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IT’S ALL ABOUT STYLE
L E S S O N
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................. iterature is written stylistically. Every
author who writes has a certain style or way in which to tell a story, to inform, to persuade, or even to describe. Style is important. We see style everyday—from the kid in the front row of my class in Wranglers and cowboy boots to the kid in the opposite corner with a mohawk and various ensembles he arranges from the Goodwill (and I’m talking about anything from cut-off, janitorial uniforms to suspenders with a kilt; this kid is unique). Style bombards us on the television, from magazine racks, and even in our own homes. We, as a society, think appearance is important. Authors also think appearance is important and dwell heavily on how to write their words, sentences, and paragraphs. Even though some may disagree on what good style is, everyone does have an opinion on style. I remember being made fun of in fifth grade because of the “style” in which I chose to keep my Barbie dolls. For some unknown reason, I thought it would be fun to chop off all of my Barbies’ hair and color them with Magic Markers. Who knows, maybe I could have made thousands by selling my Punk Rock Doll to Mattel! When I brought my 1980s, Madonna-like Barbie to school, I was made fun of. All the other girls’ Barbies looked like they were going to the ball, while mine looked like they were going to storm the castle with Cindy Lauper and Boy George! I was devastated. My style didn’t match the style of the other girls in class. Looking back, I have to laugh because I did something different. I ventured out. Venturing out and being unique are what make great authors. In this lesson, you’ll see the stylistic techniques and use of literary elements that have helped great authors become great—even if they were teased by the other fifth graders in their schools.
1 Summarize what happened chronologically in The Outsiders after completing the reading assignment. 2 Recognize S. E. Hinton’s style by identifying examples of her style in the text. 3 Identify the literary elements of style and match each element to its definition. 4 Identify and write literary elements used within the example poems.
What You’ll Learn to Do
Summarize what happened chronologically in The Outsiders after completing the reading assignment. Lesson 2: It’s All about Style
Summarizing The Outsiders
Reading Assignment ................................
The Outsiders Read chapters 8 through 12.
So, do you think Ponyboy and Johnny are really heroes? What about Dally? How does his death relate to Johnny? How are they connected? What does “staying gold” mean? Hopefully, you’re thinking about answers to these thematic questions. The Outsiders ends tragically for a reason—to teach Pony that because of the life Dally lived, he
In the end. mental. but we need to be careful about where we look for it. people are not born into the best of situations. our innocence. Basic love and acceptance is the third-most important of those needs. in turn. and he would have willingly given his life for Johnny’s if asked. and he cannot comprehend judging the people in his class or wanting to be mean. and he learned that they would do anything for him. fast-addicting drugs. Every person has needs. physical. because Johnny was dead. This is natural.24 could only end up in trouble with the law. The Socs’ parents didn’t care what their children did. The best we can do is “stay gold”—take hold of our goodness.” Now that you’ve taken in all I’m going to say about the themes and messages of the novel. as long as they stayed out of the way. in the end. “Boo-yah. In a way. He wrote extensively about the boys involved and admitted to being one of those in the school who mocked and ridiculed the boys. all Socs and greasers—especially Johnny—were wanting parents to love and nurture them. Pony nailed it on the head when he said things were tough all over. he at least knew that his parents sincerely cared about and loved him when they were alive. Pony learns the hard way that one has to accept consequences for his or her actions. His “gold” will tarnish a bit and he will become more human instead of innocent. he wanted to die. At the same time. Everyone will have to tackle their own trials and do their best to overcome each trial with the right attitude. All of us have people we would sacrifice almost anything for. we need people around us to help mold us into individuals. In realizing this. my student felt somewhat responsible for their unspeakable behavior due to his own misjudgments. No matter who we are. Colorado. he wrote a paper about the Columbine shooting. the teasing didn’t justify the boys’ actions in the least. He felt like he should have died instead of Johnny. Hopefully. Decisions create this path. and people interact with us during our path creation. Often times. As babies. We all need to find who we are individually and strive to be that person. Our behavior every day influences ourselves and influences others. He’s friends with everyone. We learn a great deal from others. we find it first and foremost in our families. however. and emotional ups and downs. we often mimic and imitate. learned it from our twelve-year-old neighbor. We all have people we want to protect. I met a student from Columbine. acceptance. Wow! Lots of action! What are your thoughts about Dally’s death? Why do you think he raised his gun—a gun with no bullets? Did he want to die? Why? Why not? I think Dally was most affected by the death of Johnny. however. Imitation is a cycle. Truly. I think Johnny was trying to teach Pony a valuable lesson in the end by those simple words— ”stay gold. Johnny was like his little brother. and the mind-set we had when we were little. if they learn to triumph over their situation. People who use drugs don’t usually start with the hard. she’s into saying. Sadly. Pony learned that even the Socs had it bad. Besides learning from others. and she’ll repeat it as best as she can. We learn love from our parents before we ever meet and interact with friends and peers. Pony finally knew who he was. While teaching a college-level class. Even though Pony thought he had it rough because his parents died. Pony knew where he belonged. however. and it is a cycle we’d better try our best not to rely on. Sadly. that is how we learn. In the course of the class. He knew that the cops would think it was loaded and shoot him. My student wrote in depth about the teasing these boys endured. I think the tragic end allows us all to think about the love we have for our friends and the manner in which we treat others. In life. we learn from our environment. Family unity is important. that will probably change by next year. comparing hardships will get us nowhere fast. The great psychologist Abraham Maslow constructed a hierarchy of seven important needs for all humans. as an old hood. because he hated the way Johnny was treated at home.” She learned this from my five-year-old who. thanks to Johnny’s letter. Families are important. My oldest child is in kindergarten. Wanting love and acceptance is a good thing. Choose now to make Literature 45—Understanding Literature . the ridiculed boys later became killers. Pony has only caring memories of his parents. No. Lately. Criminals begin with smaller crimes and smaller frauds before moving to bigger crimes. I think Hinton was trying to make a strong statement about the need we all have for love. I believe Dally knew what he was doing when he raised the gun. we all need love. He proved this earlier by going into the fire to save him. Dally wanted to protect Johnny. or in his own blood. This way. he could go gallantly in the name of his friend. Dally felt like he failed at protecting him. Dally knew his life was on the wrong track and going nowhere fast. Remember. I think. let’s get down to the what happened in the novel. Sometimes bad decisions can lead to a downward spiral. Criminals do not usually start out with high-stake crimes. and we should all try our best to help strengthen the family in which we live—no matter what kind of family structure we have. We need to choose carefully the people we surround ourselves with. As humans. We all make a path for ourselves in this life. Pony’s family was his brothers. they learn the true meaning of success and the American Dream. and that aided in Pony’s change of heart and attitude towards them. Everyone’s journey in life is marked with trials— no matter the economic. I can teach my two-year-old to say something. and belonging.
. ____ 14. But all the wrong sights.. not because of the smoking or bad actions of the greasers........ ____ 13. Hinton’s words seem to be Pony’s. Sixteen years on the streets brings you experience and the ability to ponder and learn from the streets.. 25 . We all knew he’d die. Keep the novel keen in your mind for Speedback assignment 2.......... but you have the ultimate power because you decide your own fate! In order to check your understanding of the novel... I apologize... Surround yourself with good people who want to make your path great with you.. Dally gets shot by the police and dies gallantly ____ 9. E. Pony and Johnny read Gone With the Wind together ____ 6... Under no conditions would there be editorials on him. Sixteen years on the streets and you can learn a lot. you will make mistakes.. Objective 2 Lesson 2: It’s All about Style Style in Writing S. you found the ain’t quite disturbing.. he left this earth a juvenile delinquent. Write “H” for “Hinton” and “P” for phony or “F” for fake or “Y” for “You’re up in the night” or— wait a minute... But all the wrong things. Hopefully... And now he was a dead juvenile delinquent and there wouldn’t be any editorials in his favor. Johnny dies at the hospital and tells Pony to “stay gold” ____ 2. Interesting! Hinton’s style may be simple and plain......... while the other two are made up...... Do not submit your answers to Independent Study... Recognize S. ____ 1.. I’m becoming weird... E....... you’ll be identifying her style........ not the sights you want to see.. Identify which are from the novel due to your experience reading Hinton’s style...” ____ 12.. She does a good job of creating a talking voice in her novel. the big rumble in the lot when the greasers won ____ 7.. Hinton’s style by identifying examples of her style in the text.. and to the point... but because it used the word ain’t... concise. Since you’ve already been exposed to her style. Sixteen years on the streets and you see a lot. meeting Cherry Valance and Maria ____ 4... Pony gets “jumped” by Socs after the Paul Newman movie ____ 8.. Johnny stabs Bob in protecting Pony ____ 11.. Did you know that S. Hinton was only sixteen when she wrote this? Pretty amazing. Proceed! Literature 45—Understanding Literature Place the following events from the novel in chronological order beginning with the first event to happen during the novel (may include reading from lesson 1) and ending with the last event to happen in the novel.... Dally passed on still needing something. that was pretty easy. unsure about himself.. .. just like we all knew he’d die someday.. .. No good in society’s eye.... I once had a parent complain about reading this book. E....... . even though you’re learning all the wrong things.. On the Let’s Check Your Mastery... He was gone. not the things you want to learn... Some part of his life was unfulfilled. Dally didn’t die a hero. Let’s Check Your Mastery Hopefully. but the plot and theme are complex and well-drawn. She uses dialogue to introduce the “talk” of greasers.. Pony writes his English theme Great! Hope you did well.. Hinton’s style is very simple.. ____ 15. True... someday.. you know what to look for.. Answer the following questions and then check your answers in the Answer Key at the back of this course manual.... .. Just stick with the “H” and the “P.. two are taken directly from The Outsiders. the train ride to Windrixville ____ 5....... Johnny gets “jumped” by Socs when he is alone ____ 3. Answer the following questions and then check your answers in the Answer Key at the back of this course manual.. Let’s Check Your Mastery Of the following four quotes..your path great..... He died violent and young and desperate. Her sentences are short... complete the Let’s Check Your Mastery.. Do not submit your answers to Independent Study. rescuing the kids from the church fire ____ 10..
to refer to an outside source. giving human characteristics to inhuman objects .. person... he could have easily said...... Alliteration—Words close together that start with the same sound.... Mood—The feeling evoked by the written work...... 16... Hyperbole—Exaggerating the truth.. I’m sure you’ve never done this! The most common example I can think of is a fisherman who catches a small fish... Pony thinks Dally is like James Dean.... “Life is like a box of chocolates... Hinton’s feeling is probably one of concern and sincerity towards the human race....... Dally’s jacket was a symbol for him.. Hinton uses sensory description when writing about the church fire... you’ll have to match excerpts from the novel with the correct literary term.. Sensory—Using other senses besides (or with) sight to describe something that the reader could smell. Irony occurs in The Outsiders when Darry hugs Pony at the hospital when Pony thought he would get yelled at by Darry. or object in a written text.. Do not submit your answers to Independent Study.” and that would be a metaphor. Irony—The result or word is the opposite of what is expected.” Metaphor—A comparison between two unlike objects not using like or as... The novel refers to Paul Newman as if we already know who Paul Newman is.... Hinton uses many literary elements in her writing.” Personification—Giving human characteristics to inhuman objects. since she tries to tell the readers that all people have it rough. The smoke is described so the reader can almost feel and smell it... he exaggerates the size of the fish by a few inches every time until the fish is too large to even talk about. So. Objective 3 Literary Elements Become acquainted with the following literary elements and their definitions... Allusion—To refer to an outside source... Let’s Check Your Mastery Write out the literary element next to its appropriate definition. Symbol—Having an object represent an abstract idea..... For the Speedback assignment.. or object in a written text. 26 Literature 45—Understanding Literature ..... An example of alliteration is “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. painting a clear picture in the reader’s mind 18. hear. As Forrest Gump would say... the result or word is the opposite of what is expected 19..... because it represented who he was to other people.. person.. ..... Imagery—Painting a clear picture in the reader’s mind... you never know what you are going to get. Tone—The feeling behind the author’s words.... Answer the following questions and then check your answers in the Answer Key at the back of this course manual... Simile—A comparison between two unlike objects using like or as.... while assuming the reader knows what is being referred to 20. The mood of The Outsiders is one of contemplation and reflection due to the death of Dally and to Pony’s realization that he knows who he is. taste..... “Dally is James Dean to me.... Identify the literary elements of style and match each element to its definition.. a comparison between two unlike objects not using like or as 17... For now. then match each definition with the correct element. or touch if he or she were actually there...... know the definitions. Hinton uses great imagery when she has Pony describe the sunrise at the church. but upon telling the story to others.. Imagery deals heavily with sight and what the reader can visualize being said. but it is important to know who you are. using all or most of the five senses to describe something 21. while assuming the reader knows what is being referred to.. Many fairy tales personify animals by making them able to talk.
She has written a lot about the lives of those in inner cities and what she calls “the neglected miracles of everyday experience... 799. go on to the Let’s Check Your Mastery.Information on the poets and poems in this lesson comes from McDougal Littell. Objective 4 Poetry Ah! Poetry! I love poetry! Reading the following poems will give us good experience with literary elements and allow us to see different kinds of poetic style.. 632... Most poets try to use images and emotions within their poems.. but they mainly want you to see certain images and feel certain emotions. exaggerating the truth 27. What images are used? 4. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? Then. What is the meaning behind the poem. write down the answers to the following questions: 1. in your opinion? 2... We Strike straight.. We Left school... and drinking? 27 .. 558. Read through the following poems1 at least twice.... We Thin gin.. What images are used? 4. Brooks is saying that the lifestyle of someone like the greasers only brings one to death sooner.... What literary elements are evident? Lesson 2: It’s All about Style 3.. words close together that start with the same sound Very good! Now that we are familiar with each element and its definition. 1. poets use lines.. —Gwendolyn Brooks Literature 45—Understanding Literature . hitting straight (with fists or guns)..... 1997).. that a line in poetry isn’t necessarily a complete sentence. she became the first ever African American author to win a Pulitzer Prize. Did you find the use of alliteration? Ultimately. Gwendolyn Brooks. committing sin.. be prepared to use the elements for objective 4 and in Speedback assignment 2! Poem 1 Here’s one that really relates to The Outsiders’ overall message.. We real cool.. We Sing sin. poetry is different from prose.... Poets use lines to keep their ideas and images separate. What literary elements are evident? 3. E.. What might the “Golden Shovel” mentioned in the poem symbolize? How would a golden shovel tie into sluffing school.. staying out late... The poem is about what could happen to those with an “eat...” See what you think about her poem. Brooks uses good sound. We Lurk late.. She became a poet at thirteen (she already has some similarities with S.. Do you agree? Is there truth to that? Write down your answers to the following thought questions. the feeling evoked by the written work 24. 699. drink. you’ll need the answers for Speedback assignment 2...... In 1950.. 616. the author of the poem. Identify and write literary elements used within the example poems. in your opinion? 2. Thought Questions 1... Remember. We Die soon. Instead of writing in sentences and paragraphs.22. We Real Cool The pool players.. though... The Language of Literature (Evanston. and be merry” attitude.. 637. resides in Chicago.. the feeling behind the author’s words 26..... . After reading each poem.. What is the meaning behind the poem. Hinton).. a comparison between two unlike objects using like or as 23.. Keep in mind.. 559.. upon your completion of all the readings.. Most poets use correct punctuation—they end a sentence with a period and use commas where needed. We Jazz June. having an object represent an abstract idea 25. Poets may tell stories. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? 5.. Seven at the Golden Shovel.
he is following a person who is stumbling. Pony struggled with knowing who he was. When he realized that it was okay to be himself and enjoy books and learning. I think.” Write down your answers to the following thought questions. Octavio Paz is one of Mexico’s best-known writers. and forgives. he received the Nobel Prize in literature. who will remain standing when I die. On the other hand. He married an American. he published his first book of poems before going to war for the Loyalists in Spain during the Spanish Civil War. if I run. what did you draw? Did you have an alley? A dark street? Black corners? Doorless doorways? The image is pretty dark and uncertain. he or she begins walking the street not knowing where to go. when I hate. In 1990. In the end.or herself? Why? Do you think the person in the poem truly knows who he or she is? Remember. Truly. I am this one walking beside me whom I do not see. Many people have an ideal view of themselves and a real view of themselves. —Juan Ramon Jimenez . Truly. In the beginning. and whom at other times I forget. because when he or she sees the person following. Turning and turning among these corners which lead forever to the street where nobody waits for.Poem 2 Here’s one that relates well to the inner feelings of Pony. in your opinion? 2. In 1956. The Street A long and silent street. and teach. Do you think the person likes him. “nobody” is seen. I walk in blackness and I stumble and fall and rise. a person is walking down a path or a street. What literary elements are evident? 3. In this poem. The street could possibly be dark because the person doesn’t know where he or she is going. nobody follows me. who walks where I am not. This poem was also translated from Spanish. some people do not even know who they are. when the person stumbles upon the person he or she follows. gently. —Octavio Paz she is of worth. who became his inspiration for many of his poems. Born in 1914. whom at times I manage to visit. Someone behind me also stepping on stones. you might want to draw what you imagine while or after reading this poem. he served in the Mexican diplomatic corps. the person may not have a complete sense of self. and I walk blind. so he or she is walking “blind. Then. something is being said about how the person feels about himor herself. who remains calm and silent while I talk. leaves: if I slow down. Who do you think is following this man? Why is it “nobody”? Psychologists have gone to great lengths to research how people feel about themselves and how they view themselves. At nineteen. he runs. What images are used? 4. What is the meaning behind the poem. Contrast that image with gold. he is being followed by someone. When he came back to Mexico. After the reading of The Outsiders. For fun. What do you come up with? If you drew a picture. This poem was translated from Spanish. he was “staying gold. he slows. I Am Not I I am not I. People tend to get caught up in mimicking others and trying to be someone they are not. As you read this poem. my feet stepping on silent stones and dry leaves. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? 5. he still continues to write. Everything dark and doorless. can relate to Dally in a way.” Maybe the person doesn’t feel like he or Poem 3 This one. In this poem. 28 Literature 45—Understanding Literature Thought Questions 1. So what is being said about the person? Possibly. “nobody” is referred to. He was born in 1881 and died in 1958. where I pursue a man who stumbles and rises and says when he sees me: nobody. speak. ask yourself about the inner self being referred to. Juan Ramon Jimenez is originally from Spain. I turn: nobody. I discussed creating paths in life. you’ll need the answers for Speedback assignment 2. the street could be a symbol for life. he received the Nobel Prize in literature. dark colors and unknown corners are talked about. Possibly. compare what you read in “The Street” with this. As you read this poem.
but now they only laugh with their teeth. He traveled around the United States during the late sixties to seek help for his village. which was in the midst of civil war. many of his written poems were destroyed. This poem relates well to the other poems. The father is analyzing how he is compared to how he used to be. We love people less and are 29 . There was a time indeed they used to shake hands with their hearts. to say “Glad to meet you. cocktailface. How does the author use personification in describing the speaker’s other side? Lesson 2: It’s All about Style Poem 4 Read the following poem. and when I come again and feel at home. Once Upon a Time Once upon a time. see how “staying gold” relates to the message apparent in the poem. son they used to laugh with their hearts and laugh with their eyes. there will be no thrice— for then I find doors shut on me. we are feeling another. As you read this. how to laugh. What literary elements are evident? 3. And I have learned too to laugh with only my teeth and shake hands without my heart. his true and loyal friend side will keep living—his side that forgives and is gentle when the other side hates. for my laugh in the mirror shows only my teeth like a snake’s bare fangs! So show me. twice. or view. maybe we can be just one “I.” after being bored. I want to relearn how to laugh. the side that will outlive our mortal bodies will be one of goodness and compassion. Which one remained standing when he died? Maybe to the greasers. He is the son of a village chief. I have learned to wear many faces like dresses—homeface. I think we all have different sides to our personalities. —Gabriel Okara Literature 45—Understanding Literature Thought Questions 1. I want to be what I used to be when I was like you. instead of a person with many faces. tough-guy appearance and attitude. Okara was born in Nigeria in 1921. and the true and loyal friend.“I am not I. So I have learned many things. son. hostface. As we get older. “Feel at home”! “Come again”. officeface.” or one person. the speaker of the poem is reflecting on his inner self. son. A comparison is being made between the speaker—an older father—and his son. Now they shake hands without hearts while their left hands search my empty pockets. of a person is being discussed. In doing so. We appear to be one way when. we truly learn to put on more faces. while their ice-block-cold eyes search behind my shadow. Hopefully. streetface. Due to the war. They say. show me how I used to laugh and smile once upon a time when I was like you. I want to unlearn all these muting things. with all their conforming smiles like a fixed portrait smile. and to say “It’s been nice talking to you. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? 5. Most of all. Write down your answers to the following thought questions. in your opinion? 2. once. but that’s gone.” When I mean “Goodriddance”. like “The Street.” another part. What images are used? 4. because once again. I have also learned to say. son. “Goodbye.” What do you think that means? Obviously. you’ll need the answers for Speedback assignment 2. What is the meaning behind the poem. I think the speaker of the poem wants us to visit our good side more often than we do. This poem is written by Gabriel Okara. son. Is there a part of us that we ignore at times? Is there a part of us that is more “calm and silent” and one who “forgives” more easily? What part of us will not die? Our souls? Our reputation? Our kindness? Dally sort of had two sides to himself—the hard. in actuality. But believe me.” without being glad.
Even when she was young. I love the image here of the irises! If you don’t tend and care for iris plants by separating them when they get large and by giving some away. they won’t thrive. What literary elements are evident? 3. The man in the poem sees the innocence in his son and yearns to have it again. our hope. in your opinion? 2. Levertov knew she wanted to be a poet. The older man knows he will die soon. will wither and die. Why do people learn more when faced with death? Is it the contrast? Is it knowing that life is precious? When I was a senior in high school. Thought Questions 1. we see things we can do to help people—to give hope to them. the speaker has a direct message for all people— written for the year 1981. and diseases spread through preventable means. we lose the innocence. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? 5. by division. but it can lead to greatness and change. Pony needed hope. you’ll need the answers for Speedback assignment 2. We can choose to ignore these problems or try to solve these problems. In poems 2 through 4. that is why Johnny wrote him a letter. violence is taught in the streets. All people need hope. which will cease to flower unless you distribute the clustered roots. Johnny gave hope and direction to Pony. We already know that “staying gold” means being true to yourself and striving for goodness. The older man’s message comes from years of life experience. laughing with our hearts and with our eyes. Johnny’s message comes as he is dying. I break off a fragment to send you. will hope increase. Being true. unlikely source— clumsy and earth-covered— of grace. The message in this poem and Johnny’s message are the same. and I know that I learned more in those two weeks as I was close to death than I learned from any other life experience. Denise Levertov was born in London. the speakers focused on themselves. Please take this grain of a grain of hope so that mine won’t shrink. Write down your answers to the following thought questions. you’ll need the answers for Speedback assignment 2. —Denise Levertov 30 Literature 45—Understanding Literature Thought Questions 1.” What do you think he means by a “fixed portrait smile”? Poem 5 This poem will take a different tone and send a different message than the ones we have read up to this point. What is the meaning behind the poem. millions in the world go to bed hungry. like a clump of irises. Life truly is precious. What images are used? 4. Today. For the New Year. England. Every day. or finding their true identity. Only so. basic human rights are taken away from those who speak out against cruelty. Johnny tells Pony to “stay gold” in his letter. The speaker states that he has learned to “wear many faces” like “a fixed portrait smile. Being young brings with it innocence. In this poem. She now resides in America. What is the meaning behind the poem. What images are used? . like the iris plants. improving themselves. As we get older. where she has citizenship. in your opinion? 2. What literary elements are evident? 3. and striving for goodness is important! Strive for these things instead of having what Okara calls “ice-block-cold eyes. I spent two weeks in the ICU due to a lacerated liver. If we don’t tend and care for hope and give our hope to others. This poem is a message of hope somewhat like Johnny’s to Pony. in 1923.” Write down your answers to the following thought questions. Sadly. most people choose not to act on the sadness they see around them. Hope can be such a small gesture or idea or action. She has always loved the arts and nature.more cynical. Please share your fragment so that yours will grow. 1981 I have a small grain of hope— one small crystal that gleams clear colors out of transparency. We need to educate and give hope to others so that all people have all basic human rights and needs. I need more.
Pride led only to fights with Pony. What is the meaning behind the poem. In 1984.4. And people. When pride breaks. comes and goes away. Often times. I told you. Years pass over them./ And people. Till a little seal comes to rub against them. As a teacher in high school. Ohio. The imagery of this poem is strong and vivid.” What do you think she means by this? What is a “grain of a grain of hope”? Why will her grain shrink if it is not given away? Poem 6 Pride was an issue for both the Socs and the greasers. We can’t be perfect all the time. This poem. so the cracks stay hidden. the youngest of us can teach us valuable lessons. What literary elements are evident? 3. He learned it from his little brother. the sea pushes through and rolls back— the rocks seem motionless. wrote this poem. All people make mistakes. waiting there. Whoever is going to shatter them hasn’t come yet. She has tried to surround herself with other writers and poets throughout her life to aid her with her own writing. If pride is being compared to a rock. We can’t let ourselves be boastful of our real strengths or perceived strengths. the author of the poem. then both rocks and pride can break. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? 5. A kind of pride./I told you. Why do you think in the poem that it is the “little seal” that breaks open the rock? What do you think is being said here? The author could have easily just said “a seal. and not because of age. when rocks break. in 1935. For years they lie on their backs in the heat and the cold. many of the poetry pieces she has written reflect the crises and tensions that have occurred in her country. And suddenly the rock has an open wound. Being prideful not only can push others away. an Israeli native born in 1936. And so the moss flourishes. Write down your answers to the following thought questions. Literature 45—Understanding Literature Thought Questions 1. you’ll need the answers for Speedback assignment 2. Pride is one element that has truly caused much warfare in her country. too. Darry learned this. it happens by surprise. What images are used? 4.” I love this comparison.” compares pride to a rock. when rocks break. she began writing poetry before quitting to write full-time. Often times. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? 5. so many years. Levertov says.” Why do you think she did this? Lesson 2: It’s All about Style Poem 7 This poem ties in nicely to the Robert Frost poem shared in the novel. entitled “Pride. it almost seems peaceful. too. 31 . his relationship with Pony became better. people are surprised. her poems reflect upon the natural world and the natural elements. she won a Pulitzer Prize. Pride I tell you. No one can be strong all the time. who lets pride take over from time to time? Dally? Darry? Think about that as you read the poem. even rocks crack. this poem focuses on nature. the seaweed whip around. Like Frost’s poem. When Darry let his pride break at the hospital and cried. in your opinion? 2. What similarities do pride and a rock have? Can pride harden us? Is pride hard to change or move? Dahlia Ravikovitchan. Mary Oliver. she choose to use a “little seal. “Please take/this grain of a grain of hope/so that mine won’t shrink. —Dahlia Ravikovitch “Suddenly the rock has an open wound. Darry truly carried around a great deal of pride—pride in taking over his parents’ place. They don’t move. was born in Cleveland.” Instead. it happens by/surprise. Because of her work with Israeli peace movements. Is America also a culprit of pride? What are your thoughts? In regards to The Outsiders. it is also a burden upon the person being prideful.
. you know how it feels to have “the pleasure/that fills you.. Many young people feel like they have to have new./as it warms you. you’ll need the answers for Speedback assignment 2. automobiles. How did you feel? Have you ever been on the beach or in the mountains to see a sunrise? If you have. What examples of sensory description are used in this poem? .The Sun Have you ever seen anything in your life more wonderful than the way the sun.... This is due to the authors’ and the evoked by the written words../as the sun/reaches out. What images are used? 4. Is it worth it? Does all this wanting and envy and expecting of things cloud our judgment of what is really important? Does this want and need of things blind us to the goodness around us. like the warmth of the sun? I think when we get caught up in wanting things.. What literary elements are evident? 3. What feelings or emotions are discussed or felt? 5. We/ Sing sin.. for things? —Mary Oliver ten forget what is important. and is gone— and how it slides again out of the blackness. at its perfect imperial distance— and have you ever felt for anything such wild love— do you think there is anywhere.. as it warms you as you stand there.. we of- Write the literary term used in the example... What is the meaning behind the poem.” Wow! That is great sensory description.” The repetition in sounds proves that this is an example of . We take for granted the greatness of people and the nature that surrounds us. Look at the excerpt from poem 1: “We/Lurk late. on the other side of the world. We/Strike straight.. on a morning in early summer... Both poem 2 and poem 3 evoke the same feeling of loneliness and possible despair. What are your thoughts? Are you guilty of going crazy for the want of things or the need for power? What things do you go crazy for? Now think for a minute of the last sunrise you saw.. in your opinion? 2. every morning. floats toward the horizon and into the clouds or the hills. relaxed and easy. because I often do get caught up in the wanting of things.. Answer the following questions and then check your answers in the Answer Key at the back of this course manual. Let’s Check Your Mastery Strong question there in the end! How does that make you feel? Do you think you have “gone crazy” with wanting “power” and “things”? Is our society caught up in materialism? I think this is a very profound question for both my and your generations. top-of-the-line clothing.. 32 Literature 45—Understanding Literature Thought Questions 1... cell phones... as the sun reaches out. Write down your answers to the following thought questions. We are a society caught up in things and the ownership of things. like a red flower streaming upward on its heavenly oils.. Do not submit your answers to Independent Study. . I love reading this poem because I swear I feel physically warm due to Oliver’s words and description of the sun! I also feel a little guilty. and any other technical or computer device. every evening. a word billowing enough for the pleasure that fills you.. 28. or the rumpled sea.. 29.. say... empty-handed— or have you too turned from this world— or have you too gone crazy for power.... in any language.
Literature 45—Understanding Literature Way to go! You finished a novel. 33. .30. complete Speedback assignment 2. 36. is an example of 31. shows only my teeth like a snake’s bare fangs!” and . but the opposite happens instead. This type of comparison is called a/an .” . Ravikovitch in poem 6 gives the rock human characteristics. This is an example of . Poem 4 has the following line: “. 32. 35. however. or by saying that the sun “floats toward the horizon. Because of this. the irises are used as a/an to portray this abstract idea. Because poem 7 uses sight and smell. because we think that the speaker will still be followed by someone in the end of the poem. Poem 6 uses rocks as a symbol for pride. Lesson 2: It’s All about Style 33 . the description is more powerful than in some of the other poems. and learned twelve different literary elements. Paz uses in poem 2. . painting a picture or using great . You may want to major in English or literature now. The visual is overpowering in this poem. the author then turns and uses the symbol of rocks in a comparison to people. read seven poems. Poem 5 uses the irises to represent something valued that can be shared. Poem 7 uses exaggeration. Before moving on to lesson 3. 34.
34 Literature 45—Understanding Literature .
. Johnny c... d. too hard for a high school–aged student 6.” because he was so happy and easy-going? (See objectives 1 and 3... Johnny c..... alliteration d.. He died on the run. Darry d.. (See objectives 35 ... Darry d.. “We Sing Sin” from the poem “We Real Cool” is an example of 3 and 4. S.. He died with an empty gun...... all narration..Literature 45—Understanding Literature LESSON 2 Speedback Assignment Mark all answers here.... E. then transfer them to your Speedback answer form.) a.. Multiple Choice 1. What’s ironic about Dally’s death? (See objectives 1 and 3. hyperbole .... b... wordy and overly descriptive b. Which of the following did Johnny not allude to or give the allusion of liking? (See objectives 1 and 3... 5.... See your Read Me First pamphlet for instructions... He died in the streets. Gone With the Wind c...) a.. He died like Johnny.) Lesson 2: Speedback Assignment . allusion b. . Paul Newman 2. Who fits this simile from The Outsiders: “He looked like a lost puppy”? (See objectives 1 and 3.. c.. Two-Bit b... Dally b. Pony 4.. “He reminded me of Will Rogers—maybe it was his grin......) a. no use of dialogue d... concise and to the point c. personification c... Hinton’s style could be best described as a..) a. (See objective 2. Pony 3.) a.. You may either submit your completed answer form to Independent Study for processing..... Southern gentlemen b... or you may use WebGrade for immediate grading..... Who fits this description from The Outsiders.
(See objectives 3 and 4. play. The person is bad. Okara. From “The Sun. symbol c. In “The Street.) a.or herself seem like a real person.” writes. (See transparency. 14. sensory b. c. power d. be watchful c. d. and sleep .) a.” This is a great example of because it really wouldn’t be possible.” the following phrase evokes what kind of mood: “or have you too/gone crazy/for power/for things”? (See objectives 3 and 4.) a. symbol c.” the poet uses dark colors and dark corners to describe the journey on the street.) a. life and finding one’s way b. Levertov. and be merry b. In “I Am Not I. The tone of “We Real Cool” is one of a. (See objectives 3 and 4. sensory b. hyperbole d. in “Once Upon a Time.” writes. The people in the poem are digging a grave for themselves through their actions. eat.” the street the person is found wandering on is a symbol of (See objectives 3 and 4. being in a companionship d. personification c. simile b.” This is a good example of objectives 3 and 4. “And suddenly the rock has an open wound” is an example from the poem “Pride” of .) .7. The person is really blind. “one small crystal that gleams/clear colors out of because of the image it creates. “remains calm and silent while I talk” d. “to laugh with only my teeth. Why do you think the poet uses the dark imagery? (See objectives 3 and 4. 15. imagery 11. alliteration d.) a. b. an unpaved road c. “walking beside me whom I visit” c.) a.) a.) a.” the author makes the other side of him. The people in the poem are digging a ditch. materialism b. d. being alone and feeling lonely 12. The “Golden Shovel” in “We Real Cool” is a symbol that represents what? (See objectives 3 and 4. happiness c. playfulness 8. in “For the New Year. “I am this one” b. He uses personification constantly through the poem. c. imagery 10. In “The Street. The people in the poem are using a golden shovel for a pool stick. (See objectives 3 and 4. “forgives” . The people in the poem dig ditches to earn money. b. drink. Which one is not an example of personification? (See objectives 3 and 4. work. 36 Literature 45—Understanding Literature 13. hyperbole d. It is night. 1981. The person doesn’t know where he or she is going in life. hyperbole 9. be mindful d.
Why in “For the New Year. All people. We need to give hope to others in order for hope to thrive. b. The person has no hope. Hope is small.” What does the author mean by a “fixed portrait smile”? (See objectives 3 and 4. Which sense besides sight is described well in “The Sun”? (See objectives 3 and 4. smell/smelling c.” the father says that he has learned to wear many different faces “like a fixed portrait smile. It took something innocent and pure to expose the pride. The speaker says the little seal is violent and mean. 17.) a.) a. Hope always shrinks. d. 18. Gwendolyn Brooks Literature 45—Understanding Literature Lesson 2: Speedback Assignment 37 . In “Once Upon a Time. Juan Ramon Jimenez d. Mary Oliver c. 19. He likes to have his picture taken. sound/hearing b. d. regardless of age. “Please take/this grain of a grain of hope/so that mine won’t shrink”? (See objectives 3 and 4.) a. The little seal wanted to expose the pride. The little seal did it on accident. Which poet did not win a Pulitzer Prize or Nobel Prize in literature? (See objective 4. Denise Levertov b. c. d. c. b. taste/tasting 20.) a. He has learned to be fake and wear different faces around others. b. touch/feeling d.) a. Why in “Pride” is it the little seal that breaks open the rock? (See objectives 3 and 4.16. 1981” does the author say. c. are fake. He has a great smile.
38 Literature 45—Understanding Literature .