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Prashanthi Gajula Sree Chaitanya Institute of Management and Computer Sciences, LMD Colony, Thimmapor, Karimnagar 505001(A.P.) Prashanthi.email@example.com Mobile num: 9700558784 Abstract
In this paper, the basics of capturing an image, image processing to modify and enhance the images are discussed. There are many applications for Image Processing like surveillance, navigation, and robotics. Robotics is a very interesting field and promises future development so it is chosen as an example to explain the various aspects involved in Image Processing . The various techniques of Image Processing are explained briefly and the advantages and disadvantages are listed. There are countless different routines that can be used for variety of purposes. Most of these routines are created for specific operations and applications. However, certain fundamental techniques such as convolution masks can be applied to many classes of routines. We have concentrated on these techniques, which enable us to adapt, develop, and use other routines and techniques for other applications. The advances in technology have created tremendous opportunities for visual system and image processing. There is no doubt that the trend will continue into the future. form is orthogonal series expansion. Image processing system is typically non-casual system. Image processing is two dimensional signal processing. Due to linearity Property, we can operate on rows and columns separately. Image processing is vastly being implemented by “Vision Systems” in robotics. Robots are designed, and meant to be controlled by a computer or similar devices. While “Vision Systems” are most sophisticated sensors used in Robotics. They relate the function of a robot to its environment as all other sensors do. “Vision Systems” may be used for a variety of applications, including manufacturing, navigation and surveillance.
One of the first applications of image processing techniques in the first category was in improving digitized newspaper pictures sent by submarine cable between London and Newyork . Introduction of the Bartlane cable picture transmission system in the early 1920’s reduced the time required to transport a picture across the Atlantic from more than a week. Some of the initial problems in improving the visual quality of these early digital pictures were related to the selection of printing procedures and the distribution of brightness levels. The printing method used to send the picture by specialized printing equipment coded pictures was abandoned towards the end of 1921 in favor of a technique based on photographic reproduction made from tapes perforated at the telegraph receiving terminal whose improvements are evident both in tonal quality and resolution. During this period introduction of a system for developing a film plate via light beams that were modulated by the coded picture tape improved the reproduction process considerably. Improvements on processing methods for transmitted digital pictures continued to be made during the next 35 years. However, it took the combined advents of large scale digital computers and space program to bring into focus the potential of image processing concepts. Work on using computer techniques for improving images from a space probe began at the
Image, ImageProcessing , Surveillance, Robotics, Navigation, Convolution.
Digital Image Processing is concerned with acquiring and processing of an image. In simple words an image is a representation of a real scene, either in black and white or in color, and either in print form or in a digital form i.e., technically a image is a two-dimensional light intensity function. In other words it is a data intensity values arranged in a two-dimensional form like an array, the required property of an image can be extracted from processing an Image .Image is typically by stochastic models. It is represented by AR model. Degradation is represented by MA model. Other
Example: Index Terms Image: An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function. . y). A digital image is composed of a finite number of elements. When x. Example: Image Image Restoration: Improving the appearance of an image tend to be based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation. To bring out detail is obscured. this information bears little resemblance to visual features that human beings use in interpreting the contents of an image. y and the amplitude values of f are all finite. Improve image quality for human perception and / or computer interpretation. Other areas of image processing technology include: o 3-D Imaging o Multimedia o In Camera Image Processing Image Processing Inside the Digital Camera: Image Processing: Image processing is a subclass of signal processing concerned specifically with pictures. discrete quantities. where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates. interest focuses on procedures for extracting from an image information in a form suitable for computer processing. Image Enhancement.Jetpropulsion Laboratory at Pasadena. We do the rest" takes on new meaning when you consider that the moment you press the button of a digital camera. and multi dimensional distance measures. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression standard. In this case. f(x. From 1964 until the present. y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. Often. each of which has a particular location and value. Examples of the type of information used in machine perception are Statistical moments. we call the image a digital image. Wavelets: Foundation for representing images in various degrees of resolution. Pixel is the term most widely used to denote the elements of a digital image Distorted Image Image Restorted Color Image Processing: Gaining its importance because of the significant increase in the use of digital images over the Internet. When you snap a picture with a digital camera. California in 1964 when pictures of the moon were transmitted which were processed by computer to correct various types of image distortion inherent in the on-board television camera. "You press the button. Ex. sophisticated digital image processing takes place inside the camera. and the amplitude of ‘f’ at any pair of coordinates (x. The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. These elements are referred to as picture elements. several things happen almost instantaneously to produce bright colorful images. pels. Used in image data compression and pyramidal representation (images are subdivided successively into smaller regions) Compression: Reducing the storage requires to save an image or the bandwidth required to transmit it. the field of image processing has grown vigorously. and pixels. The second major area of application of digital image processing techniques is in solving problems dealing with machine perception. image elements. or simply to highlight certain features of interest in an image. Fourier transform coefficients.
4. Light is captured on an image sensor with pixels coated in red. 3D Imaging The world about us is three-dimensional. Smart algorithms in the camera "firmware" respond to the scene data and sharpen the image. Segmentation.Three-dimensional imaging attempts to retain the three-dimensional nature of the world. green and blue patterns. the camera compresses the image into the JPEG format. Thresholding. They blend computer graphics and photography so objects can be viewed from any vantage and still have the detail and richness of photographs. Finally. Objects now are photo-realistic since the data comes directly from photograph. and others. The system automatically corrects color. 2. Morphological processing: Tools for extracting image components that are useful in the representation and description of shape. at some point. yet photography shows us the world in two dimensions. It is one of the most difficult tasks in DIP. improve. Analysis: The following is the overall view and analysis of Image Processing. Edge Detection. or otherwise alter an image and to prepare it for image analysis. Scientists are working on cameras and applications that collect and apply the full geometry of world.1. constituting either the boundary of a region or all the points in the region itself. and to improve the image. Masking. or information that may be important. including histogram Analysis. trivial information. Recent Achievements: Developed with a system that collects images of an object and builds a computer graphic model that can be viewed from any point. Usually. Image Segmentation: Computer tries to separate objects separate objects from the image background from the image background. While our methods initially are intended for e-commerce. The intention is to remove faults. the technology will be available to consumers. during image processing information is not extracted from the image. adjusts for exposure and implements automatic noise reduction. The system eliminates much of the time and expense in constructing 3D objects of high quality. Key Research Areas: o Photography o Software o Computer Graphics o Displays Image Processing Techniques: Image Processing techniques are used to enhance. but not useful. A rugged segmentation procedure brings the process a long way toward successful solution of an image problem Output of the segmentation stage is raw pixel data. 3. The sensor captures the light and interpolates the scene into full color. . Image processing is divided into many sub processes.
comparing each pixel value with the threshold. Some noises are systematic and come from dirty lenses. having a similar texture. There by the noise is reduced. Edge Detection: Edge Detection is a general name for a class of routines and techniques that operate on an image and results in a line drawing of the image. coming from the same object. Recognition And Interpretation: Recognition is the process that assigns a label to an object based on the information provided by its descriptors. depending on whether the pixel’s grayness level is below the threshold or above the threshold value. bad memory chips and low resolution. If the output of the camera or sensor is not already in digital form. etc. Various techniques are available to choose an appropriate threshold ranging from simple routines for binary images to sophisticated techniques for complicated images. Others are random and are caused by environmental effects or bad lighting. due to both hardware and software inadequacies. It is possible to create masks that behave like a low pass filter. such that higher frequencies of an image are attenuated while the lower frequencies are not changed very much. we first have to decide upon a connectivity path. 4. It helps to limit the search. Image Acquisition: An image is captured by a sensor (such as a monochrome or color TV camera) and digitized. In addition. each with a selected threshold. The purpose of segmentation is to separate the information contained in the image into smaller entities that can be used for other purposes Convolution Masks: A mask may be used for many different purposes. Thresholding can be performed either at a single level or at multiple levels. 5. Image Acquisition Knowledge Base Recognition and Interpretation nn Preprocessin g Segmentatio n Representatio n and Description Connectivity: Sometimes we need to decide whether neighboring pixels are somehow “connected” or related to each other. sometimes images are not of good quality. Representation And Description: Representation and Description transforms raw data into a form suitable for the Recognition processing. Knowledge Base: A problem domain detailing the regions of an image where the information of interest is known to be located is known as knowledge base. they have to be enhanced and improved before other analysis can be performed on them. Segmentation: Segmentation is the generic name for a number of different techniques that divide the image into segments of its constituents. Noise Reduction: Like other signal processing mediums. an analog-to digital converter digitizes it. To establish the connectivity of neighboring pixels. faulty electronic components. The net effect is a corrupted image that needs to be preprocessed to reduce or eliminate the noise. 3. Connectivity establishes whether they have the same property. in which the image is processed by dividing it into ”layers”.Stages In Image Processing: A problem A solution Thresholding: Thresholding is the process of dividing an image into different portions by picking a certain grayness level as a threshold. Noise and Edges produces higher frequencies in the spectrum of a signal. Vision Systems contains noises. such as being of the same region. Interpretation is assigning meaning to an ensemble of recognized objects. 1. and then assigning the pixel to the different portions. thus. The lines represented changes in values such as cross . including filtering operations and noise reduction. 2.
emissive displays. scanners. image processing operations. or color filter array -. once viewed as revolutionary in the imaging industry. in general.can significantly impact image quality. Drawing on an extensive library of fully characterized images. In other situations. is now taken for granted. lines. and colors. camera exposure control and component positioning tolerances were developed with the aid of system performance models. textures. the image is digitized and stored before processing. Some techniques are mathematically oriented. In digital imaging. Edge detection is also necessary in subsequent process. modeling is used to predict the performance the entire system. Scientists work on simulating traditional and digital imaging systems. color. for example. For hybrid and digital imaging products. Advances in information networking allow applications to seamlessly integrate multimedia into every form of communication. Simulating new color films and paper emulsions has replaced time-consuming.sections of planes.The vision of helping people and businesses tell their stories more effectively through imaging. as well as differences in shading and textures. However. The requirements for the temporal and spatial resolution of an image. sensor. in other situations. there is a need for real-time processing such that the results are available in real time or in a short enough time to be considered real time. although the image is not stored. Image communications: Image communications is what makes digital imaging much more than a mere replacement for film-based technology. these scientists are able to save considerable time and effort in the process. They manipulate tone scale. Modeling: A key goal for the system designers was for overall image quality to closely match that of current 35mm systems. Ultimately. simulations can eliminate the need for elaborate "breadboard" hardware needed to produce experimental images. such as segmentation and object recognition. and the number of gray levels are determined by the required quality of the image. Image Simulation: Image simulation is used to generate actual images based on system models. including transmission over the Internet. The images generated are then used in studies in which people choose which pictures they find most pleasing. One is to design dedicated hardware such that the processing is fast enough to occur in real time. Real-Time Image Processing: In many of the techniques considered so far. Two different approaches are considered for real time processing. Image Data Compression: Electronic images contain large amounts of information and thus require data transmission lines with large bandwidth capacity. some are heuristic. intersections of planes. the processing routines require long computational times before they are finished. Scientists use advanced imaging software to emulate the characteristics of film or digital systems. is much simpler to be processed. capture and display media and human visual responses. Image quality modeling was key in selecting the new film and print format sizes and in evaluating proposed features. as well as hybrid systems that combine both technologies. expensive physical experiments in chemical laboratories. This may be acceptable in situations in which the decisions do not affect the process. Recent data transmission and storage techniques have significantly improved image transmission capabilities. and saves in computation and storage costs. image sensors. Developers used predictive system modeling to meet image quality targets for the system. modification of only one component -such as the lens. and some are descriptive. printers. In a digital camera. How to Manage and Use All That Data The digitization of the imaging industry brings new technical challenges and opportunities. The final result is a line drawing or similar representation that requires much less memory to be stored. including elements such as optics. there is a long lapse between the time and image is taken and the time a result obtained. the number of images per second. All generally operate on the differences between the gray levels of pixels or groups of pixels through masks or thresholds. This means that. sharpness and grain to generate the kind of picture quality that a proposed system would deliver. The other is to try to increase the efficiency of both the software and the hardware and thereby reduce processing and computational requirements. such a pseudo zoom. Making Digital Imaging Easy Is Not So Easy . specifications for such elements as film design.
The hand of the robot and the object that is to be captured are observed by the cameras. competitive edge in the new age of imaging. diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and physiology). Contrast media. Medical image processing 7. A simple application in robotics using Vision Systems is a robot hand-eye coordination system. An image receptor is required to convert the radiation into an image after it has passed through the area of . Applications: There is a wide range of applications of the digital image processing.000 times. As a discipline and in its widest sense. for human pathological investigations).As camcorders. at a lower dose rate. endoscopy. Electron microscopy is employed in anatomic pathology to identify organelles within the cells.000. Lane departure warning system 5. containing positional information). this real time image is processed by the image processing techniques to get the actual distance between the hand and the object. Achieving this grand vision will be neither quick nor easy. Medical imaging Medical imaging refers to the techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal. Here the base wheel of the robot’s hand is rotated through an angle. medical photography and microscopy (e. Hence image processing is used here in the study of robotics. Morphological image processing Robotics: Image Processing is vastly being implemented in Vision Systems in Robotics. magnifying at levels up to 2. Here the robots are fixed with cameras to view the object. Face detection 3. but which produce data susceptible to be represented as maps (i. Computer vision 2. The operation to be performed is controlled by the micro-controller. identification of immotile cilia syndrome and many other tasks Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy produces real-time images of internal structures of the body in a similar fashion to radiography. few f them are 1.Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images. which is to be moved. but employs a constant input of x rays. adiological sciences. Here the usage of sensors/cameras and Edge Detection technique are related to Image Processing and Vision Systems.(medical) thermography. Here a point in the target is obtained by using the Edge Detection Technique.e. such as barium. which is connected to the ports of the fingers of the Electron microscopy The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons as the source of illumination. which is proportional to the actual distance between hand and the object. Using the software programs the operations to be performed are assigned keys from the keyboard. digital still cameras. Its usefulness has been greatly reduced by immune histochemistry but it is still irreplaceable for the diagnosis of kidney disease. such as electroencephalography(EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) and others. Robots capture the real time images using cameras and process them to fulfill the desired action. it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology (in the wider sense). These efforts should give a sustainable. Today. and multiple data formats.g. which are fixed to the robot in position. Fluoroscopy is also used in image-guided procedures when constant feedback during a procedure is required. Increasingly we are discovering that XML offers a common framework that can solve many of the problems that arise from e-commerce. Feature detection 4. Medical field and common uses… robot’s hand. Consider that the robot’s task is to move an object from one point to another point. Microscope image processing 8. iodine. privacy of records. By this technique the complexity of using manual sensors is minimized to a great extent and thereby sophistication is increased. and PDAs converge — and as more powerful editing and organization tools are developed — we will enter a new age of personal imaging in which anyone could produce multimedia content that rivals the quality of today's movies and television programs. By pressing the relative key on the keyboard the hand moves appropriately. and air are used to visualize internal organs as they work. can be seen as forms of medical imaging. image communication specialists are creating the infrastructure that could one-day support this vision. Here we want to present some of the applications of Image Processing in some fields where it is applied like Robotics. as well as the technologies that will make that possible. Non-photorealistic rendering 6.
such as barium. which gave way to an Image Amplifier (IA) which was a large vacuum tube that had the receiving end coated with cesium iodide. etc. It is also relatively inexpensive and quick to perform. Other important uses include imaging the abdominal organs. and contains speckle that can be used in elastography. such as 123I is administered to the patient. Ultrasound Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound waves in the megahertz range that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce (up to 3D) images. Early on this was a fluorescing screen. and a mirror at the opposite end. avoiding the danger caused while moving the patient to the radiology department.interest. Baby scan Projection radiography Radiographs. can be calculated from the data. With the use of radio-opaque contrast media. MRI scan of knee Thyroid Animal Tracking In order to collect spatial information about an animal's movement by means of digital image processing techniques the information has to be collected sequentially. the exact time for each coordinate pair is extracted simultaneously. in particular that it studies the function of moving structures in realtime. the path can be measured. Doppler capabilities on modern scanners allow the blood flow in arteries and veins to be assessed. time as an additional information. It is very safe to use and does not appear to cause any adverse effects. Ideally. By means of extracting the X. are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs. more commonly known as x-rays. should be included. Although information on this is not well Documented. emits no ionizing radiation. Nuclear medicine Images from gamma cameras are used in nuclear medicine to detect regions of biological activity that are often associated with diseases. it has to be noted that depending upon the framerate (time resolution) the total pathlength may vary to a great extend. This can be achieved by analyzing subsequent image frames of a digitized video. valuable information like speed. they can also be used to visualize the structure of the stomach and intestines . it has several advantages which make it ideal in numerous situations. can be used to guide drainage and biopsy procedures. This is often used to visualize the fetus in pregnant women. If the images are captured and analyzed at a constant framerate or. such as tumors or fracture points in bones.this can help diagnose ulcers or certain types of colon cancer. and the veins of the leg.and Ycoordinates representing the position of a mouse for each individual image frame. The real time moving image obtained . stops. These isotopes are more readily absorbed by biologically active regions of the body. male genitalia. alternatively. Eventually the mirror was replaced with a TV camera. heart. Talking about timelines. Ultrasound scanners can be taken to critically ill patients in intensive care units. A short lived isotope. While it may provide less anatomical detail than techniques such as CT or MRI.
Introduction To Digital Image Processing – Anil K. Conclusion: It’s a critical study. 4. Hence it’s unsuitable and unbeneficial to ordinary programmers with mediocre knowledge. which plays a vital role in modern world as it is involved with advanced use of science and technology. inspection for abnormalities in industries. The advances in technology have created tremendous opportunities for Vision System and Image Processing. In Space Exploration the robots play vital role which in turn use the image processing techniques. Niku 2.Saeed B.Jain 3. Digital Mage Processing . 4. Woods. Analysis. In medicine by using the Image Processing techniques the sophistication has increased. . Gonzalez And Richard E. AddisonWesley 1993.Rafael C. Systems. Geological Surveys for detecting mineral resources etc. There is no doubt that the trend will continue into the future. References: 1. Image Processing is used for Astronomical Observations. 5. inexpensive. A Person needs knowledge in many fields to develop an application / or part of an application using image processing. 2. 3. powerful tools that can be used with ease. Introduction To Robotics.Advantages: 1. Disadvantages: 1. This lead to technological advancement. Vision Systems are flexible. 2. Applications . Also used for character recognizing techniques. Syed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain.Also used in Remote Sensing. From the above discussion we can conclude that this field has Relatively more advantages than disadvantages and hence is very useful in varied branches. Digital Image Processing by Engr. Calculations and computations are difficult and complicated so needs an expert in the field related. 6.
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