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 Historical Background
 Current Scenario


 Research Gap
 Research Problem
 Statement of Problem
 Research Objective(s)
 Research Hypothesis
 Sampling Method
 Data Collection
 Primary Data
 Secondary Data
 Questionnaire
 Structured
 Unstructured
 Observation/Interview
 Sampling
 Non Probability
 Convenience
 Sample Size
 Respondents
 Statistical Tools and Techniques






Sandeep Saxena Research Scholar Rama University, Kanpur

1. Introduction:

a. Historical Background:
The term Digitalization was first used in the 1990s. The digital era took off with the coming
of the internet and the development of the Web 1.0 platform. The Web 1.0 platform allowed
users to find the information they wanted, but did not allow them to share this information
over the web. Up until then, marketers worldwide were still unsure of the digital platform.
They were not sure if their strategies would work since the internet had not yet seen
widespread deployment. In 1993, the first clickable banner went live, after which fast track
purchased a few banner ads for their advertising. This marked the beginning of the transition
to the digital era of marketing. Because of this successive shift, the year 1994 saw new
technologies enter the digital marketplace. The very same year, Yahoo was launched.
In the year of 1998 Google was born. Microsoft launched the MSN search engine and Yahoo
brought to the market Yahoo web search.
Labels like „super information highway‟ began to be applied on the internet. As a result,
information flow volumes–including channels utilized by digital marketers- increased
manifold, and by 2004, internet advertising and marketing in the US alone brought in around
$2.9 billion.
Social networking sites began to emerge. MySpace was the first social networking site to
arrive, soon followed by Facebook. Many companies realized all these fresh social
networking sites that were popping up were beginning to open new doors of opportunities to
market their products and brands. It opened fresh platforms for business, and marked the
beginning of a new chapter to business. With new resources, they needed new approaches to
promote their brands & capitalize on the social networking platform.
Products marketed digitally are now available to customers at all times. Statistics collected
by the Marketing tech blog for 2014 show that posting on social media is the top online
activity in the US. The average American spends 37 minutes a day on social media. The top
three social networking sites used by marketers are LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook.
The number of Internet users in India is expected to reach 450-465 million by June, 2017
with a increase of 4-8% as compare to 432 million in December 2016, a report taken from the
Internet and Mobile Association of India and market research firm IMRB International said.
The report added its forecast does not factor in the impact of demonetization, which gave a
boost to digital and mobile transactions.
The report said overall Internet penetration in India is currently around 31%. “Urban India
with an estimated population of 444 million already has 269 million (60%) using the Internet.
It has only 163 million internet users contributing 17% of the total rural population. There are
approximately 750 million potential internet users in Rural India that can be yet to become
Internet user if they get proper assistance‟.

b. Current Scenario:

In the era of globalization not only the countries of the world and thereby their communities
have come closer to one another but also most of the sectors have undergone significant and
desirable changes. With the significant use of Internet it is important to study its impact on
marketing field. It is true that one of the prime factors for the growth of Digitalization is the
worldwide increase in the use of internet. Thus the new concept of Digitalization has
immerged and is found to be dynamic in nature. A digitalization facility opens several new
golden opportunities to market out different kinds of goods & services of various industries.
Local businesses can be easily converted into global by just developing and hosting website
into the web servers. Any business can pick up an appropriate Digitalization business model
from the list of B2B, B2C, and C2C etc.
According to CAM Foundation – “Digitalization is a broad discipline, bringing together all
forms of marketing that operates through electronic devices – online, on mobile, on-screen.
Over the years, digitalization has developed enormously, and it continues to do so.”
Digitalization also referred to as e-marketing, web-marketing, online marketing or internet
marketing is the marketing of goods & services over the Internet. Online marketing refers to
the strategies that are used to market a product or service online, marketing strategies that
include search engine optimization and search engine submission, copywriting that
encourages website visitors to take action, website design strategies, online endorsement &
promotions, reciprocal linking, email marketing and that's just hitting the draw an attentions.
In any or most business, it is very important to advertise the goods & services.
Several small businesses work hard to attract clients and consumers. Having a website and
covering the web design basics is just one way to attract new consumers or market the
business. Hence, the Internet can be a powerful tool that can help advertise and market goods
& services.
Online marketing has lots of advantages and disadvantages over traditional & conventional
marketing. It has fast implementation time, considered to be measurable and flexible. Using
online marketing makes your store open 24x7. The consumers worldwide can reach and can
shop and basically do business anytime they want to. Apart from that, emailing subscription
base is cheaper than sending a letter each and every one the way through mail in endorsing
goods & services or in communicating with big or small companies.
Updating the subscribers can be done almost instantly each and every one the way through
email. Also, visitors of the websites can get up to the minute information on each visit.
Digitalization is grow up at a dramatic pace and is significantly impacting consumer and
business market behaviors. As a result, most firms have started developing Digitalization
strategies for the web. Nevertheless, the evolution and strategic direction of Digitalization in
local environments has not been discussed and is the focus of the research investigation. The
research will be focusing on online business Digitalization as the major part of the study will
bring in special concern to online businesses as well as consumers of online businesses in the
Uttar Pradesh Region. In this research, it will be also focus on how Digitalization influences
the buying behavior of consumers and how consumers can be benefited.

2. Review of literature:

The Internet was the result of some visionaries in the early 1960s who saw great potential
value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific
and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in
1962 and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late
1962 to head the work to develop it. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT & UCLA developed the
theory of packet switching which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence
Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965
over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking but also
cleared that the telephone line's circuit switching was inadequate. Kleinrock's packet
switching theory was confirmed. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his
plan for ARPANET. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real
founders of the Internet.
These days digitalization is a broad term that can be defined as the 'use of the internet to
advertise and sell goods and services'. Essentially anything that is a service and which can
make money on the internet is and can be interpreted as internet marketing.

Chung W (2002) based on his study of New Zealand consumers has suggested that
companies must have a privacy policy statements under their website. This policy assures
consumer that the company would not misuse the information gathered from them. The study
publication interestingly discusses argument for and against internet privacy concerns. This
approach is good however the author could not provide any input on whether some cookies
do steal user information or not. The author has made valuable contribution in his paper by
providing solutions that can be used to protect privacy of users. One will agree with author‟s
view that a solutions like legislation, self regulation and technical solutions will protect
consumer privacy.

Chiu Yu-Bin et al (2005) in their work has discussed about how different genders perceive
internet marketing. Their empirical model is a direct modification of technical acceptance
model. They have used four antecedent constructs namely personal awareness of security,
personal innovative ease of purchasing and usefulness. Some of the key gender based
findings are as follows: Improving the usage speed of the site is a driver for males to do
shopping, Male consumers are more target oriented in their approach towards shopping and
Male consumers will make purchases when they are confident that their sensitive information
is safe regardless of the security provided on the website. The study also reveals that females
use word of mouth broadcasting to help other females overcome the barrier in internet
shopping atleast during the starting stages. The most valuable contribution of this study is the
bringing out the differences in what manner each gender perceives about online marketing.
From the study shows above it can be considered that factors such as importance of consumer
privacy, role of web mavens, consumers preference in the selection of internet services,
building consumer trust with companies, consumer behavior in internet purchasing and
gender differences largely affects the Internet Marketing. The protection of consumer privacy
and trust are most significant factors for consumers to indulge in internet marketing and
hence without these two factors internet marketing cannot grow.

Davidson Alistair (2006) in his paper describes how users would react to them. Consumers
may have to face various contents such price, feature, technology etc which influence their
decision making. This influences them to seek advice from web mavens which provide
product information. In such situations consumer would use the internet for purchase with
web maven & thus can review the factors that would influence their mindset. Urban Glen
(2006) in his paper quotes various examples of how today the people are making automobile
purchases. According to him the buyers get complete information about the product online
before visiting the automobile showroom which in turn gives them advantage over the
information from the dealer. He also claims that present day Consumers of today are very
aggressive in expressing what they like and what they don‟t like. Some of the customers do
not want to purchase any product from companies that are too aggressive in marketing i.e.
who don‟t care about what customers really want but intentionally try to dump their product.
After considering how consumers purchase products it is also important to know the mindset
of consumers involved in service usage. A common service now days on the internet is the
online travel agency service.

Social media with an extra ordinary example Facebook has opened for businesses to
communicate with millions of people about products and services and has opened new
marketing opportunities in the market. This is possible only if the managers are fully aware of
using the communication strategies to engage the customers and enhancing their experience
(Mangold, 2009). Marketing professional must truly understand internet social marketing
campaigns and programs and understand how to do it effectively with performance
measurement indicators. As the market dynamics all over the world are changing to the
young audience accessibility to social media and usage. It is important that strategic
integration are adopted in organization‟s marketing communication plan (Rohm & Hanna,

Blogs as a tool for digitalization have successfully an impact on increasing sales revenue,
especially for products where customers can read reviews and write comments about personal
experiences. For businesses, online reviews have worked really well as part of their overall
strategic marketing strategy (Zhang, 2013).

As we all know that technology gives rights to survey about that product or services which
they willing to buy before final purchase. Social media marketing highly affect consumer‟s
view for buying particular products or services. Today‟s consumers are highly effected by e-
marketing mostly rather than TV or Newspaper advertisement. Social media marketing help
companies to gather potential customers of their particular products or services. In past years,
through survey we found out that today‟s customers are mostly watched advertisement on
mobile, Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube etc. As we all know that online shopping
and advertisement are gradually too fast in nowadays market, the industries and business are
highly targeted now on online marketing advertisement rather than other advertisement tool.
Through research we assume that as e-marketing is more convenient rather than traditional as
it has no limits of advertisement, no limit to whom they are advertising because they target
global market through the help of internet as well. The author survey different places of the
world regarding the impact of e-marketing on consumer because they float research question
on internet and different social media, the survey result shows that e-marketing is highly
motivating consumers for online buying and selling. The global economic crisis is highly
affecting economies of both home and host countries. So by online marketing consumer can
directly call the companies to buy that companies product and get those products from
shipments or other international buying tools. The cost and expenses totally paid by
companies or individual who is purchasing that product, so that‟s the reason government also
help and support them. Although nowadays government and private sectors understanding the
importance of online marketing, so they also help consumers how to get product through
online marketing. It also helps host country‟s companies by giving them as a middle-man
profit. They appreciated that because they earn high profit in this way. Developed countries
like U.S.A, Canada and others focus on research regarding companies of marketing so they
can generate maximum profit with lack of risk. In Malaysia consumer and seller both
research and appreciate e-marketing tool because it help to get the exact what the market and
customers are demanding for. It changes the host countries selling methodology as well
because both have different taste and preferences for buying that same product as well. The
major use of online marketing in the world the higher economy of that particular country
rises and foreign currency float in that country. (Jin, Abdullah, Nizam, Rahim, & Safizal,
The consumer are looking and searching more from online to find the best deal form the
sellers around India. Digitalization such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine
marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, e-commerce
marketing, campaign marketing, and social media marketing, social media optimization, e-
mail direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, optical disks and games, are becoming
more and more common in our advancing technology. Today we all are connected via
whatsapp and facebook and enhancing the use of social media is creating fresh opportunities
for digital market experts to attract the customers through digital platform. Digitalization is
cost effective and having a great commercial impact on the business. (Dr. Amit Singh
Rathore, Mr.Mohit Pant & Mr.Chetan Sharma, 2017)
3. Research Methodology:
a. Research gap: Extensive literature review suggested that not much emphasis has been
given on exhaustively identifying the antecedents and predictors of digitalization.
Dimensions and characteristics of consumer behavior towards online purchasing of
electronic goods were not rightly identified and studied. Literature review also revealed
absence of analysis of growth of digitalization in India. Another gap identified was the
absence of such a study in the Uttar Pradesh in India. Hence it was decided to address
these gaps in the scope of this study. The study has explored and established that
demographic factors act as drivers and play an instrumental role in shaping customers
attitudes, feelings and behavior. These research gaps have been identified and addressed
through this study.
b. Research problem:
Currently Digitalization in India is growing at a rapid rate. There are more than 500
million internet consumers present in India who uses digital platform for various
operations regularly. By various governments policy for making India digitalized more
and more consumers are increasing rapidly. As Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state
in India but there are various factors that researcher has to find out for proper growth of
digitalization. Researcher should analyze the impact of demographic and behavioral
factors on consumer attitude towards digitalization in Uttar Pradesh.
c. Statement of problem: To analyze the growth of digitalization and impact of
demographic and behavioral factors on consumer attitudes towards digitalization.

d. Research Objective:

1. To identify and observe the current scenario of digitalization in India.

2. To identify the various factors that affects the growth of digitalization in India.
3. To analyze the impact of demographic factors (age, gender, income, occupation and
qualification) and behavioral factors on consumer attitudes towards digitalization.
4. To analyze the consumer attitudes towards satisfaction via digitalization.

e. Research Hypothesis:

Research hypothesis provides the base to derive the research conclusions. Following is the
list of hypothesis used to verify in this research study.
1. H0: There is no relationship between the age of consumer and purchasing frequency.
H1: There is a relationship between the age of consumer and purchasing frequency.
2. H0: There is no relationship between the income of consumer and purchasing power.
H2: There is a relationship between the income of consumer and purchasing power.
3. H0: There is no relationship between the qualifications of consumer and purchasing of
quality product.
H3: There is a relationship between the qualifications of consumer and purchasing of
quality product.
4. H0: There is no relationship between the usage occasion of product and purchasing
H4: There is a relationship between the usage occasion of product and purchasing
f. Sampling Methods:
i) Data Collection:
 Primary data: Questioning and observations are two basic methods of collecting
data. Questioning means data collection by asking question to people who are
thought to have the desired information. It may be asked in person or by writing.
The researcher shall use various methods to collect the primary information such
as questionnaire etc.
 Secondary Data: Secondary data means data that are already available. It refers
to the data which have already collected and analyzed by someone else. The
researcher utilizes the secondary data from the various sources. Secondary data
may either be published or unpublished data. Published data are available in:
a. various publications of central, state and local governments
b. Trade and technical journals
c. Magazines, books and newspapers
d. Reports and publications
ii) Questionnaire: Structured questionnaire and personal interview research technique is
used in this research.
 Type of questionnaire: questionnaire can either be structured or unstructured.
 Structured questionnaire: the questions are presented with exactly the same
wording and in same order to all respondents.
 Closed Ended: Closed ended questions specify all the possible answers that are
easier to interpret and tabulate(i.e. of the type „yes‟ or „no‟)
 Unstructured questionnaire: In this questionnaire, questions are open ended.
iii) Observation/Interview: Observation and interview is a systematic data
collection approach. Researcher uses all of his senses to examine people in natural
iv) Sampling: it is process used in the statistical analysis in which a
predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population. there are two
types of sampling techniques:
 Non Probability Sampling: Sample technique that doesn‟t use chance selection
 Convenience Sampling: A non probability sampling technique that
attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements.
 Sample Size: The study will cover whole Uttar Pradesh. The study will be
focused on population of Uttar Pradesh.The researcher will use 500 samples of
respondents when data will be collected.
v) Respondents: All the respondents are consumers of digital marketing in Uttar Pradesh.
The convenience sampling will be used in this research and other technique would have been
used as per requirement of information or data.
g. Statistical Tools and Techniques: For analyzing the collected data, the researcher will
use following tools and techniques as per requirement:
 Mean ,standard deviation
 Regression Analysis
 Factor analysis ANOVA, pair T-Test etc.

4. Scope of Study:

1. The scope of the study can be further increased and enriched to include more variables
under the theoretical framework in future studies.
2. The study can also be done in different states of India to ascertain interplay of different
factors and their contribution on consumer behavior towards digitalization.
3. Future studies and researches should include other factors like geographical factors,
cultural factors etc.
4. The scope of the study can be further broadened to increase various tenets of customer
attitudes like beliefs, feeling and behavioral intentions.
5. Advantage of Study:
Researcher‟s study helps in analysis of growth of digitalization in Uttar Pradesh. Research is
focused on consumer attitudes towards digitalization .The study describes impact of
demographic and behavioral factors on purchasing frequency. Through this research,
Researcher wants to identify the impact of demographic and behavioral factors on
purchasing through digital marketing. This research gives the solution of problems of
consumer attitudes towards digitalization and helps to increase use of digital marketing in
Uttar Pradesh.

6. Limitations of Study:

 Money constraints

 Data constraints

 Respondent willingness

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