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PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE

(CAPACITY: 250 TPD)

PROJECT REPORT
Submitted to Panjab University,Chandigarh
In Partial Fulfilment of the requirements
For the Degree of
B.E.(CHEMICAL WITH MBA)
2018

SUBMITTED BY:
ANKUSH DHADWAL
ROLL NO. : CM14204
Dr. S. S. BHATNAGAR UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
PANJAB UNIVERSITY
CHANDIGARH- 160014, INDIA
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank my Department authorities for giving me this


opportunity to work on this project which helped me in increasing my
knowledge as well as in giving me an opportunity to put my theoretical
knowledge to practical use.

I would also like to offer my sincere thanks to my project supervisor Prof.


Nidhi Singhal for providing inspiration and encouragement throughout my
work. I have enjoyed free and informal discussion with her and her valuable
suggestions have gone a long way in the completion of my work.

Thanks to all the teachers and staff of Dr. S. S. Bhatnagar University Institute
of Chemical Engineering And Technology for their time to time guidance.

ANKUSH DHADWAL
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Ankush Dhadwal pre-final year student of the
Dr. S. S. Bhatnagar University Institute of chemical Engineering and
Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh has completed his project
entitled “ PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE” under my
supervision.

His report of the project may be accepted for the evaluation as a part of
the requirement of B.E. (CHEMICAL WITH MBA) degree.

TEACHER SIGNATURE
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………........................5

2. PROPERTIES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE ……………………………………………11

3. PROCESS IN DETAIL………………………………………………………….......................12

4. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM..............................................................................16

5 MATERIAL BALANCE..................................................................................……..17

6. ENERGY BALANCE (HEAT)…………………………………………………………………….26

7. PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN………………………………………………………………32

8. COST ESTIMATION..............................................................................................61

9. PLANT LOCATION…………………...…………………………………………………………….69

10. PLANT LAYOUT…………….………………………………………………………………………..73

11. PID DIAGRAM ….....................................................................................................74


12. REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………75
1. INTRODUCTION

Fertilizers have been the important horizon for several years past and from all
appearances should continue to a considerable future distance. A subject that has attained
as much importance as the American and soviet space programmes, fertilizers have
projected themselves into an important orbit amid present day complexities. It is but
common knowledge that these chemical combinations are of direct lineage to human
nutrition and with recent spurt in population statistics, have been pressurized into
significance, that even Vietnam crisis can stem.

Without fertilizers, so called “Green Revolution” is a farce. It is becoming an


accepted fact that chemical fertilizers have a definite role to play in raising the
productivity of land to provide more food and clothing to the raising population of the
world.

Up to present Ammonium Sulphate has been the most popular nitrogen fertilizer
among farmers. Urea is also competing with Ammonium Sulphate, where lack of sulphur
is likely to be a problem. But the availability of gypsum has solved the problem to some
extent.
2. FACTS AND FIGURES

The first pioneering effort to produce fertilizers in India was made at Belagula in
Mysore in 1939 and a plant to produce 20 tones of Ammonium sulphate per day was set
up. Since then the fertilizers industry has grown from strength to strength both in private
and public sectors.
Ammonium Sulphate production in India was around 8,50,000 per annum.
Following table gives the individual capacity of the existing Ammonium Sulphate.

Name of the Location. Capacity


Factory. Tones/year
F. C. I. Sindri (Bihar) 3,55,000
Hindustan Steel. Rourkela (Orissa) 28,000
F. A. C. T. Alwaye (Kerala) 2,00,000
E. I. D. Parry Ltd. Ennore (Madras) 52,900
F. C. I. Nemrup (Assam) 1,00,000

Apart from this 1, 00, 000 tones/year Ammonium sulphate is manufactured by


Byproduct Coke oven gas.
Fertilizer consumption per acre in India today is perhaps the lowest in the world.
The fact that the consumption of Chemical fertilizers is only 1.25kg of all plant nutrients
per acre against world average of 7kg is indicative of the large scope for increasing the
production and consumption.
The comparison of yields of different food grains in India with yields in other
countries has been given bellow:

Food Yield in India Yield in other


Grains Kgs/ hectare. Countries.

Rice 1,500 5,600(Japan)


Wheat 1,000 4,300(England)

Above two examples indicates that even in relatively better-developed countries


than India where like India fertilizer usage has not been a major factor yields are not very
much different from that India whereas they are significant more in countries where
fertilizers usage has been well developed. The figures indicate the tremendous potential
of increase in agricultural production by use of fertilizers.
But cost/yield ratio is less favorable to the Indian farmers.
This is especially true in case of food crops: as a consequence the fertilizer is used
more on higher priced cash crops than on food crops. So to minimize the product cost
recourse has been made to latest technology.

3.RAW MATERIALS

The raw materials for the manufacture of Ammonium Sulphate from gypsum are
ammonia, carbon dioxide, gypsum and water.

Ammonia: Ammonia can be made by the famous Haber Bosch process. Synthetic
Ammonia is a landmark in the history of Chemical fertilizers. The nitrogen can be got
abundantly from air. The manufacture of semi water gas from Coke, the purification of
the gas and oxidation of carbon monoxide content to carbon dioxide and finally the

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removal of carbon dioxide from this either by scrubbing with water under pressure or
with ethanol amine solution and then synthesizing to ammonia. In Sindri large producers
are filled with coke and air is passed through. Producer gas it got with carbon, carbon
dioxide and nitrogen as products. In the next cycle steam is blown through the producers,
which produces carbon monoxide and Hydrogen. The gases in the two cycles are mixed
which thus contains carbon monoxide, nitrogen and Hydrogen. This raw gas is passed
through sulphide boxes to catch the Hydrogen Sulphide. Carbon monoxide in the raw gas
in oxidized to carbon dioxide by the steam process using iron catalyst in the converters.
C + Air → CO + N2
C + H2O → CO + H2
CO + H2O → CO2 + H2
Gases pass through exchangers to have maximum thermal efficiency. The gases
are sent to Ammonia plant in Stoichimetric ration where they are compressed to 17 atm
and carbon dioxide is scrubbed using water. The Nitrogen and Hydrogen go to the
Ammonia converter, while carbon dioxide is released from water, and sent to the sulphate
plant. At about 122.5 atm carbon monoxide and oxygen picked up from scrubbing water
and the residual carbon dioxide are eliminated by scrubbing the gases with a complex
solution of mixed salt of ammoniacal cuprous, cupric formate and

carbonate solutions. Copper solution is regenerated under atmospheric pressure and


reused.
The 3:1 Hydrogen and Nitrogen mixture freed of its carbon monoxide and carbon
dioxide is raised to 357.5 atm. and is mixed with re-circulated gases. The gases are then
passed through the oil filter and to the Ammonia cooled condenser for residual ammonia.
In the converter the gases are raised in a counter current heat exchanger to the reaction
temperature and made to react in the presence of the catalyst, after which the gases is
purged to prevent undue accumulation of diluents such as methane and Argon and the rest
is recompressed for circulation. This purged gas is used as a fuel in the sulphate

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plant. Ammonia is stored in two large Horton Spheres each capable of holding 690 tones.
This also goes to the carbonization tower.
The Alwaye wood is used as the raw material. As they come off the barges the
logs are slashed to 40.64 cms. Lengths and conveyed to the world’s largest wood
producer gas plant at the rate of 207 tones a day. Wood is charged continuously into a
battery of gas producers to obtain 0.51 million cu.meter per day of producer gas
containing approximately 22 percent carbon monoxide and 11 percent Hydrogen. This
section includes few producers, one a spare, and 5660 cu.meter gas holder. Some of this
producer gas is used to reduce the iron oxide content mass packed in the steam cross
generation, two of which are spares. The rest of producer gas is burnt at the rate of 19,250
cubic meter per day to generate superheated steam. In the next operation the steam acts

on the reduced iron oxide mass to liberate 8.5 x 104 cu.meter per day of Hydrogen. The
burnt spent gases from the boiler are passed through a Gerbitol unit to yield 28,300
cu.meter per day of pure nitrogen and 5,660 cu.meter of carbon dioxide. A 15 percent
solution of monoethanol amine is the absorbing liquid used in the carbon dioxide
absorption tower.

Gypsum: At present our conservative estimate of know reverses, in the more important
deposits capable of being worked today is as below:
Rajasthan
Reserves in million tones
a. Bikaner 45.5
b. Jodhpur 16.3
Madras:
a. Tiruchirapalli 15.3
b. Sulurpet 0.6

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Himalchal Pradesh 1.8
Saurashtra 4.0
Kutch 2.0
Total 85.5

As the total amount mined in Bikaner is going to Sindri and due to heavy
transportation cost, Tiruchirapalli, Gypsum can become our mainstay. It covers over
and area of 22 sq.miles, occurring up-to a few cms. Deep, frequently ferruginous.

Water Supply: The question of water supply, which is so great, deserves a paragraph.
The Requirement at Sindri is 12 million gallons per day. So this plant, which is about
one seventh of that capacity, will require about 1.5 million of gallons per day for which
a suitable riverside should be chosen.

Power Supply: There is every need for a separate station as the power requires is
enormous. The factory needs lot of process steam. The steam generated can be
first supplied to the turbine and then used for process work.

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PROPERTIES OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF


AMMONIUM SULFATE
PHYSICAL STATE Solid white crystalline granules.
AND APPEARANCE

MOLECULAR 132.14 COLOR White.


WEIGHT

pH 5.4 ODOR Odorless.


(10%SOLN/WATER)

BOILING POINT Decomposes. ODOR 17 PPM (Ammonia)

THRESHOLD

MELTING POINT 235ºC (455ºF) TASTE Acrid.

CRITICAL Not available. IONICITY (in Not available.


TEMPERATURE Water)

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.913 (Water = SOLUBILITY Easily soluble in hot water.


g/cc 1) Soluble in cold water.

BULK DENSITY Loose: 961 DISPERSION See solubility in water.


kg/m_
Tapped: 1122 PROPERTIES

VAPOR PRESSURE Not applicable. WATER/OIL Not available.


DIST.

COEFF.

VAPOR DENSITY Not applicable.

VOLATILITY Not applicable.

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4. PROCESS IN DETAIL

An end rock kippler and conveyor systems are used to handle incoming
gypsum. This is designed to deliver gypsum direct to crushing mills or to stock piles as
may be required gypsum stock pile is housed under cover top keep it dry, for wet
grinding gives rise to lot of difficulties. The building walls are clothed with steel
framed asbestos cement sheet.

Crushing and Grinding Section:


Gypsum lumps are crushed in rotating hammer type crusher, where in size is
reduced from 25 cm to 2 cm. This is fed to grinder of capacity 12 tones per hour. The
product from the grinder has the size of 90 percent passing through 120 mesh.

Slurry Preparation:
Slurry tank is a ordinary open cylindrical vessel of 1.7 M diameter and height
about 2.3 meter. Gypsum and water fed into it in calculated proportion. An agitator
(paddle type) is employed which is run at about 50 – 70 r.p.m. After necessary mixing
slurry is fed to the Reactors.

Carbonation Section:

In this section carbonation reaction is occurring. Carbonation is done in two


welded 99.5% aluminum towers, primary and secondary. All the circulating pumps are
made of stainless steel: all piping in this section, of welded aluminum. The reaction
taking place is:

2NH4OH + CO2 (NH4)2CO3 + 22 cal/ g mol

almost pure CO2 enters primary at bottom and passes up counter currently to the
carbonate solution trickling down the tower, which is packed with 2-by 2-in stone wire

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rings. The un absorbed CO2 from the top section of which condensate is sprayed. As the
amount of liquor is re circulated in each of the towers in order that the packing may be
effectively wetted. A part of liquor is bled off into a tank from it is sent to the reaction
section.

Reactor section:

Gypsum in slurry form is fed into the first or second vessel of 8 vessel chain,
along with the carbonate solution. The normal practice is to use 240 gallons of carbonate
solution pr ton of gypsum fed to the reactor vessels, which are cylindrical, provided with
stirrer to keep the magma agitated, and arranged for gravity flow. The reaction vessels are
made of mild steel, but the gravity lines are of cast iron and the open type impellor pumps
and associated piping are stainless steel of type 18/ 8
The reaction in the reactor section is exothermic, hence the reaction vessels are provided
with cooling coils. The chemical reaction taking place inside the reactor is as fallows:

( NH4)2CO3 + CaSO4 ( NH4)2 SO4+ CaCO3

Filtration; Settling of Calcium Carbonate:


Filtration is done in two stages of rotary drum type stainless steel vacuum filters.
In the primary stage the filtrate contains 45 per cent ammonium sulphate. After being
washed, the filter cake is scraped and blown from the filter and fed to the secondary filter.
The filter cake from the secondary filter, after being washed with hot condensate has the
following composition.
Ca CO3 - 83%
(NH4) 2SO4 - 0.865%
CaSO4 - 4.800%
Insoluble - 5.180%
Water - 6.155%
The filter cake is pumped to the cement factory as slurry and the filtrate from the
secondary filters containing 20 per cent Ammonium sulphate is used for washing

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the primary filter cake. The liquor from the first is stored in a liquid tank of
diameter 1.75 meter and height 3.86 meter, from which its is fed to Dorr-Oliver type
settler.
Filtered liquor from the primary filter contains about 3030 ppm. of suspended
calcium carbonate. The settler reduces this to 300ppm. Settler is made up of stainless
steel and height of 1.23 meter (conical bottom) and diameter 3.2 meter. The settled liquor

contains about 0.386 gm. (NH4)2CO3 per 100 cc. Together with some dissolved CO2 and
air.
Ammonium carbonate decomposes to give Ammonia and carbon dioxide when
o
heated over 109 C
(NH4) 2 CO3 → 2NH3 + CO2 + H2O

Therefore, the liquor from the settler is sent to a decomposer wherein


decomposition of Ammonium carbonate is achieved. Steam coils provide the necessary
heat.

Crystallizing Section:
The decomposed liquor flows by gravity from storage tanks continuously into
Olso type ‘Krystal’ evaporator. This is a modern form of evaporation crystallizer. This
unit is particularly well adapted to the production of large sized, uniform crystals usually
somewhat rounded. It consists essentially of a forced circulation evaporator with an
external heater containing a combination salt filter and particle – size classifier on the
bottom of the evaporator body. The unique feature of this crystalliser is that a slightly
super-saturated solution is passed upward through a bed of crystals, depositing on them
the excess solute above saturation and simultaneously classifying them so that only larger
ones settle against the stream. Fine crystals and saturated solution leave the top of the bed
and are recycled.

14
Drying; Cooling Section:
Crystals from centrifuge are fed to a counter current rotary dryer wherein hot air
at 150C is used as drying medium.
Internal flights lift the solid and control its cascade through the air stream. The
dryer is tilted so that the solids gradually work their way from feed end to the discharge
ammonium sulphate crystals which leave at 90C are cooled in a cooler using fresh air.
Fresh air enters at150C and leaves at 92. C. Ammonium sulphate crystals
leaving from the cooler will be also at 80C. These crystals are conveyed to the bagging
house.

Storage; Bagging and Dispatch Sections:


Ammonium Sulphate is stored in silos, which are of unique construction. To maintain
stocks needed to balance supply and demand under all conditions, storage is provided to
three months production at maximum output. The silo is reinforced concrete building.
Bagging and dispatch sections deal with the daily production of 250 tones.

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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

16
5. MATERIAL BALANCE

Chemical reactions:

NH3 + H2O NH4OH + 8.3 cal/ g mol --- (1)

2NH4OH + CO2 (NH4)2CO3 + 22 cal/ g mol --- (2)

(NH4)2CO3 + CaSO4 (NH4)2SO4+ CaCO3+3.9 cal/ g mol --- (3)

Molecular weights:

NH3 -------------- 17

H2O ---------- 18

NH4OH ---------- 35

CO2 --------------- 44

(NH4)2CO3 -------------- 96

CaSO4 -------------- 136

CaCO3 ------------- 100

(NH4)2SO4 ----------- 132

The required production rate is 250 tonnes per day

The production rate = 10517 kg/ hour


Ammonium sulphte lost in filtration process = 100 kg/hour

Required production rate = 10417 kg/hour

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Raw materials required for the process:

For the process considered, assuming that conversion in reaction (1) & (2) is
complete conversion and for reaction (3) conversion is 96%

BASIS: 1-HOUR OPERATION.

Amount of ammonium sulphate to be manufactured = 10517 kg


Amount of ammonium sulphate lost in filtration = 100 kg
Gypsum composition:

Gypsum 85% 1425 .0 kg


Calcium carbonate 10.4% 1733.0 kg
Insoluables 3.6% 600.0 kg
Free moisture 1% 167.5 kg

Gypsum required:

From reaction (3)


132 kg of ammonium sulphate requires 136 kg of gypsum
10517 kg of ammonium sulphate would require:

136/132 x 10517 x 1/0.85 x 1/0.96 = 13279kg

Ammonium carbonate required:

Here 10 % excess requirement of ammonium carbonate is considered to overcome


the inherent process losses.

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136 kg of gypsum requires 96 kg of ammonium carbonate

13279kg 0f gypsum would require:

96 /136 x 13279 x 1.05 = 9842 kg

Aqueous ammonia required:

From reaction (2),


96 kg of ammonium carbonate requires 70 kg of ammonium hydroxide.
9842kg of ammonium carbonate would require:

70/96 x 9842 = 7176.5 kg

Ammonia required:

From reaction (1),


1 mole of Aq.ammonia is produced which is half the actual requirement :

Amount of Aq Ammonia produced = 6835 /2 = 3588.25kg

Hence,
35 kg of Aq ammonia requires 17 kg of ammonia
3588.25 kg of Aq. Ammonia would require:

17/35 x 3588.25 = 1743 kg.

Carbon dioxide required:

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From reaction (3),
100 kg of ammonium carbonate requires 44 kg of carbon dioxide
9842 kg of ammonium carbonate would require:

44/100 x 9842 = 4330 kg

Water required:

35 kg of Aq. Ammonia requires 18 kg of water


3588.25 kg of Aq ammonia would require:
18 /35 x 3588.25 = 1845.38 kg

Amount
Raw materials (kg per hour)

Gypsum 13279

Ammonium carbonate 9842

Aqueous ammonia 7176.5

Ammonia 1743

Carbon di oxide required 4330.7

Water required 1845.38

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Material balance across all equipments:

All weights in kg/hour:

CRUSHER AND GRINDER

Input output
Gypsum lumps 13279 13279

SLURRY TANK

Input Output

Calcium sulphate 14250.0 14250.0

Calcium carbonate 1732.5 1732.5

Insoluables 600.0 600.0

Free water in 167.5 167.5


Gypsum
Extra water added 490.0 490.0

16640.0 16640.0

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ABSORBER SECTION

Input Output

Aq. Ammonia 7176.5 -


Carbon dioxide 4330.7 -

Water - 1665.2

Ammonium carbonate - 9842.0

11507.2 11507.2

REACTOR

Input Output

Calcium sulphate 14250 14250

Insoluables 600 600

Calcium carbonate 1732.5 9700


Water 657.5 657.5
Ammonium carbonate 9842 843.5

Ammonium sulphate - 10517

27082 27082

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FILTERS

Ammonium sulphate 10517 10417

Ammonium sulphate lost - 100

Ammonium carbonate 843.5 843.5

Calcium sulphate 570 570

Insoluables 600 600

Calcium carbonate 9700 -

Calcium carbonate lost in - 70


filtration
Calcium carbonate to - 9630
settler
Water 657.5 657.5

22788 22788

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DECOMPOSER

Input Output
Ammonium sulphate 10417 10417
Calcium carbonate 30 30
Water 657.5 557.5
Water evaporated - 100
Ammonium carbonate 843.5
Decomposition of - 843.5
Ammonium carbonate to
atmosphere
11948 11948

CRYSTALLIZER

Input Output

Ammonium sulphate 10417 10417

Water 557.5 212.5

Water evaporated - 345

Calcium carbonate 30 30

11004.5 11004.5

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CENTRIFUGE

Input Output
Ammonium sulphate 10417 10417
Water 212.5 212.5
Calcium carbonate 30
Calcium carbonate 30
centrifuged
10659.5 10659.5

ROTARY DRYER

Input Output
Ammonium sulphate 10417 10417
Water 212.5 105.25
Water dried 107.25
Air 16743.9 16743.9
27373.2 27373.2

Product: 10417 kg/hr of ammonium sulphate crystals with 1% (dry basis) moisture

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6. HEAT BALANCE

1. SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Since all the reactions in absorber and even formation of aq.ammonia, which is
sent to absorber are exothermic reaction the heat of reaction should be removed off from
absorber section, to maintain it at a low temperature of 20 0c. This task is achieved by
installing a shell and tube heat exchanger to the stream that is being sent to the absorber
section a part of bottoms of absorber is recycled to achieve the good conversion.

Determination of temperature of inlet and outlet stream to the heat exchanger.

F
F1
water

HE
ABSORBER

water
R ( R+F)
F

Basis: 1 hour operation.

Let (NH4OH) stream from tank = F kg


Let R kg be recycle stream to HE
Assuming R be 50% of F1

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∴ R = 0.50  R+ F
0.5R = 0.5F (∴F1 = R+F)

Hence, recycle R = F = 7176.5 kg


Let ‘X’ be mass fraction of NH4OH in recycle stream to HE (2) consider 15% conversion
in absorption tower.

X = ( F + RX) x (1 – 0.15)
F+R
X = (1+X) x 0.85
2
X = 1/ 1.35 = 0.74

X = 0. 74

The total mass of stream fed back to the absorber tower,


F1 = R X +F + ( 1 – X)F
35 96
= (FX + F) + ( 1 – X )F
35 96
= F(1 + X ) + F(1-X)
35 96
= 7176.5(1+0.74) + 7176.5 (1 – 0.74 )
35 96
3
= 376.2 x 10 g mol = 14353 kg/hr

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3
Stream sent to the heat exchanges is 376.2 x 10 g mol or14353 kg/hr. In reality it is
mixture of Ag. Ammonia and ammonium carbonate but concentration of ammonium
carbonate is too small that the entire stream can be considered as containing of only Aq.
Ammonia.

Heat liberated

2NH4OH +CO2 (NH4)2 CO3 + H2O ûHR = -22 kcal/ g.mol

In terms of NH4OH û+R = 22/2


= 11 Kcal/gmol of NH4OH

∴ Total heat liberated Q = F1 [ û+R x 0.15


Q = 376.2 x 103 x 11 x 103 x 0.15
Q = 0.620 x 109 cal
9
Or Q = 2.60 x 10 5

This amount of Q is to be revered in heat exchanges


∴ F1 = F1 x Cp x (T –Tr )

0
Tr = 20 c

o 3
Cp of NH4OH = 90 J /g.mo c

9 3
∴ 2.60 x 10 = 376.1 x 10 x 90  T - 20
0
∴ T = 96.81 ∼ 97 c

0
or T = 97 c

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2. REACTOR SECTION

The reaction taking place in the reactor is,

o
(NH4)2 CO3 + CaSO4 (NH4)2SO4 + CaCO3 + 3.9 k cal/ g. mol C

96 % of conversion is assumed. The reaction is exothermic, but reactor temperature has


to be maintained at room temperature. The heat produced is removed by installing
cooling coils in the reactor.

Heat generated in the reactor Q = F xû+R x % conversion.

= 9842/ 96 x 3.9 × 103 x 0.96

= 383. 84 KJ
the outlet stream contains ammonium sulphate , ammonium carbonate and calcium
carbonate.

In the exit stream

Amount of ammonium sulphate = 10517/ 132= 79. 67 g.mol

Amount of calcium carbonate = 9700/ 100= 97 g.mol

Amount of ammonium carbonate = 843.5/ 96 = 8.78 g. mol


o
Specific value of ammonium sulphate = 1.63 KJ / Kg C = 215.1 J / g.mol
o
Specific value of calcium carbonate = 1.20 KJ / Kg C =120.5 J / g.mol
o
Specific value of ammonium carbonate = 3.10 KJ / Kg C = 298.5 J / g.mol

Rise in temperature

29
The total heat in the reactor exit stream Q,

3
Q = 383.84 × 10 = [79.69x 215.1 + 97 x 120.5 + 8. 78 x 298] x ( T – 30)
∴T = 42 oC

3
Hence cooling water requirement = m = (383. 84× 10 )/ (4.184x ( 42- 30))

= 1.835kg/ hour

DECOMPOSER SECTION.

In decomposer, the un-reacted ammonium carbonate from reactor outlet stream


will be decomposed off into ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. The decomposition
reaction is:

(NH4)2 CO3 2 NH3+ CO2 + H2O


û +R = +311 kcal/ kg of (NH4)2 CO3
Or 1300 KJ /kg of (NH4)2 CO3
The reaction is endothermic in nature i.e. the decomposition of ammonium
carbonate requires heat of decomposition. This can be achieved by supplying steam into
through stem coil inside the decomposer. this decomposition of ammonium carbonate is
achieved above 109oC.

Heat required by decomposer Qd:

Qd = heat require + heat required for decomposition


stream to decomposition reaction
temperature

30
Qd = ( mas cp1+ mwater cp2 + mac cp ) ( 109- 30)

1 = 2256.9 KJ/ kg)

Qd = [ 109417x 1.63 + 657.7 x 4.184 + 843.5 x 3.10 ] (109- 30) = 843.5 x 1300

Qd = 2861 KJ
Steam requirement.

It is assumed that saturated steam is supplied and the exhaust stream would be of
saturated liquid
Amount of steam required for decomposition of ammonium carbonate,
mh mh = 2861/ 1.80 ( 100- 0)= 15.69 kg / hour

4. KRYSTAL EVAPORATIOR.
In this section evaporative crystllisation takes place.
Amount of water to be evaporated = 345 kg.
Assuming the steam side is at higher pressure, i.e. 2 atmospheres.
Amount of heat required for evaporation = m 1
= 345 x 2256.9
3
= 778.63 x 10 KJ/ kg
2198.18 KJ/ kg
$W DWPRVSKHULF SUHVVXUH ODWHQW KHDW RI VWHP 2 =

3
Amount of steam required= 778.63 x 10 / ( 2198.18)
= 354.18 kg / Hr

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7. PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. ROTARY DRIER

Feed
(NH4)2SO4 +H20 Hot air
Spent air
Product
Moist (NH4)2SO4

Amount of water infeed = 212.5 kg/hr


Dry solid infeed = 10417 kg/hr
Water content in product = 105.25 kg/hr
Hence water dried in drier = 107.25 kg/hr
Inlet air temperature = 150º C
Outlet air temperature = 85º C
Inlet temperature of feed = 30º C
Discharge temperature = 80º C
Assuming wet bulb temperature of 80º C, 70% humidity of air.
The temperature of the air leaving the drier should be selected on the basis of an economic
balance between drier cost and fuel cost. It has been that rotary driers are most economically
operated when the total number of transfer units (NTU) range from 1.5 to 2.0. Assuming
NTU = 1.5.

NTU= ln [ [tg1-tw] / [tg2- tw] ]

1.5 = ln [{150- 80}/ { tg2 – 80}]


tg2 = 95.62 ºC

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Heat balance
Cp of (NH4)2SO4 =1.63 kJ/kg ºC
Cp of water = 4.187 kJ/kg ºC

Temperature detail
Feed Air
Inlet 30 ºC 150 ºC
Outlet 80 ºC 85 ºC

Heat required to rise the feed to 45 ºC,

10417 x 1.63 x(45-30)+ 105.25 x (45-30) = 261326.4 kJ


Considering 55kg of water of evaporation, Heat
required to HYDSRUDWH NJ RI ZDWHU P
= 55 x2400
=132000kJ
Heat required to super heat the product to 80ºC,
10417 x 1.63 x (80-45) + 27 x1.9 (80-45) = 596085 kJ

total heat required to raise the product to discharge temperature,


Qt = 261326.4+ 132000 + 596085
= 989412 kJ
/07' DFURVV WKH GU\HU ûWm

=
ûWm [(150 –30) – (85-80)]
Ln[( 150-30)÷(85-30)]
The minimum velocity of air is set based on the particle size. Air flow rate of
100 lb/hr .ft3 is sufficient for 420 microns. Hence this will be used in application. The
minimum velocity is used since it gives the smallest possible size of drier.

33
Amount of air required:
M = (Qt / Cp ûW
= 989412/ (150- 85)
= 15221.72 kg / hr
The maximum amount of water present in this amount water is 60% i.e.
9133.03 kg / hr
An extra amount of 10% of this quantity to account the heat losses.
1.1 x 15221.72 = 16743.89 kg / hr.
If the velocity of air is 1000lb/ hr.ft = 4880 kg / hr. m3

Area of drier = ( 16743.89/ 4880) 3.431 m2

Diameter of the dryer = ¥ [ e

= 2.09 m.
Diameter of dryer = 2.09 m.

Length of transfer unit has been related to mass velocity and diameter by following
relation, Ltu = 0.0064 xCp x (G) 0.84 x2.04
= 7.36 m.
Length of the drier = Ltu x NTU
= 7.36 x 1.5
=11.05 m.
Following dimensions for the drier are chosen.
L = 12m ; D= 2m
L/D = 12/2
=6
L/D should range in between 4 – 10. Hence the design is safe.

34
2. SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

0
20 C
1) Temperature detail:
water in
0
Cold fluid Hot fluid 15 c

0 0
In let 15 c 97 c
Waterout
Outlet 350c 200

97O C
2. Heat load

Hot fluid: (Aq. Ammonia)


Q4 = m x Cp x ûW

Where m = 1453 kg/nr = 3.98 kg/sec.


Cp = 2.57 KJ /kg

∴QH = 3.98 x 2.57 [97- 20}


QH = 799.99 k.j
Ba + QH = Qc = Q = 799KJ

Where QH = heat load of hot fluid


Qc = heat load of cold fluid.

35
Cold fluid : (Water)
Qc = MC x Cp x. ût
Where MC = to be determined.
Cp = Sp heat of water.

∴ 799 = MC x 4.184 (35.15)


MC = 9.548 kg/ sec.

Mass of cold water required to remove the heat associated  = 9.548 kg/sec.

2) LMTD Calculation ,ût

T1= 97c t 2= 35c


T2= 20c t1= 15c

ûTlmtd = (97-35) – (20- 18) / ln ( (97-35) / (20- 15)

Correction factor Fr

R = (T 1– T 2 ) S = (t 2 - t 1 )
(t2 - t 1) (T1 – t1)

R = (97 – 20) S = (35 – 15)


(35 – 15) (97 – 15)
R = 3.85 S = 0.2439

36
th.
From perry 6 cd. page 10.27
Considering 2-shell pass, 4 table pass i.e., 2.4 exchanger.

FT = 0.8

Corrected LMTD = 22.63 x 0.8 = 18.10


ûW lmtd = 18.100

3) Rounting of fluid:

Cleaner fluid is water -------- Shell side.


Unclean fluid is Aq.Ammonia .---Tube side

4) Heat Transfer Area:

Reference perry, page (10-44)Ud for water in shell side, inorganic solvent in tube side is
ranging between(100-250) BTU/ (F.Ft2.hr)

Range is = (567.83 – 1419.57) J


2
C m .s
3 2
Total Heat Transfer Area (HTA) = 799 x 10 = 73.57 m
(600 x 18.10)

Choose l6 BWG tubes.


OD = (5/8)Ž = 0.01587 m
ID = 0.495Ž P

Length of tube = 16ft = 4.8768


Heat transfer area = 0.1636 ft2 / ft2 length
= 0.04986 m2 / m.length.

37
Heat transfer area of over tube = 0.04968 x 4.8768
2
= 0.2431 m
Tube
∴No of tube = 73.57 = 302
0.2431
Nearest tube count from perry, page 11-13 is 274. and corresponding shell diameter
(inner) = 438 mm.

∴Shell ID = 438mm.
Corrected heat transfer area = 274 x 0.243
= 66.60m2

3
corrected Ud = 799 x 10
66.60 x 18.1
2.
= 662.0 W/m °k

5) Fluid velocity check

a) Tube side: (aq ammonia)

Number of passes = 4
Available flow area = π x di 2 x NT
4 NP
2
= π x (0.01257) x 274
4 4
2
at = 0.0085m
∴ Velocity of fluid in the tube Vt = Mt

38
f x dt

Vt = 3.98 x 1 x 1
832 0.0085
Vt = 0.563 m/s

b) Shell side: (water)

shell I D , Ds = 438mm
Lc baffle cut = 0.25 x Ds
Ls , baffle spacing = 0.5 Ds = 0.219m
Sm =  ( p1 – Do)Ls  x Ds
p1
Sm = Gross sectional area at centre of shell
Nb = No of baffles , L = length of tube
p1 = 13 inches square pitch = 0.0206m
16

Sm = ( (0.0206 – 0.0158 ) x 0.219 ) x 0.438


0.0206
2
S m = 0.02235m

Shell side velocity, Vs = M s


Ss x Sm
= 9.548
997.04 x 0.02235

= 0.4284 m/s
No. of baffles
Nb + 1 = Total length of tube

39
Baffle spacing

= 4.8768/ 0.2
= 22.26 ∼ 23

∴Nb = 22

6) Film transfer co-efficient

a) Tube side

Richardson & coulson (Page no: 270 – 297 )

0
At 55 c

S = 832 kg / m3
Cp = 2.57 KJ/ kg0 k
M = 1.26 mNs / m2 = 1.26 x 10 –3 NS
K = 0.219 w/m0 k m2

NRC = fVtD
M
= 832 x 0.563 x 0.01257
1.26 x 10–3
= 4673
NPr = MCp
K
–3 –3
= 2.57 x 10 x 1.26 x 10
14.78

40
= 14.78
From perry page (10-29) jH = 0.02
∴ NNh = jH x NRC x (NPr )• NNh
= 0.02 x 4673 x 14.78 •

k
∴hi = 229.35 x 0.219
0.01257
= 3995.83 w/m2 0k
hi = 3995.83 w/m2 0k

(b) Shell
side at 250c
C = 995.045 kg / m3
Cp = 4.184 kj / kg 0 k
-3
M = 0.95 x 10 poise
k = 1.42 w / m k

N RC = f x V s x D (D = tube outside dia )


M
= 995.04 x 0.4254 x 0.01587
–3
0.095 x 10
= 7620

NPr = M x Cp
K

41
=
0.95 x 10–3 x 4.18 x 103
1.42
=
2.8
From perry, page (10-29) , jH = 1 x 10–3

∴ NNh = 1 x 10–3 x 7620 x (2.8) •

= 10.74
but, hodo = NNh
k
2
∴ ho = 10.74 x 1.42 = 960 w / m k
0.01587

2
ho = 960 w / m k

Overall heat transfer coefficient

1=1+ Do x 1 + Do ln (Do /Di) + 1


Uo ho Di hi 2kw hdirt

For stainless steel kw = 45


hdirt = 0.003

1/Uo= 1/ 960 + (0.01587/ 0.012257 x 1/ 3995.53)


+ 0.01587 ln ( 0.01587/ 0.01257)/ (2x 45) + 1/ 0.003

Uo = 243.096 w / m2 0 k

42
7) Pressure drop calculation :

a) Tube side
2
û PL = 4fLV x f x g
2gDi
but, f = 0.079 x Rc –0.25
=
0.079 x (4673 )–0.25
= 0.0095
2
û PL =4 x 0.0095 x 4.8768 x (0.563 ) x 832
2 x 0.01257
û PL = 1.943a Kpa
2
∴ û Pt = 2.5 (f x Vt )
2
2
û Pt = 2.5 ( 832 x ( 0.563) ) = 0.3796 KPa
2
û Ptotal 1S [ û PL + û Pt )
= 4 x  1.9439 + 0.3796 

û Ptotal = 9.294 KPa

û Ptotal is less than 70 Kpa hence design is satisfactory.

b) shell side
Shell side pressure drop is calculated using bell ‘s method

(Perry : page 10-26 to 10-31)


NRC = 7620

43
From figure 10.25 (a) page 10-31 friction factor fk
fk = 0.19

(i) Pressure drop across cross flow section Pc


2 0.4
û Pc = b x f k x w x N c x ( Mw/ Mb )

f . f2m
-3
b= 2 x 10
w = 9.54 kg/s
Sm = 0.02235m2
Nc = Ds x 1 – 2(Lc / Ds) / Pp
Where Ds = shell 1D = 0.438m
Lc = 0.1095
Pp = pitch parallel (cross )flow = 13 in = 0.0206m
16
Nc = 0.438 1 – 2 (0.1096/0.438)
0.0206
Nc = 16
∴ û Pc = 2 x 10-3 x 0.19 x 9.542x 16 1 0.4
997.04 x 0.02235

= 0.0252 KPa

44
(ii) End zone pressure drop û3c

û3c û PL 1 + ( N cw / N c)

Ncw = 0.8lc
Pp= 0.8 x 0.1095
0.0206
=4
∴ ûPc = 0.0252 x 1+ 4 16

û3c = 0.0315 KPa

(iii) Pressure drop in window zone, û Pw

2
û Pw = b x w 2+0.6 klcw 
fm x Sw x f
b = 5 x 10-4
Sm = 0.02235 m2
N cw = 4
w = 9.84 kg / s
2
S = 997.045 kg /m
Area for flow though window Sw = Swg – Swt
Swg , from fig (10-18) , page (10-29), perry hand book.

Swg = 0.029

45
Swt = NT ( 1-Fc )  Do
8
= 2
274 x (1 - 0.68) x  (0.0158)
8

Swt = 0.0085
∴∴∴∴

∴Sw = 0.029 – 0.0029

Sw = 0.0205 m2
Pressure drop at window zone û Pw

= 5 x 10-4 x (9.54)2 x ( 2 + 0.6 x 4 ) / 0.02235x0.0205x997.045


û Pw = 0.386 Kpa

Total pressure drop at shell side, û PT would be given by û


PT = 2 x û Pc + û (Nb – 1 ) x û Pc + Nb û Pw
û PT = 2 x 0.0315 + (22 – 1 ) x 0.0252 + 22 x 0.386
û PT = 9.08 Kpa

Total pressure drop at shell side is less than 70 Kpa hence, shell & heat exchanger design
is satisfactory.

465
8. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENTS

1. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF ROTARY DRIER

1. Flight design:
Number of flights = 3 x D.
= 3 x2.09
=6.27 ≈ 7 flights are required using lip angle of 45°.
Radial height is taken as 1/8 of diameter,
Radial height = 2.09/8
= 0.2615m.

2. Thickness of dryer:
Let x be the thickness of drier.
Mild steel can be used since it can withstand temperature up to 200°C.
Density = 7688.86kg/m3.
D2 – D1 = 2x.
Volume of mild steel =(πD22/4 - πD12/4) x L

=(π(D1+2x)2/4 - πD12/4) x L
= πDLx.

Weight of dryer = π x12.24 x2.09 x x x 7688.86


= 0.626 x106 x kg.
Assume holdup = 0.2
Volume of drier filled with material = πD2L x0.2
4

476
2
= π x2 x12. x0.2
4
= 7.53 m3.

Weight of material at any time = 7. 53 x 1049.2


= 11219.7 kg.

The dryer is supported over two-tension roll assemblies, 20ft apart. It is


uniformly distributed load.
Maximum bending moment = WL/8 = M.
M = (0.626 x106 x/8 + 11219.7 /9) x12
6
= 0.939 x10 x +
16829.5 We know that

4 4
Z = π x(D2 – D1 ) / 32D2.
= 0.785x3 + 12.59x2 + 67.31x.

f = 1800psi.
Take factor of safety = 5.
f = 3.6 x105lb/ft3.
= 1.75767 x104kg/m2.
Thus M = f xZ on simplification becomes,
1.38 x106x3 + 22.13 x106 x2 + 113.264 x106x – 0.819 = 0

x = 15 mm

487
3. Diameter of the feed pipe:

Feed rate =10417+212.9= 10629.9 kg/hour


3
Density of feed = 1410 kg/m
3
Hence volumetric feed rate = 10629.9/1410 = 7.534 m /hr
0
Assuming the velocity of air = 150 m/hr , for chute inclination of 60

2
Cross-section of feed chute = 7.53/ 150 = 0.050 m
Diameter of feed chute = √ (C.S.A. x4 /π) = √ (0.050 x 4 /π)
= 0.252 m
4. BHP to drive the drier:

BHP = r x ( 4.75 x d x w + 0.1925 x d x w + 0.33 w) /1000


Where,
w= weight of the drier + weight of the material + weight of the
insulation.
2
w = π x12 x2 x 0.01 x 7688.86 + π /4 x ( 2 12 x0.1 x1410)
w = 28.65.65x 103 kg

HP of blower:
0
Temperature of atmospheric = 30 C
3
Humidity in air= 16743. 89 kg/ min = 915. 5 ft /min
Volume of this air , Q = 279.05 / 29 x 22. 4 x 303/ 298

= 219.9 m3/min
= 718.9 ft3 /min

498
HP of blower = 0.000157 x Q x (head developed by water)
= 0.000157 x718.9 x10
=1.2 hp
5. HP of exhaust fan

Outlet temperature of drier = 95.62 0 C


Humidity of outlet air = 0.65 x 0.00726
Total quantity of air going out = 16743.9 kg/hr = 279.05 kg/min
Volume of this air = (279.05/29) x 22.4 x (368.62 /298)
= 406.9 m3/min or 1335.13 ft3/min.
HP of exhaust fan = 0.000517 x 1335.13 x16
= 6.90 hp

6. Diameter of outlet and inlet pipe

0
At inlet conditions of 150 C and humidity of 0.002
the volume of air handled = 219.2 x 423 / 303
3 3
=306 m /min or 5.1 m /sec.

Assuming air velocity = 25 m / s,


C.S.A of inlet pipe = 5.1/25 =0.20 m2
Inlet pipe diameter = 0.504 m
0
At outlet conditions of 95.62 C
The volume of air handled = 219.2 x 368 /313
3
= 4.43 m /sec
2
C.S.A of outlet pipe = 4.43 /25 = 0.178 m
Outlet pipe diameter = 0.476 m

5049
2. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER

(a) Shell side details


Material : carbon steel
Number of shell passes:
2 Working fluid: water
2
Working pressure: 0.1N/mm
2
Design pressure : 0.11N/mm
0
Inlet temperature: 15 C
Out let temperature: 350C
Permissible stress for carbon steel: 95N/mm2
Shell inner diameter: 438 mm

(b) Tube side details Number


tubes: 274 Number of
passes: 4 Outside diameter:
15.87mm Inside diameter :
12.57 mm. Length: 4.88m

Pitch triangular:13/16 inch


Working pressure: 0.1 N/mm2
Design pressure: 0.11N/mm2
0
Inlet temperature : 97 C
0
Outlet temperature: 20 C

510
SHELL SIDE

1.Shell thickness

ts= PD/(2fJ+P)
= 0.11 x438/(2 x95 x0.85+0.11)
= 0.31

Minimum thickness of shell must be=6.0 mm


Including corrosion allowance shell thickness is 8mm

2.Head thickness.
Shallow dished and torispherical

w = 1/ 4 x ( 3 + ¥ 5c / R K )
= 1/ 4 x ( 3 + ¥ 5c / .06 Rc )
= 1.77

t = PRcW/2fJ
= 0.11 x305 x1.77/(2 x95 x0.85)
= 0.528 mm.
minimum shell thickness should be 10mm including corrosion allowance.

3.Transverse Baffles

Baffle spacing =0.8 xDc


= 350 mm

521
number of baffles,
Nb+1=L/LS=4.88/0.350=14
Nb =13
Thickness of baffles, tb=6mm

4.Tie Rods and spacers:


Tie rods are provided to retain all cross baffles and take support plates accurately.
For shell diameter, 300-500mm
Diameter of Rod = 9mm
Number of rods=4

5.Flanges

Design pressure=0.11 N/mm2


Flange material IS:2004-1962,class 2
Bolting steel :5% Cr-Mo steel
Gasket material: asbestos composition
Shell inside diameter = 438mm.
Shell thickness: 8mm=go
Outside diameter of shell: 446 mm
Allowable stress of flange material : 100MN/m2
Allowable stress of bolting material = 138 MN/m2
Shell thickness of flange = 10 mm.
Outside diameter of flange = 325 mm.

6. Determination of gasket width


0.5
dO/di = [(y-Pm)/(y-P(m+1))]

532
Assume a gasket thickness of 10 mm
2
y = minimum design yield seating stress = 25.5 MN/m

m = gasket factor = 2.75


0. 5
dO/di = [(44.85-0.11 x2.75)/(44.85-0.11(2.75+1))]
dO /di = 1.001=1.001
dO = 1.001 x 0.438= 0.4385 m
Minimum gasket width = (0.4385 -0.438)/2 = .00075.
Taking gasket width of N= 0.010m
do= 0.458 m.
Basic gasket seating width, bo = 5mm
Diameter of location of gasket load reaction is
G= di + N
=0.438+0.01
= 0.448 m

7.Estimation of Bolt loads.


Load due to design pressure
H= πG2P/4
= 3.14 x0.4482 x0.11/4
= 0.01756 MN
Load to keep joint tight under operation

b = 2.5 (b0)0.5 = 6.12mm.


Hp= π G(2b)mp
= 3.14 x0.448 x (2 x0.00612) x2.75 x0.11
= 0.00656 MN
Total operating load
Wo =H+ Hp
=0.01755 + 0.00656

543
=0.0241 MN.

Load to seat gasket under bolting condition


Wg = πGby
= 3.14 x 0.448 x 6.12 x 10-3 x 25.5
= 0.862MN.
Wg>Wo ,controlling load=0.8620 MN

8.Calculation of optimum bolting area

Am=Ag=Wg/Sg
=
0.862 /138
= -3 2
6.246×10 m
Calculation of optimum bolt size
Bolt size,M18 X 2
Actual number of bolts =20
Radial clearance from bolt circle to point of connection of hub or nozzle and back of
flange = R = 0.027 m
C =ID + 2(1.415g + R)
=325 +2[1.41 x0.008+0.027]
= 0.726m
Bolt circle diameter = 0.40163 m.
Using bolt spacing Bs = 45mm
C = n Bs / 3.14 =44 x 0.045 / 3.14 = 0.63
Hence C = 0 .726
Calculation of flange outside diameter
Let bolt diameter = 18 mm.
A= C+ bolt diameter +0.02
=0.716 +0.018+0.02

554
= 0.764m.

Check for gasket width


AbSG / (πGN) =1.54×10-4 x44 x138/(3.14 x0.44862)
= 66.43 < 2 xy.
where SG is the Allowable stress for the gasket material

9.Flange moment computation:

(a) For operating condition


Wo= W1+W2+W3
W1= ∏B2P/4
2
= ∏ x0.446 x0.11/4
= 0.0173 MN
W2=H-W1
=0.01756-0.0173
-4
= 1.6×10 MN.
W3=Wo-H=Hp
= 0.00672MN.
Mo=Total flange moment
Mo=W1a1 + W2a2 + W3a3
a1=(C-B)/2=(0.726-0.446)/2
a1=0.14 m
a3=(C-G)/2=(0.726-0.448)/2
a3=0.1395m
a2=(a1 + a3)/2= (0.14 +0.139 0.)/2
=0.139m
Mo=0.01739 x0.140 +1.60×10-4 x0.1395 x0.00672 +0.139
Mo= 3.391×10-3 MN-m

56
(b) For bolting condition
Mg=Wa3
W=(Am+Ab) xSg/2

W= (6.246×10-03 +6.76×10-3) x138/2


W= 0.897 MN
Mg= 0.0.897 x 0.139
= 0.125 MN-m

Mg>Mo ,Hence moment under operating condition Mg is controlling, Mg=M

10.Calculation of flange thickness

2
t = M CF Y / (B SF), SF is the allowable stress for the flange
material K =A/B = 0.764/0.446 = 1.71
For K = 1.71 Y = 4.4
Assuming CF =1
t2 = 0.125 x 1 x4.4/ (0.446 x 100)
t= 0.11m

Actual bolt spacing BS = πC/n = (3.14)(0.776)/(44) =


0.052m 11.Bolt Pitch Correction Factor
CF = [Bs / (2d+t)]0.5
=
(0.052/(2 x0.018+0.11)1/2
=
0.596
√CF=0.772

576
Actual flange thickness = CF xt
= 0.11 x0.772
= 0.085 m
= 85mm.
12.Channel and channel Cover
th=Gc(KP/f)
= 0.446 x(0.25 x0.11/95)
= 0.00767m =7.67mm
th= 8mm including corrosion allowance

13.Tube sheet thickness


tts=FG(0.25P/f)
= 1 x0.448(0.3 x0.11/95)
= 0.0084=8.84 mm
tts= 9mm including corrosion allowance.

14. Saddle support


Material: low carbon steel
Total length of shell: 4.88 m
Diameter of shell: 4.38 mm
Knuckle radius : 6% of crown radius =26.28 mm
Total depth of head (H) = (Doro/2)
= (438 x26.28/2)
H = 75.86mm
A= 0.5 R = 0.5 x 438/2 = 109.5 mm.
weight of vessel and contents = weight of ( shell + tube)
3
weight of the steel = 7600 kg/m .

587
Weight of shell = π D x 0.008 x 7600 x L
= 83.67 x 4.88

= 408.30 kg
-03 -03
Weight of tube = π ( 19.05 ×10 - 12.27 ×10 ) x 4.88 x 7600 x 274
= 1480 kg
2
weight of water = π 0.01224 x 4.88 995 x 274
= 626.19 kg
weight of vessel and contents W = 2215.69 kg

15.Longitudinal Bending Moment

M1 = QA[1-(1-A/L+(R2-H2)/(2AL))/(1+4H/(3L))]
Q = W/2(L+4H/3)
= 2215.6/2 x(4.88 +4 x0.07586/3)
= 5518kg m
M1 = 598.05 kg-m kg-m

16. Bending moment at center of the span

2 2
M2 = QL/4[(1+2(R -H )/L)/(1+4H/(3L))-4A/L]
M2 =6014. 4 kg-m
17.Stresses in shell at the saddle
(a) At the topmost fibre of the cross section
2
f1 =M1/(k1π R t) k1=k2=1
2
=598.06 / (3.14 x0..219 x0.01)
2
= 35.22 kg/cm
The stresses are well within the permissible values.
Stress in the shell at mid point
f2 =M2/(k2π R2 t) = 6014.4 / (1 x π 0.2192 0.01)

598
2
= 399.07 kg/cm

Axial stress in the shell due to internal pressure


fp= PD/4t
=
0.11 x438/( 2 x 10)
= 2
225.53 kg/cm
f2 + fp = 624.64 kg/cm2
the sum f2 and fp is well within the permissible values.

5960
9. COST ESTIMATION

The capital investment for the 250TPD ammonium sulphate plant was found to be
Rs310.30 crores in the year of .1993-94.
Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index:
Cost index in 1994 = 368.1
Cost index in 2018 = 520
Thus, Present cost of Plant = (original cost) × (present cost index)/(past cost index)
7 7
= 310.3× 10 (520/368.1) = 338.8× 10
7
i.e., Fixed Capital Cost (FCI) = Rs 438.8× 10

Estimation of Capital Investment Cost:

1. Direct Costs:
Material and labour involved in actual installation of complete facility (70-85% of
fixedcapital investment)

a) Equipment + installation + instrumentation + piping + electrical + insulation + painting


(50-60% of Fixed-capital investment)
1. Purchased equipment cost (PEC): (15-40% of Fixed-capital
investment)
Consider purchased equipment cost = 25% of Fixed-capital investment
7 7
i.e., PEC = 25% of Rs 438.8× 10 = Rs. 109.6×10

2. Installation including insulation and painting:


(25-55% of purchased equipment cost.)
Consider the Installation cost = 40% of Purchased equipment cost =
7 7
40/100 ×109.6×10 = Rs.43.88×10

610
3. Instrumentation and controls, installed: (6-30% of
Purchased equipment cost.)

Consider the installation cost = 15% of Purchased equipment cost


7 7
= 15/100 ×109.6×10 = Rs. 16.44×10

4. Piping installed: (10-80% of Purchased equipment cost)


Consider the piping cost = 40% Purchased equipment cost
= 7 7
40/100 ×109.6×10 =Rs 43.8×10

5.Electrical, installed: (10-40% of Purchased equipment cost)


Consider Electrical cost = 25% of Purchased equipment cost
= 7 7
0.25 ×109.6×10 = Rs.27.4×10

B. Buildings, process and Auxiliary: (10-70% of Purchased equipment cost)


Consider Buildings, process and auxiliary cost = 40% of PEC
7 7
=0.40 ×109.6×10 = Rs 43.8×10
C. Service facilities: (40-100% of Purchased equipment cost)
Consider the cost of service facilities and yard improvement = 50% of PEC
7
= 0.50 × 109.6×10
7
= Rs. 54.8×10
D. Yard improvements: (10-15)% purchased equipment cost )
7
considering 13% of PEC = 0.13 ×109.6×10
7
= Rs14.3×10

E.Land: (1-2% of fixed capital investment or 4-8% of Purchased equipment cost)


7
Consider the cost of land of 5% PEC = 1/100 × 438.34×10
7
= Rs. 4.39×10

621
Thus, Direct cost =
7
(109.6+43.8+16.44+43.8+27.4+43.8+54.8+14.3+4.38)*10^7=358.32×10

II. Indirect costs: Expenses, which are not directly involved with material and labour of
actual installation of complete facility (15-30% of Fixed-capital investment)

A. Engineering and Supervision: (5-30% of direct costs)


Consider the cost of engineering and supervision = 10% of Direct costs
= 7 7
0.1×358.32 ×10 = Rs 35.8×10
B. Construction Expense: (10% of direct costs)
Consider the construction expense = 10% of Direct costs =
7
0.1×358.32 ×10
7
= Rs. 35.8×10
C. Contractor’s fee: ( 2-7)% of direct cost.
Consider 4 % of direct cost.
7 7
contractor’s fee=.04 ×358.32 ×10 = Rs 143.3×10

D. Contingency: (5-15% of Fixed-capital investment) Consider


the contingency cost = 10% of direct cost
7
=0.1×358.32×10
7
= Rs. 35.8×10

7
Thus, Indirect Costs = Rs.250×10

III. Fixed Capital Investment:

632
Fixed capital investment = Direct costs + Indirect costs
7 7
= (Rs.358.32×10 ) + (250.7×10 )
= 7
Rs 609.02×10
7
Fixed capital investment = Rs. 609.02×10

IV. Working Capital: (10-20% of Fixed-capital investment)


Consider the Working Capital = 15% of Fixed-capital investment
= 7
0.15 × 609.02×10
= 7
Rs. 91.35×10
V. Total Capital Investment (TCI):

Total capital investment = Fixed capital investment + Working capital


= 7 7
(609.02×10 ) + (91.35× 10 )
= 7
Rs. 700×10
Estimation of Total Product cost:

I. Manufacturing Cost = Direct production cost + Fixed charges +


Plant overhead lost.

Fixed Charges: (10-20% total product cost)


i. Depreciation: (depends on life period, salvage value and method of
calculation-about 13% of FCI for machinery and equipment and 2-3%
for Building Value for Buildings)
Consider depreciation = 10% of FCI for machinery and equipment and 3%
for Building Value for Buildings)
7 7
i. e., Depreciation = (0.1×438034×10 + .03×43.8×10 )
= 7
Rs. 45.114×10

643
ii. Local Taxes: (1-4% of fixed capital investment)
Consider the local taxes of 3% of fixed capital investment
7 7
i.e. Local Taxes = 0.03×438.34×10 = Rs. 13.15×10

iii. Insurances: (0.4-1% of fixed capital investment)


Consider the Insurance = 0.7% of fixed capital investment
7 7
i.e. Insurance = 0.007×438.34×10 = Rs. 3.06×10

iv. Rent: (8-12% of value of rented land and buildings)


Consider rent = 10% of value of (rented land + buildings)
7
Rent = Rs. 0.56 x10
Thus, Fixed Charges =depreciation +local taxes +insurance +rent Rs.
7
Fixed Charges = Rs 61.884 x10

B. Direct Production Cost: (about 60% of total product cost)


Now we have Fixed charges = 10-20% of total product charges – (given)
Consider the Fixed charges = 15% of total product cost
Total product charge = fixed charges/15%
7
Total product charge(TPC) = Rs.412.26×10

i. Raw Materials: (10-50% of total product cost)


Consider the cost of raw materials = 30% of total product cost
7
Raw material cost = Rs. 123.68×10

ii. Operating Labour (OL): (10-20% of total product cost) Consider


the cost of operating labour = 15% of total product cost
= 7
0.15×412.26×10
7
= Rs 61.84×10
7
Operating labour cost = Rs 61.84×10

654
7
= Rs.20.63×10
iii. Direct Supervisory and Clerical Labour (DS & CL): (10-25% of OL)

Consider the cost for Direct supervisory and clerical labour = 12% of OL
7
Direct supervisory and clerical labour cost = 0.12× 61.84×10
7
Direct supervisory and clerical labour cost = Rs.7.42× 10

iv. Utilities: (10-20% of total product cost)


Consider the cost of Utilities = 12% of total product cost
7
= 0.12×412.26×10
7
Utilities cost =49.59×10

v. Maintenance and repairs (M & R): (2-10% of fixed capital investment)


Consider the maintenance and repair cost = 5% of fixed capital investment
7
Maintenance and repair cost = 0.05×43.84 x10
7
= Rs 21.9×10
vi. Operating Supplies: (10-20% of M & R or 0.5-1% of FCI)
Consider the cost of Operating supplies = 15% of M & R
7
Operating supplies cost = 0.15 × 21.9×10
7
Operating supplies cost = Rs. 3.285×10

vii. Laboratory Charges: (10-20% of OL)

viii. Patent and Royalties: (0-6% of total product cost)


Consider the cost of Patent and royalties = 5% of total product cost
7
Patent and Royalties = 0.05×412.6×10
Patent and Royalties cost
7
Thus, Direct Production Cost = Rs.300.7×10

665
C. Plant overhead Costs (50-70% of Operating labour, supervision, and maintenance or
5-15% of total product cost); includes for the following: general plant upkeep and overhead,
payroll overhead, packaging, medical services, safety and protection, restaurants,
recreation, salvage, laboratories, and storage facilities.
Consider the plant overhead cost = 60% of OL, DS & CL, and M & R
7 7 7
Plant overhead cost = 0.60 × ((61.84×10 ) + (7.42 × 10 ) + (21.092×10 ))
7
Plant overhead cost = Rs. 54.7×10
Thus, Manufacture cost = Direct production cost + Fixed charges + Plant overhead costs.
7 7 7
Manufacture cost = (300.7×10 ) + (59.7 x 10 ) + (61.84×10 )
7
Manufacture cost = Rs. 417.23×10

II. General Expenses = Administrative costs + distribution and selling costs +


research and development costs
Administrative costs:(40-60% of operating labor )
Consider the Administrative costs = 5% of operating labor
7
Administrative costs = 0.05×61.84×10
7
Administrative costs = Rs.3.092×10

A. Distribution and Selling costs: (2-20% of total product cost); includes costs for
sales offices, salesmen, shipping, and advertising.
Consider the Distribution and selling costs = 10% of total product cost
7
Distribution and selling costs = 0.10 × 412.26×10
7
=41.26×10
7
Distribution and Selling costs = Rs. 41.26×10
C. Research and Development costs: (about 3% of total product cost)
Consider the Research and development costs = 3% of total product cost
7
Research and development costs = 0.03 × 412.26×10
7
Research and Development costs = Rs. 12.36×10

67
7
Thus General Expenses = 56.71×10

IV. Total Product cost = Manufacture cost + General Expenses


7 7
= (417.23.×10 ) +(56.71×10
)
7
Total product cost = Rs. 473.94×10

V. Gross Earnings/Income:
Wholesale Selling price of ammonium sulphate per kg = Rs 115.50

Total Income = Selling price × Quantity of product manufactured


=
110 × (250 T/day) × (300 days/year)
7
Total Income = Rs 825×10

Gross income = Total Income – Total Product Cost


7 7
= (825×10 – 442.45×10 )
7
Gross Income = Rs. 382.55 × 10
Let the Tax rate be 40% (common)
Taxes = 40% of Gross income
7 7
= 0.40× 382.55×10 = 153.02×10
7
Taxes = Rs 153.02×10
Net Profit = Gross income - Taxes = Gross income × (1- Tax rate)
7
Net profit = 382.55 × 10 × (1- 0.4)
7
Net profit = Rs 229.53×10
VI Rate of Return:
Rate of return = (Net profit/ Total Capital Investment)×100
7 7
Rate of Return = (229.53×10 / 609.02×10 ) ×100
Rate of Return = 37.68%

687
10. PLANT LOCATION AND LAY OUT.

When it has been decided to start a factory it is most important to select a suitable
site or location to house the factory. This is not an easy problem, because of the site
selected may not be proper, then all the money expanded on factory building, equipments
and layout etc. will go in waste. Therefore while selecting a site, owner must consider
technical, commercial and financial aspects and then to select a site that will produce a
maximum advantage.
This problem can be divided into two main parts:
(a) General location of the factory.
(b) The selection of particular site.
(a) For the general location of the factory following factors must be considered: -
1) The raw materials should be easily available at comparatively low cost
and at low freight charges.
2) The market should be near the factory for the quick service to the
customers and easy transportation.
3) There should be good transport facilities for bringing raw material and
sending finished product.
4) Skilled and cheap laborers should be available near the plant site.
5) Availability of power and fuel were very influencing in olden days to day
it has no much effect on plant site.
6) Climatic and atmospheric conditions are governing factor to several
chemical industries. However, air conditioning systems have changed the
situation.
7) All factories need soft and pure water especially in large quantities.
8) Availability of capital.
9) Social and recreational facilities: can be created near the factory site.

698
10) Banking facilities are necessary for the factories, which requires constant
feeding of the working capital.
11) Existence of related factories sometimes play very important role in
selection of site.
12) The factors like local byelaws, Taxes, Fire protection facilities, post and
telegraph facilities should also be considered.
(b) Selection of Actual site: -The most important factors in this respect are: -
1) Availability of cheap land to build and expand the plant.
2) The cost of leveling the land and providing foundations, subsoil conditions
for foundations and drainage.
3) The cost of bricks, sand, cement, limes, steel and other materials required
for construction.
4) Facilities for the upkeep and general maintenance.
5) Facilities for transport in getting and sending materials.
6) Facilities for housing the workers and if necessary their transport from
their place of residence to work sites.
7) Cost of laying the water supply and providing sewage and disposal work.
8) Cost of installation of electricity, gas and other facilities, etc.
9) Any restrictions placed by the planning department or local bye-laws be
well studied.

7069
The economic construction and efficient operation of a process unit will depend on how
well the plant and equipment specified on the process flow sheet is laid out. The principal
factors are considered are:

¾ Economic considerations: construction and operating costs.


¾ The process requirements.
¾ Convenience of operation.
¾ Convenience of maintenance.
¾ Safety.
¾ Future expansion.
¾ Modular construction.
Costs
The cost of construction can be minimized by adopting a layout that gives the shortest
run of connecting pipe between equipment, and at least amount of structural steel work.
However, this will not necessarily be the best arrangement for operation and
maintenance.

Process requirements
An example of the need to take into account process consideration is the need to elevate
the base of columns to provide the necessary net positive suction head to a pump or the
operating head for a thermosyphon reboiler.

Operations
Equipment that needs to have frequent attention should be located convenient to the
control room. Valves, sample points, and instruments should be located at convenient
positions and heights. Sufficient working space and headroom must be provided to allow
easy access to equipment.

Maintenance
Heat exchangers need to be sited so that the tube bundles can be easily withdrawn for
cleaning and tube replacement. Vessels that require frequent replacement of catalyst or
packing should be located on the out side of buildings. Equipment that requires

Dismantling for maintenance, such as compressors and large pumps, should be places
under cover.

710
Safety
Blast walls may be needed to isolate potentially hazardous equipment, and confine the
effects of an explosion.

At least two escape routes for operators must be provided from each level in process
buildings.

Plant expansion
Equipment should be located so that it can be conveniently tied in with any future
expansion of the process.

Space should be left on pipe alleys for future needs, and service pipes over-sized to allow
for future requirements.

Modular construction
In recent years there has been a move to assemble sections of plant at the plant
manufacturer’s site. These modules will include the equipment, structural steel, piping
and instrumentation. The modules are then transported to the plant site, by road or sea.
The advantages of modular construction are:

¾ Improved quality control.


¾ Reduced construction cost.
¾ Less need for skilled labour on site.

Some of the disadvantages are;

¾ Higher design costs & more structural steel work.


¾ More flanged constructions & Possible problems with assembly, on site.

721
The Plant Layout key words

1. Raw material Storage


2. Product Storage
3. Process Site
4. Laboratories
5. Workshop
6. Canteen & Change house
7. Fire Brigade
8. Central Control Room
9. Security office
10. Administrative Building
11. Site for Expansion Project.
12. Effluent treatment plant
13. Power house
14. Emergency water storage
15. Plant utilities
A detailed plant layout is drawn and submitted with this thesis report. This plant layout is
just a reference plant layout. There may be a lot of changes in actual plant layout.

732
PID DIAGRAMS

74
REFERENCES

John Mcketta; “Encyclopedia of chemical processing and design”, Volume


a10, Page no: 1-6 and17-19

Dryden’s “Outlines of Chemical Technologies”, second edition east-west


press, page No. 417-421.

R. H. Perry and Don W. Green, “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Hand Book”,


th th
6 and 7 Edition McGraw Hill International edition.

nd
Joshi M. V., “Process Equipment Design”, 2 Ed., McMillan India Ltd,

R. K. Sinnott, “Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Series”,


rd
volume-6, Chemical Equipment Design 3 Ed., Butter Worth-Heinemann,
Page No: 236-271, 891-895

Max S. Peters and Klaus Timmerhaus, “Process Plant Design and Economics
rd
For Chemical Engineers”, 3 Ed., McGraw Hill Book Company, Page No:
207-208, 484-485.

Indian standard “Specification for Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers”, IS


4503-1967,
Page No: 5-66

L.E. Brownell and E.H. Young, “Process Equipment Design”, John Wiley
& Sons Inc. New York, page no.219-248

Indian standard, “Code for unfired vessels”, IS 2825 Indian Standard


Institution, Delhi

“Chemical age of India” 1967, March editorial, page 183-184 753


Chemical age of India” 1967, page 173 – 178.

“Chemical age of India” 1964 , page 359

“Indian journal of technology”, page 1963 page 260

Foust, Wenzel and others “Principles of Unit operation” ,page 133

www. Fertilizerworks.com

www. fert.in.co.

www.fact.co.in

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786