. c. d. e.

(2a3b) 3 (2xy3) 4 (2m5n5) 7 (2a7b4) −3

1 1 1 1

( 2g 4h ) (5b−3c−4)

3g 2h 5 3 (5p6q 3) 2 3b2c3 −4 (x3y4z2) 2

f. g. h. i.

1 1 2 2 1 1 3

2 4 3 − −2

25(p q ) (x3y 4z3)

3. WE10c Simplify each of the following.

FS

2a2b × 3a3b4 4m6n3 × 12mn5 10m6n5 × 2m2n3

a. b. c.

4a3b5 6m7n6 12m4n × 5m2n3

6x3y2 × 4x6y (6x3y2) 4 5x2y3 × 2xy5

d. e. f.

O

9xy5 × 2x3y6 9x5y2 × 4xy7 10x3y4 × x4y2

O

3 1 4 3

a3b2 × 2(ab5) 3 (p6q 2) −3 × 3pq 6x2y2 × x5y5

g. h. i.

PR

6(a2b3) 3 × a4b 2p−4q −2 × (5pq 4) −2 1 1 1 1

2(x2y) 5 × 3x2y5

4. WE11a Simplify each of the following.

ab 3 2

2a6b (2a6) 2 4ab6 (m4n3) 2 (m3n3) 3

a. × b. × c. ×

E

5a4b7 a9b3 10a7b3 6a3 (m6n) 4 (2mn) 2

G

2m3n2 3 6m2n4 2xy2 4 x3y9 2 4x−5y−3 3x5y6

d. × e. × f. ×

4m3n10 (x2y2) −2 2−2x−7y

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1 1 1 1 2 1 1

( 3p5 )

5p6q −5 5p6q 4 −2

2a b2 3 (4a4b) 2 3x3y5 4x 2

g. × h. × i. ×

3q −4 1 1

3 2

1

4

1 1

3 4

3

4

6a b ba 9x y xy

D

5a2b3 a9b4 7a2b4 3ab 3 4a9 3 3a7 4

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a. ÷ b. ÷ c. ÷

6a7b5 3ab6

5x2y6 (4x6y) 3 x5y−3 −4 4x6y−10 3m3n4 2m4n6 −2

÷ ÷ ÷

EC

d. e. f.

(2x4y5) 2 10xy3 (3x−2y2) −3

1 1 1 1

( )

1 3 2 1 3

6m3n4 4b3c3 −5 −2

g. 4m n ÷

2 4

÷ 3

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h. (2b c )

3 1 1

4 2 5

8m n 6c b

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(26 × 39)0

a. (52 × 2)0 × (5−3 × 20)5 ÷ (56 × 2−1)−3 b. (23 × 33)−2 ÷

26 × (3−2)−3

C

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8. (2x)−3 × ( ) ÷

x 2 2x

2 (23) 4

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a. Simplify the following fraction.

(ay) 3 × 5(3by) 2

b. Find the value of y if the fraction is equal to 125.

3

9. MC Which of the following is not the same as (4xy)2?

1

3 3 1 1

(2x3y3) 2

A. 8x y 2 2

B. (√4xy) 3 C. √64x3y3 D. E. 4xy2 × (2xy2) 2

(√32) −1

TOPIC 2 Indices 47

x2y xy

10. MC The expression ÷ is equal to:

(2xy2) 3 16x0

2 2x2 2 1

A. B. C. 2x2y6 D. E.

x y6

2 b6 xy6 128xy5

11. Simplify the following.

1 1

(n−3)

2

1 453

a. √3 m2n ÷ √mn3 b. (g −2h) 3 × c.

3 3

FS

9 × 15

4 2

(3−3b−3) ( a4b−2 )

3 1 3 3b−2 −2 −3a−2b 2 3 1

−4 −4 a 3 5

d. 2 × 4

2

× 16 e. ÷ f. (√d ) 2

2 × (√3 d 5) 5

O

Communicating, reasoning and problem solving

O

12. In a controlled breeding program at Melbourne Zoo, the

population (P) of koalas at t years is modelled by

PR

P = P0 × 10kt. Given P0 = 20 and k = 0.3:

a. calculate the number of koalas after 2 years

b. determine when the population will be equal to 1000.

13. The decay of uranium is modelled by D = D0 × 2−kt. If it

E

takes 6 years for the mass of uranium to halve, find the

G

percentage remaining after:

a. 2 years b. 5 years c. 10 years.

PA

Give your answers to the nearest whole number.

72x + 1 − 72x − 1 − 48

14. Simplify .

36 × 72x − 252

D

z4 + z−4 − 3

15. Simplify .

1

TE

−2

z + z −5

2 2

17. Find an expression for x in terms of y, given that

EC

(√ay) x = ax × ay.

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2.6 Review

Investigation | Rich task

Digital world: ‘A bit of this and a byte of that’

‘The digital world of today is run by ones and

zeros.’ What does this mean?

FS

Data is represented on a modern digital com-

puter using a base two (binary) system, that is,

using the two digits 1 and 0, thought of as ‘on’

O

and ‘off’. The smallest unit of data that is trans-

ferred on a computer is a bit (an abbreviation of

O

binary digit). Computer and storage mecha-

nisms need to hold much larger values than a

PR

bit. Units such as bytes, kilobytes (KB), mega-

bytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), and terabytes (TB)

are based on the conversion of 8 bits to 1 byte.

Your text messages, graphics, music and photos

E

are files stored in sequences of bytes, each byte

G

being 8 bits (8b = 1B).

You may have heard the terms ‘meg’ and ‘gig’. In computer terminology, these refer to gigabytes

PA

and megabytes. In the digital world, the prefixes kilo-, mega- and giga- express powers of two, where

kilo- means 210, mega- means (210) 2 and so on. Thus the number of bytes in a computer’s memory

builds in powers of 2, for example 1 kilobyte = 1024 bytes (210 bytes). (This differs from the decimal

system, in which the prefixes kilo-, mega- and giga- express powers of ten, with kilo- meaning 103,

D

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A byte (8 bits) is used to represent a single character. For example the letter ‘A’ is represented in

binary as 01000001. A book of a thousand pages in print can be stored in millions of bits, but more

commonly it would be described as being stored in megabytes with one byte per character.

EC

1. Complete the table below to show the difference in value between the binary and decimal

systems.

Power of 2 and Power of 10 and

R

R

Byte B 20 = 1 100 = 1

Kilobyte KB 210 = 1024 103 = 1000

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Megabyte 220 =

C

Gigabyte

Terabyte

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2. The two numbering systems have led to some confusion, with some manufacturers of digital

products thinking of a kilobyte as 1000 bytes rather than 1024 bytes. Similar confusion arises

with megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes and so on. This means you might not be getting exactly the

amount of storage that you think.

If you bought a device quoted as having 16 GB memory, what would be the difference in

memory storage if the device had been manufactured using the decimal value of GB as opposed

to the binary system?

TOPIC 2 Indices 49

Many devices allow you to check the availability of

General Usage

storage. On one such device, the iPhone, available

storage is found by going to ‘General’ under the heading Storage

‘Settings’. 3.9 GB Available 9.5 GB Used

3. How much storage is left in MB on the following iPhone?

4. If each photo uses 3.2 MB of memory, how many photos Photos & Camera 1.6 GB

can be added?

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Have you ever wondered about the capacity of our brain Radio 1.6 GB

to store information and the speed at which information is

transmitted inside it? Maps 1.2 GB

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5. Discuss how the storage and speed of our brains compares

to our current ability to send and store information in the My Movie 461 MB

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digital world. The capacity of the human brain is 10–100

terabytes. On average, 20 million billion bits of informa-

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tion are transmitted within the brain per second.

6. Investigate which country has the fastest internet speed and compare this to Australia.

E

G

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R

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Digital doc: Code puzzle: What historical event took place in France in 1783? (doc-0000)

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Digital doc: Concept map (doc-13802)

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Interactivity: Crossword: Topic 2 (int-2827)

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To answer questions online and to receive immediate feedback and fully worked solutions for every

question, go to your learnON title at http://www.jacplus.com.au. Note: Question numbers may vary

slightly.

Understanding and fluency

1. 3d10e4 is the simplified form of:

( e2 )

6d10e5 d5 2

A. d 6e2 × 3d4e3 B. C. (3d5e2) 2 D. 3e (d5) 2 × e3 E. 3

2e2

2. 8m3n × n4 × 2m2n3 simplifies to:

A. 10m5n8 B. 16m5n7 C. 16m5n8 D. 10m5n7 E. 17m5n8

3. 8x3 ÷ 4x−3 is equal to:

2

A. 2 B. 2x0 C. 2x6 D. 2x−1

FS

E.

x9

12x8 × 2x7

4. simplifies to:

6x9 × x5

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A. 4x5 B. 8x C. 4x D. 8x5 E. 4x29

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2 3 5

(a b )

5. The expression is equal to:

(2a2b) 2

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a6b13 a3b6 a6b13 a3b6

A. B. 2a6b13 C. D. E.

4 2 2 4

(p2q ) 4 (p5q 2) 2

6. ÷ can be simplified to:

E

(2p5q 2) 3 2pq 5

G

1 22 1 1

A. B. C. D. E. 22p16q

4p16q p16q 4p8 2p16q

PA

−3 3

7. 16 4

÷ 92 can be simplified to:

1 8 3 1

A. 2 B. C. D. 3 E.

216 27 8 2

D

2

(2l9m−1) −3

8. can be simplified to:

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8(16 lm−2)

2

1

A. B. C. D. E.

EC

11 7 8 5 7

l3 l3 l3 l3 2l3

√32i

5 10 5

9. can be simplified to:

R

7 j11 k2

2 1 2 10 5 2 1 2

R

2 1 2 50 25

32i7j11k5 7 11 5 32i 7 j11k2 2i7j11k5

A. B. 2i j k C. D. 2i 7 j11k10 E.

O

5 5 5

10. Simplify each of the following.

C

( 6 ) (21q 3)

3 26a4b6c5 20m5n2 3 14p7 4

a. 5x3 × 3x5y4 × x2y6 b. c. d.

N

5 12a3b3c3

11. Evaluate each of the following.

U

(3)

2a 0 (4b)0

a. 5a0 − + 12 b. −(3b)0 −

2

12. Simplify each of the following and express your answer with positive indices.

a. 2a−5b2 × 4a−6b−4 b. 4x−5y−3 ÷ 20x12y−5 c. (2m−3n2)−4

13. Evaluate each of the following without using a calculator.

(2) (2)

1 −3 9 2 5

a. b. 2 × (3)−3 × c. 4−3 × −5

8−2

TOPIC 2 Indices 51

14. Simplify each of the following.

3

1

3 4 1 1

4xy

( b3 )

4 1 1 3 3 2

9 4a3 2

a. 2a b × 3a b × 5a b

5 2 2 4 4 5

b. c.

16xy

15. Evaluate each of the following without using a calculator. Show all working.

3 1

2 2 1

16 × 81

4 4

a. b. (1253 − 273) 2

1

6 × 16

2

FS

16. Simplify the following.

a. √3 a9 + √4 16a8b2-3(√5 a) 15 b. √5 32x5y10 + √3 64x3y6

17. Simplify the following.

O

1

(3x−6y3)

(5a−2b)−3 × 4a6b−2 2x4y−5 4xy−2 1 −1

( 5m2n ) ( 5−3 )

−3

2m3n4 4m3n−2

O

a. b. × c. 3

÷ 2

2a2b3 × 5−2a−3b−6 3y6x−2 1 2

PR

18. Simplify each of the following and then evaluate.

1 1

1 3 −1 (32 × 63) 6

a. (3 × 56)2 × 3 × 5−2 + (36 ×

2

5 2) 0 b. (6 × 3−2) −1 ÷

−62 × (3−3) 0

E

G

Communicating, reasoning and problem solving

6a3m × 2b2m × (3ab)−m

PA

19. If m = 2, determine the value of .

1

× (4b)m (9a4m) 2

20. Answer the following and explain your reasoning.

3

a. What is the tens digit of 33 ?

D

TE

21. For the work shown below:

a. calculate the correct answer

EC

( 5a2b ) ( c )

3a3b5c3 2 2ab 3a6b10c6 2ab

÷ = ÷

10a4b2 c

R

6b10c6

3a c

= ×

4 2 2ab

R

10a b

6b10c7

3a

=

O

20a5b3

3ab7c7

=

C

20

22. A friend is trying to calculate the volume of water in a reservoir amid fears there may be a severe

N

U

r4u 2 ru × d2

W= × ,

3 dr3u 4

r2d2√u

where r is the amount of rain, d is how dry the area is, u is the usage of water by the townsfolk, and

W is the volume of water in kL.

a. Help her simplify the expression by simplifying each pronumeral one at a time.

b. Does the final expression contain any potential surds?

c. Express the fraction with a rational denominator.

d. List the requirements for the possible values of r, u and d to give a rational answer.

e. Calculate the volume of water in the reservoir when r = 4, d = 60 and u = 9. Write your answer in:

i. kL ii. L iii. mL.

f. Does a high value for d mean the area is dry? Explain using working.

p2

23. The speed of a toy plane can be modelled by the equation S = , where

2 + √w3

w = wind resistance and

FS

p = battery power (from 0 (empty) to 10 (full)).

a. Rationalise the denominator of the expression.

b. Using your knowledge of perfect squares, estimate the speed of a toy plane with its battery half full

O

and a wind resistance of 2. Check your answer with a calculator.

c. How does the speed of the toy plane change with increasing wind resistance? Explain providing

O

supportive calculations.

PR

E

G

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D

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EC

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C

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TOPIC 2 Indices 53

Answers

Topic 2 Indices

Exercise 2.2 Review of index laws

1. a. a7 b. a6 c. b8 d. a4b7 e. m5n13 f. a5b7c3

g. m6n4p5 h. 6a2b i. 10a4b9 j. 36m8n7 k. 12x6y6 l. 4x8y6

4 4

2. a. a b. a5 c. b3 d. 3

a e. 3b4 f. 4m5

1 2 3 3 5 2 2

g. m3n h. 2

y i. 4

xy j. 7b3 k. 4

mp l. 12xy2

FS

3. a. 1 b. 1 c. 1 d. 3 e. 4

f. −3 g. 3 h. −7 i. 4

1 8

4. a. a6 b. 16a20 c. m d. 49n8 e. a6b3

O

81

27 6 3 a4 625m12

f. 9a6b4 g. 16m12n20 h. 64

mn i. j.

b6 n8

O

343x3 81a4

k. l. m. −243 n. 49 o. −32

8y15 625b12

PR

5. a. D b. D

6. a. C b. E c. B d. D

7. a. 64 b. 72 c. 625 d. 48 e. 1600

27

f. g. 20 h. 1 i. 4

E

125

a2x

8. a. x3yz b. ab c. manb d. e. n3−pm2−q f. amp + np

G

b3x

9. a3 = a × a × a

a2 = a × a

PA

a × a2 = a × a × a × a × a

3

= a5, not a6

Explanations will vary.

10. They are equal when x = 2. Explanations will vary.

D

12. a, b

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a 0 1 2 3

3a2 0 3 12 27

5a 0 5 10 15

EC

3a + 5a

2 0 8 22 42

3a2 × 5a 0 15 120 405

c. 3a2 × 5a will become much larger than 3a2 + 5a.

R

13. x = −2 or 4

14. 1 ≡ 1 2 ≡ 10 3 ≡ 11 4 ≡ 100 5 ≡ 101

R

15. a. x = 4 b. x = 0, 2

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16. a. a2bc7

C

b. The student made a mistake when multiplying the two brackets in line 3. Individual brackets should be expanded first.

17. Discuss with your teacher

N

U

1 1 2 4

1. a. b. 4 c. 9 d.

x5 y a 5a3

3x2 1 6a3 6

e. f. g. h. a

y3 4m3n4 bc5

2a4 7b3 2m3a2

i. 3 j. 2ab2 k. 4 l.

2a 3b4n5

1 6 3 4 2y

2. a. b. c. d. e.

a2b3 x6y n8 ab 2 5 3x

5y 3 4y12 1 1

f. g. h. i. j.

6x3 m2n2 x5 3m3n3 32a15m20

4q 8 3 27q 9 b6 1

k. l. m. n. o.

p14 a8b12 8p6 4a8 8a6b6

1 1 1 8 1 5

3. a. 8

b. 36

c. 81

d. 9

e. 16

f. 36

32 27 2 3

g. 48 h. i. = 1 25 j. 4 k. 125 l.

FS

27 25 4

4. a. 23 b. 2−3 c. 25 d. 2−6

5. a. 3 b. −2 c. −1 d. 3 e. −2

f. 0 g. 3 h. −3 i. −6 j. −2

O

3 4 2

6. a. 2

b. 5

c. 7

d. 5

O

b b3 a2 1

7. a. b. c. d.

a a2 b3 m3n2

PR

1 1

8. a. 729

b. 20 736

c. 0.000 059 499 or 16 1807

16 384

d. 256 e. 2187

f. 9 765 625

9. a. D b. C c. B

10. a. B b. D c. C d. E

E

m2 n2 25

11. a. b. c.

m

G

n8 a7b6

12. a. r6 − s6 b. m10 + 2m5n5 + n10

PA

c. 1 d. p2

13. 22r − 4 14. 63m 15. x = 3

16. Answers will vary; check with your teacher.

17. x = 3, y = −1; 7

D

19. Discuss with your teacher

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1. a. 4 b. 5 c. 9 d. 2 e. 4 f. 3

EC

4 5 2

2. a. √15 b. √m c. √7 d. √7 5

10

e. √8 w3 f. √4 w5 g. √3 510 h. √a3

1 7 11 6

3. a. t27 b. 54 c. 6 16 d. x7 n

R

x

e. x6 f. w2 g. w2 h. 11

R

4. a. 4 b. 16 c. 8 d. 16 e. 125 f. 9

1

g. h. 27 i. 1000 j. 216 k. √7 l. √3 12

O

9

5. a. 1.44 b. 2.24 c. 1.48 d. 1.26 e. 2.54 f. 0.66

C

4 1 5 23 8 5

6. a. 4 5

b. 2 2

c. a6 d. x20 e. 10m15 f. 2b7

N

20 9 7

g. −4y 9 h. 0.02a8 i. 5x2

U

3 4 5 8 17 19 2 19 5 5 2 9

7. a. ab2 b. x5y9 c. 6a5b15 d. 2m28n5 e. x 6 y6z6 f. 8a5b8c

1 5 1 3 5 11

8. a. 36 b. 512 c. 122 d. a7 e. x4 f. m45

3 2 7

g. 12x20 h. 13n3 i. 54b20

5 7 7 4 3 11 2 3 11 7 5 1

9. a. x3y5 b. a45b15 c. 13m8n56 d. 2x15y4 e. 14a20b20 f. 17p24q 12

TOPIC 2 Indices 55

9 1 6 3 1 1 1

10. a. 220 b. 56 c. 75 d. a10 e. m6 f. 23b6

2 m b a

p c c

g. 4p5 h. x i. 3 m

1

1 1 3 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 6 a2

11. a. a b b. a3b4 c. x y 5 4 3 9 5 4

d. 3 a b c 4 3 5

e. 5x y z f.

2

8 2 1 7

5 5 2 2 b3

m b 2x

g. h. i.

7 8 3

4 27

n c y8

12. a. E b. C c. B

FS

13. a. E b. B

14. a. a4 b. b3 c. m4 d. 4x2 e. 2y3 f. 2x2y3

g. 3m3n5 h. 2pq 2 i. 6a2b6

O

15. a. 2.007 s b. 20.07 s c. 4.98 swings

1 1 1 1

a2 (3 − √b3) 4

O

16. (25a5b10)5 = 2ab2 17. ; 18. m5 − n5 + p5

13 9 − b3 11

−1

PR

19. a. a 4

× b2

b. No, because you can’t take the fourth root of a negative number.

c. a = 1

20. Discuss with your teacher

E

Exercise 2.5 Combining index laws

G

2n13 15b2

1. a. 54a10b9 b. 48a5b16 c. d. 500p8q 18 e. 36a20b10 f.

m9 c26

PA

7 11 15 15 7 5

8 15 4 4 6 45 18

g. 12x y h. 8m n i. j. 8p q

7

12

p

5 x 27 64y36 27h 12

2. a. b. c. d. e. 24a24b7 f.

8a7 4y6 128m29n26 x24 8g 6

D

35 5 1 3

1 625

g. p 3 q h. i. x3y8z2

TE

2 20 28

81b c

3a2 m2n4 4x5 36x6

3. a. b. 8n2 c. d. e.

2 3 3y8 y

EC

17 7

y2 b7 75q 5

f. g. h. i. x10y10

x4 3a4 2p11

2 4a3b3 n9 4m5 4

4. a. b. c. d. e.

R

1 1

3p4 2b 12

4x12

R

f. 48x11y6 g. h. i.

5q 9 17 21

3a 24

3y20

O

5. a. b. c. d. e.

2a13 81 81a 128x23y4 27x16

C

11 11

16m12n 4b 2

f. 6m19n19 g. h.

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3 1 7

32c30

U

125

6. a. 8

b. 1

7. 1

8. a. 5y-1 b. y = 4

9. E

10. A

1 −7 m 3 −7 −7 14

or √

a6

6

b. g −6h 3n2 d. 2−2 or 14 e. a6b−8 or

15

11. a. m6n 6

c. 3 3

×5 6

f. d15 or √d14

n7 b8

12. a. 80 koalas b. During the 6th year

13. a. 79% b. 56% c. 31%

4

14.

21

15. z2 + z−2 + √5

16. Discuss with your teacher.

2y

17. x =

y−z

FS

1.

Unit Symbol Power of 2 and value in bytes Power of 10 and value in bytes

Byte B 20 = 1 100 = 1

O

Kilobyte KB 210 = 1024 103 = 1000

O

Megabyte MB 220 = 1 048 576 106 = 1 000 000

Gigabyte GB 230 = 1 073 741 824 109 = 1 000 000 000

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Terabyte TB 240 = 1 099 511 627 776 1012 = 1 000 000 000 000

2. Approximately 1.1 GB

3. 3993.6 MB

E

4. 1248 photos

G

5. Discuss with your teacher.

6. Discuss with your teacher. The discussion will depend on the latest information from the internet.

PA

Exercise 2.6 Review questions

1. D 2. C 3. C 4. C 5. A

6. A 7. B 8. C 9. B

D

10. a. 9x10y10 b. c. d.

6 27 81q 12

TE

3

11. a. 16 b. −

2

8 y2 m12

12. a. b. c.

a11b2 5x17 16n8

EC

3

13. a. 8 b. c. 0

2

1

41 33

20 20 4 2a6

R

14. a. 30a b b. c.

1 2 3

20 9

x y b2

R

15. a. 1 b. 4

1

O

4

2a13 9y4

C

17. a. b. c. 23m

5b2 32x15

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1

18. a. 46 b. −18

1

19. 36

U

20. a. 8 b. 6 c. 2

9ab7c7

21. a.

50

b. The student has made two mistakes when squaring the left-hand bracket in line 1 : 32 = 9, 52 = 25.

√r √ru 3

22. a. b. Yes, √r, √u 3 c.

d√u 3 du 3

d. r should be a perfect square, u should be a perfect cube and d should be a rational number.

TOPIC 2 Indices 57

e. i. 0.001 234 6 kL ii. 1.2346 L iii. 1234.6 mL

f. A high value for d causes the expression to be smaller, as d only appears on the denominator of the fraction. This means

that when d is high there is less water in the reservoir and the area is dry.

p2(2 − √w3)

23. a.

4 − w3

b. Answers will vary; approximately 5 .

c. Speed decreases as wind resistance increases.

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