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Vels Srinivasa College of Engg

and Tech

Master of Business Administration


NAME : B. Jeyaseelan
REG No : 31609631013
TOPIC : Holistic Marketing
Holistic Marketing

The holistic marketing concept is based on the development, design, and

implementation of marketing programs, process, and activities that recognize their
breadth and interdependencies. Holistic marketing recognizes that “everything” .A
different form of marketing strategy in which you explore different aspects such as
Integrity Selling, Spirit Selling, and Spiritual Marketing is known as Holistic

Holistic Marketing is a great tool for any business whether you are a therapist,
practitioner, consultant, or any other type of business one wishes to market
effectively. The first step in Holistic Marketing is to start to the soul searching
process. You need to look inside yourself in order to figure out what is going on in
your life and what you wish to accomplish. Ask questions that will help figure out
what inner strengths that you may possess, then figure out how to draw on those
strengths. Another step is to figure out what you and the potential clients have in
common. Clients need to be able to feel comfortable and trust who they are doing
business with, no matter what field of expertise it might be. No one is going to see a
doctor if they don't feel comfortable with them.

Holistic marketing is a concept that is increasing in popularity, as more business

owners are seeking to promote their products and services in a way that conveys
authenticity and integrity. Holistic marketing can be defined as a heart-centered
approach to expanding and promoting one's business. The intention is to attract
highly qualified customers who have made an emotional connection with what is
being offered.


Products & Services Top Management Customers Community
Communications Marketing Partners Legal, Ethics
Channels Other Department Channels Environment

Internal marketing ensures that everyone in the organization adopts appropriate

marketing principles and the top management should see it happen. This is the
management task of hiring, training & motivating the employees to serve the
customers well. Smart & successful companies understand that there is as much
activity outside the company as inside. For it makes no sense to promise excellent
services before the company’s service staff is ready to provide. Internal marketing
must happen in two levels as follows:

1. At the first level, all the marketing functions like, sales force, market research,
customer service, product management, advertising, etc. must go together, i.e., all
the personnel should work in tandem or unison for common goal.

2. At the second level, “marketing” must be embraced by other departments for

a common goal of the organization. All the relevant functional departments like
Finance, HR, Operations, Logistics, Systems, etc. must coordinate each other to
have a marketing orientation. Only trying to meet individual department’s target &
norms and not supporting the marketing objectives will take the company nowhere.
One has to bear in mind that it’s marketing that earns revenue.

Internal marketing requires that everyone in the organization buy into the concepts
& goals of marketing, and engage themselves in selecting, creating, communicating
& delivering customer value.


The development of deep, enduring relationships with all the people or firms
involved directly or indirectly in the firm’s marketing activities is appearing as a key
goal; of marketing. This is the concept of Relationship marketing – it aims at
building mutually satisfying long-term relationships with key parties like customers,
financiers, suppliers, distributors & of course the stakeholders, in order to earn &
retain their business. It also builds strong economic, technical & social binding
amongst the parties. There are four key constituents of marketing are:

1. Customers

2. Employees

3. Marketing Partners: Channels, Suppliers, Distributors, Dealers, Retailers,

Agencies, etc.
4. Financial Community: Shareholders, Stakeholders, Financiers, Investors,
Analysts, etc.

5. Another key constituent is the Society: Well-wishers, Philanthropists, Scientists,

Professors, and Environmentalists.


Holistic marketing incorporates social responsibility marketing. This involves

broader concerns of the society at large, like social, legal, ethical & environmental
in the context of marketing activities. Companies operate in a society and so do
their customers and hence they should never forget its contribution to the
company. It requires that marketers carefully consider the role they are playing in
terms of social welfare. Companies need to evaluate whether they are truly
practicing ethical & socially responsible marketing. Several factors are driving the
companies to practice higher level of corporate social responsibility, such as:

1. Rising customers' expectations,

2. Changing employees' expectations,

3. Govt. Legislation & pressure,

4. Investor interest in social criteria,

5. Changing business procurement criteria.

Vels Srinivasa College of Engg
and Tech

Master of Business Administration


NAME : B. Jeyaseelan
REG No : 31609631013
TOPIC : Corporate Governance
Corporate Governance
Historically it is known as the ways in which a firm preserves the
interests of its financiers (investors, lenders, and creditors). The modern
definition calls it structure of rules and exercise by which a board of directors
ensures purity and transparency in the firm's combination with its all
stakeholders. There are two contracts in the structure, such as- explicit and
An important thing of corporate governance is to bring out the
accountability of certain individuals through that tool that tries to lessen the
principal-agent problem. Another related consideration highlights on the
impact of a corporate governance system in economic solvency and
efficiency, with a strong impact on shareholders' wellbeing. Corporate
governance also deal with the stakeholder view and the corporate
governance models.
Good corporate governance is key to the integrity of corporations,
financial institutions and markets, and central to the health of our economies
and their stability. Corporate governance has become talk of the day in the
corporate world, especially when there is financial crisis originated in the
U.S.A. and some other countries due to poor governance of financial
institutions. Corporate governance is concerned with the resolution of
collective action problems among dispersed investors and the reconciliation
of conflicts of interest between various corporate claimholders.
The Impact of Corporate Governance:
The positive effect of corporate governance on different
stakeholders ultimately is a strengthened economy, and hence good
corporate governance is a tool for socio-economic development.
Principles of Corporate Governance:
Key elements of good corporate governance principles include honesty, trust
and integrity, openness, performance orientation, responsibility and
accountability, mutual respect, and commitment to the organization.
Of importance is how directors and management develop a model of
governance that aligns the values of the corporate participants and then
evaluate this model periodically for its effectiveness.

Commonly accepted principles of corporate governance


Rights and equitable treatment of shareholders: Organizations should

respect the rights of shareholders and help shareholders to exercise those
rights. They can help shareholders exercise their rights by effectively
communicating information that is understandable and accessible and
encouraging shareholders to participate in general meetings.

Interests of other stakeholders: Organizations should recognize that they

have legal and other obligations to all legitimate stakeholders.

Role and responsibilities of the board: The board needs a range of skills
and understanding to be able to deal with various business issues and have
the ability to review and challenge management performance. It needs to be
of sufficient size and have an appropriate level of commitment to fulfill its
responsibilities and duties. There are issues about the appropriate mix of
executive and non-executive directors.

Integrity and ethical behavior: Ethical and responsible decision making is

not only important for public relations, but it is also a necessary element in
risk management and avoiding lawsuits. Because of this, many organizations
establish Compliance and Ethics Programs to minimize the risk that the firm
steps outside of ethical and legal boundaries.

Disclosure and transparency: Organizations should clarify and make

publicly known the roles and responsibilities of board and management to
provide shareholders with a level of accountability. Disclosure of material
matters concerning the organization should be timely and balanced to
ensure that all investors have access to clear, factual information.

Issues involving corporate governance principles include:

• Internal controls and internal auditors

• The independence of the entity's external auditors and the quality of
their audits
• Oversight and management of risk
• Oversight of the preparation of the entity's financial statements
• Review of the compensation arrangements for the chief executive
officer and other senior executives
• The resources made available to directors in carrying out their duties
• The way in which individuals are nominated for positions on the board
• Dividend policy.
Ongoing Corporate Governance:
A fundamental dilemma of corporate governance emerges from this
overview: large shareholder intervention needs to be regulated to guarantee
better small investor protection; but this may increase managerial discretion
and scope for abuse. Alternative methods of limiting abuse have yet to be
proven. Family orientation is One of the reasons for slow progress in
adopting corporate governance. Such concentration of ownership hinders
effective implementation of corporate governance. Rights of the
shareholders are of paramount importance in corporate governance.
Shareholders' rights are reflected in the AGMs where shareholders can
participate in decision making concerning fundamental corporate changes
through their votes. The voting rights of the minority shareholders should be
Corporate governance is gradually being implemented by the corporate
houses and regulators should have a strong role in implementing the same.
The financial crisis & corporate governance:
The financial crisis required governments to make massive interventions in
their financial systems. This book sets out priorities for reforming incentives
in financial markets as well as for phasing out these emergency measures.
The current crisis has highlighted many corporate governance failures. As
part of its strategic response, the OECD is working with governments and
industry to develop and put in place more effective corporate governance
Corporate Governance Lessons from the Financial Crisis:
This new report analyses the impact of failures and weaknesses in corporate
governance on the financial crisis, including risk management systems and
executive salaries.

Vels Srinivasa College of Engg

and Tech
Master of Business Administration


NAME : B. Jeyaseelan
REG No : 31609631013
TOPIC : Cyber Law


Cyber law is a new phenomenon having emerged much after the
onset of Internet. Internet grew in a completely unplanned and unregulated
manner. Even the inventors of Internet could not have really anticipated the
scope and far reaching consequences of cyberspace. The growth rate of
cyberspace has been enormous. Internet is growing rapidly and with the
population of Internet doubling roughly every 100 days, Cyberspace is
becoming the new preferred environment of the world.
The growth of Cyberspace has resulted in the development of a new
and highly specialized branch of law called CYBERLAWS- LAWS OF THE

There is no one exhaustive definition of the term "Cyber law". However,
simply put, Cyber law is a term which refers to all the legal and regulatory
aspects of Internet and the World Wide Web. Anything concerned with or
related to, or emanating from, any legal aspects or issues concerning any
activity of citizens and others, in Cyberspace comes within the ambit of
Cyber law.
Indian Cyber Law India
An India cyber (internet) law is largely governed by the Information
Technology Act 2000. The act was amended in 2008.The act which is there
to ostensibly promote electronic commerce also provides for penalties and
criminal offenses. Get more information on cyber laws in India criminal
offenses. Get more information on cyber laws in India.


CYBER LAW is seen as an essential component of criminal justice
system all over the world. The same applies to cyber law of India as well. In
the Indian context, the Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000) is the
cyber law of India. It is the exclusive law in this regard and is under the
process of amendments.India has done a good job by enacting a cyber law. It
is the 12th country of the world having a cyber law. It covers areas like e-
governance, e-commerce, cyber contraventions and cyber offences.
However, some critics and cyber law experts have questioned the strength of
IT Act, 2000. It would be prudent to analyse the exact position that applies to
the Indian cyber law.
The IT Act 2000 attempts to change outdated laws and provides
ways to deal with cyber crimes. We need such laws so that people can
perform purchase transactions over the Net through credit cards without fear
of misuse. The Act offers the much-needed legal framework so that
information is not denied legal effect, validity or enforceability, solely on the
ground that it is in the form of electronic records.
In view of the growth in transactions and communications carried out
through electronic records, the Act seeks to empower government
departments to accept filing, creating and retention of official documents in
the digital format. The Act has also proposed a legal framework for the
authentication and origin of electronic records / communications through
digital signature.

"It is a criminal activity committed on the internet. This is a broad
term that describes everything from electronic cracking to denial of service
attacks that cause electronic commerce sites to lose money".
Cyber crimes can be basically divided into 3 major categories:
1. Cybercrimes against persons.
2. Cybercrimes against property.
3. Cybercrimes against government.

Cybercrime must be dealt with very seriously because it causes a
lot of damage to businesses and the actual punishment should depend on
the type of fraud used.The penalty for illegally accessing a computer system
ranges from 6 months to 5 years. The penalty for the unofficial modification
on a computer ranges from 5 to 10 years. Other penalties are listed below:

Telecommunication service theft: The theft of telecommunication

services is a very common theft and is punished with a heavy fine and
Communications intercept crime: This is a Class-D crime which is
followed by a severe punishment of 1 to 5 years of imprisonment with a fine.
Other cyber crimes like telecommunication piracy, offensive material
dissemination, and other cyber frauds also belong to this category.
Information Technology Act-2000: According to this act, different
penalties are available for different crimes. Some of the penalties are as
Government protected system: An act of trying to gain access to a
system which is a protected system by the government, will result in
imprisonment for 10 years and a heavy fine.

The introduction of such penalties have lead to a drastic reduction in the

cyber crime rates as more and more criminals are becoming aware of the
penalties related to them. Spreading the word about the penalties of cyber
crime can serve as a deterrent against such crime.

The biggest problem of cybercrime lies in the modus operandi and the
motive of the cyber criminal. Cyber space is a transit space for many people,
including offenders. Cyber law helps to protect from cyber crimes.
Vels Srinivasa College of Engg
and Tech

Master of Business Administration


NAME : B. Jeyaseelan
REG No : 31609631013
TOPIC : Knowledge System and Management
Knowledge System and
Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a (generally IT
based) system for managing knowledge in organizations for supporting
creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. It can comprise
a part (neither necessary or sufficient) of a Knowledge Management
The idea of a KM system is to enable employees to have ready access
to the organization's documented base of facts, sources of information, and
solutions. For example a typical claim justifying the creation of a KM system
might run something like this: an engineer could know the metallurgical
composition of an alloy that reduces sound in gear systems. Sharing this
information organization wide can lead to more effective engine design and
it could also lead to ideas for new or improved equipment.
A KM system could be any of the following:
Document based i.e. any technology that permits
creation/management/sharing of formatted documents such as Lotus Notes,
web, distributed databases etc.
Ontology/Taxonomy based: these are similar to document technologies in
the sense that a system of terminologies (i.e. ontology) are used to
summarize the document e.g. Author, Subj, Organization etc. as in DAML &
other XML based ontologies
Based on AI technologies which use a customized representation scheme to
represent the problem domain.
Provide network maps of the organization showing the flow of
communication between entities and individuals
Increasingly social computing tools are being deployed to provide a more
organic approach to creation of a KM system.

KMS systems deal with information (although Knowledge Management

as a discipline may extend beyond the information centric aspect of any
system) so they are a class of information system and may build on, or
utilize other information sources. Distinguishing features of a KMS can
Purpose: a KMS will have an explicit Knowledge Management objective of
some type such as collaboration, sharing good practice or the like.
Context: One perspective on KMS would see knowledge is information that is
meaningfully organized, accumulated and embedded in a context of creation
and application.
Processes: KMS are developed to support and enhance knowledge-intensive
processes, tasks or projects of e.g., creation, construction, identification,
capturing, acquisition, selection, valuation, organization, linking, structuring,
formalization, visualization, transfer, distribution, retention, maintenance,
refinement, revision, evolution, accessing, retrieval and last but not least the
application of knowledge, also called the knowledge life cycle.
Participants: Users can play the roles of active, involved participants in
knowledge networks and communities fostered by KMS, although this is not
necessarily the case. KMS designs are held to reflect that knowledge is
developed collectively and that the “distribution” of knowledge leads to its
continuous change, reconstruction and application in different contexts, by
different participants with differing backgrounds and experiences.
Instruments: KMS support KM instruments, e.g., the capture, creation and
sharing of the codifiable aspects of experience, the creation of corporate
knowledge directories, taxonomies or ontologies, expertise locators, skill
management systems, collaborative filtering and handling of interests used
to connect people, the creation and fostering of communities or knowledge

A KMS offers integrated services to deploy KM instruments for networks of

participants, i.e. active knowledge workers, in knowledge-intensive business
processes along the entire knowledge life cycle. KMS can be used for a wide
range of cooperative, collaborative, adhocracy and hierarchy communities,
virtual organizations, societies and other virtual networks, to manage media
contents; activities, interactions and work-flows purposes; projects; works,
networks, departments, privileges, roles, participants and other active users
in order to extract and generate new knowledge and to enhance, leverage
and transfer in new outcomes of knowledge providing new services using
new formats and interfaces and different communication channels.
The goal of knowledge management systems is
 To help knowledge workers create, organize, and make available
important business knowledge, wherever and whenever it's needed in
an organization.
 Knowledge management systems make efforts for organizational
learning and knowledge creation
Some of the advantages claimed for KM systems are:
 Sharing of valuable organizational information.
 Can avoid re-inventing the wheel, reducing redundant work.
 May reduce training time for new employees
 Retention of Intellectual Property after the employee leaves if such
knowledge can be codified.
The Future of Knowledge Management:

In the next several years ad-hoc software will develop into

comprehensive, knowledge aware enterprise management systems. KM and
E-learning will converge into knowledge collaboration portals that will
efficiently transfer knowledge in an interdisciplinary and cross functional
environment. Information systems will evolve into artificial intelligence
systems that use intelligent agents to customize and filter relevant
information. New methods and tools will be developed for KM driven E-
intelligence and innovation.