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OIL (Helianthus annuus L.)

Ir. Indra Surya, M.Sc., Ph. D, Dian Kesuma Sitorus, Hamzah Arifin Sinambela
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of North Sumatra
Jl. Dr. Mansyur, Medan, 20155, Indonesia

Soap is an alkali metal salt usually a sodium salt of fatty acids. The purpose of this experiment was to
study the process of making soap, and to analyze the quality of soap. The materials used in this
experiment were aquadest (H2O), hydrochloric acid (HCl), ethanol (C2H5OH), indicator
phenolphtalein (C20H14O4), sunflower seed oil, sodium oxide (NaOH), perfumes and dyes . The tools
used in this experiment are beaker glass, burette, cup, erlenmeyer, measuring cup, hot plate, clamp,
stative, and stirrer. In this experiment, sunflower seed oil is heated to temperatures between 60-700C.
Then mixed with NaOH slowly, and add perfume and dye while stirring with a magnetic stirrer. After
thickening, then poured into a petri dish coated by plastic wrap. Soap analysis was done by weighing
5 grams of soap sample then dissolved with 100 ml ethanoldi in beaker glass. Taken 5 ml of this
solution, and drop the phenolphtalein indicator. Then the solution was titrated with 0.1 N HCl
solution. The soap mass obtained from this experiment was 99.31 grams with a theoretical mass of
100,228 grams to obtain a correction of 0.9% and the free alkali content of soap was 6.96%.

Keywords: free alkali, ethanol, sunflower seed oil, soap, titration.

Preliminary food industry in the form of kwaci and

Soap is a material used for washing and vegetable oilseeds needed in the oil industry.
emulsifying.It consists of two main components Some industries in Indonesia still have to import
namely fatty acids with carbon chains C16 and sunflower seed oil, the high imports of
sodium or potasium. Soap is a cleanser made by sunflower seed oil in Indonesia due to lack of
chemical reactions between potassium or supply from domestic, inadequate quality, and
sodium with fatty acids from vegetable oil or continuity of unreliable results [2].
animal fat. Soap made from NaOH is known as Soap is a cleaning product for human
hard soap, while soaps made with KOH are skin such as detergent, soap has hydrophobic
known as soft soaps [1]. group which interact with oil and water-soluble
The problem formulation of this anionic tip. The soap mechanism of lifting oil or
experiment is how to make soap from sunflower fat from the object is water soluble soap
seed oil with NaOH and how to analyze the free molecule and hydrophobic tip surrounds the oil
alkali content in soap. molecule while the dissolved anionic end in
The purpose of this experiment is to water forming micelles so that the oil is
learn how to make soap and ways analyzing the detached from the object [3].
free alkali content of the soap. Oil saponification is a term applied to
operations where oil reacts with alkali to form
Theory glycerol and fatty acids. The production of fatty
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) acids and glycerol from essential oils is
belongs to the compositae family. In the particularly important in the oleochemical
beginning sunflower plants are known as industry [1].
ornamental plants. Sunflower seed oil is one
type of vegetable oil that the developer is still
limited in Indonesia. Sunflower seed oil
contains linoleic acid 44-72% and oleic acid
11,7%. Sunflower seed oil is used for various
purposes such as cooking oil, margarine
making, cosmetic ingredients and medicines, Figure 1. Saponification Reaction [3]
besides oil-based cake or pulp containing 13-
20% protein, which can be used as animal feed. There are several factors that influence
For example sunflower seeds include low oil the saponification reaction, among others :
cholesterol, corn oil, peanut oil, and soybean oil 1. The concentration of KOH / NaOH solution,
so it is good for health. the base concentration used is calculated
One of the main products of sunflower is based on the stoichiometry of the reaction,
its seeds are processed as raw materials for the
in which the addition of the base must be into a petri dish that had previously been coated
slightly excessive from the oil in order to be with plastic wrap to prevent the sticky soap in
completely sterilized. petri dishes. Silenced for 45 minutes at room
2. Since the saponification reaction is an temperature. The next step is to analyze the free
exothermic reaction (ΔH negative), then the alkali content of soap by taking 5 grams of soap
temperature rise will be able to minimize the sample. Cut the soap into a small size. Once it is
price of K (balance constant), but if it is dissolved with 100 ml of ethanol in a beaker
viewed in terms of kinetics, the temperature glass. Stirred until the mixture is homogeneous.
rise will increase the reaction rate. Then, 5 ml of the solution is then dropped with
3. Stirring, stirring is carried out to increase the phenolpthalein indicator. Titrated with 0.1N
probability of collisions of reactant hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to a white
molecules reacting. If the collision between solution.
reactant molecules gets bigger, then the
chance of reaction is getting bigger too. Results
4. The time, the longer the reaction time causes The results obtained from the experiment
more oil to be accumulated, the higher the of making and analyzing the quality of this soap
yield, but if the reaction has reached the are:
equilibrium, the addition of time will not Table 1. Test Data of Soap Quality
increase the amount of oil deposited [1]. Preparation and Analysis
Research Methodology Mass of Alkali
Soap Error
Material Mol Ratio Solution Free
The materials used in this experiment Practice (%)
(gram) (%)
Oil 1 50
1. Aquadest, as a solvent.
Water 9 28,868 99,31 0,9 6,96
2. Hydrochloric acid, as the test tester at free
NaOH 3 21,36
alkali level.
3. Ethanol, as a solvent of soap to be titrated.
4. Indicator of phenolpthalein, as indicator in In this experiment the alkali compound
titration. used was sodium hydroxide (NaOH). This
5. Sunflower seed oil, as the main ingredient of experiment begins by mixing sunflower seed oil
soap making. with sodium hydroxide solution according to the
6. Sodium hydroxide, as a mixing agent in mole ratio then heated over the hot plate. The
soap making. solution is stirred with a magnetic stirrer while
7. Perfume, as an odor-giving agent in soap. remaining heated. After the thickening solution
8. Dye, as a color giver on soap. is added perfume and dye, where in this
The tools used in this experiment are: experiment the dye used is red. If it has
1. Beaker glass, as a mixing solution. thickened the solution poured into a petri dish
2. Buret, as a container of titrant. and silenced until the soap hardens. After the
3. Petri dish, as a soap printer. harden is taken as much as 5 grams then
4. Erlenmeyer, as the solution container to be dissolved with ethanol. The solution was tested
titrated. with 2 drops of phenolpthalein and titrated with
5. Hot plate, a tool for heating the sample and 0.1N hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to a
solution. white soap solution solution.
6. Statif, as a burette buffer. From the experimental results obtained
7. Clamps, as a burette clamp. by the theoretical mass obtained in theory is
8. Magnetic stirrer, a tool for stirring solution. 100,228 grams with soap mass practice of 99.31
9. Plastic wrap, to coat the petri dish. grams. So that the percentage of errata is 0.9%.
10. Electric balance, tool for weighing. Errors in the experiment of making this
In the experiment of making and soap are obtained, caused by:
analyzing the quality of soap there are two 1. The alkali content used is too excessive or
steps: making soap and analyzing the free alkali the alkaline solution is too concentrated.
content on soap. Procedure of making soap by 2. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in
putting 50 grams of sunflower seed oil into soap
beaker glass and heated samapai temperature 3. Less in stirring so that NaOH is not mixed
60-70oC.Kemudian added sodium hydroxide evenly in oil solution
solution (NaOH) while stirred with a magnetic In a standard study according to SNI 06-
stirrer. Then added perfume and dye 3532-1994 ie, the free alkali content of soap is
sufficiently. If the solution has thickened pour less than 0.1% for sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
Free alkali is alkali in soap that is not bound to
fatty acids to form fatty acid (soap). Alkali in obtained from this soap-making experiment is a
bath soap should not exceed 0.1% for sodium, hard soap in accordance with the alkali used ie
because alkaline has a harsh and irritating NaOH.
properties on the skin. If the free alkali level is
too high, it will result in drying out the skin [4]. Thank-you note
Based on experimental results of free The author would like to thank Mr. Ir.
alkali content obtained from the experiment of Indra Surya, M.Sc., Ph.D as the author's
soap quality analysis is 6.96%, while based on lecturer, all laboratory assistants of Organic
the theory alkali levels should not exceed 0.1% Chemistry, especially abangda Hamzah Arifin
so that the results obtained are not in accordance Sinambela, fellow classmates especially M.
with the theory. Otzeman Nur S group XXVIII (twenty eight)
The things that can cause free alkali who helped in writing this journal.
levels in this experiment exceed 0.1% are:
1. Adding excessive alkali to the saponification Bibliography
process [1] Alperdo, John, Lukman Arifin, Rahmawati
2. Oil and NaOH solution stirred using a Situmorang. 2013. Soap Maker And
magnetic stirrer when heating is not too Softener. Riau University. Pekanbaru.
thick but already put in a petri dish so the [2] Katja G. God. 2012.Quality of Sunflower
soap is difficult to harden. Oil Commercial And Oil Result of
3. Soap dissolves uniformly in dilution by Sunflower Seed Extraction (Helianthus
ethanol at the time of being titrated. annuus L.). Sam Ratulangi University,
Manado. Journal of Scientific Science Vol.
12 No. 1.
[3] Andriani, Kiki. 2014. The Effects Of
Temperature And Time Of Storage On
Color Changes, Perfume Strength, Water
Content, Free Alkali, Free Fatty Acids, And
Poise Peroxide Numbers In Soap And Solid
Soap Soap. University of North Sumatra,
[4] Langingi Raymon, Lidya I. Momuat,
Figure 2. Result of Soap Experiment Maureen G. Kumaunang. 2012. Making
Solid Bath Soap From VCO Carotenoid
Containing Carrots. Journal Mipa Unsrat
Online 1 (1) 20-23.

Figure 3. Result of Titration of Soap Solution

The conclusions obtained from the
experiment of soap making and soap quality
analysis is the theoretical mass of the theory of
100.228 grams with the mass of soap obtained
in practice of 99.31 grams. Therefore, the
percentage of massacabun recovered was 0.9%.
In the analysis of soap quality of free alkali
content obtained is 6.96%. Therefore the soap is
unusable because it contains more than 0.1%
free alkali content for sodium. And the soap