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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


BHUBANESWAR – 751029

SKILLS AND HANDS-ON PROJECT


CEILING PICK AND PLACE
industrial ROBOT

Bachelor of Technology
In
Electrical Engineering

Under the guidance of


Mr. KAMLESH CHANDRA ROUT
And
Er. BATTAPOTHULA MADHAVA
Skills and Hands-On project College of Engineering And Technology

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
BHUBANESWAR – 751029

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project under Skills and Hands-on Project
entitled “CEILING PICK AND PLACE INDUSTRIAL ROBOT”
submitted by our group of 10 members of Department of Electrical
Engineering fulfils the requirements of the regulation relating to the
nature and standard of work for the award of degree of B.Tech.

Dr. MEERA VISWAVANDYA


H.O.D. Dept of Electrical Engg.
College of Engineering and Technology
Bhubaneswar – 751029

Mr. KAMLESH CHANDRA ROUT


Asst. Professor, Dept of Electrical Engg.
College of Engineering and Technology
Bhubaneswar – 751029

Er. BATTAPOTHULA MADHAVA


Project Guide
Central Tool Room and Training Centre
Bhubaneswar - 751029

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Skills and Hands-On project College of Engineering And Technology

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
BHUBANESWAR – 751029

DECLARATION
I do hereby declare that our project under Skills and Hands-on Project
entitled “CEILING PICK AND PLACE ROBOT’ is being submitted
for bonafide work of research carried out by us under the guidance of
Mr Kamlesh Chandra Rout, Assistant Professor, Department of
Electrical Engineering and Er. B. Madhava, CTTC. The results of the
work have not been submitted by us for the award of any other
degree.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

“The acts of few specific people are influence of many”.


Determination and inspiration on many minds are the reflection of these people.
It’s really a matter of great pleasure to acknowledge College of Engineering
and Technology, Bhubaneswar for giving us the opportunity to work on such
an interesting topic under the trainers of Industrial Automation department of
Central Tool Room & Training Centre. We thank our mentors for their
individual guidance, assistance and cooperation with us for completion of our
project under Skills and Hands-on Project titled “CEILING PICK &
PLACE INDUSTRIAL ROBOT”.
We acknowledge our sincere gratitude to our revered guide Er.
Battapothula Madhava for all his valuable suggestion and cooperation during
the completion of our project.
We would like to express our special gratitude and sincere thanks to our
Course Coordinator Mr. Kamlesh Chandra Rout for all his sincere guidance and
persistence encouragement during this project.
I am deeply thankful to Dr. Meera Viswavandya, Head of the
Department, Electrical Engineering, for helping throughout my research. I
express my sincere thanks to the Principal, CET Bhubaneswar for allowing me
to carry out the research work.
I would like to thank my colleagues and all those people known and
unknown whom without this project would have been incomplete.
Last but not the least, we express our heartiest gratitude towards the people who
are directly or indirectly associated with us in the completion of our successful
project.

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2 ABSTRACT

CEILING PICK AND PLACE INDUSTRIAL ROBOT

This project CEILING PICK & PLACE INDUSTRIAL ROBOT, consists


the main idea to develop an application which can reach places where human
being can't reach.
This mechanism is automatically actuated by the help of an Industrial Robotic
arm moving on a track, fixed to a ceiling of a store. So that the total surface area
can be used storing the utilities or the produced packages of identical sizes in
the industries. The Robotic arm actuation also controls the movement of the
only conveyor in that room for the upload and download of packages. It's an
automatic sequential storing process and the Robotic changes its co-ordinates
with the fulfilment of the free spaces in the store room. This application is
developed with an Industrial Robotic Arm, a Conveyor and relays and limit
switch arrangement.

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3 CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE -1-
DECLARATION -2-
1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT -3-
2 ABSTRACT -4-
3 CONTENTS -5-
4 INTRODUCTION -6-
5 DESCRIPTION -7-
5.1 CEILING PICK & PLACE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS -7-
5.2 ROBOTIC ARM -7-
5.3 END EFFECTOR -8-
5.4 DC MOTOR -8-
5.5 TERMINAL BLOCK -9-
5.6 SWITH MODE POWER SUPPLY -9-
5.7 LIMIT SWITCHES - 10 -
5.8 IR SENSOR - 10 -
5.9 JUMPER WIRES - 11 -
5.10 STRANDED WIRES - 11 -
5.11 RAINBOW CABLES - 12 -
5.12 ARDUINO MEGA 2560 - 12 -
5.13 MOTOR DRIVER L298N - 13 -
6 CONTINUITY - 13 -
7 WORKING - 14 -
8 ADVANTAGES - 17 -
9 DISADVANTAGES - 17 -
10 FUTURE SCOPE - 17 -
11 CONCLUSION - 17 -
12 REFERENCES - 18 -
13 APPENDIX - 18 -
13.1 PIN DIAGRAM OF ARDUINO MEGA 2560 - 18 -
13.2 PIN CONFIGURATION OF MOTOR DRIVER - 19 -
13.3 ARDUINO L298N DATA SHEET - 19 -

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4 INTRODUCTION
The main objective of our project is to create a CEILING PICK & PLACE
INDUSTRIAL ROBOT by automation which will reduce human effort, saves
time and facilitates better utilization of space.
The major advantages of this type of pick and place robot is that it reduces
human effort, causes no damages to goods, saves time and facilitates better
utilization of space. It can replace human operation in tasks that involves in
convening system that takes the object from one place to its destination. It will
reduce operating time and working handling time significantly and enhances
better area management as the robot is attached to the ceiling.
It can perform tasks efficiently and with accuracy. It can have applications in
various industries, stockyards etc.

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5 DESCRIPTION

5.1 CEILING PICK & PLACE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS


These are the robots which are attached to the ceiling or roof of a room, keeping
it as its base. Pick and place automation speeds up the process of picking up
parts and placing them in new locations while also increasing its production
rates. These robots operate with accuracy and do not fatigue while performing
back-breaking or hard-to-manoeuvre movements that might be difficult for
humans.
The consistency, quality and repeatability of a pick and place robot is
unmatched. These systems are also versatile and can be reprogrammed and
tooled to provide multiple applications for consumers. An increase in output
with a pick and place robot system offer long term savings to companies. With
the advancements in technology and affordability of robots, more pick and place
robotic cells are being installed for automatic applications.

5.2 ROBOTIC ARM


A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually programmable, with similar
functions to a human arm. The arm may be the sum total of the mechanisms or
may be a part of a more complex robot. The links of such a manipulator are
connected by joints allowing either rotational motion (such as an articulated
robot) or translational (linear) displacement.

Figure 1: ROBOTIC ARM

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5.3 END EFFECTOR


The end effectors, or robotic hand, can be
designed to perform any desired task such as
welding, gripping, spinning etc, depending on the
application.
For example, robot arms in automotive assembly
lines perform a variety of tasks such as welding
and part rotation and placement during assembly.

Figure 2: END EFFECTOR

5.4 DC MOTOR
A DC motor is any of a class of electrical machines that converts direct
current electrical power into mechanical power. The most common types rely
on the forces produced by magnetic fields.
Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either
electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change the direction of current
flow in part of the motor.
Most types produce rotary motion, a linear motor directly produces force and
motion in a straight line.
DC motors were the first type widely used, since they could be powered from
existing direct-current lighting power distribution systems. A DC motor's speed
can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by
changing the strength of current in its field windings.
Small DC motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances. The universal motor
can operate on direct current but is a light weight motor used for portable power
tools and appliances.

Figure 3: DC MOTOR

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5.5 TERMINAL BLOCK


Multiple screw terminals can be arranged in the form of a barrier strip with a
number of short metal strips separated by a raised
insulated "barrier" on an insulating "block" - each
strip having a pair of screws with each screw
connecting to a separate conductor, one at each end
of strip. These are known as connector strips or
chocolate blocks.
A similar arrangement is common with paired
screw terminals, where metal tubes are loosely
encased in an insulating block with a set screw at
each end of each tube to hold and thus connect a Figure 4: TERMINAL BLOCK

conductor. These are often used to connect light


fixtures.
Alternatively, terminals can also be arranged as a terminal strip or terminal
block, with several screws along two long strips. This creates a bus bar for
power distribution, and so may also include a master input connector, usually
binding posts.

5.6 SWITH MODE POWER SUPPLY


A switched mode power supply (switching mode power supply, switch mode
power supply, SMPS or switcher) is an electronic power supply that
incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like
other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains
power, to a load, such as a personal
computer, while converting voltage and
current characteristics. Unlike a linear
power supply, the pass transistor of a
switching mode supply continually
switches between low-dissipation, full on
and full off states, and spends very little
time in the high dissipation transitions,
which minimizes wasted energy. Ideally, a
switched-mode power supply dissipates no
Figure 5: 12V SMPS power. Voltage regulation is achieved by
varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In
contrast, a linear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually
dissipating power in the pass transistor. This higher power conversation
efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply.
Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller and lighter
than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer and lighter than a linear

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supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. Switching regulators are
used as replacements for linear regulators when higher efficiency, smaller size
or light weights are required. They are, however more complicated, their
switching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully
suppressed, and simple designs may have a poor power factor.

5.7 LIMIT SWITCHES


Limit switches are a type of sensor that detect presence and absence.
Specifically, mechanical limit switches are
switches that are mechanically activated,
meaning that they are some sort of arm, lever,
knob, plunger etc., which is physically or
mechanically activated by making contact with
another object.
In its simplest form, a limit switch is a switch
that can be mounted into remote locations so
that it is actuated by an object other than a
human operator. Some basic functions of limit
switches are detecting presence/absence,
counting, detecting range of movement, Figure 6: LIMIT SWITCH
detecting positioning and travel limit, breaking
a live circuit when unsafe conditions arise, detecting speed and hundreds of
other applications.

5.8 IR SENSOR
An infrared (IR) sensor is used to detect obstacles in front of the robot or to
differentiate between colours depending on the configuration of the sensor.
An IR sensor consists of an emitter, detector and associated circuitry. The
circuit required to make an IR sensor consists of two parts: the emitter circuit
and the receiver circuit.
The picture shown is a very simple black box model of the IR senor. The senor
emits IR light and gives a signal when it detects the reflected light.

Figure 7: LINE DIAGRAM- IR SENSOR

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5.9 JUMPER WIRES


A jumper wire, is a short electrical wire
with a solid tip at each end (or
sometimes without them, simply
“tinned”), which is normally used to
interconnect the components in a
breadboard. Among others, they are
used to transfer electrical signals from
anywhere on the breadboard to the
input/output pins of a microcontroller.
Jumper wires are fitted by inserting
their “end connectors” into the slots Figure 8: JUMPER WIRES
provided in the breadboard that
beneath its surface has a few sets of parallel plates that connect the slots in
groups of row and columns depending on the area .The “end conductors” are
inserted into the breadboard, without soldering, in the particular slots that need
to be connected in the specific prototype.
Different types of jumper wires are available like with crocodile clips or with
insulated terminals. The insulated type jumper wires can be male-male, male-
female or female-female.

5.10 STRANDED WIRES


Stranded wire is composed of a number of
small wires bundled or wrapped together to
form a larger conductor. Stranded wire is more
flexible than solid wire of the same total cross-
sectional area. Stranded wire tends to be a
better conductor than solid wire because the
individual wires collectively comprise a greater
surface area. Stranded wire is used when
higher resistance to metal fatigue is required.
Figure 9: STRANDED WIRES
Such situations include connections between
circuit boards in multi-printed-circuit-board devices, where the rigidity of solid
wire would produce too much stress as a result of movement during assembly or
servicing; A.C. line cords for appliances; musical instrument cables; computer
mouse cables; welding electrode cables; control cables connecting moving
machine parts; mining machine cables; trailing machine cables; and numerous
others.

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5.11 RAINBOW CABLES


A rainbow cable (also known as multi-wire planar cable) is a cable with many
conducting wires running parallel to
each other on the same flat plane. As a
result the cable is wide and flat.
Rainbow cables are usually seen for
internal peripherals in computers, such
as hard drives, CD drives and floppy
drives. On some older computer
systems (such as the BBC
Micro and Apple II series) they were Figure 10: RAINBOW CABLES
used for external connections as well. The ribbon-like shape interferes
with computer cooling by disrupting airflow within the case and also makes the
cables awkward to handle, especially when there are a lot of them.

5.12 ARDUINO MEGA 2560


The Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54
digital input/output pins (of which 15
can be used as PWM outputs), 16
analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware
serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal
oscillator, a USB connection, a
power jack, an ICSP header, and a
reset button. It contains everything
needed to support the
microcontroller; simply connect it to
Figure 11: ARDUINO MEGA 2560 a computer with a USB cable or power
it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery
to get started. The Mega 2560 board is compatible with most shields designed
for the Uno and the former boards Duemilanove or Diecimila. We have used
the digital pins in a great number. All total 23 digital pins are used by us in our
program code . Digital pins can store values in o’s and 1’s. The Mega 2560 has
all total 5 ground pins and 4 vcc or +5v pins. The reset switch available on the
Arduino mega board is used to reset the entire program i.e. when we press the
reset button the program starts executing from the void setup () function used in
the code. The reset button is a push button. We also have a reset pin .If we
connect the reset pin to the ground then the program will be reset. This is a
source of external reset button because everytime it is not possible to insert the
fingers in between the lump of wire.

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5.13 MOTOR DRIVER L298N


H-Bridge's are typically used in controlling motors speed and direction, but can
be used for other projects such as driving the brightness of certain lighting
projects such as high powered LED arrays.
An H-Bridge is a circuit that can drive a current in either polarity and be
controlled by *Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).
Pulse Width Modulation is a means in controlling the
duration of an electronic pulse. In motors try to imagine
the brush as a water wheel and electrons as a the flowing
droplets of water. The voltage would be the water
flowing over the wheel at a constant rate, the more water
flowing the higher the voltage. Motors are rated at
certain voltages and can be damaged if the voltage is
applied to heavily or if it is dropped quickly to slow the
motor down. Thus PWM. Take the water wheel analogy
and think of the water hitting it in pulses but at a Figure 12: ARDUINO L298N

constant flow. The longer the pulses the faster the wheel will turn, the shorter
the pulses, the slower the water wheel will turn. Motors will last much longer
and be more reliable if controlled through PWM.

6 CONTINUITY
We have used the method of continuity at various points . In this method , two
metal plates are used . One plate is given with 5v and other plate is grounded .
When both the plates come in contact with each other i.e. it gets shorted, current
flows from high potential to ground i.e. from 5v to gnd . This current is too
large and can damage the circuit. So to prevent that we have used resistors as a
kind of load across it. We are using 2.2k ohms as per our convenience. When
current flows to ground , we have taken a wire shouldered before the resistor as
feedback to the Arduino. At places like arm and claw , we have implemented
this technique. This is similar to that happens in the limit switches. To restrict
the downward motion of the arm up to a certain limit and to restrict the motor
for opening claw, we have used this method.

Figure 13:CONTINUITY

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7 WORKING
The switch mode power supply is used as a power source. The motors used in
the robotic arm are 5v motors. The SMPS gives us an output voltage of 12v. So,
we have used 7805 ICs to bring that voltage down to 5v.The output rating of
SMPS is 12v,5amp. But the output of individual 7805 is 5v,600 milli ampere .
We have used 4 such voltage regulators to control individual motor .
The motors used are high torque motors (30rpm).In the arm we have 3 motors
for base , arm , claw actions. For forward and backward movement of the arm
we have a 12v ,200rpm motor coupled with the lead screw via pulley
arrangement. In conveyor we also have a 12v ,50 rpm motor used. In order to
control all these motors we have used three motor drivers .Every motor driver of
l298n type can give a current of 1amp each at its output port. The motor driver
has a 5v , 12v and GND pin in order to enable it. So, for 5v motors we give 5
volts supply to both 5v pin and 12v pin .For 12v motors , we give 5v to 5v pin
and 12 v to the 12v pin. For that purpose we use individual voltage regulator for
every motor driver.
There are many feedbacks used in order to control the movement of the robotic
arm. We have used limit switches for the claw closing and for the base motion
towards extreme right and extreme left. To restrict the position of the arm in the
downward direction and for the full opening of the claw we have applied the
method of continuity .The conveyor to detect the object right below the arm we
have used IR sensors. To control the motion of the lead screw , we have also
taken the help of the IR sensors at various points – start , end , across object
position 1.The arm should recognise the positions that are filled and empty. For
that purpose separate IR sensors are also implemented at the object base ,that
gives the necessary feedback to the arm via the controller .
Every function , operation and execution is being programmed under the
necessary feedbacks . The feedbacks taken at the various points are the impulses
to the robotic arm that describes its motion . The robotic arm can travel in x,y,z
co-ordinates according to the set of instructions and necessary feedbacks. As
long as the object places are empty the robotic arm continues to work. When all
the positions will be filled up the arm stops to work.
The robotic arm is provided with an initial position method. This method is so
declared as to give the robotic arm a posture and a reference from which the rest
of the instructions can be implemented and executed without any error.
Everytime the supply is provided , the arm first comes to its initial position and
taking it as the reference it performs other operations that are declared after it.

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Figure 14: CONNECTION OF MOTORS ,MOTOR DRIVERS,VOLATGE REGULATORS,SMPS AND ARDUINO MEGA

Step by step working of the robotic arm for the first object is described below :-
Power supply is switched on. The robotic arm comes to its reference or pre –
defined position .The conveyor starts with object on it .The conveyor IR sensor
detects the object and gives feedback to the controller . The conveyor stops and
the arm goes down till the continuity is made. As the plates touch each other,
the claw closes with object in between. Thus , the limit switch of the claw is
pressed and a feedback is given to the controller.
The arm is moved up with the object in the claw and hence it loses its
continuity. It then checks for the next instruction. The leadscrew starts rotating
and the arm moves in the forward direction as soon as the IR sensor for
position- 1 detects . This IR sensor is detected only if both the object bases or
any one of the object base is empty.
For position- 1, the arm turns left till the rightmost limit switch is pressed. It
then bends down till the continuity holds true. As the downward continuity
feedback is fed to the controller , the claw is opened for 0.2 seconds of delay.
The objects slips out of the claw and is placed on the object base with no errors
in positioning . Thus object placing can be performed without any human effort
through automation of the robotic arm. As the object is on the base , the IR
sensor placed across the base detects the object. The red light glows showing
that the position -1 is filled with the object.

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Figure 15: CONNECTION OF SENSORS,LIMIT SWITCHES AND CONTINUITY

Now the robotic arm comes to its referenced or pre – defined position and is
ready to hold the next object coming on the conveyor.
Similar approach is followed for the next objects. Accordingly the object bases -
2,3,4 are filled with the object. As all the places are occupied with objects , so
the robotic arm stops to function further.
The arm is so programmed that every time the first placed gets empty , it fills it
first. It first takes the feedback coming from the various IR sensors at the
different object bases and checks for the nearest postion . If the nearest place is
void of object it fills it first before going to the farther placed object bases.

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8 ADVANTAGES
Ceiling robot is on rise in technical sector due to the innumerable advantages it
comes with. This robot is excellently value for money making this an affordable
robot. Its design provides high flexibility making it functional under highly
varied sectors. Its payload is ideal for light duty handling and process
applications. And its high repeatability delivers accurate process which reduces
chances of error. Compact body design with internally routed services makes it
highly desirable by allowing it to do small installation footprint.

9 DISADVANTAGES
With advantages there comes a few drawbacks too. For example, for installation
of the system the ceiling needs to be very strong and old ceilings have to be
reinforced with steel properly before fitting of the carrier track.

10 FUTURE SCOPE
This project has a multi usage scope in the industrial sector in near future. It can
possibly be used in place of cranes. High load and risky operation can be easily
carried out with this making it usable in heavy machinery industry. This
technology has been suggested for running buses and other mass transport
system and may end up as a part of autonomous cars navigating the freeway.
Smarter versions of line followers can be used to deliver mails within office
building and deliver medications in a hospital.

11 CONCLUSION
In this project we have studied and implemented a ceiling robot using
ARDUINO. The programming and Implementation of an ARDUINO have been
learnt. The functioning of various components like sensors, relays and other
electrical components used has been mastered.

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12 REFERENCES
1. http://www.instructables.com/id/Arduino-Modules-L298N-Dual-H-Bridge-Motor-Controll/
2. http://www.robotshop.com/en/robotic-arms.html
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jump_wire
4. https://arduino-info.wikispaces.com/MotorDrivers
5. http://www.connectwell.com/global/products/terminal-blocks-
connectors.aspx?lang=en&reg=IN
6. https://www.bastiansolutions.com/blog/index.php/2014/02/13/choosing-the-right-
conveyors-for-your-system/

13 APPENDIX

13.1 PIN DIAGRAM OF ARDUINO MEGA 2560

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13.2 PIN CONFIGURATION OF MOTOR DRIVER

Out 1: Motor A lead out


Out 2: Motor A lead out
Out 3: Motor B lead out
Out 4: Mo (Can actually be from 5v-35v, just marked as 12v)
GND: Ground
5v: 5v input (
EnA: Enables PWM signal for Motor
In1: Enable Motor A
In2: Enable Motor A
In3: Enable Motor B
In4: Enable Motor B
EnB: Enables PWM signal for Motor

13.3 ARDUINO L298N DATA SHEET

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