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The Role of Brazed Aluminium

Heat Exchangers in Mid-Scale
LNG Liquefaction

Gastech 2011

Oliver Knight
Chart Energy & Chemicals, Inc.

Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals, Inc. chart-ec.com |1

Disclaimer
This presentation includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act
of 1995. The use of words such as “may”, “might”, “should”, “will”, “expect”, “plan”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”,
“project”, “forecast”, “outlook”, “intend”, “future”, “potential” or “continue”, and other similar expressions are intended to
identify forward-looking statements. All of these forward-looking statements are based on estimates and assumptions by
our management as of the date of this presentation that, although we believe to be reasonable, are inherently uncertain.
Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, economic or social conditions
or circumstances to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements. These risks and
uncertainties include, among others, the following: the cyclicality of energy markets and the vulnerability of those markets
to economic downturns; the negative impacts of the recent global economic and financial crisis; fluctuations in energy
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Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals, Inc. chart-ec.com |2

Contents

Product & Market Evolution

What is a Brazed Aluminium Heat Exchanger (BAHX)?

What is Mid-Scale LNG?

Typical Applications of BAHX in Mid-Scale LNG Technology

2Φ Distribution / Transient Analysis

Summary and Questions

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Product & Market
Evolution

2030
2000

1950
Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals, Inc. chart-ec.com |4

ΔTLMTD Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com |5 . chart-ec. Inc. Brazed Aluminium Plate & Fin Heat Exchangers (BAHX) Q=U.A.

com |6 .BAHX Fabrication Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. chart-ec. Inc.

thickness.com |7 . chart-ec.Fin Types Plain Perforated Serrated Herringbone Low heat Medium heat High heat High heat transfer transfer transfer transfer Low pressure Medium pressure High pressure High pressure drop drop drop drop Other fin variables -> height. Inc. perforation … Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. density.

Braze Joint Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com |8 . Inc. chart-ec.

chart-ec.com |9 . Inc. Typical LNG Service BAHX Two or three core blocks can be welded together Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

20 streams • -269oC / +204oC design Versatile • 0 -160 bar • Compact Surface area- • 1oC approach to-volume • Thermal margin >1000 m2/m3 Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.com |10 .Features & Benefits • 2 . chart-ec.

com |11 . Inc. chart-ec.Range of Application Industrial Natural Gas Gases Processing BAHX Industrial Petrochemical Refrigeration Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

com |12 .Range of Application Industrial LNG Gases BAHX Industrial Petrochemical Refrigeration Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. chart-ec. Inc.

bp.com |13 . Inc. chart-ec.com/energyoutlook2030 Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.Energy Consumption and Fuel Mix Source: BP Energy Outlook 2030 http://www.

Inc. chart-ec.com |14 . Identified Gas Fields Source: Zeus Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

com |15 . chart-ec. Inc. Growth of Unconventional Gas Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

chart-ec.500 Mid-Scale 500 . Definition of Mid-Scale LNG Production Requirement TPD Fueling Station < 30 Peak Shaving 50 .2850 Baseload > 7.200 Small-Scale 30 .com |16 .500 Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.

5 2 1. Inc.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 25-Year Recoverable Resources (TCF) Source: Zeus Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com |17 .Fit of Mid-Scale LNG 4 Suggested Plant Size in MMT/Y 3. chart-ec.5 1 0.5 3 2.

Inc.com |18 .Shorter Project Execution Source: Adapted model courtesy of Siemens Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. chart-ec.

chart-ec.com |19 . LNG Technology Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.

Process Selection Criteria Nitrogen • Lower efficiency & cost Cycle • Small to Mid-Scale Single Mixed • Medium efficiency & cost Refrigerant • Mid-Scale Cascade.com |20 . • Higher efficiency & cost C3/MR • Baseload Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. chart-ec. Inc.

modularized. chart-ec. Inc. BAHX Enabled Features Scale-adapted.com |21 . standardized. expandable and efficient Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

chart-ec. standardized. modularized. BAHX Enabled Features Scale-adapted. Inc.com |22 . expandable and efficient Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

chart-ec. modularized.com |23 . Inc. expandable and efficient Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. BAHX Enabled Features Scale-adapted. standardized.

com |24 . standardized. modularized. chart-ec. Inc. BAHX Enabled Features Scale-adapted. expandable and efficient Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

com |25 . Inc. chart-ec. standardized. modularized. expandable and efficient Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. BAHX Enabled Features Scale-adapted.

com |26 . chart-ec. Patent Pending Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.

LIQUEFIER Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. chart-ec.com |27 . Inc.

com |28 . chart-ec. Mid-Scale LNG Cold Box Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.

Inc.Mid-Scale LNG Cold Box Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. chart-ec.com |29 .

com |30 . NGL / N2 Removal Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc. chart-ec.

com |31 . chart-ec. Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)  To prevent freezing  To meet LNG specification  To produce NGL product Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.

A B BAHX Layer Types Hot or Cold Inlet distributor Heat transfer fin Outlet distributor Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.com |32 . chart-ec.

A repeating pitch of layers is usually best.Stacking Arrangement 1 : 1 (Hot : Cold) 1 : 2 (Hot : Cold) The stacking arrangement is crucial to optimising heat transfer. Inc. chart-ec.com |33 . Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

Inc. chart-ec.Visual Representation Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com |34 .

chart-ec. Inc. PRE- COOLING Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com |35 .

Inc. chart-ec.com |36 .Core-in-KettleTM  Kettle up to 55 bar  Core up to 160 bar  Temperatures between -269oC and + 204oC Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

chart-ec.000 HP) requirement Save 15% on compressor cost @ $800/kW =$900. Inc.000 Save 15% on operating expense @ $0.com |37 Source adapted from GPSA Engineering Data Book .000 / year Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. CIKTM technology enables approach temperatures o to be reduced from 7 C to o 1 C resulting in a 15% saving on compression energy requirement 7460kW (10.06kWh-1 =$600.

com |38 . chart-ec.CIK Engineering Kettle up to 55 bar Core up to 160 bar Temperature range: -269o/+204oC Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.

chart-ec. Inc.com |28 .Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

Inc. chart-ec.Other Applications Carbon Capturing Helium recovery Boil Off Gas Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com  |40 .

chart-ec.com |41 . Boil Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals. Inc.

2Φ Inlet Distribution Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com |42 . Inc. chart-ec.

0% 10.0% 100.0% 0.0% % UA Increase % UA Increase 200.0% 250. Inc.0% 0.0% 4.0% 150.0% 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Mixed % Mixed Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.0% 12.0% 8.Process Sensitivity In-layer device In-header device 300.0% 50.0% 2. chart-ec.0% 6.com |43 .

Inc.com |44 . chart-ec.Transient Conditions  Stream-to-stream temperature difference should be below 30oC at any given location  Rate-of-change-of-temperature should be kept at 2oC per minute  Outside of these rules we can evaluate in more detail using:  Numerical Analysis (CFD/FEA)  Aspentech LNG Dynamic Analysis  Bulk Analysis Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.

Performance. chart-ec. and Cost Effective Mission Critical Heat Exchangers for LNG! Innovation. Compact. Inc. Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.Summary BAHX are Proven.com |45 . Experience. Efficient.

chart-ind.Thank you! oliver. Inc.com |46 . chart-ec.knight@chart-ind.com Come and talk with us at stand D080! Confidential – for internal Chart E&C use only ©2009 Chart Energy & Chemicals.com +44 7946 664453 http://www.