1 views

Uploaded by ombraga1896

Exact solution for PN junction

Exact solution for PN junction

© All Rights Reserved

- TransistoDescription: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)r Based Logic Gates
- Semiconductor Electronics
- 1st Year B.tech Syllabus Revised 21.07.10
- Transistor Characteristics and Parameters
- diode,bjt,zener,mosfet
- Everything you need to know About Solar Energy
- Circuit Theory - PHY301 Handouts Lecture 32
- Comp. Sc. Syllabus
- 1-s2.0-S0022231306002511-main
- Characteristics of Thyristor
- Solar Photovoltaic System
- Schottky & Ohmic Contacts
- Photo Detectors
- Car Ignition With Igbts
- Lecture 15
- Chap 1
- An 10117
- Power Semiconductor Devices Modul 2
- Adina Scott et al- Molecular modulation of Schottky barrier height in metal-molecule-silicon diodes: Capacitance and simulation results
- Finland Answers

You are on page 1of 9

Under Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium

Sina Khorasani

Abstract— We present an explicit solution of carrier and field In [11], the effects of generation and recombination currents

distributions in abrupt PN junctions under equilibrium. An for such 2D devices are fully taken into account. The authors

accurate logarithmic numerical method is implemented and of [12] have also just reported an improved theory for

results are compared to the analytical solutions. Analysis of calculation of fields in such devices.

results shows reasonable agreement with numerical solution as Among the other related papers, we may also mention a few

well as the depletion layer approximation. We discuss extensions

which present analytical discussions of the p-n junctions.

to the asymmetric junctions. Approximate relations for

differential capacitance and I-V characteristics are also found Corkisha and Green [13] have calculated the recombination

under non-zero external bias. and generation currents in bulk step junctions. Arbitration of

doping gradients with carefully engineered profiles has been

Keywords—Physical Electronics, Semiconductor Devices, shown to significantly improve [14] the performance of

Diodes bipolar transistors. Barbyn and Santos [15] have made an

experimental study of p-n junctions under forward bias and

I. INTRODUCTION through extensive modeling and harmonic analysis within the

approximation of depletion layer. A similar harmonic analysis

T HE semiconductor PN junction forms the basis of all

devices being used in the technological developments of

microelectronics and optoelectronics industries [1,2]. The

of laser diodes has been conducted by the author [16,17] in the

past, which establishes the existence of optimal modulation

and mixing in laser diodes. Yang and Schroder [18] have

theory behind the operation of PN junctions (and extensions to

discussed the band bending diagrams and quasi-Fermi levels,

multijunctions such as bipolar transistors) dates back to the and their applications to field-effect transistors and other

1940s, when William Shockley [3] at the AT&T Bell single- or multi-junction devices.

laboratories devised a basic theoretical framework for A recent paper of Boukredimi and Benchouk [19] presents

understanding of these semiconductor devices [3,4]. an interesting theoretical study of C-V relationship in

Since then, the so-called depletion layer approximation has symmetric p-n junctions. However, they do not present

remained essentially unchanged, despite many shortcomings expressions for the electric and potential field profiles, carrier

in correct description of carrier and charge densities as well as concentrations, or total charge densities. Moreover, in their

electric fields. A number of authors have tried to revisit the analysis the external bias is simply treated as a change in

basic theoretical formulation of PN junctions to obtain a more intrinsic carrier density; this assumption appears to be

accurate description of various parameters [5-7]. This is while, incorrect.

accurate numerical solution of carrier and charge densities still The focus of this paper is to address the basic problems with

remains a tough procedure to deal with, since electron and the theoretical formulations of PN junctions in depth, using

hole densities vary over many orders of magnitude across a nonlinear analysis of governing drift-diffusion kinetics. We

distance as short as a few microns or less. For a typical start by integration of highly nonlinear master equations for

junction, these densities may easily vary within up to a factor distribution of charges and fields, without strict dependence on

of 10 to 10 . Hence, satisfaction of boundary and the old ideas. Then we succeed to find closed form solutions

continuity equations at once is not achievable by most of the in terms of relatively simple functions for the case of

routine numerical schemes. symmetric step junction under equilibrium. Numerical

A variation of PN junction theory was developed in 2006 examples are solved and we show the consistency of our

[8] without making use of the depletion layer approximation, results. We also discuss how to use this method for calculation

in which an approximate solution was found using of parameters in one-sided junctions in which the doping of

introduction of an auxiliary unphysical parameter. However, one side exceeds the other side by a few orders of magnitude.

no closed form solutions were found and the major

contribution was only a modified numerical method to achieve II. THEORY

stability and better accuracy.

A. Symmetric Junctions

The recent development of 2D devices, has necessitated

access to a better theoretical framework for understanding of

Consider a simple PN junction with uniform doping across the

= 0 boundary, as shown in Fig. 1. We assume that the

S. Khorasani is with the School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif concentration of extrinsic acceptor and donor dopants are

University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (e-mail: khorasani@sina.sharif.edu).

2

given by and respectively in the P and N sections. In This second-order differential equation is not twice integrable,

what follows, we suppose that all dopant and carrier however, by defining = √ ⁄√ we may obtain the first

concentrations are normalized to the intrinsic carrier density order approximate equation (for a detailed justification please

. Hence, for a symmetric junction we may define the c.f. Appendix A)

dimensionless density = ⁄ = ⁄ . Similarly, ′( )

electron and hole carrier densities are normalized accordingly = [ ( ) − ].

( )

as ( ) = ( )⁄ and ( ) = ( )⁄ . This allows us to (8)

write ( ) ( ) = 1 under equilibrium. Further substitution of (6) in (8) gives the first-order

differential equation

′( )

= [ ( ) − ].

P N ( )+4

(9)

This equation can now be integrated exactly. In order to do so,

=0 it should be first rearranged as ⁄( − ) + 4 on the

Fig. 1. Illustration of PN junction. left-hand-side and on the other. This will yield

the vanishing sum of drift and diffusion current densities, ln = | ,

which result in ( )+4+ ( )+4

(10)

( ) = +ℰ( ) ( ), with the definition = √ + 4. The correctness of (10)

( ) = −ℰ( ) ( ), may be verified by straightforward differentiation and some

(1) lengthy algebraic simplifications, leading back to (9); this is

where = ⁄ is the thermal voltage with , and shown in Appendix B. For the moment, assumption of

respectively being the electronic charge, absolute temperature, symmetry requires that (0) = (0) and therefore (0) = 0.

and Boltzmann’s constant. Also, ℰ( ) is the local electric However, the case of strongly asymmetric junctions will be

field, obeying the Poisson equation given by also discussed later. This will result in

− ( ) ⁄

ℰ′( ) = [ ( ) − ( ) − ], < 0, = , < 0,

( )+4+ ( ) 2

ℰ′( ) = [ ( ) − ( ) + ], > 0, (11)

(2) where

in which = ⁄ with being the permittivity. We 1

define the two conjugate functions = ,

(12)

( ) = ( ) − ( ), is a characteristic length of decay (the Debye length is usually

( ) = ( ) + ( ), denoted by in the literature [1], but we omit the index

(3) throughout for the sake of convenience). As we shall see, the

which upon insertion in (1) results in behavior of exponential terms in the solution will suggest that

it would be actually equivalent to the Debye shielding, or

′( ) ′( ) ℰ( ) charge screening phenomenon, and hence the effective Debye

= = .

( ) ( ) length will become

(4)

Integration of the above gives ℓ= ,

(5) in which we have made use of the approximation ≅ , and

But we have (−∞) − (−∞) = 4 (−∞) (−∞) the effective density = ⁄ln√ is defined by comparison

according to (3). Hence, after using ( ) ( ) = 1 we obtain to numerical simulations (Appendix C).

The equation (11) may be rearranged to a quadratic

( )= ( ) + 4. equation in terms of the function ( ), which admits two

(6) explicit solutions for ( ). In order to do this, the expression

Now, we first limit ourselves to the case of symmetric

should be first re-arranged to have ( ) + 4 on one side

junction and solve (1) and (2) only for the < 0 half-space.

and all other terms on the other side, and then be squared. This

We initially have

would yield a second-order algebraic equation in terms of

( ) which can be easily solved. The physically meaningful

′( )

= [ ( ) − ]. solution is obtained after some algebra and simplification as

( )

(7)

3

4

1− ( )− ( ) nx in units of ni

( )= , < 0,

1+ ( )− ( )

(14) 105

in which

⁄ℓ

( )= . 100

+2

(15)

Now, electron and hole densities for < 0 may be easily 0.1

found from (3) and (6) as

1 104

( )= ( )+4+ ( ) ,

2

1 xL

( )= ( )+4− ( ) . 30 20 10 0 10 20 30

2 Fig. 4. Concentration of electron carriers for different doping levels:

(16)

= 10 or = = 10 , = 40.1 (black: analytical,

Because of symmetry, we may use (+ ) = (− ) to obtain

dotted: numerical), = 10 or = = 10 , = 12.7

solutions for > 0 as well. The results based on (16) and (14) (dashed: analytical, dot-dashed: numerical).

will guarantee smooth transition of hole and electrons across

the boundary at = 0. The continuity of derivatives are also Qx in units of qni

1 107

supported by symmetry, and easily follow (16), by noting that

(0) = 0. To observe this, it is sufficient to take derivatives of

(16) and simplify expressions for ′(0) and ′(0). This will

readily give ′(0) = − ′(0) which is the desired result. This 5 106

below.

xL

nx, px in Units of ni

30 20 10 10 20 30

2.5

5 106

2.0

1 107

1.5 Fig. 5. Total space charge across the junction for different doping

levels: = 10 or = = 10 , = 40.1 (black:

analytical, dotted: numerical), = 10 or = = 10 ,

1.0 = 12.7 (dashed: analytical, dot-dashed: numerical).

0.5

xL doping concentrations, too, in Figs. 3 and 4. These plots are

1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0

Fig. 2. Smooth transition of carrier densities across the across

shown on the logarithmic scale since the carrier concentrations

boundary of the junction: holes (black) and electrons (dashed). vary over a multitude of magnitude orders across the junction.

It has to be noticed that the Debye length for each case of

px in units of ni the dopant concentrations is different, and the horizontal axis

is normalized only for comparison purposes. Similarly, the

105

total space charge across the junction is plotted in Fig. 5 as

well. All remains now is to find the electric field ℰ( ), which

may be found by (1); this will however result in relatively

100 large expressions.

So far, everything has been pretty much close to the exact

0.1 solution. But a very useful alternative form may be found by

first noting that typically ranges between 10 to 10 and is

thus much larger than unity. Hence, (14) may be simplified to

104 the very accurate approximation (c.f. Appendix D)

xL

30 20 10 0 10 20 30 ( )= , < 0.

Fig. 3. Concentration of hole carriers for different doping levels: 1− csch

2 ℓ

= 10 or = = 10 , = 40.1 (black: analytical, (17)

dotted: numerical), = 10 or = = 10 , = 12.7 Now, one may integrate (17) as

(dashed: analytical, dot-dashed: numerical).

4

ℰ( ) = [ ( )− ] , junction defined as ℰ( ) = − ′( ) can be obtained by direct

integration of (20) which leads to excessively long and

(18) inaccurate expression. A much better approximation may be

which will lead to the expression for electric field in the half- obtained by using the equation (1), which can be readily

space < 0 integrated as

( )

2 −2 ( )= ln = ln .

ℰ( ) = − ℓ tanh ( )

(26)

2 + tanh Inserting (17) into (16), and using the above, we obtain an

+ tanh 2ℓ . explicit equation for the distribution of electrostatic field. For

this purpose, we first extend (17) into both sides of the

(19) junction as

Using the trigonometric identity tanh + tanh =

tanh [( + )⁄1 + ], the above expression may be ( ) = −sgn( ) ,

further simplified as 1 + 2 csch ℓ

(27)

2 1 + tanh where sgn(∙) is the sign function. A plot of the electric field is

ℰ( ) = − ℓ tanh 2ℓ . shown in Fig. 6b. The tails of the potential variation at the

2+ + ( − 2)tanh

2ℓ borders of the depletion area are somewhat similar to

(20) exponential functions [20].

Evidently, the electric field ℰ( ) must be an even function so

that we have the following full expression, being valid Ex kVcm

xL

everywhere both for < 0 and > 0 30 20 10 10 20 30

20

2 1 − tanh

ℰ( ) = − ℓ tanh 2ℓ . 40

2+ − ( − 2)tanh

2ℓ 60

(21)

A typical sketch of the electric field is shown in Fig. 6a. 80

Hence, the maximum electric field ℰ = |ℰ(0)| at the

100

middle of the junction is given by

120

2

ℰ = ℓ tanh . 140

2+

(22) (a)

The expression within the brackets is logarithmically Voltage V

divergent and using tanh (1 − )~ ln(2⁄ ) for small (and 0.8

positive) , and taking 1 − = ⁄( + 2) we obtain

= 1− 1−( )

≈ 2 ⁄( + 2) ≈ 2⁄ , where we have

0.6

used the binomial expansion first, as well as the fact ≫1

next. After some algebra we get

0.4

ℰ ≅ ln .

ℓ

(23)

The built-in voltage of the junction is exactly given by the 0.2

initial difference in Fermi levels prior to the contact, being

=2 ln . xL

20 10 10 20

(24) (b)

Hence, we may define an effective width of the depletion

region as Fig. 6. Electrostatic field and potential across the junction for

difference doping levels: = 10 or = = 10 , =

2 40.1 (black: analytical, dotted: numerical), = 10 or =

≡ = 4ℓ. = 10 , = 12.7 (dashed: analytical, dot-dashed:

ℰ

(25) numerical).

5

5.00

From (23) and (25) we may readily obtain the accurate scaling

laws 1.00

ℰ ∝ √ ln , 0.50

(28)

for peak electric field and

0.10

1 0.05

∝ ln ,

for effective width of the depletion layer. The results (23) and 105 106 107 108 109

(25) are indeed in exact agreement with the known Fig. 8. Dependence of effective depletion width in a symmetric

expressions from depletion layer analysis. Silicon junction versus dopant concentration: accurate (solid) and

simple depletion approximation (dashed).

This result shows that the effective width of the depletion

layer actually is inversely proportional to the doping Error in Emax

concentration. As a matter of fact, calculations of Fig. 3 also

confirm and are in complete agreement with this finding, as by 5.5

increasing the doping density from = 10 to = 10 , the

5.0

peak electric field is also increased from 41.6kV/cm to

4.5

142kV/cm by a factor of 10 which is roughly equal to 3.4.

4.0

Figures 7 and 8 compare the exact maximum electric field

3.5

from Appendix C and effective width of the depletion layer

due to our analysis (solid lines) versus depletion layer 3.0

approximation (dashed lines). Figures 9 and 10 present the N in units of ni

relative errors of analytical solution versus the depletion layer 105 106 107 108 109

approximation given in percent. It is notable that by Fig. 9. Relative error in calculation of maximum electric field in

examining the depletion layer approximation versus our depletion layer approximation.

analysis here, it is found that the estimations for the width of

Error in W

depletion layer as well as the maximum electric field coincide

5.5

fairly well, just within a few percent.

5.0

C. Highly Asymmetric Junctions

4.5

asymmetric PN+ junction with ≫ ; this is normally the

3.5

practical case due to existing fabrication procedures in current

use. Therefore, we may still define = ⁄ and proceed 3.0

with (1) as well as

N in units of ni

105 106 107 108 109

ℰ′( ) = [ ( ) − ( ) − ], < 0, Fig. 10. Relative error in calculation of depletion width in depletion

ℰ′( ) = 0, > 0. layer approximation.

(30)

Emax kVcm

Justification for (30) follows from the fact that the depletion

1000 region is practically pushed out of the highly N+-doped region

500 into the moderately P-doped region. This would imply that

during the integration of electric field distribution, which

100 extends just a bit into the highly doped region could be

50 completely ignored. Hence, we have the approximate

condition ℰ′( ) ≈ 0 in the N+-region because of the almost

10 vanishing contribution of the space-charge. Combined with

5 the boundary condition at infinity ℰ(+∞) = 0, we then may

safely take ℰ( ) = 0 for > 0. This situation is however

N in units of ni comparable to a fully symmetric junction with moderate

105 106 107 108 109

dopings = where the boundary is shifted into the N+-

region to the amount of (obtained below), but the depletion

Fig. 7. Dependence of maximum electric field in a symmetric Silicon

layer is abruptly terminated at the origin = 0.

junction versus dopant concentration: accurate (solid) and simple

depletion approximation (dashed).

6

Equation (10) still holds but has to be integrated differently, III. NON-ZERO BIAS

since (0) is no longer zero. In fact, we may make use of the In this section, we study the case of non-equilibrium under

fact that the whole depletion layer is effectively shifted into external bias. From (D.5), and after numerical tests for large

the P domain because of the zero curvature of the electric field , we may write down the further approximation

in the N domain, so that one may have (0) = < 0. This

will result in ( ) ≈ −2sinh[ln tanh( ⁄ℒ )],

(38)

− ( ) −

= ⁄ℓ

, < 0. where ℒ = ℓln√ . Hence, we readily obtain by (3) the

( )+4+ ( ) +4+ approximate expressions for equilibrium carrier densities as

(31)

By going through a few algebraic steps similar to what was ( ) ≈ exp[−ln tanh( ⁄ℒ )],

done with (11) to obtain (12), the equation (31) would yield ( ) ≈ exp[+ln tanh( ⁄ℒ )].

(39)

4 These expressions consistently satisfy the boundary and initial

1− ( )− ( )

( )= , < 0, conditions at origin and infinities. The electric field under

1+ ( )− ( ) equilibrium is given by (1) as

( )

2( − ) ℰ( ) = = − ln sech ( ⁄ℒ ),

( )= ⁄ℓ

. ( ) ℒ

+4+ (40)

(32) resulting in a relation similar to (23) for the maximum electric

If we define ( ) = 0, then can be found from by field. We assume that under positive external bias, (39) are

setting the numerator of ( ) equal to zero and ignoring the perturbed as

middle term. This will result in −Δ

( ; ) ≈ exp −ln tanh ,

ℒ

2( − ) +Δ

⁄ℓ

≈ ±1, ( ; ) ≈ exp +ln tanh ,

+4+ ℒ

(41)

(33)

with Δ being a voltage-dependent constant to be determined.

out of which the positive sign only may lead to physically

This will result in

meaningful solutions. Hence, we obtain

−Δ

2( − ) ( ; ) ( ; ) = exp −ln tanh

= −ℓ ln , ℒ

+4+ +Δ

− tanh .

(34) ℒ

where by the strong asymmetry we have = (0) − (0), (42)

and (0) ≈ ⁄ and (0) ≈ ⁄ . Hence, ≈− ⁄ . Within the depletion region, at = 0 we should have

Now, by noting ≈ = ⁄ and ≫ we get

( ; ) ( ; ) = exp .

( + ) (43)

≈ −ℓ ln ≈ ℓ ln . This will curiously yield the simple result

+

(35)

Then (32) may be put into the similar accurate form of (17) as Δ = ℒtanh = ℒtanh .

2ln

(44)

( )= , < 0. We now assume symmetric hole and electron mobilities, and

−

1− csch write the equations for the current density = 2 = 2 as

2 ℓ

(36)

Hence, the expression for the electric field should be = [ℰ( ; ) ( ; ) − ( ; )],

modified as

= [ℰ( ; ) ( ; ) + ( ; )].

ℰ( ) (45)

− Combining the above gives

2 1 + tanh

=− ℓ tanh 2ℓ

− ( ; )+ ( ; )

2+ + ( − 2)tanh

2ℓ ℰ( ; ) = ,

( ; )− ( ; )

1 + tanh 2ℓ [ ( ; ) ( ; )]′

−tanh . =2 .

2+ + ( − 2)tanh ( ; )− ( ; )

2ℓ

(37) (46)

7

Using (41) and plugging in (46) we arrive at the non- and diverges at = , approaches zero under strong reverse

equilibrium electric field expression given by bias, similar to the well-known behavior of depletion

capacitance [1-4].

ℰ( ; )

−Δ +Δ B. I-V Characteristics

sech ( ; ) − sech ( ; )

=− ln ℒ ℒ .

ℒ ( ; )− ( ; ) Returning to the equation (45) for the current density, if we try

(47) to directly plug-in the quasi-equilibrium carrier densities (41),

one would obtain zero current. Hence, one would need first to

Hence, by employing hyperbolic-trigonometric identities, and estimate the change in electric field due to bias from another

within the quasi-equilibrium approximation, the electric field method. For this purpose, we start from the equation

at = 0 under forward bias is

Δ ℰ( ; ) = ℰ( ; 0) + [ ( ; ) − ( ; 0)] ,

ℰ(0; ) = − ln sech = − ln 1− .

ℒ ℒ ℒ

(48) (55)

This expression may be easily generalized for both negative After plugging in (49), this may be re-written as

and positive voltages and non-zero current density as

2

| | = [ ( ; ) − ( ; 0)] .

ℰ(0; ) = − ln 1− + exp − .

ℒ 2 2

(49) (56)

Evaluation of integral and simplifying results in the expression

A. Junction Capacitance

2 ℒ

( )= ( ) ,

The small-signal capacitance per-unit area of the junction may

be found as (57)

where the function ( ) is given as

= ,

( ) = 2Shi cosh − Shi 1+

(50) 2 2 2

where is the per-unit area charge difference on either side of

the junction due to the application of the voltage. It may be − Shi 1− .

2

evaluated as (59)

Here, Shi( )is defined in terms of the exponential integral as

Shi( ) = ,

2

(51)

Hence, by (50) we get Ei( ) = .

(60)

= ( ; ) ,

The dimensionless function ( ) = ( ) is plotted in

(52) Fig. 11.

which after using (42), (44), and some simplification results in I V

ℒ

= sinh . 2.5 1014

| | 2

1−

2.0 1014

(53)

Please notice that (53) represents the total capacitive effects of 1.5 1014

diffusion kinetics and depletion layer combined at once. It is a

finite value at zero bias 1.0 1014

5.0 1013

ℒ

| = sinh ,

2 Vin units of VT

40 20 20

(54)

Fig. 11. Normalized approximate I-V characteristics of junction.

8

ln ~

In this paper we discussed a new analytical solution for the 2

carrier and field distributions of an abrupt PN junction under

equilibrium. Solutions for symmetric and asymmetric ( )+ ( )+4 1 ( )+ ( )+4

− 1− − 1−

junctions were discussed. We obtained closed form 2 2 2

expressions and noticed major differences with respect to the + ⋯.

conventional depletion layer approximation. We showed that (A.6)

different accurate scaling laws are expected for the case under By plugging (A.6) in (A.5) and simplifying, we get

study. This will find practical importance in design of compact

multi-junction devices. We also obtained approximate ′( )

expressions for differential capacitance and I-V

characteristics. ( )+4

= −√2 + 1 − .

The carrier concentrations in the electric field ℰ( ) equation 2 2 2

(2) may be substituted from (1) to obtain (A.7)

′( ) 1 Using the approximation ( ) + 4 ≈ ( ) only on the

=+ ( )− − , right hand side, and noting the correct choice of signs in

( ) ( )

taking the root by ( ) < , we finally arrive at

′( ) 1

=− ( )− − .

( ) ( )

(A.1) ′( )

= [ ( ) − ],

These may be integrated once by multiplication of appropriate ( )+4

integration factors ′( )⁄ ( ) and ′( )⁄ ( ) to obtain (A.8)

which is basically having the same form as (9), if we take

′( ) ′( ) ′( ) ′( ) = ⁄ .

=+ ′( ) − − ,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(A.2) APPENDIX B

and similarly for ( ), to find

′( ) 1 1 Differentiation of (10) yields

=− 2 ( )+ − ln ( ) − − + ln .

( ) ( )

1 −

(A.3) ln

Here, the integration is taken from −∞ to , while we note +4+ +4

that (−∞) = + √ +4 ≅ and ′(−∞) = 0. The +

1 1 1 +4

negative root is taken since on the left hand side, the = −

derivative should be negative, while the denominator is − 4+ + +4

positive. This can be reformed as 1 1 1 +4+

= −

− +4 4+ + +4

′( ) + ′( ) 1 1 1 + 4( − ) + ( − )

=− 2 ( ) − ln ( ) − − + ln . = 1−

( )+ ( ) − +4 4+ + +4

(A.4) 1 1

By (4), (6), and (16) we get after some algebra and ignoring ≡ .

( − ) +4

the term (B.1)

The denominator is given by

′( )

( )+4 = 4+ + + 4.

(B.2)

( )+4 ( )+ ( )+4

= −√2 − 1 − ln . We may expand the numerator within the braces as

2

(A.5) = +4 4+ + +4 − + 4( − )

Now, we expand the logarithm up to the second order to

− ( − ).

obtain

(B.3)

This can be simplified as

9

= + 4[4 + − ( − )] + +4 − 4

−2sinh( ⁄ℓ) −

+ = + 4[4 + ] + 4 + ( )= ,

−2sinh( ⁄ℓ) +

= +4+4 + (D.4)

= +4+4+ . and subsequently as

4

(B.4) 1−

Hence, we have = , and thus (9) is the true derivative of ( )= .

(10) as asserted above. 1 + 2 csch( ⁄ℓ)

(D.5)

APPENDIX C All remains is to ignore 4⁄ for large in the numerator to

The equations (1) and (2) for < 0 may be combined to obtain (17).

obtain

℘′′( ) = [2sinh℘( ) − ],

(C.1) REFERENCES

where ℘( ) = ln ( ) or ℰ( ) = ℘′( ). Solution of this [1] B. G. Streetman, S. K. Banerjee, Solid State Electronic Device, 6th ed.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2009.

nonlinear equation usually leads to numerically unstable

[2] M. Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering, New York:

results. But it can be analytically integrated once on (−∞, ) Kluwer, 2002.

by multiplying both sides by ℘′( ), and noting that ℘′( ) < [3] W. Shockley, Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors, Princeton,

NJ:Van Nostrand, 1950.

0, ℘′(−∞) = 0, and ℘(−∞) = ln . This will give the firs- [4] J. Lindmayer and C. Y. Wrigley, Fundamentals of Semiconductor

order logarithmic differential equation Devices, Princeton, NJ: Van Nostran, 1965.

[5] E. M. Buturla. P. E Cottrell, B. M. Grossman, and K.A. Salsburg,

“Finite-element analysis of semiconductor devices: The FIELDAY

℘′( ) = √2 2cosh℘( ) − 2cosh(ln ) − [℘( ) − ln ], program,” IBM J. Res. Develop., vol. 25, no.4, pp. 218-231, 1981.

(C.2) [6] S. E. Laux and K. Hess, “Revisiting the Analytic Theory of p-n

which can now be numerically integrated stably subject to the Junction Impedance: Improvements Guided by Computer Simulation

Leading to a New Equivalent Circuit,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,

boundary condition ℘(0) = 0 for < 0. Hence, the vol. 46, no 2, pp. 396-412, Feb 1999.

maximum electric field is exactly given by [7] H. R. Pota, “A New Derivation of the Law of the junction” IEEE

Trans. Education, vol. 47, no.4, pp. 497-499, Nov. 2004.

[8] A. Zareian Jahromi and S. Khorasani, “Analysis of p-n Junctions

ℰ = √2 2 − 2cosh(ln ) + ln . Without Depletion Layer Approximation,” 14th Iranian Conference on

(C.3) Electrical Engineering, Tehran (2006).

[9] B. Gharekhanlou and S. Khorasani, “Current-Voltage Characteristics of

Graphane p-n Junctions,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 57, no. 1, pp.

APPENDIX D 209-214 (2010).

[10] B. Gharekhanlou, S. Khorasani, and R. Sarvari, “Two-dimensional

Referring to the equations (14) and (15) we have for <0 Bipolar Junction Transistors,” Mat. Res. Exp., vol. 1, no. 1, 015604

(2014).

4 [11] B. Gharekhanlou, S. Khorasani, “Generation and recombination in two-

⁄ℓ ⁄ℓ

1− +2 − +2

dimensional bipolar transistors,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 737-

( )= . 740 (2014).

⁄ℓ ⁄ℓ [12] Yu. G. Peisakhovich, A. A. Shtygashev , L. A. Borynyak, N. Yu.

1+ −

+2 +2 Petrov, “Electric field and charge density in the plane of a quasi-

(D.1) equilibrium asymmetric 2D p–n junction with zero current,” Technical

⁄ℓ Physics, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 1494-1500 (2015).

Dividing the numerator and denominator by we find [13] R. Corkisha and M. A. Green, “Junction recombination current in

abrupt junction diodes under forward bias,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 80, no.

4 5, pp. 3083-3090 (1996).

⁄ℓ ⁄ℓ

− − [14] J. H. Ning, J. S. Yuan and J. Song, “Effects of base and emitter doping

( )= +2 +2 . gradients on the electrical performance of heterojunction bipolar

⁄ℓ ⁄ℓ transistors,” Solid State Electron., vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1263-1268 (1997).

+ −

+2 +2 [15] A. A. Barybin, and E. J. P. Santos, “Unified Approach to the Large-

(D.2) Signal and High-Frequency Theory of p−n-Junctions,” Semicond. Sci.

Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1225 (2007).

Now, we make use of the approximations +2 ≈ for [16] H. Zandi, M. Bavafa, M. Chamanzar, and S. Khorasani, “Harmonic

large , and find Content and Relaxation Resonant Frequency of a Modulated Laser

Diode,” Scientia Iranica, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 145-156 (2009).

[17] S. Khorasani and B. Cabon, “Theory of Optimal Mixing in Directly

⁄ℓ 4 ⁄ℓ

− − Modulated Laser Diodes,” Scientia Iranica, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 157-162

( )= ⁄ℓ ⁄ℓ

, (2009).

+ − [18] X. Yang and D. K. Schroder, “Some Semiconductor Device Physics

(D.3) Considerations and Clarifications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 59,

which by can be simplified using hyperbolic-trigonometric no. 7, pp. 1993-1996 (2012).

[19] A. Boukredimi, K. Benchouk, “New improved capacitance–voltage

identities as model for symmetrical step junction: a way to a unified model for

realistic junctions,” J. Comput. Electron., vol. 13, pp. 971–982 (2014).

[20] D. J. Roulston, An Introduction to the Physics of Semiconductor

Devices, vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 1999.

- TransistoDescription: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)Description: (Required field)r Based Logic GatesUploaded byOrezMai
- Semiconductor ElectronicsUploaded bypraveen2910
- 1st Year B.tech Syllabus Revised 21.07.10Uploaded byAnirban Basu
- Transistor Characteristics and ParametersUploaded bypuser007
- diode,bjt,zener,mosfetUploaded bySundar Krishna Moorthy
- Everything you need to know About Solar EnergyUploaded bybigpciturepay
- Circuit Theory - PHY301 Handouts Lecture 32Uploaded bySamman Shrestha
- Comp. Sc. SyllabusUploaded bythakursumit935
- 1-s2.0-S0022231306002511-mainUploaded byArup Kunti
- Characteristics of ThyristorUploaded byyogusmilu
- Solar Photovoltaic SystemUploaded bySaravanapriya Karthik
- Schottky & Ohmic ContactsUploaded byArchana Tripathi
- Photo DetectorsUploaded byIndra Rostyanta
- Car Ignition With IgbtsUploaded byAnonymous 7t2BOJb
- Lecture 15Uploaded byKenneth Palma Carmona
- Chap 1Uploaded byBefzz
- An 10117Uploaded byIrfananjum0
- Power Semiconductor Devices Modul 2Uploaded byGeofangga
- Adina Scott et al- Molecular modulation of Schottky barrier height in metal-molecule-silicon diodes: Capacitance and simulation resultsUploaded byDfmso0
- Finland AnswersUploaded byAjayaKumarKavala
- Photo DiodeUploaded bydeepakkr22781
- BSNL Placement Papers - BSNL JTO Recruitment Test Paper Pattern Set - 1 (ID-3155)Uploaded byarijitlgsp
- Analyze the effect of window layer (AlAs) for increasing the efficiency of GaAs based solar cellUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- JLT PresentationUploaded byAnjireddy Thatiparthy
- 2n6059Uploaded byHenry Armando Sivirichi Coronel
- Emergengy lampUploaded bypanda
- phys208_Trygve_SLIDES.pdfUploaded byAzhar Mahmood
- Bsnl Jto 2007 PaperUploaded byswathi16021991
- Application of photoluminescence and electroluminescence techniques to the characterization of intermediate band solar cells.pdfUploaded byShantel Simpson
- Obj 2002 Paper iUploaded byAkansha Kalra

- 012 Integral Calculation in ExcelUploaded byNoor Mohd
- heterostructurefundamentals.pdfUploaded byADITYA SINGH
- Recombination Lifetime and Performance of III-V Compound Photovoltaic DevicesUploaded byombraga1896
- SentaurusTutorial-MOS.pdfUploaded byshanmugapriya
- Celebi ThesisUploaded byombraga1896
- QWIP-Thesis.pdfUploaded byombraga1896
- bizurado-explica bem a passivação-Lachlan Black Thesis 2015.pdfUploaded byombraga1896
- bizurado-silvaco-PIN detector Thesis.pdfUploaded byombraga1896
- Celebi ThesisUploaded byombraga1896
- Week9HWSolutions_S15Uploaded byombraga1896
- Physics solutionUploaded bys_subbulakshmi
- KP_Method_Description-Dragica Vasileska.pdfUploaded byombraga1896
- Precisionandaccuracyinthemeasurementsofresponsivity.pdfUploaded byombraga1896
- Chen2013-Time-resolved Photoluminescence of SiliconUploaded byombraga1896
- Ahrenkiel1998-Recomination Lifetime In0.53ga0.47as Function r Ellingson (1998) Appl Phys LettUploaded byombraga1896
- Ultrasonic Ballwedge Bonding of AluminiumUploaded byombraga1896
- Periodic TableUploaded byombraga1896
- ECE340-Lecture 28 PhotodiodesUploaded byombraga1896
- Stevens Gregory h 2016Uploaded byombraga1896
- King, d. j.; Zhang, l.; Ramer, j. c.; Hersee, s. d.; Lester, l. -- Temperature Behavior of Ptau Ohmic Contacts ToUploaded byombraga1896
- Superlattice Band Structure in the Envelope-function Approximation-bastard1981Uploaded byombraga1896
- Atlas Based Simulation of Double GateUploaded byombraga1896
- Explica TAT-Mechanisms of Interface Trap-Induced DrainUploaded byombraga1896
- Baudrit2010-Tunnel Diode Modeling, Including Nonlocal Trap-Assisted Tunneling- A Focus on III–v Multijunction Solar Cell SimulationUploaded byombraga1896
- A Low Dark Current InGaAsInP P-i-n Photodiode With Covered Mesa Struct (1)Uploaded byombraga1896
- Systems Engineering Standards A Summary.pdfUploaded byombraga1896
- On the SG Box-Method.pdfUploaded byombraga1896

- LM4702Uploaded byFerry Kurniawan
- Ac Wiring DiagramUploaded by4Doc2
- Indian Electricity RulesUploaded byP Venu Gopala Rao
- HLP-A100 Operating Manual.pdfUploaded byGuillermo Hernández
- Mitsubishi-S500-manualUploaded bynyamai20008234
- CukUploaded byEdon Derguti
- CrimpingUploaded byyashaswi
- Circuitschematicelectronics.blogspot.in-stereo to Surround Sound SystemsUploaded bytabish24
- A Decision Support System for the Production Control of a Semiconductor Packaging Assembly LineUploaded byakhimichy
- MontiCatalog2010Uploaded bycornuto12
- Problemas Resueltos de Efecto HallUploaded byCarlos Olvera
- KA2S0880Uploaded byAlejandro Borrego Dominguez
- Guias de PracticaUploaded byCarlos Villon
- Seminar on Logic Gates SimulatorUploaded byAmrita0527
- EPL 0000899 ArticleUploaded byVidarshan Dabera
- Contenido PicUploaded byOliver Ortega
- TDMCQ.pdfUploaded byNishant Singh
- Qb 105633Uploaded byram
- 1-A Low Cost Artificial Vision System for Visually Impaired People.Uploaded byHernán A. Bejarano R.
- 物理作業(Ch26)Uploaded by李均堂
- eca.pdfUploaded byratnams
- Auto Metro Train to Shuttle Between Stations Seminar PresentationUploaded byrontojoy
- 12759903819830Uploaded bybadybady
- Tan Delta Testing - Principle and MethodUploaded byJoeDabid
- 07 Design of RF PassivesUploaded byjatayu2011
- Practical App in EE 03 - Lecture 02 - Proteus 01Uploaded byshafee001
- Tool Matls and FluidsUploaded byraajeeradha
- 8086Uploaded bynavydevilz
- Milli Volt DropUploaded bykazishah
- Frequency multiplier response to spurious signalsUploaded byfrannk9