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On The Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes

by Susan Rhodes, revised June 1, 2006,

The enneagram is an ancient but newly-revealed system that types and three subtype arenas, there’s a total of 27 possible
can be used for looking at many aspects of life. It’s currently subtypes.
well-known as a personality assessment tool. It depicts nine In this article, I explore the nature of the enneagram
points on a circle, each of which represents a different per- subtypes. Some of the ideas that I propose are controver-
sonality type with a distinctive core motivation (see Figure sial, because they’re based on propositions that diverge from
1). People new to the system often wonder how there can the received wisdom of the field. But I hope to make a con-
be only nine core personality types when there are so many vincing case for the approach I’m taking, because I think it
different kinds of people. The reason is that there are many has certain advantages over the paradigm currently in use.
ways we can use to further define Please note that, while my
the nine types in order to account main focus in this article is on the
Type 9
for the great diversity of tempera- subtypes, I also devote quite a bit of
ment. We can, for example, see Type 8 Type 1 time to discussing both the ennea-
which of the two points on either gram types and energy cen-
ters. I tried an approach that was
side (the wings) is most dominant.
more limited in scope, but soon re-
We can also look at the relationship Type 7 Type 2
alized that I needed to talk about all
of each enneagram point with each
three topics in order to present a co-
of its two connecting points.
herent picture of my ideas. The rea-
But I find that the most pow-
sons for this should become clear as
erful way to account for diversity Type 6 Type 3 we proceed.
within each type is to look at how The article is divided into three
each type operates within three parts: Background, Part I, and
arenas in life, which we may call Type 5 Type 4 Part II. The Background section in-
subtype arenas. What’s of particu- troduces the topic and provides the
lar interest is which of these arenas is Figure 1. The Enneagram.
context for further discussion. Part I
most dominant—that is, which one focuses on current assumptions about the types, the ennea-
most attracts our attention. When we know both our en- gram energy centers, and the subtypes. Part II proposes an
neagram type and our dominant arena, we can determine alternative view and some ideas for working with the en-
our enneagram subtype. Because there are nine enneagram neagram based on that view.


I became interested in the enneagram as a means of looking particular set of moral, psychological, or spiritual standards.
at individual differences in motivation. As a cognitive psy- As a result, the MBTI system can be used in a wide range of
chologist, I’d long been interested in looking at how variables contexts.
like sex, age, and cultural differences affect our psychology. When I first heard about the enneagram, it took me a
I was also interested in the effects of our basic disposition while to see why I should study it. One reason is that the
or character, so I studied the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator enneagram only delineated nine personality types, while the
(MBTI) to gain insight into that dimension of the psyche. MBTI delineated 16, so the enneagram seemed to offer a less
Based on a Jungian approach to typology, the MBTI detailed breakdown. Another reason is that the enneagram
generates 16 personality profiles. One thing that I like about seemed less objective than the MBTI. Unlike the MBTI
the MBTI is that these profiles are pretty value-neutral. This profiles, most of the enneagram profiles seemed mildly to
means that the MBTI profiles simply distinguish individu- moderately negative in focus.
als on the basis of temperament. They aren’t designed to Although the negative focus initially put my off, I even-
evaluate the character of the individual by reference to any tually learned enough about the enneagram to appreciate its

On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 

three great assets: (a) a focus on motivation, (b) a geometric limitations.
dimension, and (c) a way of combining different aspects of This approach has its uses, but it’s risky. And in the
type that makes it possible to distinguish many more than wrong hands, it can be disastrous. As Jungian scholar James
nine types. Hollis observed in an interview for What is Enlightenment?
Over time, I came to realize that these advantages far magazine, “the ego is a necessary formation for the creation
outweighed the disadvantage of seeing the enneagram types of identity, consciousness, intentionality, and purpose—all
described in mostly negative terms. I realized that the types of which are pluses.”1 But he says that the ego is also mal-
themselves were more basic than any of leable. It can be dominated by influences of
the descriptions that people generated. both the inner psyche and the outer world if
So I could study them directly and gradu- it lacks the strength and resiliency necessary
ally generate my own (more value-neu- to maintain its integrity.
tral) descriptions of the types. So from this perspective, what we need
With this in mind, I began to delve isn’t to destroy the ego, but to support it.
more deeply into the enneagram. I saw With proper support, the ego can develop in
that the negative descriptions of type arise a healthy way. It can help us function in the
out of two related assumptions: (a) that world without interfering with our ability to
enneagram types = personality types and be inwardly attentive to the energies of the
(b) that personality is inherently unregen- [higher] Self.
erate. That means that, in moral terms, An integrated ego-personality helps us
the personality self is sinful and in psy- develop both inner balance and outer poise.
chological terms, it’s pathological. It can support us in finding our life’s call-
How did the personality come to ing. And this, as Hollis observes, has very
gain such a negative reputation? It wasn’t Figure 2. G. I. Gurdjieff. little to do with ego in the selfish sense.
clear to me at the outset. But after some Today, the idea of slaying the ego seems
investigation, I began to understand why the enneagram pro- harsh and out of step with the times. This is because the con-
files seemed to focus so much on the negative aspects of hu- sciousness of the collective is changing, and we now have
man nature. ways of working with the psyche that are both more effective
In some ways, the reasons for this negative focus may and less wrenching than the methods of the past.
be traceable to a single person: George Gurdjieff (see Fig- If we can work with the self is a gentler way, why not do
ure 2). it? Why make the task of changing harder than it needs to
Gurdjieff was the first person to publicly present teach- be? To ask such questions is not to criticize Gurdjieff or his
ings on the enneagram. He was a spiritual teacher of some methods, but simply to observe that teachings intended for
magnitude whose influence is still strong more than half a one era may not be appropriate for another. If Gurdjieff were
century after his death. alive today, I doubt very much whether he would take the
Gurdjieff was not a retiring mystic, but a spiritual mas- same approach he did during the early part of the twentieth
ter with an iron will and magnetic personality. He had an century. He would adapt his approach to fit the times.
extremely robust and provocative style of teaching. His con- The decades since Gurdjieff’s death have seen some
frontational style was designed to effect a radical transfor- major shifts in consciousness—not just among the spiritual
mation in those students who were willing to submit them- elite, but across a broad swatch of the public. We’re now liv-
selves to its rigors. ing in a post-Newtonian world, where we’re told that there’s
Gurdjieff’s approach is based on an ancient model of order in chaos, time isn’t real, and everything is intercon-
the relationship between a spiritual master and his disciple. nected. The actual implications of the new physics may not
It assumes the presence of three elements: a true spiritual have sunk in yet, but the intuitive sense that separatism and
master, a deeply committed aspirant, and the shared goal of duality are illusions is definitely in the air. Many people
effecting a radical and permanent restructuring of the inner sense that we’re on the brink of a real shift in perspective—
self of the student. of a completely new way of being in the world. This new
Since most teachers and students have traditionally been paradigm is holistic, inclusive, and dynamic in nature. It
male, this approach is a very masculine in nature. It’s based takes us beyond the old “good vs. bad” dualities. It helps us
on a “slay the dragon” view of life that’s quite direct and see beyond our apparent differences to the underlying unity
adversarial. The ego or personality self is viewed as an en- of all life.
emy of the higher good and is ruthlessly attacked in order to The transition from the old paradigm to the new is, like
strip away its defenses so that the disciple might realize its all transitions, somewhat awkward and confusing. I see the

On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 

enneagram as a tool that can help us bridge the gap between Why not instead use the enneagram to cultivate a
the old and the new. I suspect that this is the real reason that sense of inner wholeness and integrity? To see how seem-
enneagram suddenly appeared on the public scene a couple ing limitations (our individual points of view) can instead
of decades ago. be viewed as areas of specialization when seen from the
What’s strange to me is how such a revolutionary perspective of wholeness?
tool as the enneagram has become constrained by a way If we look at each point of view as an area of special-
of thinking that is not of the present, but of the past. Of ization, then the enneagram subtypes become key to under-
course it’s possible to use the enneagram to catalog our standing the many faces of type. They also give clues we
qualities, neatly dividing them into good and bad catego- can use to discover our dharma or purpose in life. I’ll talk
ries. But when we do this, we split ourselves in two. The more about this later.
“bad” qualities begin to seem like the ones that we actu- To recap, I see the enneagram in its ability to help us
ally experience in ordinary life while the “good” qualities see our true worth and relate to one another in an intelligent
recede into some elusive realm of spiritual transcendence. way. Realizing who and what we really are is the chal-
We reject ordinary life as gross and impure, looking for de- lenge for the coming era. Focusing on what is false about
liverance elsewhere. us doesn’t really help us see what is real. And it’s seeing
This kind of thinking is dualistic. It splits the psyche the real that gives us the courage to leap into the unknown.
and makes it hard to be completely present in the moment. My intention in writing this article is to share a vision of the
It can cause us to lose momentum, falling under the weight enneagram that I find both inspiring and evocative. This is
of our accumulated sense of sin. what I talk about in Part II of the paper.

Part I: The Received Wisdom

Before leaping into new territory, I have to spend a little are two of his enneagrams are now the best known: (a) the
time talking about how we came to inherit the current vision enneagram of the emotional passions and (b) the enneagram
of the enneagram, particularly how it came to have such a of the cognitive fixations.
negative focus. So this section is about what I’m calling One reason for the focus on these two particular ennea-
the received wisdom in the field. I’ll talk about the received grams may be that they are the ones of most interest to one of
wisdom regarding the nature of the enneagram itself, the Ichazo’s most influential students, Dr. Claudio Naranjo.
types, the energy centers, and the subtypes. In the 1970s, Naranjo was a student of Oscar Ichazo.
However, within a decade, he became an influential teacher
of the enneagram in his own right. Many of the people who
The Received Wisdom about became later become prominent in the enneagram commu-
nity started out as Naranjo’s students.
the Enneagram & the Types
Naranjo also wrote several books on the enneagram. All
If you ask someone to describe the enneagram, you’ll get of them focus primarily on the deficiency motivations (core
different answers depending on who you ask. neuroses) associated with each enneagram type. Figure 3
Basically, there are two major views of the enneagram. summarizes the categories he developed for characterizing
In one view, it’s a map of a life process. In the other, it’s a the different types of psychological imbalance that can be
map of the human psyche.2 mapped to each enneagram type.
Gurdjieff taught his students a process-oriented version Naranjo goes into great depth in Character and Neuro-
of the enneagram, and it’s this enneagram that Fourth Way sis and his other books to describe the personality disorders
(Gurdjieff) students consider the “real” enneagram. Arica associated with each point. But he provides little or no de-
founder Oscar Ichazo later adapted Gurdjieff’s process-ori- scription of the balanced personality.
ented enneagram to look at differences in human tempera- I didn’t understand why until it dawned on me that, un-
ment or personality. Nowadays, it’s Ichazo’s version of the like James Hollis, Naranjo does not seem to believe that it’s
enneagram that’s the most well-known. actually possible for the personality self to become balanced.
Actually, Ichazo didn’t just teach one enneagram, but This is evident from many passages in his books.3
many. Which enneagram he taught depended one what as- His philosophical perspective (which seem akin to that
pect of human nature he wanted to emphasize. But there of both Gurdjieff and Ichazo) is that personality is inherently

On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 

it has to serve some purpose in sus- beyond itself (to the larger psyche) for support and guid- taining the larger system that gives rise to it.”8 ity healed of its wounds and stable in its foundation might become the very vehicle by which to create a better life. organizing map for. They imply that Enneagram Type our enneagram type depends entirely on the nature of the conditioning received in childhood.hedonistic/ Personality 2 . that this is why type is with us for life—why it doesn’t go I don’t think that the ego-personality is by nature dis. it can’t actually create basic can be transcended (via spiritual work). too. The Received Wisdom about grated into the larger psyche tremendously encouraging. it would be rather discouraging news. This may be true. not its ability to provide what Naranjo calls “an If this kind of alignment is possible. In order to If our enneagram type is actually innate.over-adaptative of our own ego structures. but it’s exciting. It’s simply limited. But A.anti-social / 1 . it has to know its own limits and look a systems perspective. “nine compulsive ways of dealing with the world. fears.anxious 3 . (at least not in print). tivation it provides is not really personal.”4 Sandra Maitri speaks of humanity as “imprisoned in the labyrinth 9 .7 by Descriptions like these are common. He said lot of time functioning in ordinary consciousness. I think the kind of work we need to do must depend on the kind of person we are. There are person we are is revealed by our enneagram type. I find the idea that the personality self can be inte.“Type A” it’s not a foregone conclusion. the ego-personality psychic structures such as the personality. Almaas surprised an audi- ing at the level of the ego-personality. terests me. the Energy Centers It provides a real impetus to do the work that makes this Like the enneagram types. While its flaws can be exposed and its limitations ditioning is extremely powerful. The idea that type might be pre-personality doesn’t If this were true. If type is innate. the motivational. but 6 . various ways that Gurdjieff characterized the energy cen- However. seem to be discussed much in the enneagram community since most of us spend a lot of our waking hours function. of the psyche. it’s awfully hard to find an enneagram author ters within human beings.6 They describe the person- ality self as “a collection of conditioned reactions. but comes from withdrawn masochistic the deeper (or higher) psyche. H. and the mechanical). concept in enneagram studies. 7 . It’s this real ance. One way was to divide each of who focuses solely on the opportunities for integration at the three centers into three sections or levels (the intelli- each enneagram point of view. then the mo- 5 . This is a bit scary to contem- plate. and each of Dobson characterize the enneagram as a way of describing these levels into two polarities (negative and positive).schizoid/ 4 . It can only affect self can never become a fully integrated and functional part the functionality of such structures. I On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page  . And the kind of Gurdjieff’s concept of the energy centers.[a] set of [character] pathologies. They’re particularly relevant But what kind of work is this? Is it the same for all to an understanding of the enneagr m subtype behaviors. From function properly. My training as a cognitive psychologist tells me that although early con- flawed. of us? I doubt it. It’s just as possible that type overachieving is innate (pre-personality).histrionic and beliefs” that develops as the result of early loss and narcissistic Disorders conditioning.obsessive- sadistic compulsive say that the basic fear of each type is what set[s] in motion the mechanism of personality. I tend to regard enneagram type as innate.depressive.. away in response to the work we do on ourselves. the energy centers are a central kind of integration possible.. Even spiritual mas. torted or wrong-headed.”5 Don Riso and Russ Hudson 8 . Figure 3. Naranjo’s Character (Personality) Disorders by Enneagram Type. Kathleen Hurley and Ted gent. It doesn’t have to disappear. it just has to come into purpose of the enneagram and the enneagram types that in- alignment with a deeper inner purpose. then it has to be something more than an ego defense mechanism. then the personal. ence at the 2005 International Enneagram Association by ters can’t stay in meditation all the time—they still spend a casually mentioning that he sees type as innate.

each center. The Three Enneagram Energy Centers. the physical center is said to have only a “lower” form while the emotional and mental centers are said to have The Energy Centers of the Personality Enneagram. There are several other potential variations on this Another way was to characterize the physical center as theme. The lower There’s no indication that Gurdjieff ever taught anything centers are those that we use to function in everyday life. What this means is that each center is dominant for Center three of the nine enneagram types. as we’ll see and lower manifestations of the energy in question. The energy of these points is natural. On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page  . used the colors in Figure 4 to depict these six qualities of result of inner work. both a higher and lower form (see Figure 6). each of which “belongs” to a certain Head Center center.10 7 2 Out of this perspective has come the idea that there are Heart nine personality types. See Figure 5. However. This is because Gurdjieff was a moving target. In this below. 9. Gurdjieff’s Three Centers Figure 6. ing center (in yellow). the scheme shown in Figure 6 is the one on which most A third way was to characterize the centers as higher modern enneagram theorists base their ideas. People whose home base is at Points 8. they com- bined Gurdjieff’s theory of the centers with the personality Body enneagram to develop a theory of personality that’s inti- Center mately intertwined with Gurdjieff’s theory on the centers. So Gurdjieff never created an illustration like Figure 7. Gurdjieff’s Three Energy Centers emotional mental (at Three Levels and Two Polarities). akin to the personality enneagram developed by Oscar The higher centers are those that only become active as the Ichazo. (Showing the Three Sub-centers of the Physical Center). and a mov. fifty years later. a sexual center (in orange). center center (Lower) Lower Lower physical emotional mental center center center Physical Emotional Mental center center center Figure 5. Physical Emotional Mental center center center Higher Higher Figure 4. Gurdjieff’s enneagram was strictly process-oriented. 6 3 The three points that make up each center are called a triad: 5 4 • Points 8 9 1: The Body Center Triad. unassuming. conscious. so he presented his center (in lavender). and unself- Figure 7. However. he having three centers of its own: an instinctive or instinctual like to take his students by surprise. Gurdjieff’s Two-tiered Version of the Three Centers.9 case. when Oscar Ichazo and his 9 successors began using Gurdjieff’s process-oriented ennea- 8 1 gram as a tool for looking at personality types. teachings in different ways at different times.

Body Center Head Center Heart Center Body Center 9 Body Center Head Center Head Center Higher Higher Heart Center 8 1 Heart Center emotional mental center center (Holy Virtues) (Holy Ideas) Body Center Body Center Head Center 7 2 Head Center Heart Center Heart Center (Lower) Lower Lower Body Center Body Center physical emotional mental Head Center 6 3 Head Center center center center Heart Center Heart Center (subtype behaviors) (passions) (fixations) Body Center 5 Body Center 4 Head Center Head Center Heart Center Heart Center Figure 8. For a given individual. and intimacy.13 The body (physical) center mental dimension of life. a Holy Idea. or devised ways to characterize the properties of each point 4 have the potential to be particularly attuned to the by reference to five energy centers: the mental or head emotional states of others and the feeling dimension center (higher and lower). three sub-centers. The Three Energy Centers at Each Enneagram Point. for example.12 For the head (mental) center at each point. two. as shown in Figure 6. or 1 have the potential to be particularly attuned to aspects to two of the centers: the mental center and the the wisdom of the body (to be aware of their “gut in. or Four. They sonal. However. transformation be more influential than the other two centers. the center However. he only attributed higher the Figure 9 are the subtype arenas and that these circles On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page  . This dominant arena is what determines a person’s tion and subtle (expanded) perception by talking about subtype. the emotional or heart center of life. djieff’s teachings as the cornerstone of their work. each of us (as shown in Figure 8). and it’s these sub-centers that de- fluence than the other two centers. one of these arenas of ac- gram Point. When Oscar Ichazo and his successors developed the personality enneagram. the body center was conceived to have that’s home to our enneagram type tends to exert more in. How Gurdjieff’s Centers Show Up at Each Ennea. they favored this version of Gur- • Points 2 3 4: The Heart Center Triad. and the physical or body center. Figure 9. emotional center. the heart center is likely to comfort. a virtue. For the heart (emotional) center at People whose home base is at Point 5. I discuss these in more detail below. linear. and interper. The second area is sexuality. 6. The energy aspect was termed a cognitive fixation and the higher as- of these points is masculine. emotional. each of these centers is paradoxically said to be within the other two centers. the lower aspect was termed a passion and the potential to be particularly aware of ideas and the the higher aspect. scribe the three areas of life in which the body center Three. Gurdjieff sometimes tivity is assumed to be more compelling than the other emphasized the difference between ordinary percep. The Two-tiered Model of the Enneagram Energy Centers. functioning. at each point was conceived to have only one level of At the same time that each point belongs to a given cen. which is equivalent to the lower aspect of ter.11 stincts”) and to the natural rhythms of life. the lower • Points 5 6 7: The Head Center Triad. now it’s sufficient to note that the three colored circles in However. or 7 have each point. but for the energy centers as having higher and lower aspects. and detached. pect. So if my type is Two. 3. The third area is social participation and political organization. As I mentioned above. The first area is self-care and personal influence of all three centers. although I’m subject to the can be involved. (higher and lower). People whose home base is at Point 2. The energy of these points is feminine.

appetite union participation satisfaction anxiety possession/ heat/jealousy friendship inadaptibility surrender family Self-preservation “me-first” suggestibility Sexual aggression/ sacrifice Social ambition seduction subtype subtype subtype warmth security strength/ masculinity/ duty prestige beauty famininity refuge daultlessness confidence competition/hate totems shame Figure 10. and Gurdjieff’s instinctive center is a pretty good match for the subtype that focuses on self-care. although it could be ar.16 SP=”me first” SP=family 2 SX=aggression/ Both type and subtype are often said to be personality 7 SX=suggestibility SOC=sacrifice seduction structures that develop as a response to trauma during early SOC=ambition childhood. I was taught that the three sub. Fig- SX=possession/ SX=heat/jealousy surrender SOC=inadaptibility SOC=friendship 8 1 ure 10 shows one common way of labelling the subtypes. so there are 27 subtypes in all. on satisfactory self-survival. Traditional Subtype Descriptions by Enneagram Point. (I say “roughly.”14 Sandra Maitri For each enneagram type. for example.” attributing this definition to Clau- dio Naranjo. it’s harder to • Social subtype: here the focus is said to be on gaining see the exact relationship between Gurdjieff’s moving satisfaction via group participation. what we’re learning about are the workings of this ego On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page  . For each of the nine types. So when we study both type and sub- Figure 11. And I was taught that the into the social world. According to Helen Palmer. Traditional Labels for the 27 Subtypes. echoes Palmer’s statements. there SP=satisfaction SP=anxiety 9 are three subtype arenas.) enneagram subtypes describe a set of behaviors that reflects the passions associated with each person’s enneagram type. roughly correspond to the three colored circles in the • Self-preservation subtype: here the focus is said to be earlier Figures (5 and 6) that describe Gurdjieff’s physi. are stable throughout life. “the subtype focus of at- The Received Wisdom about tention is revealed by a behavior that is motivated by in- the Enneagram & the Types stinct dominated by the passion of type. type. reflected in Don Riso & Russ Hudson’s assertion that “the Instinctual Variants [aka SP=warmth 6 3 SP=security SX=strength/beauty SX=masculinity/ instinctual subtypes] indicate which of our three basic in- feminiity S0C=duty SOC=prestige stincts have been most distorted in childhood. the same labels are shown from a point-oriented perspective in Figure 11. center and the social subtype. saying that “the passion of our types each represent a preoccupation of one of three areas ennea-type comes out most strongly in [the]…arena of life of life: [that is our subtype].15 SP=appetite SX=union The subtype is determined by combining the enneagram SOC=participation type with the subtype arena.” because although only Gur- • Sexuality or intimate subtype: here the focus is said to djieff’s sexual center clearly matches the sexual subtype be on gaining satisfaction through intimate relationships. the enneagram subtypes are considered to be ma- SP=refuge SP=dauntlessness SX=confidence SX=competition/hate jor elements in the ego defense system described by the per- SOC=totems SOC=shame sonality enneagram. like enneagram gued that the moving center is about moving outward types. cal center. I was also taught that enneagram subtypes. This view is.”17 5 4 Thus.

organizer Dr. It’s for this reason that the two means that the subtypes have no existence independent of viewpoints differ in their terminology. Dan apparently no need to delineate them in detail. The only roots of wellness if all of our attention is focused only reason we know about them at all is because the knowl- on illness. It can be taken to mean either a type of person or a On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page  . Siegel wondered teachings on the enneagram were imparted as esoterica aloud how our culture is every going to discover the that was not to be shared with the uninitiated. chaos theory. the enneagram community. Second. I didn’t initially have much direct experience with the enneagram. enneagram.defense system. the subtypes operate in concert with the emotional passions However. Part II: An Alternative View of the Enneagram Types. creative ways I discovered to work with the subtypes. and the subtypes. That’s one reason I refer to the system works. Type wasn’t quite right. the underlying assumptions that gave rise to motivation types. First. Whatever their differences. rial presented in workshops. I talk in greater detail about the reasons why and delin- they think that subtypes are an independent way of looking at eate an alternative theory about the nature of the enneagram human activity. From what I can determine. I sensed that something they’re usually described as nine ego-personality types. this allows us to imagine other ways of see- chology in order to articulate an alternative vision. In Part Although Riso & Hudson make a plausible case for why II. there are some differenc. of personality. because it a system in their own right. When we see them this way. the centers. All I had was my scientific train. for sev. I find this view of the subtypes hard to accept. both positions have in common es of opinion about the nature of the subtypes. an idea that I believe originated with Ichazo and Naranjo. if we don’t confine the enneagram to the level as field theory. and Subtypes At the 2005 Mindsight Symposium. their observations came long after the term sub. I espe- deficiency and neurosis? cially focus on the enneagram subtypes. In this sort of situation. This Siegel asked how many mental health care profession. How are we ever going to find our own Below I explain what I worked out for myself inner power and beauty if we place all our attention on about the types. The Enneagram Types ing and a personal sense of “disconnect” when I read the type descriptions in books or listened to the mate- What are the enneagram types? As I mentioned above. I wonder the same thing. Centers. but in the context of the detailed information can be hard to come by. Don Riso and Russ Hudson teach that subtypes are and the cognitive fixations. the term type becomes am- where. the material presented were not clearly spelled out any. I also share some of the fun and studying the enneagram. Palmer & Daniels refer the complex of attitudes and behaviors that we associate to the subtypes as instinctual subtypes while Riso & Hudson with an unbalanced personality. the handful of people raised their hands. but couldn’t figure out what it was. Only a in a meditative state. It’s simply more familiar to people in to be dismantled). It hasn’t been easy. ing the types. types. may have been because Ichazo’s original Arica teach- als in the audience had actually received training in ings on the enneagram were said to be revealed to him mental health (as opposed to mental illness). I needed to educate myself in areas such However. and transpersonal psy. Within this general framework. eral reasons. descriptions most often read like ego defense strategies. This is significant. call them instinctual variants. we can begin to dismantle it (or perhaps allow it subtypes in this article. The idea is that by learning how this defense type was firmly established. centers. One approach is to think of them simply as Third. because I see It’s for this reason that I’ve spent that last several the subtypes as archetypal keys that can help us discover years trying to come up with an alternative approach to our purpose in life. They seemed to be such “givens” that there was biguous. They also share the view that type. Helen Palmer the idea that subtypes are instinctual in nature—that they arise and David Daniels teach that subtypes are entirely a subset of in the physical (body) center.18 edge somehow “leaked” out. and subtypes.

When it works the way it’s supposed to. It’s the of the developers of the helicopter. Psychologists see it as the source of psychological disorders. so it may be hard to we bring is not just for ourselves. and that And therein lies the rub. It also guarantees that we’ll never be able to develop a personality self that’s perfectible on the physical Young is obviously speaking of purpose in a transper- level of reality. to serve some purpose. If we think of life itself as purposefully intelligent. whether a human body or some other kind of machine. Religious leaders see it as the impetus for immoral acts. we in turn provide it with a positive light. but just knowing that it does matter (and that we mat- transpersonal psychology. we totally human beings are one of the vehicles through which the goals inflate the importance of the personality while at the same of this intelligence are achieved. constant in life.type of motivation. the kind of perfection we seek may not really be what we sents a gain in another. Spiritual practitioners see it as a barrier that keeps them from ure-8 flow between the archetypal and physical planes. energy of our point that obscures some elements of life so “There never was a machine that did not have a purpose.19 sense. independently of personality. but I suspect it’s not point can be said to represent an archetypal energy source. No matter how much we view. We may never fully understand why our role mat- However. In Western culture. physical vehicle that’s able to ground its energy on the physi.22 The energy of the point provides us with the energy we need Granted. So it’s very precious.”20 other directions. Each experiencing states of higher consciousness. The enneagram provides a tool designed to do just zy. it’s not hard to necks. When we’re part of that flow. the human personality always personal property. need to respond to the changing conditions that are the only The differentiation process is open-ended and can con. we automatically assume there must be it can take many forms). it’s definitely pos. What he seems to be hinting at is the idea that life itself is filled with a purposeful intelligence. from the perspective of systems theory. we’ll be drawn strongly in some directions and away from to achieve it. As one participation in life possible. From the human point of time hating its lack of perfection. From this perspective. How is it possible to talk about motiva. At the point that this intelligence something wrong with it. We may think that embracing the chaotic or unattract- From a transpersonal point of view. But it also becomes more precisely. foolish personality self how this differentiation is reflected on the level of the human is just the kind of structure we need for dealing with the cra- psyche. This may be hard for many we feel its rhythms and sense its fullness. biased. tinue indefinitely. The energy of our enneagram point is what makes our cesses and inanimate objects can have a purpose. Speaking about motivation from a transpersonal point these are the energies that touch our hearts and inspire our of view means seeing motivation as something that can exist actions. But if we reflect deeply on nature of this remains something of an embarrassing albatross around our intelligence and its deeply compelling nature. In the latter case.21 find themselves in situations where they feel like idiots. The finer energies of the archetypal motivation from a transpersonal point of view. On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page  . biased. it’s not always easy to see the personality in a to operate in the physical world. Our openness to these energies enables us to bring some- tion without talking about personality? Motivation is usually thing into life that’s needed on this level of existence—what considered to be a personality attribute. each enneagram ive aspects of the psyche is dangerous. of us to imagine. means that we’ll notice some things and not others—that chine. that others can more fully unfold. Even people with the most refined personalities can imagine that its origins lie beyond the personality self. ter)—can bring a degree of inner contentment that makes the sible to conceive of motivation as existing independently cares of life easier to bear. even pro. It shows us nine ways of being in the world based on balanced has more to do with accepting and integrating the nine varieties of motivated intelligence. ters. but for life in a broader imagine it in any other way. its loses its 360 degree perspective sonality might be made the way it is on purpose. observes. it’s possible to look at nourishes the other. then Because the personality self is not perfectible in a it makes sense that this intelligence can be differentiated (that mechanical sense. What’s relevant to us as human beings is Suppose that the crazy. cal plane of existence. life seems really alive. Or more and becomes narrowed in scope. of the human personality. What represents a loss in one arena repre. It seems to be the cause of so many problems. The fact that it’s limited And there is perhaps no purpose that does not require a ma. world imbue life on earth with a sense of joy and magic. foolish world we live in? Suppose that getting that. sonal sense here. there’s a Fig. Determining which crazy parts of ourselves than with trying to disown or over- of the nine energies most motivates us is how we discover civilize them? our enneagram type or point of view. or field theory. It never occurs to us that pointed in focus. nearly so dangerous as disowning them. Arthur Young. the purposeful intelligence would seem to be our own polish it up or cover it over. It never occurs to us that the per- becomes differentiated.

is said to have no higher center) at the same level as the I think that systems theory offers that kind of perspec. lower versions of the other two centers. This is the model gling it out in this way divides the psyche. When coupled with the idea we have to assume that is has a valid and useful purpose. that the body is inherently limited (because there’s no higher even if we might not always understand exactly what it is. then it’s critical that we and that the enneagram types reflect the diversity of that in- at least modify our ideas to allow for the possibility that telligence. understand a system. lower as- exciting. so the tone of his writings may have benefit. one of which is the ego- distortion” came to be embedded in the basic teachings on personality self. with extraordinary or subtle perception (which takes place One reason I like systems theory is that systems theo. I don’t know the reason for this. but with distorted a whole. the lower centers can operate in a balanced and integrated manner. then the personality enneagram. lesser aspects. because it’s based on the idea that life is intelligent the “higher vs. And for that purpose.” I can number of different ways that he talked about the energy only assume he means something that arises out of a bal- centers (see Figures 3 . causing further that divides the emotional and mental centers into higher problems.5). “lower” in nature. they start by assuming that the system But when the teachings of the personality enneagram exists for a purpose. I think this is why it’s been So the enneagram gives us a matrix for understanding so easy to accept the idea that the body center is inherently the psyche from many perspectives and on many levels. and openness. tible to the pull of the old ways. led those who followed him to assume that ordinary percep- If we apply systems thinking to the psyche. on a subconscious level we’re still suscep- between the various organs. But the very act of sin. And the inner lines show us the flow of energy the body is evil.24 I find this way of working with the enneagram fun and Whenever we divide things into higher vs. we might learn something new about it. The circle shows us the sys- in Western culture. But if we’re going to retain timistic. going back many centuries. It’s broad. then we can tion must be equivalent to distorted perception. so that they can although I do know that Gurdjieff wasn’t exactly a big fan of use this as a foundation from which the entire system can ordinary human nature. ry model for the personality enneagram. This belief has deep roots sually depicts an open system.23 This sounds suspiciously like the old and familiar be- I see the enneagram as a great tool for studying the lief that the body is a source of impure desire and is noth- psyche from a systems perspective. If this is true. because it enables me to look at type pects. it’s always tempting to regard the lower aspects as from a transpersonal and systemic perspective. the motivational. Although tem as a whole. Each point shows us a major organ within most people no longer consciously embrace this idea that the system. Gurdjieff gives us a precedent for this kind of approach The Energy Centers by talking about three levels within each of the lower cen- ters: the intelligent. When they’re trying to model makes sense. Systems theory looks at systems as living organisms It’s my impression that Gurdjieff’s purpose in dividing composed of many parts. this assumption that “limitation = a collection of individual elements. The working assumption is that the centers into lower and higher versions was to contrast systems function optimally when there’s harmony among all ordinary perception (which takes place in the lower centers) of its individual elements. If the personality is part of the psyche. parts of the system are working really well. this kind of rists tend to be a fairly optimistic lot. Since he uses the word “intelligent. in the higher centers). center). tive. this approach invites us to suppose that anything as- But if we approach the study of personality with curiosity sociated with the body must be debased. That’s why I’d really like to scrap the whole because it relies on the insights of depth psychologies put idea of talking about higher and lower centers in favor of forth by people like Carl Jung and James Hillman. It’s deep. Gurdjieff had a (see Figure 4). anced or attuned perspective. lower” distinction. These sorts of criticisms make the personality the “bad Only one of these (Figure 5) was adopted as the prima- actor” that needs to be reformed. They also assume that all of the parts were developed. somehow the lower center came to be as- of the system have a contribution to make to the system as sociated not just with ordinary perception. The enneagram itself vi- ing more than a necessary evil. then it means On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 10 . and the mechanical If you recall from our earlier discussion. What we need is a way of focusing on personality and lower versions and positions the physical center (which from a different perspective. A lot of their work focuses on discovering which or imbalanced perception. conceptualize the psyche as a both as a total system and as Whatever the reason. It’s op- talking about centers—period.

If we think of them as sinful. the term subtype behaviors no longer ap. we transform its prima materia into real gold. this word in quite a different sense. that Gurdjieff formally acknowledged that ordinary percep. the pathological. tioning which is less balanced and the top half represents However. reactive emotions (passions). or mental). embarrassing. It’s also the function that attuned or unattuned in nature. Accord- In this figure. Subtype behaviors may be physi- On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 11 . Each contains the three subtype arena circles. So they can belong to either most needs our love and support. This is symbolized by the presence of teach us. ing to Jung. vided in two. This is because I conceive of the unlovable “shadow” material that’s been rejected by the subtype behaviors as behavioral profiles that can be either rest of the psyche as undesirable. The word inferior usually has a derogatory meaning. it shows us ways that higher con. Focusing on ordinary activities is especially relevant tion doesn’t necessarily imply distorted or imbalanced per. So on the bottom half. The bottom half of the circle represents func. it line between the higher and lower parts of the ordinary cen- doesn’t assume that ordinary consciousness equals distorted ters. and thoughts. so by hon. three colored arenas in both halves of the whole. it restores the physical Figure 13 shows the model I like the most. oring the physical center. in his theory of personality types. feeling. as well. and then seek to eradicate the lower half (on represent states of ordinary consciousness. The physical center is the center of three yin-yang circles that correspond to the three cen- that directs things on the physical level of reality. we negate the value of our ordinary lives and states of exalted consciousness are grayed out. This is yet another reason for getting rid of the dividing A model like this has a number of advantages. we honor the things that happen in because I have a hard time seeing the subtypes as the func- our daily lives. Both the body to distinguish attuned from unattuned activity (whether and the personality self are the vehicles we need to func- physical. we could divide each of the lower centers into has to be some reason that life exists on this physical level higher and lower levels and designate these levels as a way of reality. and flexible thinking. or Figure 12 shows us such a model. consciousness. For if we choose to separate the centers into two parts. In this figure. way that type energy comes into play in a given arena of If we want to create a model to show what this would daily life. we see attuned tive evaluation. tion of a single center. emotional. Carl Jung uses functioning which is more balanced. the grounds that it’s inferior). The three circles that remain psyche in two. The figure on the RIGHT represents a non-traditional view of the enneagram energy centers that focuses entirely on ordinary consciousness and makes provision for the existence of non-distorted modes of thinking. responsive emotions. We split the they’re not our main focus. The Enneagram Energy Centers from Two Perspectives. then there look like. for our study of subtypes. he’s just referring to the least developed of action. and behaving at this level of aware- ness. he’s not making a nega- rigid thinking (fixations). The figure on the LEFT represents the traditional view of the enneagram energy centers (and corresponds exactly to Figure 9). Third. First. It consists center to a place of honor. tion here. This is the place where we live. On the top half. By valuing what it has to half of the circle. ters. the bottom half is likely to contain the shadow material that sciousness can be manifest right here in ordinary life. the four functions that make up the personality self. because the subtype reflects the ception. Each circle is di. If we assume that life is intelligent. it’s this fourth inferior function that holds all pears in the physical center. and inferior function of the personality. in our we need for transformation. When he speaks of the we see unattuned action. Second. acts. emotions. Higher Higher Higher Higher emotional mental emotional mental center center center center (Holy Virtues) (Holy Ideas) (Holy Virtues) (Holy Ideas) attuned responsive flexible action emotions thinking (Lower) Lower Lower physical emotional mental Physical Emotional Mental center center center center center center (subtype behaviors) (passions) (fixations) unattuned reactive emotions rigid thinking action (passions) (fixations) Figure 12. because cut ourselves off from our own inner wisdom.

it shows the polarity of ample.28 The material in the preceding sections is designed to pro. Before we can vide a framework for the main topic of discussion: the en. But from the beginning. Models that are dualistic make sense to us. ence the energy of each type (for ex- reasons. That’s why it’s not principle. It was this desire to experience wholeness that lead me In systems theory. and in public) and in the world of our imagination act appropriately. Although archetypes possess arenas are the three domains in which we act: On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 12 . perspective. We can experi- Figure 13. (as archetypal figures. Most of the obscure what is really going on. but they’re not. and subtype behaviors. but everything is motivation is unique and distinctive. it shows the three centers as working together pointing to one of its parts. Whatever label we choose will to form an integrated whole. as prototypical patterns of behavior that arise in response I want to start by distinguishing three concepts: sub- to the needs of the personality. I find it useful for three Holistic Model of the Energy Centers. only that it’s useful for look. but it’s still dualistic. Everything that exists in quality that tends to take us beyond the the physical realm also exists in some personality self. It will not fully encompass the energy of circles that represent each subtype behavior as existing in all the type. But I’m getting ahead of myself here. Instead. That’s l any other. why we can’t describe each type with a ing at the enneagram from a systems single word or phrase. One reason I saw the types as ar- chotherapist Mark Epstein notes. three of the energy centers. As Buddhist psy. no positive or negative value judgments about either polar. not just the physical center. I’m interested in the core. types. with our friends.ger feel separated from life or from other people.we’re like the blind men trying to identify the elephant by ity. but nothing ever qualities with which we can personally comes into manifestation without first Physical identify. Third. chetypes is that. because I sensed that the only way I could get in touch with we’re used to them But as the authors of Seven Lesson of my innate wholeness is by seeing the diverse ways that this Chaos have observed. I saw both the types sound like the same thing. “Ev. dramatic personas. Second. But if I can “What is really going on” is much more dynamic than see the relationship between the diversity and some larger our fixed categories can account for. out regard to context. Looking at these inner personae and each of their stories became a way for me to The Enneagram Subtypes see how they’re all expressions of the same core motiva- tion. form on other levels. but I’m also hierarchical compartments and places a higher value on one interested in all the different forms that this core energy can level than the other. I saw in the subtypes a dynamic relationship between an individual and their envi- useful matrix for looking at how type shows up both in real ronment. Keeping the focus on interaction helps us to culti- life (in the roles we play in our families. First. It arises at a level that is ta ot model is better or more accurate than Em beyond the personality level. we need to define our terms neagram subtypes. They have a larger-than-life by emotion. subtype arenas. It still divides the centers into motivational core. my actual experience is that of diversity. The subtype and subtypes as archetypes. context is key. if we only allow it. by watching or participating in a energies that exist within each center in a way that makes type panel). I no lon- particularly useful to categorize traits as good or bad with. although each type erything is in manifestation. they are bigger than the per- existing as an idea or being energized sonality. and the stories we tell ourselves about our lives). vate the kind of “in the moment” awareness that we need to at work. That’s what lead me to start looking at each type or The model in the previous figure (Figure 12) is also point as a family of related energies that cluster around a useful. These all I never saw them that way. it shows the colored be insufficient. The subtypes are typically presented and look at our operating assumptions. I no longer lose myself in the diversity.”25 it’s not unidimensional. take in daily life.”26 time. It’s multidi- Men ion I’m not claiming that this yin-yang mensional. al also spirit. “our fixation on dualities causes us to wholeness can find expression in ordinary life. The focus is on the to study the enneagram subtypes. according to our individual nature.27 but whenever we try to pin a label on the type.really talk about the subtypes.

Magic of the written word means lots of regard the subtypes as instinctual in nature. and possibly resentful. “I er” aspect of human nature. I can also see that body-based motivations can at times be very com- • Arena of the self: individual self-sufficiency. 1. injustices. radiance. etc. a home. 3. (Gurdjieff). The subtypes are the result of wounds received in early childhood. artisans. etc. can easily lose themselves in their image. Relationships in 121 relationships but afraid of rejection when someone “sees playing. such as the desire to feel physically comfort- able.. we get the actual subtypes. They exert a powerful arenas. Can overextend Very territorial about their home & possessions. CF—can rebel against the same. com- Creative Individualist (dauntless /reckless): Survival is Critical Commentator (shame/honor): Social acceptance or petitive but sensitive & permeable. Belonging or risk taking possible. upholding social authority. upright in stance. sexually stimulated. hideout. Not tolerant of overdo it. ideas. Ethnic mother archetype. instead of doing personal inner work. the person “targeted” by whatever means. Extremism & entitlement Like the “good life”. etc. Possessor can be unintentionally possessed if attention personal needs get ignored. etc. Easily overwhelmed or carried away. etrate & dominate. need good boundaries to avoid getting & transmuting the pain of “something missing” into creative ex. try to hold back. thus alternating between approaching & retreating. supplies. So obviously many people in the field 4 tained but not materialistic. They show love to secure love—seek affection knowing & following group rules . Public image is what counts. network. workaholics. vulnerability to suggestion from the limelight. be included but like to stay out of cal (instinctual) center. high strung. they can’t be instinctual. Emotional sensitivity hidden behind Cultivating generosity toward self & others helps lessen the need to ten the emotional truth-tellers in a group. often via self-abandonment. Super-moms. or neg. Appetite is indiscriminate “urge to merge”. participate.). Can be most attuned 8s because of an interest in social acceptance. basic needs: for food. books. The figure legend describes just as reasonable to think of physical center as a necessary the difference between types. Sexual in nature. through the act”. Quixote. lifestyles they don’t approve of. body-oriented (gourmet or health food focused). addiction. warmth is used to ensure ings/doubt/worry. can get carried away by But the plans & visions can be compelling. Group Leader (friendship): Can be both social & anti-social. etc. to energy in all living creatures. establishing pate—that is the question”). find it very hard to tolerate feeling they are being “one-down” position. But critical like 1s. or socially integrated. or merge with others’ plans. As such. slights. Relationships generate high expectations. Welcome Ashamed to directly ask for help because this puts them in a also shape shift. it has to be obsessive jealousy in a partnership. Perfect relationship sought. anger erupts if it doesn’t & comfortable. Magnetic hypnotists themselves in social activities. subtype arenas. hosts. because this places too much emphasis on the three assertions often made about the subtypes: physical end product and not enough on the motivational pro- On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 13 . They’re like profiles that patterns. but also overly conforming. many actors & fash- a practical manner. which is ifest that it has a noticeable impact. On own turf. This use of the term is broader and more value-neutral. Earlier. More detached. Want to be the leader. its motivated by the instinctual or physical center. subtype arena. arbiters of what’s to be the lookout for hidden threats. therefore. 2 Focus on home & hearth. * tivity. TRADITIONAL SUBTYPE PROFILES 2. Tend Secret Agent (confidentiality): Security in relationship gained by exchanged confidential secrets. who fail to measure up. Can be social registrars. family is paramount. Wants ALL the other’s’ attn. often want the chase more than catch. systems. welcoming home Social Guardian (duty): Fear dispelled & security enhanced by does it mean to call them instinctual? Often. look the part they’re 3 moms). but also possibly surrender. dutiful PT (or rejection—CF) from others in order to feel safe. the word in- or beauty. religion. These are often given descriptive labels to My sense is that the subtypes exist as relatively stable make them more memorable. personhood But I don’t see physical activity as motivated exclu- sively by the instincts. This type can be organized or disorganized. I am” Survivalist (satisfactory survival): Satisfying needs of self & Monarch (dominance/submission): Focus is on desire to pen. Accent on creativity in home & garden. can draw special others into their inner sanctum. that I’ve been talking so far about subtype behaviors. Self-preservation Sexual Social 3.” Like to play Are the subtypes instinctual in nature? The subtypes are usually formally referred to either as instinctual subtypes or Can “perform” for many or for just one partner. The energy pattern of each subtype influences all three The difference between type. may be gregarious 1 earned. Combining the three subtype arenas with the nine enneagram types (in orange) yields 27 subtype de- idea that subtype behaviors are influenced by body-based scriptions (light blue. the tendency is to impose gion = zeal). Subtypes vs. impersonal than other 7s. because known rules can be followed to overcome the bring a quality of unconditional love & sacredness. Weak personal boundaries can mean promiscuity. The subtype behaviors are habit patterns that tend to behaviors are a direct reflection of these unseen archetypal go along with each of the subtypes. The Collector (appetite): Very common type everywhere around the world because the focus is on seeking fulfillment of Seeker (union): Desire for union makes them open but vulner- able. Identify with company (or family for Movie Star (masculinity/femininity): Focus on success via personal (sexual) attractiveness. Subtype Arenas.. 4) Adventurer (suggestibility): Charming. PT 5 Castle Defender (home): Focus is on a safe physical space (symbolic of inner safety). I consider the subtypes to be basically archetypal enneagram types. Insecure. adventurous. But are the subtype behaviors truly instinctual? What to be fairly ascetic except with things they especially value (high be a big rift between sexual self & outer self. There are just three subtype but non-physical energy patterns. to partner—if trust Friendship & social justice are key. but can resent the carefree. Nurturer: (“me first”/privilege): Want to take care of everyone The Lover (seduction or aggression): Highly focused on others Ambassador (ambition): Self-esteem is earned by getting but thus feel entitled to be noticed. With growth. (gluttonous). science. partying. for early pilgrims & puritans.g. take the lead in social groups. CF is always strength-focused. Tend to thing there’s controlled. insecurity of feeling they don’t belong. participation & social what we call subtype behaviors. but there are 27 enneagram subtypes (9 types x 3 but unseen effect on our behavior. Flower children. self-care & pelling. not to commit 100% (“to participate or not to partici- PT key here. May be true monas. but also long for approval. As I already When we combine the three arenas with each of the nine mentioned. unappreciated. Don learn not to pressure themselves too much to be authentic & also ion models are this type. retention for survival. look for imagined rejection or can become “one right way” for everyone. Avarice is for whatever kinds of learning & presenta- tech stuff. Tend toward theatricality. May snipe at those I’d like to discuss each of these assumptions in turn. stuff. Challenge is to reconcile socially correct. enthusiastic. Pioneer (anxiety): May appear either high-strung or very self control = heat. May seem mysterious or compel- ling. disappointment often follows. help flesh out the nature of the subtype. rigid. as things are collected for potential dominated by partners (more often the latter). taken for granted. also ideological rigidity. utopian. The subtypes reflect the passion of the type.. responsibility29 Notice. partner idealized via positive mental projections continued bonding. There tends to 9 a professional identity helps structure their life.g. Utopian Visionary (sacrifice): “Feast of life” here is of ideas & Gourmand / Family Visionary (family): Family life is ideal- Experience overdone due to extreme expansiveness & mental social visions. The Evangelist (jealousy or heat): Personal intensity plus strict Social Reformer (inadaptability): Stiff. avoidance of feel- commitment to cherished groups & causes. Seen as more moderate than other 8 well-being—storing food. There are tual subtypes. Suggestibility comes from tendency to themselves for the cause. Love of intense experiences can mean are possible. via walls or anonymity. authentic > an aura of reserve. but it’s not until this effect becomes physically man- and subtype behaviors is illustrated by Figure 14. Can have trouble 6 & maintaining closeness are critical. rational. not to but find commitment difficult. Outbursts possible when pres. as I mentioned earlier. losing themselves in the other. Often elicit love/hate reactions. charisma. e. Seek approval a public role. then PT could just refer to refer to anything associated with the physi- May to go to any length to ensure physical survival & material is present. Can easily to life force. but for all kinds of material comforts unsavory types. What both terms have in common is Dramatic Person (competitive): Charismatic. if they don’t get it. sexuality w/morality. Community Benefactor (participation): Energized by the op- portunity to belong. tend to accede to the with it. centers. Get hurt. can fear real intimacy. Whatever the appearance. fantasies. to overcome fear. they are resolute idealists who will place limits on ized to create an environment that is stimulating. but can be excessive. not help the leader (unlike 2s). retreat. especially small personal items. The subtypes are instinctual in nature. instinctual slow down or get bogged down with routine chores. roll & rollers. The tension between needing to be socially correct & personally PT pression. I would have to agree that they’re activated by the Figure 14 . cheerfulness. Tends sure builds. other’s wishes. and subtypes. files & books. but the focus is on safety. It makes more • Arena of intimacy: sexuality. being PT privileges. Can be aggressive. Table A-1. Can dominate or be but tend to lose themselves in the energy of the group. may compliments. something that’s closely associated with the animal or “low- fascination/ imagination. Job security & earning power = security. to stay busy with fun home activities. PT Company Man (security): Happiness comes from financial success & material security. I discussed the way that the subtypes are viewed I don’t find it particularly useful to talk about instinc- by many people in the enneagram community. PT pleasurable. Archetype happen. betrayers. Tend to compartmentalize relationships. also can feel burdened. but can also preferred. securing the perimeter. but not sufficient cause of subtype behaviors. Formal groups are Since the subtype behaviors are physical patterns of ac- use. subtype. Can but often content to be the power behind the scenes. Want a secure social role & clear set of rules. which is why we call them drives. Willing to work for group harmony & possessions. That’s why it looks like a miniature version of one of the tables describing the sub. risk taking.. nursing & nurturing. fantasies of love or unwittingly inflict hurt as “dance away lovers”. Can wander & travel. Very hard workers. can be reactive & intolerant of PT order on the physical environment. Jim Jones. as in a commune or extended family). Can be like a “blank screen” in 121. motivations. not belonging brings shame. are secretly hurt by it but don’t let on. There may Professor (totems/cultural symbols): Focus of understanding & interpretation of sacred symbols. addictive 7 visionary (e. What we call subtype arenas). What’s key is surviving recognition brings honor & meaning. The three royal blue column physical or instinctual center. food for others. creativity & transformation sense to me that all three centers play a role in influencing • Arena of community: sociability. mathematics. Social 5. is too dominated by the need for control. philosophy. Warrior (strength/beauty): 6 tries to live up to ideal of strength Family loyalist (warmth): Creating a warm. Can fight for what they want viewed as more symbolic than literal. Love isn’t given. dispersion. to merge be lots of stuff everywhere. pos. Need to “speak their truth”—are of- the word instinctual. Politician (prestige): High-profile public image & social status brings recognition & the sense of “being somebody. stinctual implies something primitive or primal in nature— (vs. to get special treatment or & tend to produce a reaction. Dangerous impulsivity life is the focus. grandiose. tions that bring social standing & the respect of others. grounding may be needed. Beauty: Idealization of beauty used realizing others may have different rules. But it’s types at the end of this article. being recognized as special. Dis- often take a back seat. On the other hand..) tics if focus is spiritual. reactive or overwhelmed. instinctual variants. not only for food. Very focused on physical preparedness. must compete or upstage. by the way. poets. not the subtypes themselves. I would also agree with the headers represent the three subtype arenas. like being upstaged. Often channeled into “safe” passions (eg reli. but indispensable to the right people. Are tenacious & self-con- hurt. not to be too critical or demand too much emotional intensity. this is a sacrifice for freedom-loving 7s. Determined to win over social approval in the group.

passion has a negative connotation in the culture of the en- neagram. have a significant ef- On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 14 . ing is what determines our personality (and hence both our Before I started studying the enneagram. cognition demonstrates that even very young infants already But the force of our passion is something we can learn have a great deal of individuality. how would we ever grow or change? How would we an empty vessel. It can only be the The idea that we do is based on the idea that early nurtur- product of unrefined instinctual urges. it’s just a psychic force they make choices. we turn away from life. Although this view is common. They have preferences. What is going on? Are I wouldn’t deny that the things that happen to us in we feeling the promptings of an inspired intention or an early life. it seems to take a fair amount of our destiny. reflect it? The “passion of type” is Helen Palmer’s phrase From a certain perspective. That’s why I prefer simply to talk about unconscious obsession? subtypes (dropping the adjective instinctual). subtype reflects the passion of our type. because we don’t want me free to explore the subtypes on various levels. The idea that babies are a blank slate which can imbalance if we lack the discrimination or strength needed be easily conditioned is not true. Because they look at enneagram ability. Not only to make mistakes. We’re afraid of the themes. So the subtypes indicate a preoccu. Maitri resents some sort of opportunity for growth.30 And it’s not a view I personally embrace. It’s viewed as the emotional equivalent of fixa. away from it because of fear. we find that we feel very strongly about type in context.” the The subtype arenas give us a way to look at these innate arising of passion can create a feeling of extreme vulner. That’s why I puz. we’re it will destroy our lives or those of the people we love. It’s a powerful But it also depends on how we respond to those expe- force. it seems to matter less whether (although I don’t know whether she’s really the one who we succeed or fail than that we manage to really get in touch originally coined it). and if we turn says that it’s her understanding that the passions are equiva. However. Suddenly. they can offer a way to significantly refine something or someone. from the moment we’re born. it evoked the image of a deeply universal. the psyche. For most of us. it’s not the word passion. it’s also affecting the way that other people react to us. I think of both type and subtype as basically innate. inspired intention or vision. Once passion becomes integrated. It’s although it’s initially undeveloped. Without an energy potential waiting to be developed or envision it as it. trust. I don’t see that we develop a preference for a given subtype pation cannot be the result of a deep upwelling of innate arena in response to any sort of psychological conditioning. But this is because This sounds sensible to me. This energy always rep- meant until I read a passage in Sandra Maitri’s book. passion or emotional preoccu. This leaves We want to know before acting. But part of the integration process seems to depend What is the “passion of type” and how do the subtypes upon our willingness to fully engage with our passions. our personality self which is actively involved in shaping tomatic. We don’t want to experience the conse- can I look at the behaviors themselves. and they actively engage with their en- that requires integration. We lent to preoccupations. Are the subtypes the result of early childhood wounding? tion. to work with. cut ourselves off from the energy we need to grow. except for the fact the word I see passion in such a positive light. How we “grow into” have the incentive to do anything new? our subtype depends on many things. it can potentially create riences. easy to deal with. Recent research on infant to channel it. I zle about the reasons that passion is regarded with such dis. vironment in unique ways. think that the basic structure of our subtype exists at birth. I had a hard time understanding what it with the energy that’s manifesting. individuals. There’s a unique pattern to us that’s bigger than It’s true that this kind of integration isn’t exactly au. Passion is the engine that makes things happen. and characters that give rise to them. quences of making a wrong decision. laid plans and firmest intentions.cess underlying it. including the kind of I do understand that passion is not always pleasant or experiences we have when we’re very young. It still does. During the period when we’re still “practicing. our understanding of individuality . we can afford to allow it to influence us without fearing that The way I look at it. This pattern is active in shaping how we act time and patience to integrate the passionate elements of and how we react to what’s happening around us. The type would influence With this in mind. but also at the stories. feeling that arises at the level of the soul. This feeling cuts across our best. suffering this can bring. When it moves within us. To me. patterns of individuality. both positive and negative. Passion is full of feeling. pations with a given area of life. I rather liked type and subtype). waiting to be filled. I can fully embrace the idea that our the nature of the preoccupation. From this viewpoint. We could think of it as the motivating energy that gets us involved in life. It’s not the enemy.

I also envisioned what the subtypes would look when type behaviors tends to arise as the result of considering these mapped onto the enneagram. It’s 5 SP=Calm Introspector 4 SP=Imaginative Originator been the primary focus. The web site is about working with the enneagram in a way that’s more positive than negative. up many classic themes and stories. it doesn’t mean that A causes B. I thought about a profile description for as either psychological or deviant. subtypes is that it’s helpful for exploring the relationship I do notice that there do seem to be certain childhood ex- between the archetypes and the physical world. SX=Focused Confidant SX=Intuitive Dramatizer One reason is that the subtypes are more specific than the SOC=Transpersonal Guide SOC=Gentle Truth-teller types. In brief. I do find it deepens my under. SP=Family Supporter 6 3 SP=High-energy Multitasker For me. not the beyond. A third reason is that an understand- ing of the subtypes is helpful for sorting out relationship fect. focus on life in the here and now. It’s just that these events don’t actually create the basic problems. That’s because they panels about their childhoods. they conjured dharma than about mental health. Another reason is that the subtypes are action- oriented: they reveal ways that type motivations are likely Figure 15. My work with the subtypes is based on the Artist same kind of approach. so I don’t need a way to ac. though. There are several reasons for this. so working with them refines my understanding of the type. But the biggest reason I like to study the other level. many of them with the On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 15 . 15. mation I got initially was in bits and pieces. doesn’t mean the it was these experiences that created the The profiles themselves are listed in Appendix Table personality. The need to find a theory to account for the origin of sub. So for each sort of deviation from the norm. just because A is as. The result is shown in Figure B-4 (in Appendix B). especially the kind that arise when people differ structures of the psyche. origins. like to understand better. I find this an interesting synchronicity that I’d this later on. Transformed Subtype Personas. But over time sociated with B. Just because I got enough info to put together the bits and pieces to form people of a certain type have similar experiences in childhood a definite impression of each subtype. SX=Dispassionate Refiner SOC=Personal Exemplar 8 1 SOC=Serene Advocate net). An Optimist’s Approach SP=Lover of Simple Living to Presenting the Subtypes SX=Introspective Seeker SOC=Community Facilitator In January 2006. tive. This is not to say that deviance doesn’t exist. They don’t create our type or subtype. I don’t regard the subtypes enneagram point. especially periences that are more characteristic of one type or subtype the role we play in connecting the two. because But as we say in psychological research. correlation does not much of the information is written down. I describe SP=Unassuming Nurturer SP=Family Visionary 7 2 SX=Attentive Lover the approach as exploratory. only that I I also started thinking about the archetypes associ- wouldn’t use either type or subtype to account for it. SX=Joyful Intimate SOC=Social Change SOC=Community Server and humorous. Then I started writing them are people of all subtypes who are psychologically healthy and down. Subtype focus tells us more about The archetypes didn’t exist in isolation. So the infor- not imply causation. the special gifts we discover when we are truly ourselves. I envisioned a procession of behaviors to be psychological in nature and to represent some profiles around the outside of the enneagram. narrative. There ated with each subtype profile. They just sound healthy. working with the subtypes has never SX=Faithful Companion SX=Attractive Aspirant S0C=Social Conservationist SOC=Cooperative Leader really been a subset of working with the enneagram. either at the personality level or any in their priorities. to show up in real life. the subtypes at each wing. I found that there were really a lot of them! people who are less healthy. the personas for each profile are shown in Figure two. They standing of type and subtype. I launched a web site that reflects many of SP=Pacific Provider 9 SX=Chivalrous Protector SP=Patient Homebuilder the ideas I’m presenting here (http://www. Notice that few of these personas sound very grand When I listen to the stories that people tell on enneagram or spiritual. This is the idea that. and from a bi-winged perspec- count for their origins. It just means there’s an association between the A-2. But I don’t find it explains their encapsulate the special potentials of each subtype domain. I talk more about than another. systems-oriented. It wasn’t all that easy to study the subtypes.enneagramdimensions.

it means that the work is not just about my personal wants When we find our dharma. “Duty” which are the vehicles through which higher-frequency ener- is a word that’s fallen out of fashion. We really do have a role to play in puritanical. and especially through our physical bodies. then I find that viewing the subtypes in this way brings a di- our life exists within a larger context. but to something the word with a view of the world that’s old-fashioned. go and what to do. It’s about look- Thinking about all the archetypes associated with each sub. seen from a transpersonal perspective. From this point of view. Others were less classically ar. the sub- But it’s possible to conceive of duty in a broader way. in the physical world. (subtype behaviors) that anchor the energy of the archetype The word dharma roughly translates as “duty” in Eng. Many people seem to have Self-preservation Sexuality or Intimacy Sociability Figure 16. I had a hard time article. early in life. They set forth on their path and never chetypal but quite useful for describing the subtype in an look back. ing at the role of human beings as energy transformers. perhaps because we’ve gies can flow into a lower-frequency world. not just to us. everyday sort of way. is through us. “The Enneagram of Life Paths. I needed solid guideposts to get a sense of where Table A-4). although I don’t think the idea of duty in English com. they know where to with myths and legends. On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 16 . We tend to associate our lives really do matter. The only way that this can happen lish. It helped me tell the difference between roles and activities that would make sense for me from those that would probably be unrealistic or unproductive. When type got me to thinking about the idea that studying the sub. This means that lost touch with duty in its truest sense. If life as a whole. to types serve as guides that help us participate in life in a very see that it always implies the existence of something larger particular way—a way that serves both us as individuals and than ourselves—something to which we’re responsible. there’s something or somebody to whom we own a duty. we can get involved in life and needs.kind of larger-than-life quality that we typically associate an innate sense about this. It must have purpose mension of dignity to my work with the enneagram. the subtypes can be types was an especially good way to discover our dharma or seen as archetypes that cause us to initiate action patterns path in life. even larger than ourselves. It’s about discerning the ways in which I’m re- in a completely grounded way. pletely conveys the sense of what dharma is about. The Dharmic Enneagram I realized at some point that the concept of dharma isn’t just about find our own personal path in life. the larger tapestry of life. I discuss these in more detail in my But I was never one of those people. because and meaning. Studying the subtypes really helped me with this. I’ve also listed them in Appendix A (see adulthood. Images of the Three Subtype Arenas.”31 but for the sake figuring out what I should be when I grew up—even well into of completeness. I was and where I needed to go.

open sys- Only after the group has a solid understanding of the tem. the more I actually started thinking of the subtypes as Dina and I came to work together after I’d attended images. who rely heavily on images to side of class. We’re the lucky participants in an organic. stinctively looks at the enneagram as an open system that erine and David. visual depictions of each subtype arena. people start to get a real feel for how they person. ing. but the sion of the subtype behaviors in Table A-3. motivation. they’re also shown in miniature form on the previous more I started working with the subtypes in an imaginative page (see Figure 16). we’re able to sneak in little bits of information about of the course participants. out work with the enneagram. We put our heads together Together with my colleague. in perception and cognition. B-2. Using this kind of experiential approach. I have a background as a psy- way of helping people remember differences among the 27 chological researcher interested in individual differences subtypes. Each time we teach. We start by focusing on the three subtype arenas. We introduce the arenas using three ments of our approach. she and I often talked about how we viewed communicate their ideas on the enneagram types and sub. Over time. Dina and I also use film clips to help make the arena “ground-up” experience that is as inspiring as it is excit- memorable. enneagram that reflects both of these perspectives. to grow. because full-size graphics in Appendix B (see Figures B-1. As we talk about the subtype arenas and the film ing. Out- Chernick and David Fauvre. it’s time to look at what’s right. As we pass around the images. I devel. sprout and begin ally experience each of the subtype arenas. ones that best capture the essence of the workshop are the Being responsible doesn’t seem to preclude having fun. because that’s the hallmark of a viable. I try to capture this dimen. pants talk about what the images mean to them as individuals. The enneagram is too great a tool to be used mainly troduces people to the subtypes without overwhelming them as a means of looking at what’s wrong with us.sponsible to myself and to life. Working with the subtypes is a lot of fun. and began to develop an approach for working with the oped a weekend subtype workshop that’s experiential in na. But we follow up by passing around laminated “seed ideas” seemed to have a lot of potential. rather However. We also use The ideas presented in this article are still develop- small group work to allow participants to experience the dif. It’s a fun way to work. My focus is on working with images as a invites our participation. On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 17 . ture. In some ways. and it naturally lends itself to imaginative play. but were images for the arenas. it hasn’t been easy to articulate the ele- than all 27 subtypes. the easiest way to find our way has In this way. This was especially true after talking with Katherine several enneagram couses she offered in her home. initially undeveloped. how the subtype arenas interact with the types. been to watch the seed germinate. The ideas started out as intuitive big collages. we came to types. we’re same: that it’s possible to work with the enneagram with- able to present material on all 27 subtypes in a nine-hour out reference to any sort of deficiency model of human workshop. subtype arenas do we move on to talking about the subtypes But I expect that the central idea will remain the themselves. These are shown as though. way. we learn at least as much as any clips. one for each arena (an idea I got from Katherine sensings that we didn’t know how to articulate. time. I think with too much detail too quickly. I hope they’ll continue to unfold in new ways over ferent ways that people can show up in each arena. realize that we have a similar perspective. It’s also an approach that in. These and David). Dina has a background in systems theory and in- though my approach differs somewhat from that of Kath. al. Dina Innominato. I also started using images in my subtypes work. We present participants with many handouts. partici. I found that the B-3).

I felt that there must be a different way to work with the I’ve been exploring ways to work with the enneagram enneagram. ideas on the enneagram subtypes without explaining why I terizing personality types. The subtype personality type and subtype are usually thought to have arenas are the place where we learn and grow. I’ve had to create a context for the discussion. The energy flows to us and through us. Both as more differentiated versions of the types. mystery. This way of Since then. It has the power to something that energizes and liberates. I loved ma. On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 18 . but I couldn’t quite envision what it would be. change us in ways we can only begin to imagine. that help us become receptive to its energy. And Holy Ideas). artificial ideal of perfection. but to be alive in the moment. And that’s when the I found it wasn’t possible to give a coherent account of my energy really begins to flow. The enneagram is part of this dance. It gives us not sented as something that limits and distorts. because the process is what opens things up. We’re always playing a dual role. giving us limitation. but energy and inspiration. The idea of type always seemed to be pre. the subtypes are thought to reflect three ways in ferentiated centers of purposeful intelligence and subtypes which the instinctual center can become unbalanced. as opposed to only insight.32 the impetus to act. and also developed as the result of early childhood traumas. From this perspective. and humor. but felt trapped within the walls of its nega. The result is a dance—a dance full of dra- ity model was the only one that seemed influential. This dualistic model focuses primarily on the nega. we respond by embodying that energy as When I first encountered the enneagram. I’ve been trying to cobble together the elements working is actually more like playing than working—it’s of an alternative perspective. It seems to idealize personality transcendence we’re always in a reciprocal relationship with the energies without really addressing the question of how to live within of life. Each personality type is said saw the subtypes in a different light. the types are seen as dif- Similarly. in nature. Many of those elements are like learning how to surf a wave or make a funny picture presented here. and defend the personality self. Summary and Implications The enneagram is often presented as a system for charac. fully as we dare. this personal. but tive aspects of human personality and stresses the need we’re also here to serve as expressions of something larger for transformation (of vices into virtues and fixations into than ourselves. So each personality type The perspective I’ve tried to describe is transpersonal represents a particular type of psychological imbalance. Bringing a kind of lightness and joy to I had to describe the perspective in some detail. The object isn’t to achieve some the enneagram. In order to discuss the to reflect a core motivation whose purpose is to protect subtypes. where we fulfill our dharma in life. So we’re here for ourselves and own development. with finger paints. tive paradigm.

But the a psychic split. 4-5. However. same time that he avoids scapegoating the physical body. To me. David Peat. If we could. and the an exercise in which they were to strongly chastise their ego self.asp?pf =1. 2 It can be argued that these different views of the enneagram (process we might see the enneagram in a different light.htm. 18 The Mindsight Symposium was held Oct. (For a similar graphic with slightly to early caregiving. Or- egon. or Character and Neurosis. recognize the energy that’s designed to energize it. just the opposite. I’m also suggesting that the reason it evokes no re- 5 The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram (2000). p. This book presents his theories on the nature of life and human evolution.g. She says they’re based on those used by 30 See. p. 33-53 in “compulsive” and “compulsory. 30.” at a personality attribute may be one of the big reasons that enneagram type http://www. p.” in Character and Neurosis (2001). Also. 22 For an excellent discussion of chaos theory. 28 Here I’m speaking at the level of the point. 7-11 for his 26 p. He posits the existence this kind of exercise seems futile. resisted. I coined the term myself. matters is that we hive off part of ourselves and make it bad or wrong. It also conjures up the image of life as a three-ring circus. pp. Linking Two Views on the Enneagram”. xxiv. I generally 24 Claudio Naranjo is aware of the pitfalls of falling into the old trap of assume that it’s Ichazo who’s the primary source. 2005 in Portland. 32 The idea that limitation can act as a goad to creativity is addressed in “The Enneagram of Life Paths”. I discuss a way to build a bridge between them in my article “Reconciling Personality with Process: 20 The Reflective Universe. Arthur Young. ternative point of view to the idea that personality forms mainly in response tions of each subtype in this chapter. see above note. by John thing (2003). 1. see. 272-274). see The Enneagram in Love and Work. vs. http://www. This resistance can cause the personality to become compulsive. p. Chapter 0 in Enneatype Structures (2004). sistance is that it’s recognized by the personality as the source of its vitality and wellspring for its existence.htm). it’s sometimes not just a lower. personality) are two sides of the same coin. Enneagram (1996). 21-23. 9 The information on Gurdjieff’s conceptualization of the centers is primar. Maitri also includes short descrip. p. three subtype centers within the physical center. The nature of the compulsion reveals the nature of the energy by which the 8 The Enneagram of Society. Which word we use to describe that force depends a lot Panorama. at the any misattributions. we find it very imagine some kind of motivation that’s not person-centered. Blake (especially pp. Endnotes 1 See “Was ist ‘das Ich’?: an Interview with James Hollis on Carl Jung. for an al- Claudio Naranjo and/or Oscar Ichazo. p. Seeing the parts and how they Maitri’s The Spiritual Dimensions of the Enneagram. and character pathologies throughout his 21 It’s interesting how similar the word “compelling” is closely to the words books. passions. 14 . due to the scapegoating the body. p. The author. available at my web site isn’t just an inventor of the helicopter. 70. “The Enneagram of Life Paths” is available on my web site at 31 17 The Wisdom of the Enneagram. 16. 19 The fact that motivation is always conceptualized in Western culture as On the Nature of the Enneagram Subtypes — page 19 . At 11 Claudio Naranjo has a slightly different way of conceiving of the five cen. the personality fails to 6 The Wisdom of the Enneagram (1999). I’m using the word “compelling” to describe the nature of a force that evokes such an inner resonance that we accept and 4 My Best Self: Using the Enneagram to Free the Soul (1993). Harris. but a higher instinctual center (see Note 11). In fact. different labels. e. on how we respond to it. it’s helpful to mention that Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Nara. pp. In Western culture. to a larger group about how they experience their enneagram type. 9 embrace it completely. is always assumed to be psychological.g. e. 29 . the same purposeful thrust of that energy may be interpreted as a compulsory force that is to be 7 The Wisdom of the Enneagram. are by nature distorted and in need of reformation or transformation. he asked the participants of his workshop to do ters. p. Chaos: Spiritual Wisdom from the Science of Change (1999). It doesn’t matter so much what we decide to blame. pp. See.enneagramdimensions. he doesn’t seem to avoid scapegoating the ego-personality. 53. for example. discussion about the centers. 25. very interesting view of reality. 31-38)” at 10 At this point. what higher version of the instinctual center has no subtype arenas (presum. What both models share is the assumption that the lower centers 25 Open to Desire: Embracing a Lust for Life (2006). vides an easy way to talk about subtypes. by Judith R. and instinctual). the 2004 IEA 1976. 14 The Enneagram in Love & Work. which is one reason he posits the existence of a secretive way that the enneagram was taught until feeling. 28. (See Enneagram Structures. p. relate to the whole is what matters.. http://www. see Seven Lessons of ily drawn from two sources: The Enneagram: Symbol of All and Every. Chapter 12. 35. by Helen If for some reason. but we can obviously say the For a list of all the fixations and the passions. and I find this image quite apt! 16 These labels are from Sandra Maitri’s The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram (2000). he difficult to be sure who is responsible for what. The Nurture Assumption. p. pp. 29 The idea of subtype arenas isn’t part of traditional subtype theory. He talks about a lower feeling center. personality is nourished and sustained. It’s the act of blaming itself that creates of three higher centers (mental. by Nathan Bernier (especially pp. However. When attributing responsibility for ideas to anyone.htm. xiv-xv in 13 same thing about the entire enneagram. and The Intelligent Briggs and F. I apologize in advance for doesn’t discuss what purified instinct would actually look like. 3 Naranjo discusses his views on the personality or ego self in terms of what he calls sins. But speaking in terms of arenas of activity pro- 15 The Spiritual Dimension of the Enneagram. 23 See “The Enneagram from a Systems Perspective.) 27 A type panel is a group of people of the same enneagram type who talk 12 See also The Enneagram in Love & Work (1995). a lower mental center. ably because instinct is now equally responsive to the needs of all three arenas).” All three words describe the action of an The Enneagram of Society (2004) or “By Way of Introduction: a Theoretical irresistible force. he’s also a cosmologist with a (http://www.E.enneagramdimensions. 96. as well. njo are the two most instrumental figures who’ve developed the modern enneagram. p. p. by A.

Appendix A: Subtype Profiles These subtype tables represent several different approaches I’ve taken in thinking about the subtypes over the last several years. Table A-3. but as a kind of activity within a given sphere). Summary of Appendix A Tables: Table A-1. I’ve chosen to include all three versions. The last two tables contain other observations about the subtypes. Table A-4. I attempted to devise a table that would reflect a positive pole (Table A-2). That’s what’s presented in the first table (Table A-1). over time. The only problem is that. Leaving them out made the list a lot less juicy. life paths. When I first studied the subtypes. Dharmic Subtype Profiles. I came to dislike the idea of dividing up subtypes behaviors into two categories (untransformed vs transformed). Table A-5 is a list of words that I associate with each of the subtypes (A-5). the ideal and real. It’s the product of my playing with gerunds (-ing words) by subtype. I still like these transformed descriptions. Energetic Qualities Associated with Each Subtype. Life Paths & Social Roles. Subtype Archetypes. Traditional Subtype Profiles. Table A-2. Table A-5. Because I saw this as the negative pole of subtype behaviors. Rather than just give the last and most current version of this table. . I originally tried to list only archetypes that were truly universal. and social roles. so I ended up included any descriptors that enriched my understanding of the subtype. The idea was that trans- forming the negative subtype behaviors listed in A-1 would result in the transfigured behaviors described in A-2. So I came up with a third table (Table A-3) which is an attempt at devising a set of descriptors that focus on the kinds of challenges we encounter in everyday life. Table A-4 is a list of archetypes. I started by compiling as many different descriptions as possible from existing books and articles. because I think they give us a vision of ourselves that can be inspiring. but which reflect an appreciation for the value of each subtype in teaching us specific kinds of life lessons. The very idea of such a dualistic model sort of bothered me. Transformed Subtype Profiles. but soon found that some of the most memorable and interesting parts that people play are outgrowths of our particular day and age. It’s a funny combination of the lofty and the mundane. They give a slightly different view of each subtype (not as a profile or an archetype.

hosts. not What’s key is surviving & transmuting the pain of what they want but also long for approval. Creative Individualist (dauntless /reckless): Dramatic Person (competitive): Charismatic. intensity. wel. I am. but find commitment difficult. grounding the “good life”. With growth. upright Pioneer (anxiety): May appear either high-strung The Evangelist (jealousy or heat): Personal intensity plus in stance. Dislike being upstaged. On own turf. this is a sacrifice PT (gourmet or health food focused). tion. unappreciated. This type can be orga- tional love & sacredness. being indispensable to the right people. especially small personal items. body-oriented mental fascination/ imagination. participate. addictive (gluttonous). Emotional sensitivity & others helps lessen the need to compete or upstage. Like get carried away by fantasies of love or unwittingly inflict hurt compelling. but for all kinds of material comforts & pos. Avarice is be fairly ascetic except with things they especially self. But critical like 1s. Appetite is key here. But the plans & visions can be 7 utopian. being recognized as termined to win over the person “targeted” by whatever means. Nurturer: (“me first”/privilege): Want to take care The Lover (seduction or aggression): Highly focused on of everyone but thus feel entitled to be noticed. Magic of 5 focus is on safety. or very controlled. etc. Movie Star (masculinity/femininity): Focus on success via Politician (prestige): High-profile public image & social Company Man (security): Happiness comes from personal (sexual) attractiveness. Possessor can be unintentionally excessive. image is what counts. disappoint. continued bonding. back seat. but can also bring a quality of uncondi. but often want the chase more than catch. Utopian Visionary (sacrifice): “Feast of life” here is of is idealized to create an environment that is stimu. securing the perimeter. risk taking. to Ambassador (ambition): Self-esteem is earned by others & tend to produce a reaction. chores. different rules. Don Quixote. status brings recognition & the sense of “being some- financial success & material security. feeling they don’t belong. charisma. high strung Critical Commentator (shame/honor): Social ac- Survival is viewed as more symbolic than literal. reactive or overwhelmed. to stay busy with fun home activities. Welcome compliments. Experience overdone due to extreme expansiveness & ideas & social visions. Family loyalist (warmth): Creating a warm. Relationships often take a someone “sees through the act”. anger erupts if it doesn’t happen. dispersion. roll detached. may try to hold back. often aries to avoid getting hurt. many actors & fashion models are this learn not to pressure themselves too much to be authentic creativity in home & garden. supplies. as things are “blank screen” in 121. Beauty: Idealization and & causes. systems. to measure up. They show love to strength or beauty. Easily overwhelmed or carried pate or not to participate—that is the question”). find it very in the other. ideas. avoidance of feelings/doubt/worry. rational. if they don’t get it. positive or negative. Seen as to ensure physical survival & material well-being— 8 storing food. Perfect relationship sought. Great personal magnetism. Can wander & travel. CF—can rebel against the same. vulnerability to sug. are secretly hurt by it but don’t let on. to energy in all living crea. but can be on physical preparedness. “I network. Tend emotional truth-tellers in a group. Super-moms. Focus on special. tures. type. Insecure. Whatever the appearance. Weak personal boundaries can mean promiscuity. nursing & nurtur. Are tenacious & self-con. tend to accede to the other’s wishes. Formal groups are preferred. PT hideout. to merge with it. May be true monastics if focus is spiritual.” Like to play a public role. ronment. Can fight for ceptance or recognition brings honor & meaning. parenthesized descriptors from Oscar Ichazo. slights. Seek body. the strict self control = heat. in their image. it has to be earned. May to go to any length PT partner—IF trust is present. can be hypnotic. Can “perform” for many or for just one partner. instead of doing per- sessions. may be gregarious & comfortable. Want to be the lead- ing power = security. Can easily overdo it. social acceptance. & also not to be too critical or demand too much emotional poets. be included but like on seeking fulfillment of basic needs: for food. The tension between needing “something missing” into creative expression. ing between approaching & retreating. upholding PT secure love—seek affection (or rejection—CF) from ous impulsivity or risk taking possible. dutiful commitment to cherished groups 6 others in order to feel safe. Community Benefactor (participation): Energized by everywhere around the world because the focus is nerable. TRADITIONAL SUBTYPE PROFILES* Self-preservation Sexual Social Social Reformer (inadaptability): Stiff. pleasurable. 2 home & hearth. but also sensitive & permeable. also ideological rigidity. Katherine Chernick & David Fauvre. Can dominate or be dominated by partners (more often energy of the group. Belonging & maintain. Relationships generate high expectations. rigid. arbiters of what’s socially correct. There may be a big rift between sexual self & outer the written word means lots of files & books. Want a secure social role & clear set of rules. partner ideal. Flower children. archetype. but the ous or compelling. cheerful. via walls or anonymity. & competitive. but also potentially to surrender to the social. need good bound.g. Can be social registrars. therefore. CF is always strength-focused. to stay out of the limelight. but often content to be the power can fear real intimacy. can easily lose themselves er.” Survivalist (satisfactory survival): Satisfying Monarch (dominance/submission): Focus is on desire to Group Leader (friendship): Can be both social & anti- needs of self & family is paramount. information from the work of Helen Palmer. possessed if attention is too dominated by the need for control. as in a commune or extended family). establishing a professional identity helps structure their for food. fantasies. for whatever kinds of learning & presentations that bring value (high tech stuff. known rules can be followed to overcome the insecurity of collected for potential use. partying. More not to slow down or get bogged down with routine intense experiences can mean addiction. and Sandra Mai . thus alternat- puts them in a “one-down” position. can tendency is to impose order on the physical envi. Tend to com. artisans. Can also shape shift. Job security & earn- 3 approval in 121 relationships but afraid of rejection when groups. Love of is needed. retreat. losing themselves ing. etc. mathematics. can for freedom-loving 7s. they are resolute idealists who will lating. adventur. nized or disorganized. De- get special treatment or privileges. as “dance away lovers”. take the lead in social company (or family for moms). a home. gained by exchanged confidential secrets. Can overextend themselves in social Very territorial about their home & possessions. science. Can be like a sonal inner work. activities. the opportunity to belong. also can feel burdened. Friendship & social justice are key. The Collector (appetite): Very common type Seeker (union): Desire for union makes them open but vul. more moderate than other 8s because of an interest in Can be most attuned to life force. Danger. elicit love/hate reactions. Ashamed to directly ask for help because this behind the scenes. Extremism & entitlement are possible. & rollers. Love isn’t given. Often to be socially correct & personally authentic > an aura PT via self-abandonment. Table A-1. Suggestibility comes from place limits on themselves for the cause. indiscriminate “urge to merge”. not to commit 100% (“to partici- retention for survival. food for others. ous. Public Can be aggressive. Tend to sanctum. Ethnic mother hard to tolerate feeling they are being taken for granted. but can resent the carefree. Can have trouble realizing others may have ing closeness are critical. must hidden behind a practical manner. because tends to be lots of stuff everywhere.. look for imagined rejection or PT be reactive & intolerant of lifestyles they don’t approve of. Tom Condon. etc. ment often follows. etc. tendency to merge with others’ plans. Willing to PT away. Castle Defender (home): Focus is on a safe Secret Agent (confidentiality): Security in relationship Professor (totems/cultural symbols): Focus of under- physical space (symbolic of inner safety). books. enthusiastic. Cultivating generosity toward self of reserve. Challenge is to reconcile sexuality with morality. or visionary (e. Identify with PT ness. radiance. Warrior (strength/beauty): 6 tries to live up to ideal of Social Guardian (duty): Fear dispelled & security en- coming home life is the focus. Need to “speak their truth”—are often the 4 tained but not materialistic. Gourmand / Family Visionary (family): Family life Adventurer (suggestibility): Charming. Accent on toward theatricality. then personal needs get ignored. Not tolerant of betrayers. Don Riso & Russ Hudson. Often channeled into “safe” passions Tend to thing there’s “one right way” for everyone. Very can become obsessive jealousy in a partnership. standing & interpretation of sacred symbols. not only gestion from unsavory types. (eg religion = zeal). hanced by knowing & following group rules. social standing & the respect of others. Sources: Labels from Peter O’Hanrahan. belonging brings shame. ized via positive mental projections. social authority. grandiose. and getting social approval in the group.. May snipe at those who fail Archetype for early pilgrims & puritans. May seem mysteri. not help the leader (unlike 2s). warmth is used to ensure projection of beauty is used to overcome fear.) partmentalize relationships. be the lookout for hidden threats. injustices. Outbursts 1 hard workers. Very focused penetrate & dominate. There the latter). can draw special others into their inner philosophy. religion. stuff. Tends to possible when pressure builds. impersonal than other 7s. PT possibly resentful. Wants ALL the other’s’ atten- but also overly conforming. Get hurt. work for group harmony but tend to lose themselves in the 9 life. look the part they’re playing. workaholics.

not a compulsion. Formal laboring. source of joy and inspiration . rules or well-established traditions. Cooperative Leader: The relentless drive to compete makes it possible to focus on the pleasure of doing. Lover of Simple Living: The ability to be present to Introspective Seeker: The desire to merge in an un. Warmth & gen. There is an its purity. most of the help when it’s needed. false projections. It lessens the tendency PT embraced. there is no need high-minded ideals. nity activities brings support & goodwill. by enabling others to experience the other creates an intimacy that is subtle. be aware. it’s a big relief. Performance becomes giving. & fairness. This brings the ability to work with joy & = a highly refined character. ship that arises naturally in response to the needs of freedom to movement. ousy are neutralized. & verbally always present. principles. so that union is not an unreflective gravitation the role of meditator or facilitator. reasoned support for commu- the need to protect through friendship. Color. so there is no rigid separation between public & pri- etc. Busi. share oneself with another fosters true intimacy. to create a better community. regardless of surroundings. This expression is intensely personal but happens in an wo/offending others. & serve the beloved one. over-indulge. The focus is on the task not perfectionistic an intimate other is so refined that it becomes like an elixir Decision making is impartial & dispassionate. high-tech stuff. of life as it is makes it possible for speak one’s truth lated into creative work in the home & garden. creative role even in the absence of There’s an ability to be aware of personal needs & ship a sense of sacredness or even mystical oneness. rules are superseded by flexible guidelines. Dispassionate Refiner: Personal intensity plus serenity Serene Advocate: Inner calm relaxes “one right way” not anxiety. 7 or compulsion. There’s no shame in asking for sake. The ability to see more than one ness dealings are conducted with honor & fairness. whatever the setting. ideological see how the lessons of the past can help stabilize the erosity to others flows out of genuine love & faith. welcoming home life is Faithful Companion: The love & faith felt for the com. They ability to see & communicate these laxes. Personal by love. but just to be—to slow down. “hands on” & often inspirational quality that to enable the beloved to freely grow & flower in their own 8 & expansive spirit of goodwill. playing roles to suit the 3 be alone. commit- ciation for the “good life” doesn’t turn into profligacy shifts from the self-centered need for intense experiences ment minus the sense of martyrdom or self-sacrifice. It’s a leader- right. Social cor- 1 natural pride in a job well-done & the ability to bal. not rigidity. Books. Aban- 4 of intensity or chaos makes possible the use of drama to others in a way that is refined by discipline & tempered donment is to one’s vision or passion. there’s a exquisitely suited to other’s needs. so no manipula. life brings pleasure & satisfaction without the need to tense “highs” are grounded in a genuine appreciation for practical. . imperfections are made perfect by rectness is relaxed. not coercion. but for its own panion is reflected by the care given to them. archetypes steady. role in order to feel real. Balance in the midst shame & honor. & images. symbols. enjoy hobbies. clothing. Leadership is natural & enjoy- terial goods & pleasures are seen not to guarantee approval they can provide. limitations of the personal self. there’s a PT to unselfishly protect. to express personal ideals. The focus is PT Self-nurturing comes from self-love. perhaps a bit of trickery. stabilizing. Joy comes from shared experiences and the deep. stay to the honoring of the personal desires & needs of the Change is accomplished deftly—with lightness. Social Conservationist: A natural bent to conserve all valued not for the security it provides. Attention attunement to the moment. Solitude is joyful but does versal ideas. Transpersonal Guide: Leadership is expressed Focused Confidant: A quiet and focused receptivity to the tively withdraw is replaced by an inner calm that is transpersonally. nurturing loved ones. but there is no need to identify with the leadership security but a natural part of an abundant life. Home world in a way that takes them beyond the sensate PT unexpressed. this is not the goal. example. delicate. & so the need for retreat is merely a prefer. the situation. Faith strengthens the heart. an PT go to extremes to impose them on others. are valued for their ability to satisfy intellectual patterns is honored by others. der is genuinely sacrificial. not the personal needs of the leader. Table A-2. Com- 2 forms of nurturance. the personal self is the self brings the willingness to consciously embrace sures of the home & hearth. etc. uphold. Social Change Artist: Idealism is grounded. & a sincere that is good about the past & intuitive understanding of PT sake—for the opportunity it provides for personal appreciation for what is given in return. ening of intimacy. can express an inner impersonal (unselfconscious) way. worry. & sharing the site attunement to the other. Calm Introspector: The reflexive need to protec. This thoughtful. in whatever way is needed. what’s worth preserving creates a true conservationist self-expression. High-energy Multi-tasker: Security in self-identity Attractive Aspirant: Charisma infused with hope be. tolerance. There is a warm. The dauntless illustrate possibilities for creative unfoldment. Intuitive Dramatizer: Intuitive imagination wells up in a Gentle Truth-Teller: Inner calm & grateful acceptance Imaginative Originator: Inner vision can be trans- natural yet dramatic fashion. Goals are realistic & commu- in the present moment. & including everyone as part of the group. not just for the task & needs of others. embodiment of the shared wisdom of the collective. This is real intimacy others in service brings contentment. satisfying quality to is within. No on consensus building. common goal. There‘s an ability to slow down. 5 ence. who can preserve & “re-cycle” still-useful traditions & 6 bounties of life with those one loves. Chivalrous Protector: The focus on personal owner- Pacific Provider: Inner strength & fortitude are Personal Exemplar: Leadership is shown by personal ship & control in relationships shifts to a heartfelt desire expressed via the providing of tangible care & protec. nication replaces the tendency toward extremism. Home Designer: An imaginative vision of home & Joyful Intimate: A soaring imagination & desire for in. This is the expression of the ar- lishment & justification of one’s own agenda. curiosity & further personal understanding. tion to others. playing an active. to sermonize or convert. The focus is (& friendship) without strings attached. creating bonds of on home & hearth. because it’s seen as an vate selves or the need to mask intimate feelings in public.hearted. TRANSFORMED SUBTYPE PROFILES Self-Preservation Sexual Social Contented Homebuilder: There is inner peace. clarity of mind. rather than to possess them as objects or limit their respect for others’ boundaries. The ability to 9 decision-making scenarios and heightens the ability Because the self is genuinely present. Unassuming Nurturer: Genuine joy comes from Attentive Lover: Inner attentiveness brings the ability to Community Server: The simple joy of working with truly selfless giving. of the self. & other personal need for game playing to get love. preciated for who they are as individuals. The tendency to compartmentalize re- not become social isolation. the focus is on patient promotion of ance work with play—also a tolerance for error. awake. the ethical dimensions of intimate relationships. Other people feel ap. beauty & power. Fears can be admitted & discussed. Emphasis is on leading ability not only to work. which is perceived as a privilege. fabric. there is no conflict between PT light. networking. This approach is honorable & also increases tendency is mostly reflected in a clear & steady bold- intensity is balanced by an impersonal core at the center the likelihood of one’s ideas being accepted. because of the understanding tion is necessary. An appre. this is social change with a light touch.. cultivate relationships. rather than the estab. This can bring to the relation. but also restraint & attracts personal loyalty & participation.. & present means they can enjoy to discriminate among choices & make decisions. There is an exqui. because there’s no to over-collect. satisfy them appropriately. generous personal. food for others. its voluntary surren. although ness of personal expression. the focus is personal & specific. bringing courage & dissolving doubt. need to hide by merging with the group. Details are worked out with care. chetype of courtly love. Community Facilitator: A basic comfortability with the self brings added enjoyment of the simple plea- conscious way becomes conscious. Passionate concern about thinking & promotes good will. Family Supporter: A warm. Intimate relationships are a able. this allows the arising of true future. or become tense in toward a love object but an active embracing of the other. patterns. a sense of humor. artistry. comes true radiance. Ma. PT calmness. focused. It’s possible to convey felt truths to aesthetic born out of a genuine love of beauty. The fear of rejection is not present. Naturalness & the heartfelt desire to reward is the intrinsic joy of working with others on a that we are all interdependent. There is a mysterious. Fear of rejection & jeal. pliments are appreciated but not required. The focus is on uni- the relationships that is deeply refreshing & yet very solid. but just love for its own trust. point of view enriches advocacy efforts. share the true self with the partner. with one thing at a time & to enjoy what is happening other. This is highly attractive because of for leadership becomes an intrinsically-rewarding effort PT not just the need for material security. love.

can draw trusted others into their or personal (a reserved manner or anonymity in a means lots of files & books. exploratory. want to take care of Lover: Attention goes to the loved one and on how to Host or Hostess: Enjoyment comes from social everyone but can thus feel justified in wanting spe. high strung. Create living spaces that sym. Grateful to companions who allow them group). & deeply emotional. Dispersion of attention can sacrifice for freedom-loving 7s. Focus is on understanding & interpretation of out of social isolation while preserving a bounded space PT which they can digest what they perceive. They often prefer curity and obviates the need to make decisions about relationships. & demanding. upstage. risk taking. Without something one partner. Can mean dispersion. and patiently follow-through. But there’s PT patterns. allowing the partner to make most key formal groups. but only bear fruit if they can slow a commune or extended family). Tend to identify with those they PT cheerfulness. those they see as vulnerable. secretly & meaning. Knowledge brings respect inner sanctum. Like to play a very personal satisfaction. Can unwit. Need good boundaries to avoid tension between group norms & valued personal ide- bolize who they are. charisma. radiance. rules of PT ment. philosophy. to be more detached & idea-oriented than other 7s. doesn’t quite match the image. Cultivating generosity toward the “speak their truth”—are often the emotional truth-tellers look. whether with Participator: Energized by the opportunity to belong. smoothing PT cial treatment (not because they need it. Prefer behind-the-scenes en- 2 food for others. as in 7 mean suggestibility & lack of groundedness. sensuous. ideals. but they’re good are the “Type A’s—super-moms or workaholics. depth- Confidant: Intimate relationships offer a way to break they rely on privacy to create a bounded space within oriented. be included but like to stay out of the lime- man” because the focus is on satisfying one’s basic personal boundaries. long for approval. Want to make things concrete & definite. Their plans & visions health food-focused) or visionary (e. science. May be true monastics if focus is spiritual. Thus. weak participate. This sacred symbols. look the part work for (or family for caregivers). this is a PT stimulating. being genuinely helpful to the they deserve it). to restore physi. Gain satisfaction by providing for their own anti-social. A sense of belonging & then they can project an aura of lushness & warmth expectations. tingly inflict hurt as “dance away lovers” until they come down. Utopian: “Feast of life” here is of ideas & social vi- Enthusiast: Everyday life is seen as an experiential Experience-seeking may be overdone due to extreme sions. not belonging brings shame. or nature. reli- that protects them from overstimulation. shapes. Relation- sensitive to what might happen if someone “sees through leader (unlike 2s). May seem se- space can be physical (a home.. They need deavors. competitive. go of the need to be recognized as the definitive expert. hands-on. Survivor: There is a very concrete & tangible under. But must learn not to get too focused on the way they dress. take the lead in social groups. Tend to elicit als. really are. dedicated. Tenacious & self-contained but becoming hurt. making themselves in the process. no matter what. (eg. magnetic & energetic. or strength or beauty. utopian. Sensitive to being upstaged. to find real intimacy. PT cused. . Tend or get stuck too long on repetitive tasks. little expectation of recognition or reward. etiquette. These 8s as more moderate 8 sublimate the desire to dominate into a desire to serve. their boundaries. colors.. recognition & social achievement. This heat is often channeled into “safe” passions Motivated to devise standards & systems by which to impose order. Table A-3. Knight: Extremely intense. gray areas. & steady. Much more sensitive than they love/hate reactions. & receive sufficient recognition for doing so. Want to be the leader. pleasurable. but can also bring to a relationships a quality a scenario where it’s possible to let go of personal by) their physical surroundings. DHARMIC SUBTYPE PROFILES Self-Preservation Sexual Social Pioneer: Disciplined. religion = zeal). They tend warmth & sensitivity. They respect traditional values & social closeness are valued. Can shape shift to networking. they can easily mistake their image for who they together. May need to let their space. ticipate in groups with well-established norms & clear 6 encourages reciprocation. Focus is on home & hearth. can be compelling. These are the resolute idealists who will place feast. Magic of the written word 5 cretive or mysterious. but PT earth. Artisan: Earthy. mate worthy of their absolute devotion. etc. it’s hard to feel ok. of unconditional love & sacredness. in the garden & in self & others helps transcend the need to compete or in a group. not slow down to terms with their “butterfly” tendencies & discover the Democratic extremism & entitlement are possible. authenticity or demand too much too soon. systems of all kinds. reactive or overwhelmed. Can be like a “blank screen” in the loss of selfhood that may result. The standing of what it takes to physically survive on the tribal style of leadership that can be either social or desire to penetrate & dominate comes naturally. because known rules & routines create what to toss. Establishing light. aesthetics. but not necessarily to commit 100%. light & shadow. at covering this over. Can project an image for many or for just public role. investigative. an outlet for creative tension in dramatic pursuits. partying. Accent is one creating a personal space that is expansiveness & tendency to be fascinated by everyone limits on their freedom in service to a cause. Chieftain: Social 8s have a very personal. cate tend to make them feel unappreciated. Tend to see others inspires others to follow. Have a Evangelist: Personal intensity plus strict self control = Social Arbiter: Upright. Also find it hard to let go and be really carefree tionship is imagined.g. to stay busy with fun home activities. Motivated by fairness & high-minded 1 have a difficultly dealing with ambiguity. expressive warmth ensures that’s very inviting. devil may care. especially groups that affirm their values. Philosopher: Very sensitive to outside stimuli. Can but very sensitive to rejection. work best when they can use their talents gracefully. whatever the cost. This makes it hard to feel that they really belong unless they can clearly justify it (eg. Love to lose PT needs & finding comfort in familiar pleasures & rou- a concrete professional identity helps provide structure themselves in the energy of the group. Dramatist: Charismatic. mathematics. so Professor: Curious. fierce *Critic: Social acceptance & recognition bring honor Aware of aesthetics. close to them as extensions of themselves. Often willing to take on the “grunt work” with continued bonding with those they value. so their than others because of an interest in social accep- They search for a cause worthy of their service and a task is to allow others the same space they value for tance. themselves. Collector: This is the archetype of the “common God. Determined to be strong. dissolution of self will. & other personal kinds of assistance. Accent on originality at home. serious. they tend to feel they must 4 not very materialistic. not help the 3 concrete to work toward. but because please the lover but sometimes go overboard and lose over difficult situations. but tend to see their own way as the only correct etc. body-oriented (gourmet or & everything encountered. study or library) gion. joy of real communion. especially at home. etc. If beauty is idealized. Seeks validation in 121 relationships but they’re playing. Challenge is to bring light in social situations or to just relax & have fun. Know how to pull a diverse group ships often take a back seat to achievement. but also sensitive & permeable. not realizing tines. Warrior Prince or Princess: Focus on living up to ideal Social Guardian: Duty & commitment is to the group. can create jealousy. Tend to merge with (and get distracted decisions. Mystic: Desire for union predominates. Passionately attached to partners to judge behavior—laws. May find cal or mental health). CF 6 is by definition strength-fo. Can overextend themselves in social activities. they work hard heat. It involves a personal investment that often they’re also sensitive to chivalric ideals and can learn to needs & those of their family. despite social reserve. Aspirant : The focus is on achievement in the area of Politician: Find satisfaction in high-profile public Horatio Alger: Material security & success bring personal (sexual) attractiveness. Nurturer: Personally caregivers. Like the “good life”. anger erupts when the real thing one. Perfect rela. Collecting material stuff brings a sense of se- 9 & a sense of identity. & laughter into intimate relationships. organized & sober. Partners who don’t recipro. the support of others’ agendas. win them over. Will ‘O the Wisp: Charming. so tend to feel lost in unstructured situations. especially on the physical environ. Outbursts possible when pressure builds. Very protective of intimate others & norms. preferring to par- secure home life & to welcome others in a way that to take risks to test their courage. Want to create an inviting. These the act”. sense that life needs civilizing. Can relax when with intimates who respect of others & a sense of ease & security. justice systems. get grounded. Not very tolerant of group betrayers. but are secretly hurt if they feel they’re taken Need to learn to give without strings & to accept help to be aware of the roles they play and how to drop them for granted. people they support. a partner. Family Loyalist: Tend toward shyness & modesty. boundaries and melt into the larger group.

Fine PT Craftsman. Vengeful Lover. Escapist. Swift Courier. Behind-the-scenes 2 Divine Prostitute. Disciplined Perfectionist. Feisty Friend. Vestal Manipulator. Queen. Teacher. Devotee. Architect. Fun Parent. CEO. Meticulous Worker. Jet-setter. Originator of New Forms. Sensitive Friend. Effective Presenter. Self-conscious Friend. culine Ideal. Old Testament Family Member. Winged PT Family Entertainer. Tough-love Parent. Priest. Empathic Listener. Artist. Monk. Sober Citizen. Personal Valet. Honored Pattern Observer. Leader of PT Sampson. Quiet Fiery Rebel. Drama Queen/King. Lover of Love . Renaissance Man or Artless Charmer. Weightlifter. Imaginative Creator. Self-fascinated Narcissist Troubadour. Obstacle Surmounter Idealistic Lover. Instructor. CFO. Miss Manners Skinflint Guardian Angel. Family Preserver. Group Observer. Blender. Community Builder. Harmonizer. Passionate Lover. Loyalist. SUBTYPE ARCHETYPES. in Chief. Lothario. Rake. PT Putterer. Powerful Pres. Thinker. Edge-Walker. Pained Isolate. Justify- Seeker. Dance-away Lover. Renunciate. Conserver of the Social Order. Wicked Witch Determined Achiever. Table A-4. Military Commander. Individualist. Venus. Prince or Princess. Home Improver. Spy. Bodhisat- 5 Hobbyist. Underdog Fight- Preservationist. Madonna. Social Climber. Miss America. Aesthetic Appreciator. Wise Man or Woman. Unpopular Confronter. Pastry Chef. Adonis Personality. Teller of Life Stories. worker. Amateur Scholar. Avenging Angel. Social Architect. Serious tive. Persistent Defender. Persis. Hard-driving Executive. the Pack. Dauntless & Order. Rulemaker. Pragmatic Entrepreneur. Artistic Director. Prince Valiant. A Real Pal Practical Person. Detail-oriented Editor. Boss. Head of the lar Hero. Surrendered Lover. Angelic Herald. Vagabond. High-Flying Utopian. Nerd. Mountain Man. Tenured Professor. Success-oriented Careerist. Master Deal-maker Bohemian. Settler. Protester. Femme Fatale. tizer. Nature Worshipper. Stalker. Artist. Upholder of Law Welcomer. Tyrant. Possessive Friend Legal Advocate. 8 Mama. Natural Media- Sensible Thinker. PT Wordsmith. Aspiring Star. “Good Life” Aficionado. Manual Laborer Lover. lante. Prosecutor. Gracious Host or Hostess. Theoretical In. Uncompromis- Spiritual Gambler. Opinion Leader. One ner. Cook. Content Editor. Defender of the Faith. Empress. Lobbyist. Natural Mystic. Scribe. Romantic Rival. Puzzle Solver. Knight Errant. Slave. Social Critic. Poet. Consensus Builder. Unassuming 9 Person of the Land. Snake Charmer. 4 Learner. Popu- Adaptable Go-Getter. Wounded Healer. Sleuth. Wizard of Oz Tribal Healer. Bleeding Heart Devouring Mother. Weirdo Voyeur. Grounded Weightlifter. Ones of Pillar of Strength. Ambassador. Coach. Myth Collector. Hidden Partner. Devotee. Committee Worker. Gracious fusive Caregiver. Self-improvement Junkie. Manicured Profes- Class. Unyielding Conformist Could. Sex Goddess. Shiva/Kali. Braveheart. Recluse Secret Society Member. Holy Innocent. Nun. Strong Silent Type. Ruler. Godmother. Honorable Sur- “Thorn in the Side”. Religious Educator. Martial Artist. Exacting Mentor. Gossip. Community Member. Angelic Innocent of the Beautiful People Father Figure. Witch Doctor Shy Loyalist. Exacting Auditor. Self-Martyring Sacrificer. Fashion Plate. Faithful Steward. Lost Soul. er. Ambitious Giver. Force of Nature. “Do fice Seeker. Intimate Companion. Appreciator of Detail. Shy Sensualist Bon Vivant. Serf. Self Actualizer. Parsimonious Spender. Rebel Without A Cause. Alcoholic. Neighborhood Networker. Misunderstood Artist. Of- Public Personality. Faithful Companion. Organizer. Hunter or Hunt. Atlas. Detail Analyzer. Selfless Diplomat. Supportive Partner. Chieftain. 1 tent Interrogator. Exchanger of Confidences. Fantasy Spinner. Stuff Collector. Magical Child. Dominant Friend. Autocrat. Servant or Retainer. Arbiter. Guru. Brave Little Mouse. Emotional Vampire Parent. Hermit. Chess Player. Lawmaker. Social Muck-raker. Abandoned Child. Police Officer. Best Friend. Warm Cowardly Lion. LIFE PATHS & SOCIAL ROLES Self-Preservation Sexual Social Pioneer. Cowhand. Idea Jack of All Trades. Doting Mother. “Type A” Opinion Expert. Crone. Pampered Public Relations Consultant. Pope. Glamour PT everything” Mom. Mental Tinkerer. Comic. Referee Gardener. Nurse. Manic Optimistic Futurist. Fair Jurist. Saint. Charismatic er. Team Leader. Little Engine That Explorer. Gam. Shining Star. Mother Bear. Velveteen Rabbit Frustrated Seeker ing Activist. Fool. Big Fish in a Small Pond Glosser-over. Passionate Em. Mr. Etymologist. Anthropologist. Needy Virgin. Mother Nature. Parliamentarian. Busybody. Recognized Expert. Glutton. Enjoyer of Pleasure. Intellectual Spin. Woman. God or Goddess. Receptive tor. Scientist. Vigi- Homemaker. Friend. Champion. former. Maestro. Airbrushed Perfection. Prestige Elite Member. Early Adapter. Explorer of the Psyche. Idea Net- 7 Designer. Feminine Ideal. Fiery Advocate. Tense Worker. Animal Activity Coordinator. Hercules. PT Supporter. Blueprint Creator. Responsible Person. Emotional Blackmailer. Herdsman. Teacher. Hippie. True Believer. Investigator. Innovative Communicator. Ugly Duckling Private Genius. Shameless Social Idealist. Community Builder/ Concerned Parent. Prophet Lawmaker. Missionary. Eager Helper. Mas- “All work-no play”. Fierce Warrior. Mafia Don. Event Hostess. Debater. Flirt. Emperor. Unintentional Networker. bler. Strategist. Ambitious Journeyman. Nomad. Inquisitive Matchmaker. Nature Lover. Little Orphan Annie ress. Pilgrim. Space Protector. Armchair Revolutionary. Chat Room Dispassionate Facilitator. Communard. Mimic. Firefighter. Arcane Expert. Dedicated Girl Next Door. Seducer. Private Tutor. Knowledge Repository. Devoted Group Participant. Valedictorian. Tireless Reformer. tographer. Fairy Lover. Political Visionary. Public Relations Genius. Damsel Ambivalent Truth-teller. Protector. Tactician. Addict. Secret Pho. Recorder. Evangelist. Civic-minded Voter. Diva. Stage Mother. Credentialed 3 Hardworking Apprentice. Coquette. Facilitator. Homemaker. Pirate King. Dreamer. Meditator. Ranting Re. sure Finder. Loyal Employee. Alchemist. Ef- Devoted Helpmate. Occasional Iconoclast. Peasant. Pre. Personal Intimidator. Battlefield Medic. vivor. Honor-Bound Avenger. Dignified Civilizer. Steady Worker. Artisan. Playboy. Social Planner. Go-Between. Patient Endurer. Salon Designer. Clothes Designer. Witty Pundit. Mountain Hero. Midas the Boys. Mother Superior. Shaman. Enjoyer of Routines. Beauty Queen. Reflective Enthusiast. Model. Public Designer. Company Man/Woman. Unsung Hero. Duty-bound Counselor. Judge. Nervous Nelly. Impersonal Guide. Media Sensation. Alienated Idealist. Interior Trickster. Private Detective. Queen. PT ventor. Trea. Humanitarian. Angry Demonstrator. Reluctant Whistle-blower. Community 6 Protector. Rescuer. Harlot. Crop Picker. Wilderness Survivor. Angel of Benevolent Dictator. Passionate Soulmate. Undercover Opera. Sensitive Creator. Dramatist. Trendsetter. Patriarch. First Among Equals. Family Visionary. Unfulfilled Lover. Ethical or Spiritual Spiritual Hierophant. Destroyer. Actor. Mad Scientist. Power Behind the Throne. Scrapper. tva. Born Leader. Interested Teacher. Ascetic. Insightful Commentator. Chief Justice. Attention-getter. Juggler. Wilderness Tamer. Panhandler. Unassuming Doer. Commander pared Survivalist. Prosely. Consultant . Versatile Generalist. Sacrificial Christ. Boy or Volunteer. Politician. Gentle Helper. Heavyweight. God’s Instrument. Independent Jealous Competitor. Visionary Entrepreneur. Peacemaker. Victim. Messenger. Death. Persevering bracer. Impartial Inquisitor. Public sional. Space Cadet. Tabula Rasa. Craftsman. Human Potential Activist. Intense Seeker. Picketer. Solitary Philosopher. Stern Confessor. Frequent Worrier. Behind-the-scenes Internet Wizard. Gypsy. Intellectual Anarchist. King. Court-hold- ence. Gentle Friend. Picayune Grammarian. Family Counselor. Histo- Doer. Puritan. Chief Examiner. Sympathetic PT Listener. Weaver. Runt of the Litter. Aquarian Thinker. ing Complainer. Aimless Wanderer. Social Smoother. Would-be Rescuer. in Distress. Raconteur. Archivist. Spin Doctor. Public Artist. Hedonist. Comeback Kid. Gunslinger. Casanova. Guardian. Tribe Member. Professional Student. Refined Elitist. Tender rian.

Passion: possessing. unassum- ing employees. fulfilling. heroes & heroines. lead- PT isfying. supportive Examples: diplomats. lively friends armchair revolutionaries. parenting. devoting. withdrawing. designers. self-packaging 3 securing. radiating. independent directors. glittering. herders. retribution seeking. pursuers. separating. teachers. holding back. Law: ordaining. dreaming. knowledgeable guides. Freedom: playing. lawyers. flower children. demanding partners workers reluctant muckrakers. storing. whistling. understanding 5 penetrating Examples: thinkers. satisfying. containing. arranging. Chivalry: honoring. social supporters. ing. ing. determining. dance-away lovers. toughening. retaining. fierce lovers. regulating. undercover cops. ing. defending. jealous lovers. ing. disapproving. hard workers. fostering. belittling. opening. staking out. potters. smoothing over. PT ning-over. pioneers. enjoining. imagining. symbol Examples: gallery owners. net- PT ing. pro- Examples: spies. pursuing. mystics. surf. being receptive. refin- taking. tempting. enthusiastic workers interesting partners. boundary makers. emotional truth-tellers Privacy: desisting. stimulating. luring. Examples: politicians. pushing. mate affirming. covering. commanding. succeeding. kite natural jugglers. pleasing. movie stars. filling. dissecting. making tangible. reworking. fearing. “party-hard” types Practicality: allowing. serving reacting 6 ciating Examples: committee workers. upholding. gang Examples: strong men. Drama: dramatizing. reserved opinion leaders. synthesizing reflecting. striving. agreeing. group leader. romantics. tam. CEOs. win. cordoning off. wishing. explaining. home protectors. coaches. helping. regularizing 1 harnessing. public speakers. church members. community workers. snoozing. fascinating. stalking entertaining. translating. making connec- boosting. leading by example. mystifying. workaholics. caring. interpreting. accompanying. feisty friends. reifying. illuminat. fam. facilitators workers . underdog defenders. annihilating Examples: artless charmers. dispersing. connecting. structuring. tough-love parents. frequent wanderers. evaluating. pinpointing. fessors. governing. PT treating. stepping down. rough PT grounding. wandering. restraining. gardeners. loyal partners preservers. participants. whizzing. uncompromising ing. dancing. en- delineating. consecrating. seducing. holding. identifying. leaders vant partners fine craftsmen. shape-shifting. blanking out. feeding. nibblers & snackers. bureaucrats lovers. selecting. magnetizing. supporting. zooming. perceiving. romancing. overcoming. watchmakers Care-Giving: tending. self-abandoning. event organizers. romanticizing. originat. objecting. conforming. confirming. accumulating. literalizing. networking. following. loyal workers The Good Life: eating. spying. Examples: knights. free-falling. confidence boosters. dominating. program promoters. refraining. seeking. Examples: servants. devotees. nursing. shop. making. attracting. relentless workers cheerleaders. scientists. prescrib- impassioning. Examples: mediators. debating. ac. philosophers. settling in. ing. reaching. arbiters. improvising. storytellers. curbing deserving Examples: lawmakers. Research: surveying. imagining. emptying. decorating. forming. entertaining. muck-raking. possessing. public relations experts. policemen. watching. doing. romantic rivals. appreciating. bonding. anchoring. participant leaders. gourmands. welcoming. laying back. boundary detectives. speaking out. gleaming. shaping. civic organizers. analyzing. creating. lifting up. confiding. fashioning. warring. muscle men. confidential lovers. sleuths. appre. systematizing. mix. stretching. socializing. entrancing. clerks. bullying. spiraling. self-dissolving. meaning Examples: artisans. warming. expressing. killing. working. Examples: utopians. intensifying. earning. religious & spiritual intensifiers. energizing. ritualizing. Horatio Algers. ing. emotionally makers. beating. liberating. mediating. law-making. forgiv- housing. weightlift. jetsetters. respecting. ily-building. longing truth-telling. happy lovers. shining. assisting. affirming. Duty: supporting. following. unconventional workers Home: deferring. inhibiting. fierce friends tains. eradicating Examples: kings & queens. zealous preachers. Examples: “Type A”s. people who Examples: Moms. tough competitors. enticing. Examples: Puritans. rule-mak- izing. comforting. “per. tough tactician. whirring. stepping back. discriminating. saluting. fathers. defining. lustful lovers. serfs. disobeying 4 Examples: dramatic actors. publi- grinding out. Surrender: letting go. stamping out. organizers. matriarchs. self-comforting. Mormons. systematizing. Diplomacy: organizing. ers. peace- PT ing. self-promoting. mocking. bike riders. perform. juggling working. rabble-rousers. protectors. private. sleuth. persevering. warm hosts/hostesses. habitual counselors betweens. Vision: liberalizing. winning. hoarding. potential hedonists. fitting in. ensuring. conservers. humanitarians compassionate workers Security: undertaking. securing. forcing. twirling. Politics: public speaking. connectiing. civilizing. private partners keepers. secret operatives. sup- turing. opposing. resisting. strict parents. creating. ing. beseeching. pained critics. burning. idealizing ditionalists. surviving. flying. guardians. glowing. PT inviting. Examples: chefs. respecting. inspir. synthesizing. identifying. decreeing. Debate: arguing. ing. ambas- brothers & sisters. accomplishing. social networking Examples: lovers. furthering. restraining. obser- fect” housewives. minimiz. beautifying. broadening. rock stars. promoting 2 tions. judges. ensoulers. war- Examples: home-makers. ing. artistic directors. combining. guardians ers. selling. projecting. idealizing. enculturating. cautioning. weaving. detaching. withstanding. uplifting. synthesizing. encouraging. dating. contending. puttering. leaping. rarifying. separating. providing. dabbling cepting. affirming. territorial. retiring. social visionaries. securing. trusting. porting. image-oriented lovers & partners dictorians Origin: wondering. routinizing. housewives. seizing. defending. investigating. architects Brotherhood: pal-ing around. retreating & appearing. hanging out. mentalizing. achieving Examples: feminine ideal. wine tasters. ing. celebrating. jumping. secreting away. renunciates. complying. melding. submitting. shamans tinkerers. Examples: researchers. manhandling. inventors. materializing. habituating. competing. envisioning. big date. PT hating. preserving. Mating: idealizing. pondering. overwhelming. Table A-5. conserving. promoting. leap-frogging. chief- ers. concentrating. symbolizing. joining in. starring. PT curiosity creating. ordering. annihilating deepening. obeying. parents. intensifying. laboring. tra. nur- Romance: flirting. provoking. anchoring. seeing. critiquing. mixing it up. attentive listeners. vale- moms. firemen. drinking. ENERGETIC QUALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH EACH SUBTYPE Self-preservation Sexual Social Industry: focusing. un- Secrets: observing. Examples: beauty queens. home-making. adjuring. dragon slay- leader. satiating. confining. keeping ing. cooks. ornamenting. super. devoted partners. historians. criticizing. surveilling. aggressors. non-conforming. military strategist. puzzlers. enjoying. social Examples: ascetics. ing. winning over. loving. toughing it out 8 izing. patterning. parliamentarians. codifying. obsessing. waiting. avengers. pressur- specifying. designing. inventors. nurses. relaxing. whirling. sat. making. tossing around. creating. go- cowhands. flyers. facilitating. speculating. cooperating. disappearing. partners sadors. gardeners. proscribing. Participation: participating. 9 self-abdicating. listeners. triumph- personalizing. judging. outlasting. pointing out. harmonizing. realizing. melding. collecting. munch. attention garnering ing. negotiators. prettifying. alchemizing. upholding. cizing. torching. Stardom : aspiring. explicating. masculine ideal. hypnotizing. longing pacifying Examples: putterers. neighborhood riors. destroying. disciplining. ping. arriving. influenc- Strength: standing. social seekers. 7 expanding leaping over. ensuring. dominating. beaming. relaxing.

self-reliance & self-comfort. sexuality. The first three are the mini-collages I created for each subtype to use as handouts for a subtype workshop. Appendix B: Subtype Collages & “Wings Around the Enneagram” There are four figures in this appendix. Summary of Appendix B Tables: Table B-1. Table B-3. kundalini. The focus here is on home. team sports & cooperative ventures. Table B-4. formal cer- emonies. The fourth figure is one I call “Wings Around the Enneagram. The focus here is on socializing. Sexual Subtype Images. partnership. lawmking & the courts. mystery. Wings Around the Enneagram. social reform. Social Subtype Images. Self-Preservtion Subtype Images. The focus here is on intimacy. creativity. hearth.” It represents an effort to depict the enneagram subtypes along a continuum going around the outside of the enneagram circle. The title comes from the idea that the wings represents the transitions between each enneagram point and the neighboring points. intensity & transformation. The qualities of three subtypes are shown for each point at both its wings and its centermost area . political action. Table B-2.

Self-preservation Subtype Images. Collage by Susan Rhodes Figure B-1. .

. Sexual Subtype Images. Collage by Susan Rhodes Figure B-2.

Social Subtype Images. Collage by Susan Rhodes Figure B-3. .

Public Observer Social Critic Crusty Eccentric Dauntless Creator Wings Around Quirky Lover Moody Lover the Enneagram. Unassuming Enjoyer Dreamy Lover Placid Bear Universal Careful Compiler Patient Lover Harmonizer Wistful Lover Calm Pacifier Even-handed Mediator Patient Protector Conscientious Detailer Mature Lover Contained Lover Enduring Ruler Reserved Arbitrator Powerful Survivor Self-critical Perfectionist Chivalric Lover Intense Lover Triumphant Leader High-minded Civilizer Resourceful Realist 9 Concerned Citizen Bold Lover Impassioned Lover Confident Initiator Social Reformer 8 1 Zesty Pragmatist Enthusiastic Lover Good Samaritan Strategic Planner Giving Lover Body Public Servant Good Life Aficionado Joyful Lover Natural Nurturer Social Visionary Eager Lover 7 2 Friendly Hostess Receptive Enthusiast Best Friend Playful Lover Color Key: Seductive Lover Community Entertainer Self-preservation subtype Energetic Networker Sexual subtype Social subtype Family Appreciator Affable Go-Getter Grateful Lover Mind Heart Charming Lover Community Developer Cooperative Leader 6 3 Focused Achiever Family Preserver Tender Lover Model Lover Community Upholder Political Aspirant Cautious Conserver Independent Professional Bashful Lover Image-conscious Lover Community Server Prestige Elite Member 5 4 Detached Puzzler Artistic Achiever Undemonstrative Lover Self-conscious Lover Trend Analyzer Distinctive Aristocrat Reclusive Thinker Non-Conforming Artisan Private Lover Self-dramatizing Lover Figure B-4. Iconoclastic Commentator Ruthless Truthteller .