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THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE

SCHOOL OF CHEMISTRY

SEMESTER 2 EXAMINATION, 2013

SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY 2, CHEM10004

Student Number: ___________________________

Exam Duration: 3 hours

This paper has 19 pages.

lOMoARcPSD|2363628 THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE SCHOOL OF CHEMISTRY SEMESTER 2 EXAMINATION, 2013 SUBJECT: CHEMISTRY 2, CHEM10004

Reading Time: 15 minutes

Authorized materials:

Unassembled molecular model kits. Electronic calculators, including graphing calculators.

Note:

Calculators are permitted in accordance with the rules of the Faculty of Science. They may be used for the processing of numerical information only. They must not have been programmed nor should they store additional information. Calculators will be randomly checked during the course of the examination.

Instructions to Invigilators:

Students will attempt Section A on the examination paper itself. For Section A, students must also enter their answers on the computer scan sheet provided. Please remind students to leave the exam paper and the scan sheet on their desk for collection at the end of the examination.

A 14-page script book is required for Section B of the paper.

Instructions to Students:

This assessment consists of two sections, Section A and Section B. Section A carries one half of the total marks available while Section B carries the remaining half. It is suggested that you spend

equal time on each section. The marks available for each question are proportional to the suggested completion times given at the end of each question. You must answer Section A on the paper itself and also enter your answers on the computer scan sheet provided.

Answer Section B in the examination script book provided.

A table of selected physical constants, useful quantities and conversion factors is given in Appendix 1 and a table of selected standard reduction potentials is given in Appendix 2.

Please ensure that the exam paper, the scan sheet and the script book used to answer Section B are all left on your desk at the end of the examination.

Paper to be held by Baillieu Library -

YES

© 2013, The University of Melbourne
© 2013, The University of Melbourne

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

SECTION A

The suggested time for this section is 1.5 hours

Your answers to this section of the examination must be circled on this examination script, which must be handed in at the end of the examination period. You must also show your answers to this section, together with your student number, on the computer scan sheet provided.

Please enter your student enrolment number in the spaces provided. In addition, ensure that your student enrolment number is recorded on each page of Section A.

A table of selected physical constants, useful quantities and conversion factors is provided at the end of the exam paper in Appendix 1.

Question A1.

Which of the following is a nucleophile?

  • A. H +

  • B. BF 3

  • C. CrO 3

  • D. FeCl 3

  • E. None of the above

 

(2 minutes)

Question A2.

Which of the following is the strongest acid?

  • A. CH 2 FCO

2

H

  • B. CHF 2 CO

2

H

  • C. CF 3 CO 2 H

  • D. CH

3 CO 2 H

  • E. CH

3 OCH 3

 

(2 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Student enrolment number....................................

Question A3.

Which of following has the strongest conjugate base?

  • A. Hydrochloric acid

  • B. Ethane

  • C. Ethylene (ethene)

  • D. Acetylene (ethyne)

  • E. Acetic acid

(3 minutes)

The following scheme is referred to in questions A4 – A7

lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest

Question A4.

lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number.................................... Question A3. Which of following has the strongest

Which of the mechanisms depicted in the scheme shown above would NOT be expected to operate during the reaction of tert-butoxide ion with (R)-2-bromobutane?

  • A. Mechanism A.

  • B. Mechanism B.

  • C. Mechanism C.

  • D. Mechanism D.

  • E. None of the above – they’re all fine!

© 2013, The University of Melbourne
© 2013, The University of Melbourne

(3 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A5.

The type of reaction depicted in Mechanism B in the scheme depicted above is:

  • A. A nucleophilic addition/elimination reaction.

  • B. An S N 1 reaction.

  • C. An S N 2 reaction.

  • D. An E2 reaction.

  • E. None of the above.

 

(2 minutes)

Question A6. In Mechanism D depicted in the scheme above, tert-butoxide is acting as:

  • A. An acid

  • B. A base

  • C. A nucleophile

  • D. An electrophile

  • E. None of the above

 

(2 minutes)

Question A7.

Which of the mechanisms in the scheme depicted above leads to the product you expect following Zaitzev’s rule?

  • A. Mechanism A.

  • B. Mechanism B.

  • C. Mechanism C.

  • D. Mechanism D.

  • E. None of the above.

(2 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A8.

lOMoARcPSD|2363628

Student enrolment number....................................

Which of the following methods leads to the formation of 4-nitrobenzoic acid as the major product?

A.

 
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above

B.

 
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above

C.

 
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above

D.

 
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above
A. B. C. D. E. None of the above

E.

None of the above

CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Question A8. lOMoARcPSD|2363628 Student enrolment number.................................... Which of the following methods leads
CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Question A8. lOMoARcPSD|2363628 Student enrolment number.................................... Which of the following methods leads

(5 minutes)

Question A9.

Which of the following general statements is INCORRECT?

  • A. Sodium hydride is a poor reagent for reducing ketones.

  • B. Grignard reactions involving carboxylic acids generally liberate molecular hydrogen (H 2 ).

  • C. The acidity of a carbon-hydrogen bond is affected by the hybridization of the carbon atom involved, with sp 3 hybridized carbons providing the least acidic compounds.

  • D. Markovnikov’s rule can be used to determine the major product from an electrophilic addition reaction.

  • E. Tertiary (3°) alkyl halides usually do not undergo substitution reactions by an S N 2 mechanism.

© 2013, The University of Melbourne
© 2013, The University of Melbourne

(3 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A10.

Potassium requires radiation with energy of at least 2 eV (corresponding to a wavelength of ~620 nm) in order to induce the ejection of an electron via the photoelectric effect. Which one of the following statements concerning the photoelectric effect from potassium is CORRECT?

  • A. If the potassium is irradiated with 700 nm light of high intensity, electrons will be ejected.

  • B. A photon of 400 nm light cannot induce the photoelectric effect for potassium.

  • C. If the potassium is irradiated with 700 nm light for a long period of time electrons will be ejected after an induction time.

  • D. If the potassium is irradiated with 700 nm light the ejected electrons will have more kinetic energy, E k , compared to the case where 550 nm radiation is used.

  • E. None of the above.

(2 minutes)

Question A11.

h

   Z   

2

2

Using the Rydberg equation,

E

= -

n

, the wavelength, in nm, of the line in the

Balmer series corresponding to the transition to n = 6 is:

n

  • A. ~93 nm

  • B. ~274 nm

  • C. ~411 nm

  • D. ~7467 nm

  • E. Longer than 7500 nm

(3 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A12.

lOMoARcPSD|2363628

Student enrolment number....................................

Which of the following statements concerning the relative energies of wavefunctions is CORRECT?

  • A. All the energy levels for the hydrogen atom are degenerate.

  • B. The energy separation of the wavefunctions of the hydrogen atom increase as their energy increases.

  • C. The energy separation of the wavefunctions of the hydrogen atom is constant.

  • D. The energy separation of the wavefunctions of the hydrogen atom decrease as their energy increases.

  • E. The energy separation of the wavefunctions for a particle in a 1D box model become more closely spaced as their energy increases.

Question A13.

(2 minutes)

Which of the following statements concerning orbitals is INCORRECT?

  • A. The size of a given orbital is dependent on the principal (n) quantum number.

  • B. The shape of a given orbital is influenced by the angular momentum (l) quantum number.

  • C. The shape of a given orbital may be influenced by the magnetic (m l ) quantum number.

  • D. The shape of a given orbital is influenced by the spin (m s ) quantum number.

  • E. The size of a given orbital should be thought of as extending to infinite distance from the nucleus.

Question A14.

(3 minutes)

Which one of the following representations of the occupancy of a set of d-orbitals violates the Pauli exclusion principle?

  • A. [][][][ ][ ]

  • B. [][][↑↑][ ][ ]

  • C. [][][][ ][ ]

  • D. [][][ ][][]

  • E. [][][][][]

© 2013, The University of Melbourne
© 2013, The University of Melbourne

(2 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A15.

Which of the following set of quantum numbers does NOT represent a valid solution of the Schrödinger equation?

n

l

m l

m s

  • A. 1

2

0

  • B. 1

1

0

  • C. 0

2

0

6

  • D. 3

1

  • E. 3

4

2

 

(3 minutes)

Question A16.

For the reaction,

2N 2 O 5 (g) 4NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g)

the rate of the reaction with respect to the reactant and the products is:

  • A. =

=

  • B. =

=

  • C. =

=

  • D. =

=

  • E. None of the above.

 

(3 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A17.

lOMoARcPSD|2363628

Student enrolment number....................................

For a reaction at 500 °C, the rate constant is 220 M -1 s -1 . What is the half-life of the reaction at this temperature when the initial concentration of reactant, [A] 0 = 0.2 M?

  • A. 0.003 s

  • B. 0.016 s

  • C. 0.005 s

  • D. 0.023 s

  • E. None of the above

Question A18.

(3 minutes)

For the 1 st order gas phase decomposition of azomethane (C 2 H 6 N 2 ) at 600 °C, the follow partial pressures, p, of the reactant were measured as a function of time:

t (s)

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

p(C 2 H 6 N 2 ) (Pa)

10.9

7.63

5.32

3.71

2.59

The rate constant for the reaction is closest to?

  • A. 3.6 × 10 -4 M -1 s

  • B. 3.6 × 10 -4 s

-1

  • C. 3.6 × 10 -1 M -1 s

  • D. 3.6 × 10 -1 s

-1

-1

-1

Question A19.

(3 minutes)

A reaction has an activation energy, E a , of 1.76 × 10 2 kJ mol -1 . The rate constant for the reaction is 9.51 × 10 -9 M -1 s -1 at 500 K. The rate constant at 600 K is closest to?

  • A. 1.76 × 10 2 M -1 s

-1

  • B. 9.09 × 10 4 M -1 s

-1

  • C. 1.10 × 10 -3 M -1 s

-1

  • D. 1.10 × 10 -5 M -1 s

-1

(3 minutes)

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© 2013, The University of Melbourne

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A20.

Which statement about Collision Theory is CORRECT?

  • A. Rate constants are typically larger the higher the temperature because a higher temperature allows the molecules to collide with the correct orientation.

  • B. The collisional cross section depends on molecular orientation.

  • C. An increase in the rate of diffusion increases the collisional frequency between molecules.

  • D. The rate of reaction is independent of the concentration of reactants.

Question A21.

(3 minutes)

The intracellular potassium ion concentration in a human neuron is 0.150 M. The extracellular potassium ion concentration is 0.005 M. Calculate the membrane potential (E M+ ) of the neuron at 37 o C.

A.

-1.50 V

B.

-0.09 V

C.

0.00 V

D.

0.09 V

E.

Question A22.

Consider the following galvanic cell:

Zn | Zn 2+ || MnO 4 - | Mn 2+

1.50 V

(3 minutes)

Use the standard reduction potentials (Appendix 2) to determine the cell potential when it is operated at pH = 2 with [MnO 4 - ] = 0.12 M, [Mn 2+ ] = 0.0010 M and [Zn 2+ ] = 0.015 M at 25 o C.

A.

2.36 V

B.

2.03 V

C.

2.25 V

D.

2.52 V

E.

2.14 V

(3 minutes)

Question A23.

The magnetic moment of [V(en) 3 ]Cl 2 is 3.84 BM. How many unpaired electrons are present in the complex?

A.

0

B.

1

C.

2

D.

3

E.

4

(3 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Student enrolment number....................................

Question A24.

What is the oxidation state of the metal ion in [CrCl 2 (H 2 O) 4 ]Cl and how many stereoisomers are possible?

  • A. oxidation state = +1; possible isomers = 2

  • B. oxidation state = +2; possible isomers = 3

  • C. oxidation state = +2; possible isomers = 2

  • D. oxidation state = +3; possible isomers = 2

  • E. oxidation state = +3; possible isomers = 3

 

(3 minutes)

Question A25. Calculate the spin only magnetic moment for high spin K 3 [Mn(ox) 3 ].

 

A.

5.92

B.

2.83

C.

4.90

D.

3.87

E.

1.73

 

(3 minutes)

Question A26.

The hydrogen fuel cell is based on the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water. Which of the following sets of statements are TRUE:

  • A. This is an example of a secondary cell. The anode reaction involves oxidation of O 2 . The cathode reaction involves reduction of H 2 .

  • B. Neither H 2 nor O 2 is oxidised or reduced. The cell’s energy comes from harnessing the steam produced from the exothermic reaction.

  • C. A fuel cell is a galvanic cell in which the reactants are continuously supplied. The anode reaction involves oxidation of O 2 . The cathode reaction involves reduction of H 2 .

  • D. A fuel cell is a galvanic cell in which the reactants are continuously supplied. The anode reaction involves oxidation of H 2 . The cathode reaction involves reduction of O 2 .

  • E. Neither H 2 nor O 2 is reduced or oxidised. This is because fuel cells are different to normal galvanic cells.

(3 minutes)

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© 2013, The University of Melbourne

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A27.

Nickel can be purified by the Mond process. Which of the following set of statements BEST describes the chemistry involved in the Mond process.

  • A. Nickel forms a volatile compound, NiCl 2 , when reacted with chlorine gas. The nickel in NiCl 2 is in the +2 oxidation state.

  • B. Volatile Ni(CO) 4 is formed by the reaction of crude nickel directly with carbon monoxide at moderate temperature (<100 °C). The oxidation state of the nickel in Ni(CO) 4 is zero.

  • C. Nickel is separated from the other components in the crude ore on the basis of magnetic attraction.

  • D. Volatile Ni(CO) 4 is formed by the reaction of crude nickel directly with carbon monoxide at moderate temperature (<100 °C). The oxidation state of the nickel in Ni(CO) 4 is +2.

  • E. Nickel forms a volatile compound, NiCl 2 , when reacted with chlorine gas. The oxidation state of the nickel in NiCl 2 is zero.

(3 minutes)

Question A28. How many unpaired electrons will be associated with the metal ion in (NH 4 ) 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]?

A.

1

B.

2

C.

3

D.

4

E.

5

 

(3 minutes)

Question A29. How many electrons occupy the 3d orbitals of Ti in [Ti(ox) 2 (CN) 2 ] 2- ?

 

A.

0

B.

1

C.

2

D.

3

E.

4

 

(3 minutes)

Question A30. How many isomers are possible for the salt [Co(en) 2 Cl 2 ]Cl (en = 1,2 diaminoethane)?

A.

0

B.

1

C.

2

D.

3

E.

4

(3 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question A31.

lOMoARcPSD|2363628

Student enrolment number....................................

What volume, in mL, of 11 M HCl is required to make up a 300 mL solution of 2.3 M HCl?

  • A. 31 mL

  • B. 41 mL

  • C. 63 mL

  • D. 72 mL

(2 minutes) Question A32. Determine the pH of a buffer solution that contains 0.35 M NH
(2 minutes)
Question A32.
Determine the pH of a buffer solution that contains 0.35 M NH 3 and 0.5 M NH 4 Cl.
(K b (NH 3 ) = 1.8 × 10 -5 )
A.
12.3
B.
9.1
C.
4.9
D.
4.3
E.
0.43
(2 minutes)
Question A33.
Determine the corresponding frequency for a wavelength of 736 nm.
A.
1.36 × 10 -3 Hz
B.
221 Hz
C.
2.21 × 10 5 Hz
D.
4.07 × 10 14 Hz
(2 minutes)

END OF SECTION A

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© 2013, The University of Melbourne

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lOMoARcPSD|2363628

CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Chemistry 2 Semester 2 Examination SECTION B

The suggested time for this section is 1.5 hour

ANSWER THIS SECTION IN THE EXAMINATION SCRIPT BOOKLET PROVIDED

A table of selected physical constants, useful quantities and conversion factors is provided in Appendix 1.

ANSWER THIS SECTION IN THE EXAMINATION SCRIPT BOOKLET PROVIDED

Students are advised to answer ALL Questions, B1 to B9:

Question B1. Consider the molecules A D and answer the following questions:

lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Chemistry 2 Semester 2 Examination SECTION B The suggested time for
  • (a) Will isomer A or B react more rapidly in an S N 2 reaction? Briefly explain your answer.

  • (b) Will isomer A or B react more rapidly in an S N 1 reaction? Briefly explain your answer.

  • (c) Show all steps and reagents needed to convert chemistry).

C

to

D. (Hint:

do not invent new

(10 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question B2.

  • (a) Draw the structures of the products of the following two reduction reactions (note the molecular formula for each product):

i. ii. (b) 1,3-Butadiene undergoes electrophilic addition of one equivalent of HBr to form the two
i.
ii.
(b)
1,3-Butadiene undergoes electrophilic addition of one equivalent of HBr to form the
two isomeric bromo alkenes A and B below.
i.
Draw the mechanisms for the formation of both A and B.

ii.

Rationalize whether A or B would be the major product.

© 2013, The University of Melbourne
© 2013, The University of Melbourne
lOMoARcPSD|2363628 CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013 Question B2. (a) Draw the structures of the products of the

(10 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question B3.

Bitolterol is a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma.

  • (a) Complete this synthesis by drawing the structures of the products (C and D) in the scheme below. Hint: take advantage of the molecular formulas given.

  • (b) Classify what class of reaction that Reaction 1 belongs to.

  • (c) Classify what class of reaction that Reactions 2a and 2b belong to.

  • (d) Classify what class of reaction that Reaction 3 belongs to.

(e) Suggest an alternative reagent to H 2 /Pd-C for Reaction 3.
(e)
Suggest an alternative reagent to H 2 /Pd-C for Reaction 3.

(10 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question B4.

  • (a) Outline briefly the main reasons why the solutions to the Schrödinger equation for the “particle in a one-dimensional box” model differ substantially from those for the hydrogen atom.

  • (b) Discuss briefly how the “particle in a one-dimensional box” model can be used to interpret the absorption or emission of light by a real chemical system. Provide an example of such a real chemical system.

Question B5.

(4+3 = 7 minutes)

Using appropriately labelled schematic diagrams, where appropriate, show the steps that lead from a solution to Schrödinger’s wave equation to our three dimensional impression of a 1s atomic orbital for the hydrogen atom.

Question B6.

(8 minutes)

Radical chain reactions involve a sequence of reactions in which a radical reacts and then is regenerated in subsequent reactions. The reaction of H 2 and Br 2 is a good example of a radical chain reaction. A reaction mechanism for this reaction is:

1:

→ 2

2:

+ +

Step

3:

+

Step

4: +

+

  • (a) What is the overall reaction described by the mechanism?

  • (b) Identify the initiation, propagation and termination steps of the mechanism.

  • (c) The experimentally determined rate equation for the production of HBr is:

=

= /

For the mechanism given above the rate of step 1= rate of step 4, and rate of step 2 = rate of step 3. Use the mechanism above to determine the expected rate law for the production of HBr.

(4 + 4 + 7 = 15 minutes)

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© 2013, The University of Melbourne

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

Question B7.

Clioquinol (see below) is a compound that is currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease. The mechanism of action is dependent on clioquinol's ability to coordinate metal ions. Analysis of a brain sample from a patient with Alzheimer’s Disease that had been treated with clioquinol identified a neutral coordination complex that had the following composition: FeC 27 H 12 Cl 3 I 3 N 3 O 3 .

Cl

N OH I
N
OH
I
  • (a) Draw structural representations of ALL the possible isomers of the clioquinol iron complex discussed above.

  • (b) Use the spin only formula to calculate the magnetic moment of the high spin complex. (10 minutes)

Question B8.

An electrochemical cell is used to determine the copper concentration of samples of water from the water fountain outside the first year laboratories. The cell consists of a silver electrode immersed in a solution of AgNO 3 (1.00 M) connected via a salt bridge to a second half-cell containing a copper electrode that is immersed in the water sample. A measurement of a sample gives an initial cell potential of 0.62 V. Use the appropriate standard reduction potentials (Appendix 2) to determine the concentration of the [Cu 2+ ] in the drinking water.

Question B9.

(10 minutes)

  • (a) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the formation of [Zn(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ at 298 K given the standard reduction potentials of the [Zn(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ /Zn and Zn 2+ / Zn couples (Appendix 2).

  • (b) Draw possible structures of [Zn(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ and specify the coordination geometry of each structure you draw.

  • (c) Predict whether each of the complexes you represent in part (b) are paramagnetic or diamagnetic and draw the d-orbital splitting diagram for each to justify your answer.

END OF PAPER

© 2013, The University of Melbourne

(10 minutes)

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CHEM10004 Semester 2, 2013

APPENDIX 1.

Selected physical constants, useful quantities and conversion factors.

Avogadro constant (N A )

  • 1 Atomic mass unit (u)

Gas constant (R)

Speed of light (c) Planck constant (h) Rydberg constant () Mass of an electron (m e ) Bohr radius (a o )

  • 1 Atmosphere (atm)

Faraday constant (F) RT/F (at 298 K) 2.303 RT/F (at 298 K) Absolute zero, 0 K Specific heat of water

6.0221 × 10 23 mol -1

1.6605 × 10 -27 kg

8.314 J K -1 mol -1 or 0.08206 L atm K -1 mol -1

2.9979 × 10 8 m s 6.6261 × 10 -34 J s photon -1 3.29 × 10 15 Hz 9.109 × 10 -31 kg 53 pm

-1

101 325 Pa = 760 mm Hg 9.6485 × 10 4 C mol -1 0.0257 V 0.0592 V -273.15 °C 4.18 J g -1 ºC -1

APPENDIX 2: SELECTED STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS

Half Reaction

E° / V

Half Reaction

E° / V

F 2 + 2e -

2F -

2.87

Cu 2+ + e -

Cu +

0.16

IO 4 - + 2H + + 2e -

IO 3 - + H 2 O

1.60

2H + + 2e -

H 2

0.00

MnO 4 - +8H + +5e - Mn 2+ + 4H 2 O

1.51

Fe 3+ + 3e -

Fe

-0.036

Cl 2 + 2e -

2Cl -

1.36

Pb 2+ + 2e -

Pb

-0.13

O 2 + 4H + + 4e -

2H 2 O

1.23

Sn 2+ + 2e -

Sn

-0.14

MnO 2 +4H + +2e - Mn 2+ + 2H 2 O

1.21

Ni 2+ + 2e -

Ni

-0.23

Br 2 + 2e -

2Br -

1.09

Fe 2+ + 2e -

Fe

-0.44

Ag + + e -

Ag

0.80

Cr 3+ + e -

Cr 2+

-0.50

Fe 3+ + e -

Fe 2+

0.77

Cr 3+ + 3e -

Cr

-0.73

I 2 + 2e -

2I -

0.54

Zn 2+ + 2e -

Zn

-0.76

Cu + + e -

Cu

0.52

[Zn(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ + 2e - Zn + 4 NH 3

-1.04

Cu 2+ + 2e -

Cu

0.34

Mn 2+ + 2e -

Mn

-1.18

Hg 2 Cl 2 + 2e -

2Hg + 2Cl -

0.27

Al 3+ + 3e -

Al

-1.66

AgCl + e -

Ag + Cl -

0.22

Na + + e -

Na

-2.71

© 2013, The University of Melbourne
© 2013, The University of Melbourne

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