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This paper details the ID3 classification algorithm. Very simply, ID3 builds a decision tree from a fixed set of examples. The resulting tree is used to classify future samples. The decision node is an attribute test with each branch (to another decision tree) being a possible value of the attribute. ID3 uses information gain to help it decide which attribute goes into a decision node. The main aim of this paper is to identify relevant attributes based on quantitative and qualitative aspects of a student's profile such as CGPA, academic performance, technical and communication skills and design a model which can predict the placement of a student. For this purpose ID3 classification technique based on decision tree has been used. Kirandeep | Prof. Neena Madan"Deployment of ID3 decision tree algorithm for placement prediction" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-2 | Issue-3 , April 2018, URL: http://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd11073.pdf
http://www.ijtsrd.com/engineering/computer-engineering/11073/deployment-of-id3-decision-tree-algorithm-for-placement-prediction/kirandeep

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International Open Access Journal

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue – 3

M.Tech

.Tech (CSE), G.N.D.U, Regional Campus, Jalandhar,, Punjab, India

This paper details the ID3 classification algorithm. Predicting tumor cells as benign or malignant

Very simply, ID3 builds a decision tree from a fixed

set of examples. The resulting tree is used to classify Helpful in the field of medical science for predicting

future samples. The decision node is an attribute test whether the tumor cells are malignant or not.

with each branch (to another decision tree) being a

possible value of the attribute. ID3 uses information Classifying credit card transactions as legitimate or

gain to help it decide which attribute goes into a fraudulent

decision node. The main aim of thi this paper is to To check whether the transactions are legal or not.

identify relevant attributes based on quantitative and

qualitative aspects of a student's profile such as Classifying secondary structures of protein as alpha-

alpha

CGPA, academic performance, technical and helix, beta-sheet,

sheet, or random coil

communication skills and design a model which can For classification of proteins on

o the basis of their

predict the placement of a student. For this purpose properties

ID3 classification technique based on decision tree

has been used. Categorizing news stories as finance, weather,

entertainment, sports etc.

I. INTRODUCTION For categorization of news on the basis of respective

classes

Classification is the process to map data into

predefined groups or classes. Also called supervised CLASSIFICATION ALGOS

learning because classes are determined before

examining data. It can also be defined as Statistical based algorithms: This can be categorized

into two categories:

D= {t1,t2,…………………………..,tn}

C= {C1,C2,………………………...,Cm} 1. Regression

2. Bayesian classification

where data is defined by D having set of tuples that is

assigned to class C. Regression:

Deals with estimation of output values from input

e.g. Pattern recognition, an input pattern is classified values. Can be used to solve classification problems.

into one of several classes based on similarity. Also used for forecasting ,Radio

A bank officer who has the authority to approve the

loan of any person then he has to analyze customer y=c0+c1x1+……………………+cnxn

behavior to decide passing the loan is risky or safe

that is called classification. where y is output & c0,c1,….,cn are the coefficients

that defines relation between input and output i.e.

x&y.

Apr 2018 Page: 740

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

e.g. A simple linear regression problem can be

thought as

y=mx+b

This can be equated as partitioning of two classes.If

we attempt to fit data that is not linear to the linear

model , the result will be poor model of data.

Bayesian classification:

By analyzing each independent attribute, a conditional

probability is determined. Consider a data value xi,the

probability that a related tuple ti, is in class Cj can be

given as C. Decision tree based algorithms: A 2-Step process

P(Cj|xi) includes

i.e. P(xi),P(Cj),P(xi|Cj) from these values,Bayes 1) Construction of tree where each internal node is

theorem allows to estimate the probability labeled with an attribute.

P (Cj|xi) & P(Cj|ti) 2) Leaf node is labeled with class.

According to the theorem, THE ID3 ALGORITHM

1. Estimate P(j) for each class by counting how

often each class occurs. A technique to build a decision tree based on

2. The no. of occurrences of xi i.e. each attribute information theory and attempts to minimize the no.

value. Similarly P(xi|Cj) can be estimated. of comparisons.

3. Suppose that ti has p independent attribute

values The ID3 algorithm begins with the original set as the

{xi1,xi2,…………………………,xip} root node. On each iteration of the algorithm, it

Similarly, P(Cj|ti) can be estimated. iterates through every unused attribute of the set and

calculates the entropy ( information gain ) of that

B. Distance based algorithms: attribute. It then selects the attribute which has the

Assignment of the tuple to the class to which it is smallest entropy (or largest information gain) value.

most similar. The set is then split by the selected attribute (e.g. age

is less than 50, age is between 50 and 100, age is

Algo: greater than 100) to produce subsets of the data. The

Input: c1,c2,…….,cm(Centers for each c) algorithm continues to recurse on each subset,

//input tuple considering only attributes never selected before.

Output: C

//class to which t is assigned 1. Calculate the entropy of every attribute using the

dist=inf ; data set.

for i=1 to m do 2. Split the set into subsets using the attribute for

if dist(ci,t) < dist ; then which entropy is minimum (equivalently,

c=i; information gain is maximum)

dist=dist(ci,t); 3. Make a decision tree node containing that

attribute.

4. Recurse on subsets using remaining attributes.

algorithm. The basic CLS algorithm over a set of

training instances C:

YES node and halt.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 741

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

If all instances in C are negative, create a NO node If training data has 7 instances with 3 positive and 4

and halt. negative instances, the entropy is calculated as

Otherwise select a feature, F with values v1, ..., vn Entropy ([3+,4-]) = -(3/7)log(3/7)-

and create a decision node. (4/7)log(4/7)=0.016

Step 2: Partition the training instances in C into Thus, the more uniform the probability distribution,

subsets C1, C2, ..., Cn according to the values of V. the greater is its entropy. If the entropy of the training

Step 3: Apply the algorithm recursively to each of the set is close to one, it has more distributed data and

sets Ci. hence, considered as a good training set.

ID3 searches through the attributes of the training Information Gain: The decision tree is built in a top-

instances and extracts the attribute that best separates down fashion. ID3 chooses the splitting attribute with

the given examples. If the attribute perfectly classifies the highest gain in information, where gain is defined

the training sets then ID3 stops; otherwise it as difference between how much information is

recursively operates on the n (where n = number of needed after the split. This is calculated by

possible values of an attribute) partitioned subsets to determining the differences between the entropies of

get their "best" attribute.The algorithm uses a greedy the original dataset and the weighted sum of the

search, that is, it picks the best attribute and never entropies from each of the subdivided datasets. The

looks back to reconsider earlier choices. motive is to find the feature that best splits the target

class into the purest possible children nodes - pure

Data Description nodes with only one class This measure of purity is

The sample data used by ID3 has certain called information. It represents the expected amount

requirements, which are: of information that would be needed to specify how a

Attribute-value description - the same new instance of an attribute should be classified. The

attributes must describe each example and formula used for this purpose is:

have a fixed number of values. G(D, S) = H(D) - ∑P(Di)H(Di)

Predefined classes - an example's attributes

must already be defined, that is, they are not Reasons to choose ID3

learned by ID3. 1. Understandable prediction rules are created from

Discrete classes - classes must be sharply the training data.

delineated. Continuous classes broken up into 2. Builds the fastest tree & short tree.

vague categories such as a metal being "hard, 3. Only need to test enough attributes until all data is

quite hard, flexible, soft, quite soft" are classified.

suspect.

III. IMPLEMENTATION

b) Attribute Selection

How does ID3 decide which attribute is the best? A Campus placement is a process where companies

statistical property, called information gain, is used. come to colleges and identify students who are

Gain measures how well a given attribute separates talented and qualified, before they finish their

training examples into targeted classes. The one with graduation. The proposed system determines the

the highest information (information being the most likelihood of placement based on various attributes of

useful for classification) is selected. In order to define a student’s profile. Depending on the parameters ,

gain, we first borrow an idea from information theory manual classification is done whether the student is

called entropy. placed or not placed. The data set comprises of

Entropy: A formula to calculate the homogeneity of a different quantitative and qualitative measures of 7

sample then the entropy S relative to this c-wise students. The attributes such as department of the

classification is defined as student, CGPA (Cumulative Grade Performance

Entropy(e1,e2,….en)=-p1logp1-p2logp2….-pnlogpn Average), programming skills, future studies such as

Entropy(S) =∑- p(x) log p(x) planning for a master’s degree, communication skills

Where Pi is the probability of S belonging to class i. and the total number of relevant internships have been

Logarithm is base 2 because entropy is a measure of taken into consideration. Based on the training set,

the expected encoding length measured in bits. For information gain and entropy is calculated to

e.g.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 742

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

determine the splitting attribute for constructing the decision tree.

Dept. CGPA Prog. Future Comm. Intern Placement

Skills Stds. Skills ship

CS 8.0 Good No Good 1 Placed

IT 6.7 Avg. Yes Avg. 0 Not Placed

CS 7.6 Good Yes Good 1 Placed

CS 8.3 Good No Avg. 1 Placed

IT 6.5 Poor Yes Good 0 Not Placed

CS 8.6 Poor Yes Good 1 Not Placed

IT 7.9 Good Yes Avg. 1 Placed

Fig. 1 Student data

whether the student is placed or not. The quantitative

aspects like undergraduate CGPA. The qualitative

aspects like communication and programming skills

form a backbone for a student to get placed as each

recruiting company desires to hire students that have a

sound technical knowledge and ability to

communicate effectively. The other factors like

internships, backlogs, future studies add value only

when the prior requirements are met.

The attributes and the possible values are explained

below The root node chosen here is Programming Skills.And

TABLE I: Attributes and their values Further classification is done by calculating

information gain and entropy for each attribute.

Parameter Description Possible Values Attributes Entropy Gain

Department Deptt. Of {CS,IT}

Department CS=0.24 G(Dept.,S)=0.25

Student

IT=0.26

CGPA CGPA(Out of Numeric{<=10}

CGPA <=7=0 G(CGPA,S)=0.02

10)

>7=0.05

Pgmg. Skills Proficiency in {Good,

Prog. Skills Good=0.28 G(Prog.

C,C++ & Java Avg,Poor}

Avg=0.25 Skills,S)=0.51

Future Studies Whether the {Yes,No}

Poor=0.25

student is

Future Studies Yes=0 G(Future

planning

No=0.2 Studies,S)=0.143

Comm. Skills Proficiency in {Good,Avg,Poor}

Comm. Skills Good=0.28 G(Comm.

Comm. Skills

Avg=0.28 Skills)=0.28

Internship Internships {Yes,No}

Poor=0

Placement Whether {Yes,No}

Internships Yes=0.05 G(Internship,S)=0.194

student is

No=0.25

Placed or not

Consider the attribute future studies; it has two

possible classes viz. Yes and No. There are five

students who wish to pursue future studies and

remaining two out of seven who do not have any

plans to opt for higher studies.

distribution of information among classes.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 743

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

The lowest value of information gain is obtained for CONCLUSION

programming skills. Thus it is chosen as the root

node. In this paper ID3 classification algorithm is used to

Further, the next lowest value (CGPA) is taken as the generate decision rule. The classification model can

split node for next level. The subsequent nodes of play an important role in increasing the placement

decision tree at each level are determined by the value statistics. It can be concluded that classification

obtained in information gain. algorithms can be used successfully in order to predict

student placement. I will use it with MATLAB

Advantages of Decision Tree: implementation tool and then results will be compared

1. For data preparation, decision trees need less with another algorithm.

effort from users. To overcome scale differences

Further the implementation will be done in

between parameters - for example if there is a

development and application of novel computational

dataset which measures revenue in millions and

techniques for the analysis of large datasets.

loan age in years, say; this will require some form

of normalization before it can fit a regression

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

model and interpret the coefficients. Such variable

transformations are not required with decision I express my sincere gratitude towards our guide Ms.

trees because the tree structure will remain the Neena Madaan who assisted me throughout my work.

same with or without the transformation. I thank her for directing me to the right tract and for

2. However, decision trees do not require any the motivation and prompt guidance she has provided

assumptions of linearity in the data. Thus, they whenever I needed it.

can be used in scenarios where known parameters

are nonlinearly related. REFERENCES

3. The best feature of using trees for analytics is that

they are easy to interpret and explain. Decision 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ID3_algorithm

trees are very intuitive and easy to explain. 2. Key advantages of using decision trees for

predictive analyticsSimafore [Online]

IV. RESULTS

3. http://www.simafore.com/blog/bid/62333/4-key-

The splitting node is based upon Information gain, i.e. advantages-ofusing-decision-trees-for-predictive-

Programming skills in this case. Table III indicates analytics

the department and the CGPA of the students who 4. Er. Kanwalpreet Singh Attwal ," Comparative

have good programming skills. Students having good Analysis of Decision Tree Algorithms for the

programming skills are only considered as Student's Placement Prediction", International:

EGood=0.28, whereas EAverage=0.25, EPoor=0.25

5. Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and

Department CGPA Prog. Skills Communication Engineering Vol. 4, Issue 6, June

CS 8.0 Good 2015

CS 7.6 Good 6. D. D. B. Rakesh Kumar Arora, “Placement

IT 7.9 Good Prediction through Data Mining,” International

CS 8.3 Good Journal of Advanced Research in Computer

The next splitting attribute based upon Information Science and Software Engineering, vol. 4, no. 7,

Gain is CGPA. The students having good july 2014.

programming skills and CGPA >7 are considered. As, 7. Kalpesh Adhatrao, Aditya Gaykar, Amiraj

E>=7=0.05 and E<7=0. Dhawan, Rohit Jha and Vipul Honrao, "

Predicting Students' Performance using ID3 and

C4.5 classification algorithm", International

Department CGPA Prog. Skills Journal of Data Mining & Knowledge

CS 8.0 Good Management Process (IJDKP) Vol.3, No.5,

IT 7.9 Good September 2015

CS 8.3 Good 8. Dunham, M.H., (2003) Data Mining: Introductory

and Advanced Topics, Pearson Education Inc.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 744

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