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Chapter 1

BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

This chapter includes the background of the study including the related literatures

and studies, objectives of the study, theoretical and conceptual frameworks,

significance of the study, scopes and limitations of the study, and the definition of terms

used throughout this study

Introduction

For decades, agriculture has been associated with the production of essential

food crops. At present, agriculture above and beyond farming includes forestry, dairy,

fruit cultivation, poultry arbitrary, etc. Today processing, marketing, and distribution of

crops and lifestock products etc. are all acknowledged as part of current agriculture.

Thus, agriculture could be referred to as the production, processing, promotion and

distribution agricultural products. Agriculture plays a critical role in the entire life of a

given economy. Agriculture is the backbone of the economic system of a given country. 1

Plants use light as an energy source for photosynthesis and as an environmental

signal, and respond to its intensity, wavelength, and direction. Light is perceived by

plant photoreceptors that include phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins and

plants generate a wide range of specific physiological responses through these

receptors. A major challenge to plants is controlled by supplying sufficient quantity and

quality of light intensities. Light emitting diodes (LED’s) has been proposed as a light

source for controlled environment agriculture facilities and space based plant growth
chambers because they exhibit desirable characteristics such as small mass, safety and

durability.2

Tomatoes have an annual average growth rate of 2.33% in the Philippines for the

period of 1998-2002. Major producers of tomato in the Philippines include Pangasinan

(22,811.40 tons, average for 1998-2002), Bukidnon (17,297.20 tons), Ilocos Norte

(14,489.40 tons), Iloilo (10,476.80 tons), Ilocos sur (10,001.20 tons), and Nueva Ecija

(7,900 tons).3 Tomatoes are considered as a hot weather crop. Tomatoes like heat and

humidity. Tomatoes need light, fertile soil with a lot of organic matter. Too much

nitrogen can reduced tomato yields.4

In the Philippines, tomatoes are grown during the dry season. The seasonality of

this crop results to major constraints such as higher price during off-season, limited

sources of good quality planting materials, and lack of supply of fresh and processed

tomato products for the local and international markets

For July-September 2017 period, production of tomato at 27.22 thousand metric

tons was 2.7 percent higher than the same quarter of 2016 at 26.50 thousand metric

tons.

The growth in output was attributed to the additional plantings in Bukidnon and

Misamis Oriental as more farmers were encouraged to plant due to high demand from

Visayas and Metro Manila markets. Area planted also increased in Misamis Oriental

due to seed support from the Local Government Units (LGUs).

Northern Mindanao recorded the largest production at 19.30 thousand metric tons

sharing 70.9 percent to the country’s total tomato output. The other major producing
regions were SOCCSKSARGEN with 6.3 percent share and Central Visayas with 3.8

percent.

Background of the Study

Plant life depends on light in two ways: light provides the energy for the

production of organic matter in photosynthesis, and it is perceived as a morphogenetic

stimulus. Photomorphogenetic responses include growth effects ( such as seed

germination, phototropism, and organ elongation ) and differentiation ( for example

flower bud and leaf formation, and the regulation of photosynthetic pigments ).

According to a related study conducted by Christina Stadler (2012), the

extremely low natural light level is the major limiting factor for winter greenhouse

production in Iceland and other northern regions. Therefore, supplementary lighting is

essential to maintain year-round vegetable production. This could replace imports from

lower latitudes during the winter months and make domestic vegetables even more

valuable for the consumer market.5

The positive influence of artificial lighting on plant growth, yield and quality of

tomatoes (Demers et al., 1998a), cucumbers (Hao & Papadopoulos, 1999) and sweet

pepper (Demers et al., 1998b) has been studied. It is often assumed that an increment

in light intensity results in the same yield increase.6

Goto (2013) stated that: Major light factors affecting plant growth are light quality,

light intensity, photoperiod and the day/night cycle. These parameters can be controlled

under greenhouse conditions using artificial light sources.


Greenhouse is also called a glasshouse or hothouse. It is structure where plants,

fruits, vegetables, flowers are grown. One greenhouse principle is the ability to extend

growing season. Early fruits or vegetables can be planted indoors and then transplanted

when they mature. The advantages of greenhouse in our country are; control of growing

conditions for plants to obtain desired results, protection from elements and from birds

and animals, facility in controlling pests and diseases, easy access by the elderly and

disabled, given that greenhouses are less phisically demanding than wide open crop

spaces and fields, possibility of reducing gardening costs because the owner or

gardener grows his own plants, possibility of widening the variety of plants for general

gardening purposes, also greenhouse serves as an escape or refuge after a trying day.
Objectives of the Study

1.) To design a controlled chamber using a light of 12VDC RGB light for tomato

crop.

2.) To evaluate the effectiveness of artificial light in terms of the following:

 Plant Growth

 Plant and Fruit Color

 Plant Productivity

 Fruit’s taste

3.) Comparison of Plant & Fruit Color, Plant Productivity, Plant Growth and the

Fruit’s taste using natural light and artificial light.

4.) To evaluate the acceptability of the proposed design in terms of:

 Functionality

 Economically
Theoretical Framework

Photosynthesis is a biochemical process by plants and algae to produce energy

utilization (nutrition) by utilizing the light energy. G Feher (1989) and R.E. Blankenship

(1995), stated the primary processes of photosynthesis, the conversion of

electromagnetic energy (light) into chemical energy, are mediated by an integral

membrane protein-pigment complex called the reaction center (RC) in which a

sequence of photoinduced electron and photon-transfer reaction take place. Almost all

living things depend on energy produced in photosynthesis.


Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework illustrated in Figure 1 on page_______ shows the

paradigm of the study “Effectiveness of a 12VDC RGB Light for tomato crop in a

controlled chamber’’. It composed of frames namely, the input, process and ouput and

feedback relationship.

The input included information resources from wherein information are gathered

such as books, internet, journals and relevant videos. Material resources involved the

source of materials utilized in the study which are bought with the help of financial

resources. Human resources are also included such as Experts, Farmers as well as the

respondents for the evaluation of the result of this study.

The process involved the necessary standard procedures such as planning,

planting of crop (tomato), expert and farmer consultation, designing, try-out and

revisions, evaluation and analysis of effects of a 12VDC RGB Light to a tomato crop.

The output of the study was the determined effect of a 12VDC RGB light to a

tomato crop.

Feedback was the representation of the outcomes result to the modified process.
Input Process Output

 Information
Resources
- Books
- Internet
- Journal  Planning

- Videos  Planting Determined effect of a


 Designing 12VDC RGB light to a
 Material
tomato crop in a
Resources  Try-out and controlled chamber
- Electronic Revisions

Stores  Evaluation

- Market  Analysis of Result

 Financial
Resources
 Human
Resources
- Experts
- Farmers
- Respondents

Feedback

Figure 1

Conceptual Framework of Effectiveness of a 12VDC RGB light to a Tomato crop


Significance of the Study

The researchers believed that it was necessary to conduct this study for this

would help the following:

To the Economy:

The outcome of this research study can be used for growing and multiplying

tomatoes in the Philippines. With the help of the 12 V RGB light, Farmers will be able to

assure the quality of their crops. When there is any possible problem with the sunlight, it

will immediately be addressed. This is a good way for the peasants’ ongoing and

prosperous harvest.

To Researchers and Engineers:

This project can be used as a source of significant information on how to design

a controlled chamber using a light of 12VDC RGB light for tomato crop.
Scope and Limitations

The study entitled “Effectiveness of 12V DC RGB Light for Tomato crop in a

Controlled Chamber” was conducted by the bachelor of science in Electrical

Engineering students of the College of Engineering at University of Rizal System-

Morong Campus during the second semester of A.Y. 2017-2018 to the first semester of

A.Y. 2018-2019.

The study was a experimental and descriptive type of research which tried to

address the problem woth the seasonal thorns sprang up vegetables. It will help quickly

for rising crops. Give a guided process, safety for plants and provide neat and healthy

fruits.

The controlled chamber was made to represent the secured place for crop.

The acceptability of the proposed design in terms of functionality and

economically was determined.

In gathering the data for the results of this study, a researcher-made and

expert-validated questionnaire checklist was utilized. The respondents for this

study for the purpose of evaluation were 13 experts which mainly composed of

engineers and URS-M Engineering Faculty members, 12 engineering students,

and 5 non-teaching staffs.


Definition of Terms
NOTES