You are on page 1of 68

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The mungbean [ Vigna radiate (L.) Wilezek] has been grown in India since ancient
times. It is an important pulse crop in South and East Asia { Keatinage et al 2011).
At global level pulses are the third most important group of crops after cereals and
oilseeds. India ranks first in the world in area as well as production of mungbean,
Mungbean is the third important pulse crop of India in terms of area cultivated and
production, next to chickpea, and pigeon pea. India is the largest producer of pulses
in the world with 35.7 per cent share in global production ( FAOSTAT 2013).
Mungbean contributed 9.4 per cent to the total production of pulses in the country
during 2011-12 . In India, area and production of mungbean in 2010-11 was 3.55
million hectares and 1.82 million tones, respectively and average yield was 512
kg/ha (MULLAP 2013) and in 2011-12 production of mungbean was 1.27 million
tones ( INDIASTAT 2013) , In Punjab , during Kharif season (Rainy season ) area
and production of munbean in 2011-12 was 6.6 thousand hectares and 5.6 thousand
tonens, respectively and average yield was 849 kg/ha (PAU 2013).
Pulses are one of the important segments of Indian agriculture after cereals in
production . It requires a hot climate and can tolerate drought also, It is also
suitable as a summer crop ( PAU 2012). The kharif season is the most prevalent and
traditional munbean growing period in India. The pulses have the ability to fix
atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in their root nodule in association with specific
Rhizobium / Bradyrhizobium species . In mungbean nitrogen derived from N 2
fixation (Pfix ) is 15-77 % and total nitrogen fixed is 9-137 kg/ha (Singh and Sekhon
2005) .The residual effects of preceding pulse crops in cereals observed in terms of
fertilizer –N equivalent may be 68 kg/ha in case of mungbean (Wani et al 1995 )
When mungbean is sown in munbean - rice rotation it not only increased nitrogen
uptake in rice due to N- fixation (Rahman et al 2012) Incorporation of mungbean
residue increases the biological activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenize
activity and carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution (Singh and Sekhon 2005).
Pulse crops can be grown in different cropping systems. When munbean is
grown in a cropping system , its residue incorporation improves soil fertility and crop
productivity (singh et al 20085 b) .Mungbean is an excellent green manure crop also
(Algan and Celen 2011) .Mungbean can be grown specially for green maturing or it
can also be used for green manuring after picking pods or threshing grains Mungbean
, when grown for green manure , may provide 17, 69 and 100 kg N/ha after 20,30
and 40 days of emergence , respectively ( Poehlman 1991) .
Pulses , “A Poor Man’s Meat “ have more importance in a country like India
due to its large vegetarian population. Most of the protein needs of the vegetarian
due to its large vegetarian population of the country are met through pulses. The
nutritive value of mungbean d dal ( per 100g ) is as follows : energy 248 kcal.
Protein 24.5 g fat 1.2 g carbohydrates 59.9 g calcium 75 gm , iron 3.9 mg,thiamine
0.47 mg , rivoflavin 0.21 gm and munbean whole grani contains energy 334 kcal,
protein 24.0 g fat 1.3 g carbohydrates 56.7 g calcium 124 g iron 4.4 mg thiamine
0.47 mg , rivoflavin 0.27 mg ( Bains and BRar 2005). It is consumed in different
ways as dal , halwa snacks etc. Ascorbic acid (vitamic c) is synthesized is sprouted
grains of mungbean and the amount of rivoflavin and thimine is also increased ,
which is important from human diet point of view .In combination with cereals ,
mungbean makes as well balanced human diet.
In India , rice – wheat has become the major cropping system .This system
covers about 10.0 million hectares in the state of Punjab , Haryana , Uttar prades ,
Uttarakhand , Bihar West Bengal , Madhya Pradesh , Himachal Pradesh , and
Rajasthan ( Singh and Kaur 2012) , The rice wheat cropping system has been
adopted by farmers on a large scale for the last several decades because of its higher
yield potential , stability of the crops, good procurements policy and minimum
support price sufficient in food grain production but also led to surplus. At the same
time , this system had many negative effects such as depletion of water and nutrients
and increase diseases, insect pests , and air pollution due to burning of straw. There
is an urgent need to diversify this system by incorporating some pulse crop.
Mungbean is the best alternative to replace rice crop because of its short duration
and ability to improve soil health.
The time of sowing is the most important non- monetary factor for realizing
the maximum genetic potential cultivar , since it ensure the complete harmony
between the vegetatie and reproductive phases no one hand , and the climatic rhythm
on the other (Singh and Dhingra 1993 ,Ram et al 2011) .Among the various
agronomics practice, sowing time is the most important factor influencing the yield
of mungbean (Ashgar et al 2006) . The date of sowing exerts influence through the
effect of various environmental factors, mainly temperature , photoperiod and rainfall
that influence the phonological development of mungbean in all growth stages and
therefore determines the adaptability of mungbean cultivars, The early sown crop
suffers due to excessive vegetative growth, whereas, the late sown crop has a
constraint of limited growth , resulting in poor pod setting in both cases. The low
yield potential lack of yield stability susceptibility to abiotic stresses, non
synchronous pod maturity and pod shattering are the most serious production
constrains of the mungbean genotypes in the tropics and sub – tropics. These
constraints hence make the various differences to play a great role in deterring its best
time of sown. Therefore the optimum factors in achieving higher productivity in
munbean.
The climate change and global warming has deleterious effects on crop
production in terms of period of maturity and yield (Singh et al 2012b) . From the
last few years the change in climate has been observed in India. (Swarminathan and
Kesavan 2012) Similarly in Punjab changes in temperature rainfall rainy days
sunshine hours etc. have been observed during the past 40 years(Kaur et al 2013) .
Furthermore the decade wise, seasonal and monthly analysis has predicted a lot of
change in different district of Punjab . Change in climate may affect the time of
sowing of various varieties of mungbean . Beside optimum sowing time planting
geometry also plays a vital role in influencing plant growth , yield attributes and
grain yield of mungbean (Sarkar et al 2004 ,Mathur et al 20074 ).Plant population
has the importance not only in terms of number of plants per unit area but also in
terms of arrangement of plants i.e planting geometry to exploit the yield potential of
munbean cultivars (Singh et al 2011) .There was a need to find out optimum planning
geometry of mungbean varieties under the different sowing dates.
Keeping in view the above there was a need to re- evaluate the performance of
recommended Varities under different time of sowing and planting geometry in the
changing climate scenario under the following objective.
1. To study the optimum sowing time and planting geometry effect on phonology,
growth the yield of different mungbean varieties.
2. To study the interaction effect of sowing time planting geometry and varieties
on yield of mungbean

1000 gram weight. The highest number of pods per plant and total grain yield
were obtained from the 15 Aug. sowing dates.
Chahal (1998) at Ludhiana (Punjab ) conducted an experiment with four sowing
dates and the grain yield of the mungbean sown on 25 june , 7 July 22 July and 6
Aigist was 764, 905, 623 and 481 kg /ha . respectively . The crop sown on 7 july
provided significantly higher grain yield recording 18, 45 and 88 per cent increases
as compared to yield under 25 June , 22 July and 6 August sown crops
respectively . Total dry matter accumulation number of pods per plant number of
grain per pod and 1000- gram weight in case of 7 July sown crop were significantly
higher than those of other three planting dates tried.
Singh and Sekhon (2002) reported that at Ludhiana (Punjab) the crop sown on 12
July produced significantly higher grain yield than 2 August sowing due to taller
plants, more branches per plant , more pods per plant and higher number of grains per
pod. Singh et al (2003) compared the performance of mungbean under four sowing
dates ( 2 July , 12 July , 24 July and 5 August ) and reported the lowest grain yield
of 5 August sown crop. Late sown crop could not attain proper growth ; which
resulted in drastic reduction in yield. Soomro and Khan ( 2003) at Islamabad
(Pakistan ) found that the early sowing ( 5 July ) showed maximum (9.2 cm ) pod
length, followed by 15 July sown crop (8.5 cm) and least pod length ( 5.1 cm ) was
observed in last sowing ( 5 August ) so it was concluded that first week of July was
the ideal time of sowing.
Sekhon et al (2004) conducted a field experiment at Ludhiana (Punjab ) with
four sowing dates of 8 , 16, 24 July and 1 August. They reported that 8 and 16 July
sowing gave significantly higher grain yield than other dates. In another trial by
these researchers 10 and 25 July sowings gave more yield than 19 august sowing. At
Peshwar (Pakistan ) the effects of sowing date ( 15 April , 15 May , 15 June , 15
July and 15 August) on performance of mungbean were studies by Hussain et al
( 2004) . they found that 15 April took more number of days to emergence showed
maximum plant height and gave the highest grain yield. Muhammad et al (2005)
conducted a field experiment at Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan ), with seven sowing
dates (15 April , 1 May 15 may , 1 June , 15 June , 1July and 1 August ) or
mungbean and found that sowing on 1 May resulted in the highest number of
branches per plant pods per plant , 1000 grain weight and grain yield.
In Hazipur (Bangladesh ) , Razzaque et al (2005) tested sowing of mungbean
from January to May and reported that 15 Feb. gave highest grain yield . Fraz et at
(2006) reported maximum grain yield in late sowing date (3 rd week of July ) as
compared to early sowing (3rd Week of June and 1st week of July ) due to higher
number of pods per plant , number of grain per pod 1000 grain weight and harvest
index. This might be due to decreased vegetative growth and increased reproductive
growth , which favored these characters.
At Ludhiana (Punjab) Singh, and Sekhon (2007) reported that in one
experiment the mungbean crop sown on 8th July recorded the highest yield (1780
kg/ha ) which was significantly higher that the yield recorded with the crop sown on
16 July (1650 kg/ha) 24 July (1426 kg/ha) and 1 August (!426 kg/ha) and in another
experiment 25 July sowing produced the highest grain yield (1309 kg/ha) 10 july
being at par with it 1293 kg/ha) and both being significantly superior to 10 August
sowing (1179 kg/ha ) Lower yield under delayed sowing was the result of reduction
in number of pods per plant, 1000 grain weight and the biological yield Sharma et al
(2007) from Ludhaiana reported maximum grain yield in early sowing (10 July ) as
compared to late sowings (26 July and 10 August ) due to favorable temperature ,
which resulted into better plant height, increased number of branches per plant higher
number of pods per plant and higher 100 grain weight . The late planting affected the
growth and yield attributing characters.
Sadehipour (2008) reported from Tehran (Iran ) that crop sown on 29 June
gave maximum grain yield because number of pods per plant and 1000 grain weight
were increased while crop sown on 30 May produced minimum grain yield due to
decreased number of pods per plant. Singh et al (2010) at Ludhiana tested mungbean
sowing on 5,15, 25 July or 5 August and reported higher grain yield with 15 and 25
july sowing than with 5 July and 5 august sowing dates. Rehman et al (2009)
conducted a field experiment at Peshawar (Pakistan ) to study the effect of sowing
dates (30 March , 15 April , 15 May , 15 June and 15 July ) they revealed that
significant differences were observed among various sowing dates for all the
parameters excepts grains per pod. Sowing date of 30 march took more days to
emergence flowering and physiological maturity . Maximum emergence was
recorded for 15 April sowing. The crop attained maximum plant height under 15
may sowing. Highest grain yield was recorded for early planting of 30 march.
Singh et al (2012 b) conducted a field experiment at Ludhiana (Punjab) during
Kharif season for evaluation of date of sowing for mungbean . The crop was sown on
two different dates (last week of July and first week of August.). The plant height
number of pods per plant , grains per plant and 100 grains weight were significantly
higher when mungbean sown in last week of July as compared to first week of
August and resulted higher grain yield . Singh et al (2012 a ) conducted a field
experiment at
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The present study related to the “Response of Mungbean/Vigna radiara (L) wilezek
Varities to sowing time and planting geometry”. A review of work done in this regard
has been describe under the following heads.

2.1 Effect of sowing times

2.2 Performance of genotypes

2.3 Effect of plant geometry

2.4 Interaction effect of sowing time, genotypes and plant geometry

2.1 Effect of sowing time

In a field child at Gwalior (M.P) Sharma et al (1988) had sown mungbean on


13, July, 23 July, 2 August and 12 August and found that delay in sowing decreased
grain yield. In Kwangju (Korea). Choi et al (1991) tested three sowing dates (21, may
15 June and 10 July) and reported that 15 June gave the highest number of podes per
plant and highest gain yield. At Dharwad (Karnataka) Suresh and Padaganur (1991)
evaluated sowing date of 8 June, 23 June, 8 July and 23 July, and reported that the
early sown date had the lowest percentage disease index and highest grain yield. In
Chakwal (Pakistan), Ramzan et al (1992) reported that when munbean was sown on
4, 14 or 24 July as well as August, sowing on 4 and 14 July gave greater grain yield
and yield components and sowing thereafter greatly reduced gain yield.
Singh and Dhingra (1993) conducted and experiment at Bathinda (Punjab) on
mungbean which was sowing on 1, 10, 20 or 30 July and found that higher grain
yield obtained form 20 July 30, July sown crop but was due to higher number of
primary branches per plant, pods per plan, grain per pod or 1000 –grain three
showing dates (15 March, 1 May and 15 June) and reported that I May sowing
advanced the maturity and gave higher grain yield, number of pods per plant, number
of grains per plant and 1000-grains weight.

Farghali and Hussein (1995) in an experiment on 23 accessions of mungbean


gown under different sowing time (15 February, 15 May and 15 August) at Assuit
Egypt observed that 15 May sown crop was superior to 15 February and 15 August
sowing with respect to number of cluster per plant, number of grains per pod and
Varansi (U.P) which was shown on 1 July, 16 July 1 August and 16 August. The
result revealed that higher disease web light) severity on the crop

Plant number of grains per pod, pod weight and 1000-grain weight, which ultimately
resulted in its higher grain yield productions as compared to other three genotypes
and showed an increase of 10,19 and percent over ML 267, MUM 2 and PMB 13,
respectively. At Dinajpur (Bangladesh), Hasan et al (1999) studied the performance
of munnbean genotypes and found that maximum plant height, number of pods per
plant, number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and harvest index were recorded in
genotype Binamoog-1.

Parta et al (2000) at Chiplima (Orissa) studied the performance of eight


mungbean genotypes (Banpur Local, Nayagarh Local, Rairakhol Local, Badelia
Local, Dhuli, Sujata, PDM 54 and K 851. They found that Nayagarh local gave the
highest gain yield, closely followed by Sujata and PDM 54, Dhanjal et al (2000) at
Baraut (U.P) studied and performance of give mungbean genotypes (PS105, PS 9032,
Pusa Baisakhi, K 851, ML 337) and found that genotype Pusa Baisakhi recorded
higher gain yield, pods per plant grains per pod and 1000-grain weight as compared
to other four genotypes. Khan and Malik (2001) conducted a field experiment at
Failsabad (Pakistan) to study the performance of five mungbean genotypes (Mung
No-6601, NM-92, NM-98, NARC-Mung-1 and Chakwal Mung-97) and reported that
maximum number of braches of per plant, number of pods per plant, grains per pod,
were observed in genotype NM-98, NARC-Mung-1 and Chakwal Mung-97) and
reported that maximum number of branches per plant number of pods per plant,
grains per pod were observed in genotype NM-98 these all grain yield attributes
leaded to significantly higher grain yield (1031 kg/ha), biological yield (5785 kg/ha),
harvest index (17.82%) and also gain protein contents in genotype NM-98 as
compared to other four genotypes.

At Jamlapur (Bangladesh), Rahman et al (2002) evaluated five mungbean


genotypes (Local, Brianmung 2, Barimung 3, Binamung 2 and Binamung 5) and
found that dry matter pertitioning was highest in Binamung 2 and lowest in Local. To
determine the effect of genotypes (PS 16, RUM 1, No. 89047, TARM 18) on the
severity and development of mungbean powered mildew (Erysiphe polygoin) Thakur
et al (2004) conducted and experiment and found that RUM I exhibited the least
disease while PS 16 recorded the most server disease.

At Mymensingh (Bangladesh), Sarkar at al (2004) evaluated five genotypes


(BARIMung-2, BARIMung-3, BARIMung-4, BARIMung-5, an BINA Mung-2 of
mungbean, and reported that BARIMung-4 gave higher grain yield, which was
realized mainly through increased number of branches per plant, pods per plant,
grains per plant and the highest length of pod. Kumar and nandan (2004) conducted a
field experiment at Dholi (muaffarpur) for evaluation of mungbean retypes during
summer. Plant height and number of branches per plant were higher in genotype
PDM, which was statistically at par with PDM 54 and significantly higher than pusa
vishal and SM 11. Genotype SM 11 recorded significantly higher grain yield (844
kg/ha) than PDM 11 (708 kg/ha), however , it was at par with pusa vishal and PDM
54.

Singh et al (2005) conducted a field experiment at Ludhiana (Punjab) and reported


that SML 357 showed significantly higher number of nodules per plant and nodule
fry weight as compared to SML 134 and SML 668. Genotype SML, 668 produced
maximum grain yield, which was at par with SML 357 and significantly higher that
SML 134. Razzaque et al (2005) conducted a field experiment on four grnotypes of
mungbean (Barimug 2, BARImung 3, BARImung 4 and BARImung 5) and the
highest grain yeils of 1445 kg/ha was obtained from BARImug 5. Tickoo et al (2006)
at new delhi reported that genotypes have significant influence on biological yield,
grain yield and harvest index of mungbean. Pusa vishal outyrilded pusa 105 in terms
of grain yield.

Gul et al (2007) from Peshawar (Pakistan) reported the genotype KRK mung I
produced maximum number of leaves per plant and maximum number of grains per
pod, whereas, maximum pod length and maximum 100-grains weight were recorded
in genotype NFM 3-3 Genotype NM 21 produced maximum grain yield followed by
NM 92 and KRK mung I while FM 3-3 produce d maximum grain yield per plant.
Mishra et al (2007) from Kanpur (U.P) reported that among five mungbean
genotypes (M 1613, Pusa 9531, SML 668, Ahsa and PDM 54), the highest gain yield
per plant (4.80g) and gain yield per ha (1198 kg) was obtained form Asha and PDM
54, respectively, Singh et al (2007) at Ludhiyana studied the performance of six
mungbean genotypes (M 1613, Pusa Vishal, Pnat M5, MH 96-1, Samart and SML
668). Samart recorded the highst number of pods per plant, Pusa vihshal pant M 5
and SML 668 were large grained and SML 668 produced the highest grain yield.
Sharma et al (2007) at Ludhiana (Punjab) observed that SML 742, SML 763
and VC 6369-30-65 ranked promising among the breeding lines greater number of
nodules and their dry weight, shoot dry weight and gain yield and showed
improvement in these traits over the check genotype SML 668. A field tril was
conducted during autumn season at Shalakan (Egypt) to study the performance of
four mungbean genotypes (VC-15, VC-21, King and Kawmy-1). The result indicated
that king genotype was superior to other genotypes in grain yield due to significantly
higher number of grains per plant, 100-grains weight and harvest index (Hozayan et
al 2007).

Sadeghipour (2008) in item studied the performance of six mungbean


genotypes (Partow, VC 1973, VC 1178, VC 4152, NM 92 Pusa 1973) and reported
the VC 4152 produced highest grain yield number of pods per plant and number of
grains per pod. Singh et al (2008a) conducted a field experiment a Ludhiana (Punjab)
and reported genotype SML 668 had the highest number and dry weight of nodules
per plant, grains per pod, 1000-grain weight and grain yield and it matured in 65 days
while Samart Pusa Vishal and Pusa 9531 matured in 68, 70 and 73 days respectively.

Kumar et al (2009) at Samastipur (Bihar) conducted and experiment to study


the performance of three mungbean genotypes (SML 668, Pusa Vihshal and Samarth)
and found that the genotypes SML 668 gave significantly higher grain yield (1332
kg/ha) than Pusa Vishal (1229 kg/ha) and Samarth (1227 kg/ha). Genotype differed
significantly in terms of protein content in grain, which was higher in genotypes SML
668 (24.28%), followed by Pusa Vihshal (23..5%). Singh et al (2009) at Kanpur
(Uttar Pradesh) reported that Samarth gave higher grain yield than IPM 9-125 due to
favorable yield contributing characters like branches per plant, pod per plant and
grins per plant.
Are at al (2009) at Myemensingh (Bangladesh) reported that the genotype BARI
mung 3 recorded significantly higher nodules number and weights and shoot weight
compared that of BARI mung 4. There where significant differences between the two
genotypes of mungbean in terms of grain yield (1007 kg/ha) and stover yield (1383
kg/ha) as compared to BARI mung 3 (1947 and 3022 kg/ha, respectively)

Singh (2009) at Ludhiana (Punjab) reported that among four genotypes (SML
668, SML 823 and SML 843), SML 843 produced significantly higher grain yield
compared to SML 823 and SML 668 while the difference between SML 823 and
SML 843 were non significant. In SML 843, number of pods per plant, pod length
and grains per pod were significantly higher as compared to the other genotypes.
Genotypes SML 668 (22.0.3%), SML 823 (21.32%) ans SML 832 (21.09%). Maih
at al (2009) at Maymensingh (Bangladesh) conducted and experiment on mungbean
with four genotypes (BINA moog 5, BINA moog 6, BINA moog 7) and BINA moog
7 was ranked first in terms of grain yield.

Singh (2010) conducted a field experiment at Ludhiana (Punjab) to study the


performance of three mungbean genotypes (SML 668, SML 832 and SML 843 and
revealed that mungbean genotype SML 843 showed significantly higher dry matter
accumulation, leaf area, branches, nodules and dry matter accumulation, leaf area
branches, nodules and dry weight, number of pods per plant, number of grains per
pod, pod length gain, yield and biological as compared to other two genotypes. Uddin
at al (2009) conducted a fixed experiment at Dhaka (Bangladesh) to study the
performance of three mungbean genotypes (BARI mung 5, BARI mung 6 and BINA
mung 5) and observed that BARI mung 6 had highest number of nodules per plant,
dry weight of nodules, number of pods per plant, grains, per plant, 1000-grains
weight and grain yield. Begum at al (2009) conducted a field experiment at
Mymensingh (Bangladesh) to study the performance of four mungbean genotypes
(BINA mooga2, BINA mooga5, BINA mooga6, and BINA mooga7) and observed
that BINA mooga7 showed superiority in relation to plant height number of branches
per plant, effective pods per plant and number of grains per pod as compared to other
genotypes, which resulted in its highest grain yield.

Rahul at al (2012) conducted a field experiment at Faisalabad (Pakistan) for


evolution of mungbean genotypes and showed that NM-98 exhibited the highest yield
(727 kg/ha) while the lowest gain yield (848 kg/ha) was obtained with M-1 IN NM-
98, plant height, nodules per plant, grains per pod and 1000-grain weight were
significantly higher as compared to the other genotypes whereas is number of pods
per plant, M-1 and NM-98 were statistically at per.

From the above studies, it can concluded that the different genotypes of
mungbean differ in phenology, growth attributes, yield attributes characters and grain
yield.

2.3 EFFECT OF PLANT GEOMETRY

Rajpur at al (1993) in Pakistan conducted an experiment to study the


performance of mungbean which was show in row spacing of 20, 30 and 40 cm (with
a constant intra –row spacing of 6cm). the result revealed the effect of row spacing on
grain yield was significant. The maximum grain yield was recorded in closet spacing
of 20cm due to high plant population in this treatment and also due to better
utilization of inter row spacing than in the wide row spacing.

Khan at al (2001) at Peshawar Pakistan studied the effect of planting geometry


on yield on yield components of mungbean which was sown in row spacing of 25 and
50 cm while plant spacing were 5, 7.5 and 10 cm the spacing of 50 cm to 10 cm
produced the maximum number of pods per plant, grains per pod. 1000-grains weight
biological yield harvest index and grain yield. Sekhon at al (2002) conducted an
experiment at Ludhiana (Punjab) on Kharif season mungbean to compare three
planting geometries (30 x 10 , 45 x 10 and 30 cm x 20 cm ) and observed that the
planting geometries of 30 x 10 and 45 cm x 10 had higher grain yield compared to 30
cm x 20 cm.

Singh at al (2007) conducted an experiment at Ludhiana (Punjab) on


mungbean to compare three planning geometry (20 x 10, 25 x 10, 30 cm x 10 cm)
and reveled that the highest number and dry weight of nodules / plant, branches plant
pods plant was obtained at 30 cm x 10 cm spacing but a planning geometry of 25 cm
x 10 cm recorded higher grain yield, which was statically at par with 20 cm x 10 cm
and significantly superior to 30 cm x 10 cm spacing. This may be due to higher
number of pods and grains per unit, which resulted in higher grain yield in these
treatments.

Sathyamoorthi at al (2008) at Kumulur (Tamil Nadu) conducted an experiment


to study the performance of mungbean, which was sown in row spacing of 20, 25 and
30 cm (with a constant intra-row spacing of 10 cm) and found that grains yield was
higher under greater plant density. A field trial was conducted by kabir and sarakar
(2008) at Mymensingh (Bangladesh) on kharif season mungmean to compare three
planting geometries (30 cm x 10 cm, 20 cm x and 10 cm x 30 cm) and reported
higher Stover yield and grain yield at 30 cm x 10 cm spacing as compared other
treatments.

Singh at al (2012b) at Ludhiana (Punjab) studied the effect of planting


geometry and yield and yield components of mungbean which was sowing In spacing
of 30 cm x 15 cm and 45 cm x 15 cm and showed that the heat were at par in both the
spacing and the higher heat use efficiency was observed in the wider spacing of 45
cm x 15 cm than in closer spacing of 30 x 15 cm. the spacing of 30 cm x 15 cm
produced significantly higher plant height, number of branches per plant pods per
plant and 100-grain weight as compared to 45 cm x 15 cm. Rasul at al (2012)
conducted an experiment at Faisalabad (Pakistan) on Kharif season mungbean to
compare three planting geometries (30 x 8, 45 x 8, cm) and observed that the
planting geometry of 30 cm x 8 cm had higher grain yield as compared to other two
planting geometries.

A field trial was conducted at Varanshi (U.P) by Singh at al (2012a) on Kharif


season mungbean to compare five planting geometries (30 x 15, 40 x 15, 45 x 15, 50
x 15 and 60 cm x 15 cm) and the maximum grain yield (672 kg/ha) was recorded to
50 cm x 15 cm spacing that the narrow (30 x 15, 40 cm x 15 cm) normal (45 cm x 15
cm) and winder (60 cm x 15 cm) spacing. The dense crop canopy (30 cm x 15 cm )
exhibited maximum disease (web blight) severity (76.5%) which resulted into
reduced grains yield (488 kg/ha), which may be due to fast spread of disease in
closely spaced planting. While in winder spacing (60 cm x 15 cm ) although my be
due to poor plant per unit area.

From the above studies, it can be concluded that the grain yield and yield
attributing characters varied considerably with the planting geometry at different
locations due to different weather conditions.

2.4 INTRECTION EFFECT OF SOWING TIME GENOTYPES AND


PLANT GEOMETRY

Sharma at al (1988) at Gwalior ( M.P) studied the performance of four mungbean


genotypes, which sere sown on 13 July, 23, July ,2 August and 12 August and found
the genotype ML 131 gave the highest grain yield when sown on 13 July. Kharif
(1989) at tarnab (Peshawar) studied the effects of sowing on seven dates from 6
March to 30 May and found that mungbean genotype M-121-25 sown on 4 April
gave the highest yield, Ramzan at al (1992) at Chakwal (Pakistan) studied the effect
of sowing date (4, 14 and 24 July) on the performance of two mungbean genotype
and noted that genotypes sown on 4 and 14 July gave greater grain yield and yield
components; maximum grain yield was obtained form both genotypes sown on 4
July. A field trial conducted at PAU, Ludhiana revealed that the optimum sowing time
for mungbean genotypes ML-5 was last week of June to first week of July whereas
for genotype ML-131 and ML-267 it was first forth night of July (PAU 1995).

Sekhon at al (2005) studied the performance of six mungbean genotypes (ML


5, ML 613 ML 818 ML 839, NM 92, NM 94) under three dates of showing (12 July,
24 July, 5 August) at Ludhiana and reported that for 1 July sowing ML 818, MK 839,
NM 92 and NM 94 and for 5 August sowing ML 818 and NM 92 were superior to the
other genotypes, Singh and Sekhon (2007) at Ludhiana (Punjab) studied the effect of
sowing date (8 July, 16 July 24 July and 1 August on six mungbean genotypes (NM
92, ML 613, ML 818, SML 668, Pusa 9971 and Asha) and found that SML 668 took
the shortest and Asha the Longest period for maturity under all the sowing dates.

CHAPTER 3
MATERIAL AND METHODS

The present investigation was carried out in the experimental area of the pulses
section departments of plant breeding and genetics, Punjab Agricultural University
Ludhiana during the Kharif season 2012. The related laboratory work was carried
out in the postgraduate laboratory of the department of Agronomy.

Location and climate

Ludhiana is situated at an altitude of 247 meter above mean sea level at 30 054
north latitude and 75048 East longitude. It present subtropical , semi- arid climate
with pre hot season (March to mid April ) hot season , mid April to the end of June )
rainy season (July to September ) mild winter (October to November ) and cold
winter (December to February ) The minimum and maximum temperature shows
considerably fluctuation during summer and winter. Maximum air temperature
above 380C is not uncommon during summer and frequent frosty spells are
experienced in December and January. The average annual rainfall is 650 mm of
which 75% is received mostly from July to September while during winter the rains
are scanty.

Weather during the crop season

The meteorological data recorded at the meteorological observatory of Punjab


Agricultural University , Ludhiana (India ) during the crop season (July- October
2012) are presented in fig 1. And appendix .The mean weekly maximum temperature
ranged from 33.0 to 39.4 C and mean weekly minimum temperature ranged from
17.4 to 28.6 C during the period of crop growth. The rainfall received during the
crop growth period ranged from 51 to 84% . The data on long term average and
change over time in various weather parameters are presented in Appendix –II and III
respectively.

Cropping history of the experimental field.


The cropping history of the field under experiment for three years preceding
the conduct of the experiment is given below:-

Years Crops
Kharif Rabi
2009-10 Mungbean Wheat
2010-11 Mungbean Wheat
2011-12 Mungbean Wheat
2012 Mungbean
(Experimental Crop)
Detail of field experiment

The layout of the experiment is given in fig. 2.The treatment detail is as follows :

A. Sowing time
i) 1 July
ii) 10 July
iii) 20 July
iv) 30 July
B. Varieties
i) PAU 911
ii) ML 818
C. Planting geometry
i) 30 cm x 10cm
ii) 22.5 cm x 10cm

Methodology

Design : Split split plot design

Main plot : Sowing time (4)

Sub plot : Varieties (2)

Sub sub plot : Planting geometry (2)

Number of treatment : 4 x 2 x 2 = 16

Number of replication : 4

Total number of plots : 16 x 4 = 64

Gross plot size : 7.5 x 2.7 = 20.2 m2

Net plot size : 5.0 x 2.7 = 13.5 m2


Soil analysis

Composite soil samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the
experimental field from 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil before sowing of the experimental
crop. The sample were dried in shade, ground and sieved through 2 mm sieve and
analyzed for the determination of available nitrogen, phosphorus , potassium
electrical conductivity (EC) , organic carbon (OC) and pH of the soil Chemical
analyses of the soil along with the method used for their determination before
sowing are presented in Table 1
Table 1 Chemical analysis of soil of the experimental field

Soil property soil depth (cm) Method used

0-15 15-30

pH 8.1 8.3 1.2 soil water suspension

Jackson 1973

Electrical conductivity 0.30 0.26 Walkely and Black rapid

(dS/M) titration method piper (1966)

Organic carbon (%) 0.38 0.30 Walkley and Black ‘s rapid titration

method (Piper 1966)

Available N (kg/ha) 184.2 175.2 Alkaline potassium permanganate

Method (Subbiah and Asija 1956)

Available P ( kg/ha) 20.9 20.0 0.5N Sodium bicarbonate method (Olsen

et al 1934)

Available K (Kg/ha) 270.0 245.5 1 N Ammonium acetate method (Jackson

1973)

Cultural operation

Seed Treatment
Seed was treated with Thiram @ 3 kg /ha of seed against seed borne disease

Preparation of field

Pre sowing irrigation was applied to maintain adequate moisture in the soil profile at
the time of planting . The field was cultivated twice, first with dise harron and then with
tractor drawn cultivator , followed by planking.

Fertilizers application

Recommended dose of 12.5 kg N/ha in the form of urea (46% N) and 40 kg P 2O5/ha
in the form of single superphosphate (16% P 2O5) was applied as the basal dose. Single
superphosphate was drilled while urea was applied as broadcast before sowing the crop.

Sowing and spacing

The crop was sown on 1, 10, 20 and 30 July 2012 , using varieties PAU 911 and ML 818 ,
as per treatment, The sowing was done in lines by kera method keeping row to row
spacing of 30 and 22.5 cm as per the treatment . Thinning of crop was done about 2 week
after sowing to maintain a plant to plant spacing of 10.

Weed control

Herbicide stomp 30EC ( pendimethalin ) was applied as pre emergence @ 1.5 /ha) to
control the weeds and one sowingn was also done four weeks after sowing to keep the
plots weeds free during crop growth period.

Plant protection

To keep the crop free from sucking type of insects , a spray of Triazophos 40 EC @ 1.5 /ha
was given with a manually operated knapsack sprayer after 35 days of sowing against the
attack of whitfly and thrips. One spray each of indoxacarb 14.5 SC@500 ml/ha and
novaluron 10 EC @ 375 ml/ha was given after 45 and 55 days of sowing against the attack
of tobacco caterpillar and pod borer, respectively.
Harvesting and threshing

When about 80% of the pods matured, the cropwas harvested and allowed to dry in
the respectively plot for two day after harvest. The crop then threshed manually and grain
per plot was recorded at 12% moisture content.

Observation recorded

The following observation were recorded

A. Growth attributes

Plant stand

The number of plant in one complete row length from each plot was recorded and
plant stand/ m row length was worked out. Plant stand was counted at 15 days after sowing
(DAS) and at harvest.

Plant height

For periodical plant height five representative plants per plot were selected randomly. From
the ground surface upto the top of the main stem of plant , the height was measured at 10
days interval starting from 25 days after sowing and at harvest.

Dry matter accumulation

Five representative randomly selected plants were harvested at 10 days interval


starting from 25 days after sowing and at harvest from each plot and were sun dried and
then dried in the oven at 600C to a constant weight for recording dry matter accumulation .

Number of branches
The number of branches were recorded by calculating the average of five plant at random
and presented on a per plant basis. They were recoded at 10 days interval starting from 25
days after sowing and at harvest.

Number of dry weight of nodules.

Five plants from each plot were carefully uprooted and gently washed to record number of
nodules. They were dried in an oven to record their dry weight . The number and dry
weight of nodules were recorded at 35 and 55 DAS and expressed on a per plant basis.

Leaf Area

Five representative plant per plot were selected for leaf area measurement leaf area
(cm2) was measured by using leaf area meter. (Hp) scan jet 7400 c) an in was recorded at 35
and 55 DAS and expressed on a per plant basis.

B. Crop phonology and thermal indices

Phonological observation included days takes to emergence , flower initiation 50%


flowering pod initiation and maturity . When seedling emerged from the soil the
number of days taken to emergence was counted. Whenever the first flower in the
plot area was observed the number of days from sowing to flower initiation was
counted. When 50% plants in the plot area produced flowers, the date was recorded
as 50% flowering stage and the number of days from sowing to 50% flowering stage
was counted. Whenever the first plant with pod in the plot area was observed the
number of days from sowing to pod initiation was counted. Number of days taken
from sowing to maturity was recorded in each plot when about 80% of the pods
matured.

Thermal indices
The agroclimatic indices namely growing degrees days, heliothermal units and
phtothermal units were estimated as per Nuttonson (1955).

Growing Degree day (GDD)

GDD = Tmax +Tmin - T base

Accumulated growing degree day (AGDD)

AGDD = GDD

I=1

Heliothermal (HTU)

The product of GDD and corresponding actual sunshine hours (SSHrs) for
that day were computed on daily basis as

HTU= GDD x Actual sunshine hours.

Accumulated heliothermal units (AHTU)

AHTU = HTU

I=1

Photo thermal units (PTU)


The product of GDD and corresponding day length for that day were
computed as daily basis as follows :

PTU = GDD x Day length

Accumulated photothermal units (APTU)

APTU = PTU

I=1

Where ,

Tmax = Daily maximum temperature (0C) during a day

Tmin = Daily minimum temperature (0C) during a day

T base = Minimum base temperature for mungbean it was taken as 10 0C (Ali


2010)

N= The number of days taken for the completion of particular growth phase

SSHrs= It refers to actual bright sunshine hours

Day length = It refers to maximum possible sunshine hours.

C. Yields Attributes and yield


Number of pods/ plant

The number of pods from each of the ten randomly selected plants from each
plot were counted at the time harvest and expressed as pods per plant.

Pod length
From each plot twenty pods were selected at random and their grains counted. The
average number of grains per pod were calculated for statistical analysis.

100- grain weight


From the produce of each plot one hundred grins were counted and their
weight was recorded and expressed in gram for presentation .

Biological yield
Before threshing the total weight of harvested crop plant in the net plot area
was taken as biological yield. Biological yield was recorded and expressed in kg/ha.

Grain yield
The grain yield of net area of each plot was recorded after threshing was done
manually and expressed in kg/ha.

Straw yield
The straw yield was recorded by deducting the grain yield from biological yield of
each plot and expressed as kg/ha.

Harvest Index

Harvest index was calculated by the formula given below and was expressed as
percentage.

Harvest index (%) = Grain yield x 100

Biological yield

D. Chemical Analysis

Nitrogen content in grains

Nitrogen content in grain was determined by modified Micro Kjeldhal’s method


given by Subbiah and Asija (1956) An oven dried sample of 0.25g was subjected to wet
digestion using 10 ml concentrated sulphuric acid plus pinch of digestion mixture
( potassium sulphate +copper sulphate + selenium powder + oxide ) Digested material was
taken in a 50 ml volumetric flash and the volume was made ot 50ml by adding distilled
water In the distillation flask of Micro – Kjelhal’s assembly of 5 ml of distilled sample was
taken and 10 l of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was poured into tube. Flask containing 10ml
boric acid was kept under the consideration until the appearance of green color. Then
distilled sample was titrated against N/100sulphuric acid until appearance of purple colour.
Volume of N/100 H2SO4 used was recorded for N content calculation.

Protein content in grains

The determined nitrogen content ( %) of grain was multiplied by 6.25 for calculating
protein (%)

E. Economics returns

Gross return

Gross returns were calculated by multiplying the grain yields by minimum support
price . It was expressed as Rs/ ha.

Gross return = Grain yield x Minimum support price (Rs)

Net return

Net return were calculated by deducting total variable costs from the gross returns. It
was expressed as Rs/ha . The cost of cultivation is described in Appendix IV

Net return = Gross returns – total variable costs.


Statistic analysis

Statistical analysis of the data recorded was done as per split pot design (Cochran and
cox 1967) using CPCS- 1 software developed by the Department of mathematics and
Statistic PAU Ludhiana (Cheema and Singh 1991) . The effects of sowing time , varities
and planting geometry with the interaction for different parameters have been presented
and discussed in the chapter IV . The comparison were made at 5 per cent level of
significance . The split up of degree of freedom is given in table 2 .

Table 2 Analysis of variance

Source of variation Degree of freedom

Replications 3

Sowing time (A) 3

Error (A) 9

Varieties (B) 1

Ax B 3

Error (B) 12

Planting geometry (C) 1

A xC 3

BxC 1

AX BX C 3
Error C 24
CHAPTER IV

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The result of the present investigation entitled ‘Response of mungbean [Vigna radiate L]
Wilczek Varities to sowing time and planting geometry” are presented in this chapter.
The observation recorded with respect to growth yield and yield attributes , nitrogen
protein and economics under different sowing time . Varieties and planting geometry are
presented and discussed under the following heading.

4.1 Growth attributes

4.2 Crop phonology

4.3 Yield and yield attributes

4.4 Chemical analysis

4.5 Economic analysis

4.1 Growth attributes

4.1.1 Plant stand

The data of plant stand were recorded at 15 days after sowing (DAS) and at harvest.
The difference between different sowing time varieties and planting geometry , for the
plant stand was found to be non – significant at all the stages. (Table 3)

4.1.2 Plant height


The sowing time resulted in significance effect on the plant height at all the periods i.e
25,35,45,55 DAS and at maturity ( Table 4, Fig 3) The plant height increased with the
age of the plant from 25 days after sowing to maturity. The maximum plant height
was recorded in 1 July sown crop was statistically at par with 10 July and 20 July
sown crop . The highest plant height in 1 July sown crop might be due to favorable
environment for growth. These results are in conformity with the findings of other
researchers (Singh and Sekhon 2007,Sharma et al 2007, Singh et al 2010, Ram et al
2011, Singh et al 2012b) who reported significant effect of different sowing time on
plant height of mungbean . There was linear decline in plant height with delay in
sowing . The late sown crop showed significantly lower plant height (Jahan and Adam
2012).

Table 3 Effect of sowing time Varities and planting geometry on plant stand in
munbean .

Treatment plant stand/m row length

15 DAS AT HARVEST

SOWING TIME

1 July 10.5 9.8

10 July 11.3 10.5

20 July 11.4 10.7

30 July 10.8 10.6

CD= (p= 0.05) NS NS


Varities

PAU 911 11.1 10.2

ML 818 10.9 10.6

CD (P= 0.05) NS NS

PLANTING GEOMETRY

30CM X 10CM 11.1 10.5

22.5 C, X 10 CM 11.0 10.4

CD(P= 0.05) NS NS

Genetic make up of varieties play an important role in determining the plant height.
Between the varieties differences in plant height were non significant at all the stages
of crop growth . however differences were also non – significant between the planting
geometry at 25 and 35 DAS. However at 45 and 55 DAS and at harvest crop sown at
22.5 cm x 10cm attained significantly higher plant height than 30 cm x 10cm due to
more number of plants per unit area, which tends to grow in upright direction (Singh et
al 2012b).

4.1.3 Dry matter accumulation (DMA)

The accumulation of dry matter of plant is an important parameter which influence


the production of yield attributes and grain and straw yield of plant by adequate transfer
of assimilates to the sink. The effect of various treatment on DMA i.e shoot dry weight
during the growth phases of crop are given in Table 5 an Fig. 4.
The crop sown on different sowing time varied significantly in dry matter
accumulation at 25,35, 45, 55 DAS and at harvest. At 25,35 and 55 DAS the DMA was
the highest in 1 July sown crop which was significantly

Table 4 Effect of sowing time varieties and planning geometry on plant height of
mungbean

Treatment plant height (cm)

25 DAS 35 DAS 45 DAS 55 DAS AT HARVEST

Sowing time

1 July 12.7 29.7 48.2 61.6 68.8

10 July 12.6 23.2 40.6 52.7 60.8

20 July 10.4 22.5 39.5 51.1 60.5

30July 9.5 21.6 38.7 49.2 58.5

CD (p= 0.05) 2.5 1.5 2.4 2.0 2.2

Varities

PAU 911 11.3 23.8 41.6 53.6 61.7

ML 818 10.3 24.7 41.9 53.8 62.7

CD (p=0.05) NS NS NS NS NS

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 11.1 24.1 40.9 53.1 61.2

22.5 cm x 10 cm 11.5 24.4 42.7 54.2 63.1

CD (P=0.05) NS NS NS NS NS
Higher that all other s, the sowing time .However at 45 DAS and at maturity the 10 July sown
crop was at per with 1 July sowing in DMA. Highest DMA in 1 July sown crop might be due to the
availability of more time for the vegetative growth in early sown crop . The late sown crop showed
significantly lower DMA as compared to early sowing . similarly differences among time were
observed by Kumar et al (2009).

Differences in DMA were non-significant between the Varities at 25 and 35 DAS .


however at 45 , 55 DAS and at harvest , Varities showed significant effect on DMA and PAU 911
showed superiority over ML 818 . these results agree with the findings of Chahal ( 1998) and Jahan
and Adam ( 2012).

Planting geometry differed significantly in DMA at 25,35,45,55 DAS and at harvest ,


where the planting geometry of 30 cm x 10cm recorded higher DMA than 22.5 cm x 10cm. This
has happened due to the better growth and development at wider spacing than closer spacing.
4.1.4 Number of branches/plant

Number of branches is basically a genetic characters but environmental.

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1 2 3 4 5 6

Days after sowing

140
120
100
80
ML 818
60 PAU 911
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5

Days after sowing

100%
90%
80%
70%
Planting Geometry
60% 22.5 cm x 10 cm
50%
Planting Geometry
40%
30 cm x 10cm
30%
20%
10%
0%
1 2 3 4 5
Days after sowing

Table 5 Effect of sowing time Varities and planting geometry on accumulation of shoot dry
matter/ plant in mongbean

Treatment Shoot Dry weight / plant (g)

25 DAS 35 DAS 45 DAS 55DAS AT HARVEST

Sowing time

1 July 1.2 2.9 6.2 8.8 10.4

10 July 0.9 2.1 5.3 7.9 9.6

20 July 0.8 2.0 5.0 7.2 8.7

30 July 0.7 1.9 4.7 7.0 8.2

CD (p=0.05) 0.1 0.3 1.0 0.8 0.9

Varieties

PAU 911 0.9 2.3 5.0 8.1 9.9

ML 818 1.0 2.1 5.6 7.4 8.6

CD (P=0.05) NS NS 0.3 0.4 0.7

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10 cm 1.0 2.3 5.6 8.1 9.7

22.5 cm 10 cm 0.8 2.1 5.0 7.4 8.7

CD (P=0.05) 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.6


Condition may also influence It periodic data recorded on average number of branches / plant at 45,55 DAS
and at harvest are given in Tale 6. The crop sown at various sowing times differed significantly in branches /
plant at all period of observation. At 45 and 55 DAS, 1 july sown crop showed significantly higher number
of branches compared with all other three sowing dates . At 45 and 55 DAS , 10 July sowing was at par
with 1 July sowing in number of branches. Reduction in number of branches with delayed sowing has also
been observed by Singh and Sekhon ( 2007) and Singh et al ( 2012a )

In Varities differences in number of branches / plant were non significant at all the period of
observation which may be due to similar genetic make up of theses varieties .however genotypic
differences with respect to branches have been observed by Singh et al ( 2007).

Differences in number of branches/ plant were significant between the planting geometry and the
30 cm x 10 cm showed higher number of branches / plant than 22.5 cm x 10at all the periods of observation
which
40
35
30 CD (p=0.05)
30-Jul
25
20-Jul
20
10-Jul
15 1-Jul
10
5 Treatment
0
1

Days after sowing

25

20

15 CD (P=0.05) NS NS
ML 818 1 2.1
10 PAU 911 0.9 2.3

0
1 2 3

Days after sowing

30
25
20 CD (P=0.05)
15 22.5 cm 10 cm
10 30 cm x 10 cm

5
0
1 2 3 4 5

Days after sowing


Might be due to more availability of light, water and nutrients in case of wider spacing of 30 cm x 10cm .
similar results were observed by other researchers ( Mathur et al 2007, Kabir and Sarkar 2008 Singh et al
2012b)

Table 6 Effect of sowing time varieties and planting geometry on number of branches of mungbean

Treatment number of branches plant

45 DAS 55 DAS AT HARVEST

Sowing time

1 July 2.6 3.9 5.2

10 July 2.5 3.7 4.7

20 July 2.4 3.6 4.6

30 July 2.4 3.5 4.3

CD (p= 0.05) 0.1 0.2 0.3

Varieties

PAU 911 2.4 3.6 4.8

ML 818 2.5 3.7 4.6

CD ([= 0.05) NS NS NS

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 2.6 3.8 4.8

22.5cm x 10 cm 2.3 3.5 4.6

CD (p=0.05) 0.1 0.1 0.1


4.1.5 Nodule plant

The nodule are of great economic importance in leguminous (Fabacceau) crops. Nodule supply
nitrogen to eh crop by fixing it from atmosphere and also leave some residual nitrogen to the succeeding
crop. Hence nodules number , size and dry weight can act as indicator of crop growth and higher grain yield.
The nodules/ plant were counted at 35 and 55 DAS and the data are presented in Table 7.

The number of nodule / plant was significantly higher in case of 20 July sowing when recorded at
35 and 55 DAS as compared to 1 July , 10 July and 30 July sowing except 30 July at 35 DAS which was at
pare with 20 July sowing in nodules/ plant .Similar differences among sowing time were observed by other
researchers (Sharma et al 2007, Singh et al 2010 , Ram et al 2011).

PAU 911 recorded higher number of nodules/ plant as compared to ML 818 at 35 Das , However at
55 DAS the differences in number of nodule / plant was non- significant between verities. This differences
in nodules number might be due to genetic variability of the varieties. Genotypic differences with respect to
nodule were observed by other researchers (Kumar et al 2007, Ara et al 2009,Uddin et al 2009).

Table 7 Effect of sowing time Varities and planting geometry on nodules / plant in mungbean.

Treatment number of nodules /plant

35 DAS 55DAS

Sowing time

1 July 21.8 10.8

10 July 29.9 18.3

20 July 36.2 22.3

30 July 32.1 20.1

CD (p= 0.05) 4.8 1.4


Varieties

PAU 911 31.8 18.3

ML 818 28.2 17.4

CD ([= 0.05) 2.1 NS

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 31.4 19.1

22.5cm x 10 cm 28.6 16.6

CD (p=0.05) 2.0 1.5

Planting geometry varied significantly in the number of nodules/ plant Higher number of nodule / plant were
observed in 30 cm x 10 cm at both the period of crop growth which might be due to more availability and
utilization of light , water and nutrients in case of wider spacing which resulted better growth and more
number of nodules /plants.

4.1.6 Dry weight of nodule plant

Periodic data on dry weight of nodule at 35 and 55 DAS are shown in Table 8. At 35 DAS the dry
weight of nodules produced by plant was higher as compared to that at 55 DAS crop stage. At 55 DAS the
drecrease in dry weight of nodules was due to disintegration of nodules after flowering (Table 7 ) the
disintegration of nodules might be due to the lower level of plant metabilities towards the nodules during
reproductive phase.

Significant differences in nodules dry weight were noticed in different sowing time (Table 8 ) Dry
weight of nodules was maximum at 20 July sown crop as compared to other times of sowing on both the
crop growth stages. Similar effects of sowing time on nodule dry weight were observed by Singh (2010) and
Ram (2011). It might be due to the favourable weather during the growing season of crop sown on 20 July.
Table 8 Effect of sowing time Varities and planting geometry on dry weight of modules / plant in
mungbean.

Treatment Dry weight of nodules /plant(mg)

35 DAS 55DAS

Sowing time

1 July 47.3 26.7

10 July 63.1 39.8

20 July 72.7 50.1

30 July 65.4 43.2

CD (p= 0.05) 5.9 3.3

Varieties

PAU 911 61.7 38.8

ML 818 62.5 41.1

CD ([= 0.05) NS 1.7

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 65.8 43.6

22.5cm x 10 cm 58.4 36.2

CD (p=0.05) 1.4 1.3


Dry weight of nodules at 55 DAS in ML 818 was higher as compared with PAU 911 and at DAS
difference between them was non-significant Genotypic differences with respect to dry weight of nodules
were observed by Ara et al (2011).

Differences in dry weight of nodules/plant were significant in planting geometry and the 30cm x 10
cm recorded higher dry weight of nodules/plant at both the periods of observation. It may be due to the better
utilization of light, space, moisture and nutrients by the crop at wider spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm.

4.1.7 Leaf area

Leaf area can be considered an important factor in any crop plant, as higher the leaf area more will
be the rate of photosynthesis because of higher absorption of light which ultimately leads to higher growth of
the plant. The data on leaf area as recorded periodically are given in Table 9.

Effect of sowing time varities and planting geometry on dry weight of modules / plant in mungbean.

Treatment Dry weight of nodules /plant(mg)

35 DAS 55DAS

Sowing time

1 July 304 430

10 July 262 350

20 July 248 340

30 July 220 297

CD (p= 0.05) 15 13

Varieties
PAU 911 269 342

ML 818 247 366

CD ([= 0.05) NS 14

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 269 380

22.5cm x 10 cm 247 328

CD (p=0.05) 10 8

Leaf area was higher at 55 DAS than at 35 DAS. At 35 and 55 DAS, the leaf area
produced by 1 July sown crop was significantly higher as compared to leaf area
produced by later sowing times. Similar differences among sowing time was observed
by Chahal (1998) . Delay in sowing resulted in significant reduction in leaf area. The 30
July sown crop recorded the lowest leaf area as compared to other sowing times period
which was probably due to limited growth of crop plant under this sowing time.

Differences in leaf area were non-significant between the varieties at 35 DAS;


thereafter, the differences in leaf are at 55 DAS were found to be significant. At 55 days
crop growth stage ML 818 registered higher leaf area than PAU 911. Genotypic
differences with respect to leaf area were observed by Chahal (1998) and Singh (2010).
Planting geometry differed significantly in leaf area at of the crop growth phases. The
planting geometry of 30 cm x 10 cm registered higher leaf area than 22.5cm x 10 cm at
35 and 55 DAS.
4.2 Crop Phonology

4.2.1 Emergence of seedlings

The data recorded on emergence of mungbean as influenced by different treatments


are presented in Tale 10. There was no significant effect on emergence due to sowing time,
varieties and planting geometry.

4.2.2 Days taken to flower initiation

Flower initiation is the starting of the reproductive stage of the crop. In 1 July sown crop
flowering initiation occurred 44.3 DAS which was significantly longer than other three
sowing times (Table 10). The 1 July (early) sown crop took higher accumulated growing
degree days(AGDD), (AHTU) as compared to other sowing dates table 11). Differences
in the initiation of flowering under different sowing time could be due to environmental
(photoperiod and temperature) variations. Flowering initiation in ML 818 occurred 36.6
DAS which was significantly delayed than in 22.5 cm x 10 cm. Similar differences
among varieties and planting geometry were observed by Singh et al (2011).

4.2.3 Days taken to 50% flowering

The crop sown on different dates took different number of days to attain 50% flowering stage (Table
10). The crop sown on 30 July achieved 50% flowering stage after 38.3 days which was significantly earlier
as compared to all other sowing time. The crop sown on 1 July took maximum time. The crop sown on 1
July took maximum time for attaining
Table 10 Effect of sowing time, varieties and planting geometry on days taken for different phonological
observations in mungbean.

Treatment Day taken to

Emergence Flower 50% POD Maturity

Initiation flowering initiation

Sowing time

1 July 6.2 44.3 51.2 47.2 71.0

10 July 6.3 34.2 41.5 38.0 70.5

20 July 6.3 32.1 39.5 35.5 69.6

30 July 6.3 31.0 38.3 34.3 66.7

CD (p= 0.05) NS 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6

Varieties

PAU 911 6.3 34.2 41.8 37.9 68.4

ML 818 6.2 36.6 43.5 39.6 70.5

CD ([= 0.05) NS 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 6.3 35.9 42.9 39.2 69.8

22.5cm x 10 cm 6.2 34.9 42.4 38.3 69.1


CD (p=0.05) NS 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5

Table 11 AGDD ( day) AHTU ( Day hour and APTU( day hour ) for various phonological
stages under different sowing time varieties and planting geometry .

Treatment AGDD AHTU APTU AGDD AHTU APTU

FLOWER INITIATION 50% FLOWERING

Sowing time

1 July 955 3871 12848 1093 6549 14689

10 July 747 4903 10123 898 5574 12126

20 July 704 4644 9544 858 5420 11594

30 July 681 4543 9217 835 5350 11288

CD (p= 0.05) 12 71 185 12 48 169

Varieties

PAU 911 747 4855 10107 904 5672 12201

ML 818 9 60 136 6 26 82

CD ([= 0.05)

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 782 5045 10572 926 5736 12490

22.5cm x 10 cm 761 4935 10281 916 5710 12359

CD (p=0.05) 8 51 102 6 18 820


POD INITIATION MATURITY

1 July 10112 6273 13627 1473 8502 19229

10 July 827 5276 11189 1466 8459 19123

20 July 774 5077 10483 1447 8337 18893

30 July 749 4916 10146 1390 7879 18299

CD (p= 0.05) 11 99 155 11 86 233

Varieties

PAU 911 823 5311 11128 1424 8169 18665

ML 818 858 5460 11594 1464 8420 19107

CD ([= 0.05) 9 60 122 7 49 63

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 850 5475 11493 1452 8345 19000

22.5cm x 10 cm 831 5295 11229 1437 8244 18772

CD (p=0.05) 7 58 102 11 88 154

50% flowering stage. Earlier 50%flowering with delayed sowing have been observed in
mungbean (Singh et al 2010) and pigeon as (Ram et al. 2011) PAU911was early to 50%
flowering which occurred 41.8 DAS .Planting geometry of 22.5 cm x 10 cm took
lesser time to attain 50% flowering as compared to 30 cm x 10 cm .
4.2.4 Days taken to pod initiation

The crop sown on 30 July showed pod initiation 24.3 days after sowing which was
significantly earlier as compared to all other sowing time Table 10 ) because crop
availed lesser AGDD, AHTU and APTU (Table 11) Under early sowing viz 1 July pod
initiation occurred in 47.2 days and had taken highest AGDD , AHTU and APTU , PAU
911 was earlier in pod initiation as compare to ML 818 Planting geometry of 22.5 cm x
10 cm lesser days for pod initiation than 30 cm x 10 cm .

4.2.5 Days taken to maturity

The crop sown on 30 July was significantly earlier in attaining 80% maturity as
compared to all other sowing time ( Table 10) because crop had taken lesser AGDD,
AHTU, and APTU (Table 11) the crop sown on 1 July was late and took 71.0 days for
about 80% maturity which was at per with 10 July and significantly late as compared
to20 and 30 July sowings longer period to maturity in early sowing that in late sowing
in mungbean have been reported by all other sowing time . The crop sown on 1 July
took maximum time for attaining 50% flowering stage. Earlier 50% flowering with
delayed sowing have been observed in mungbean (Singh et al 2010) and pigeonpea
(Ram et al 2011) PAU 911 was early to 50 % flowering which occurred 41.8 DAS.
Planting geometry of 22.5 cm x 10cm took lesser time to attain 50% flowering as
compared to 30 cm x 10cm.

4.2.6 Period for vegetative stage .

The 1July sown crop took significantly more days to complete vegetative stage as
compared to all others sowing ( Table 12 ) . PAU 911 was early to vegetative stage,
which was completed in 34.2 days. The planting geometry of 30 cmx 10cm took
significantly more days to vegetative stage as compared to 22.5 cm x 10cm.

4.2.7 Period for reproductive stage

The crop sown on different dates took different number of days to reproductive stage
(Table 12) The period for reproductive stage under 20 July sowing was significantly
longer as compared to all other sowings.

In case of varities and planting geometry treatment the result were non significant with
respect to period for reproductive stages.

Table 12 Effect of sowing time varieties and planting geometry on duration of vegetative
and reproductive stages.

Treatment Period for different stages (Days )

Vegetative Reproductive

Sowing time

1 July 44.3 26.6

10 July 34.2 36.3

20 July 32.1 37.4

30 July 31.0 35.6

CD (p= 0.05) 0.6 1.0

Varieties
PAU 911 34.2 34.1

ML 818 36.6 33.8

CD ([= 0.05) 0.4 NS

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 35.9 33.8

22.5cm x 10 cm 34.9 34.1

CD (p=0.05) 0.4 NS

4.3 Yield Attributing charactes and yield

The yield attributinhg characters like number of pods / plants number of grains / pod , pod
length and 100 grain weight have direct effect on grain yield . The data on effect of sowing time
vaieities and planting geometry on these parameters give tin Tbale 13

4.3.1 Pods /Plant

The number of pods / plant is an important characters which diretly influence grain
yield of the crop. The 20 July sown crop produced significantly higher number of pods;/
plant that the 1 july and 10 July sowing however it was statistically at par with 30 July
sowing (Table 13) Theses result are quite similar to the findings of Fraz et al ( 2006) wgi
reported higher number of pods/ plants in late sowing (3 rd week of July ) as compared
to early sowing ( 3rd Week of June ) at Faisalabad (Pakistan ) Similar difference among
sowing time have been observed by other researchers (Singh and Sakhon 2007, Singh
et al 2012b) Jahan and Adam 2012) Result were non significant in case of varieties.
Planitng geometry of 30 cm x 10 cm produced significantly higher number of pods/
plant than 22.5 cm x 10 cm geometry . The higher number of pods/ plant at 30 cmn x
10 cm was due to less competition among the plant because of more availability of
space. Similar differences among planting geometry were observed by Singh et al
2012b)

4.3.2 Grains pod

Number of grains /pod is considered an important factor as it deals with potentional


yield recovery in leguminous crops./ A significant difference in number of geometry
(Table 13 ) Maximum number of grains / pod was recorded with July 20 sowing which
was significantly higher than in 1 July sowing , however it was statistically at par with
10 July and 30 July sowings. This might be due to balance between vegetative growth
and reproductive growth phases and also duration of pod setting and development
enhanced under delayed sowing condition.

Table 1.3 Effect of sowing time varieties and planting geometry on yield attributing
characters of mungbean.

Treatment Pods / plant number f grain / pod pod length 100 grain weight cm

Sowing time 11.9 8.9 6.7 2.91

1 July 21.0 10.4 7.3 2.90

10 July 25.7 10.8 7.7 2.89

20 July 24.0 10.5 7.5 2.89

30 July 2.1 0.4 0.3 NS

CD (p= 0.05)
Varieties

PAU 911 20.5 10.4 7.4 2.91

ML 818 20.7 9.9 7.2 2.88

CD ([= 0.05) NS 0.4 NS NS

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 21.3 10.3 7.4 2.89

22.5cm x 10 cm 19.9 10.0 7.2 2.90

CD (p=0.05) 0.4 0.2 0.1 NS

Similar Differences among sowing time were observed by Singh et al ( 2012b) and
Moneu et al ( 2012)

PAU 911 produced significantly higher number of grains / pod as compared to ML 818 .
Genotypic differences with respect to grains pod were observed by Rasul et al ( 2012).
Planting geometry of 30 cm x 10 cm produced significantly higher of grains/pod as
compared to 22.5 cm x 10 cm. Other researches (Kabir and Earkar 2008, Singh et al
2011, Rasul et al 2012) also observed that the number of grains/pod was higher when
crop sown at wider spacing as compared to narrow spacing.

4.3.3 Pod Length

Difference in pod length were significant in sowing time and planting geometry and
significant between varieties. The maximum pod length was observed in 20 July sowing
which was at par with 30 July sowing but significantly longer than 1 July and 10 July
sowings (Table 13). Soomro and Khan (2003) and Sarkar et al (2004) showed that pod
length of mungbean was significantly influenced by sowing time. The pod length in case
of 30 cm x 10 cm planting geometry was significantly higher than in 22.5 cm x 10 cm.
Similar results have also been reported by Kabir and Sarkar (2008).

4.3.4 100-grain weight

Among the various parameters contributing towards final yield of a crop, 100-grain
weight is of prime importance. The 100-grain weight among all the treatments viz,
sowing time, Varities and planting geometry were found to be non-significantly (Table
13). Similar results in Varities were observed by Rasul et al (2012) and among sowing
time by Monem et al (2012) and Singh et al (2012a). However, the results are
contradictory to the findings of Jahan and Adam (2012) and Singh et al (2012b) who
showed significant difference among 100-grain weight when sown on different sowing
time.

4.3.5 Biological yield

The productivity of a crop is largely determined by the biological yield. The


difference among sowing time with respect to biological yield were found to be
significant (Table 14). The biological yield observed under 1 July sown crop was
significantly higher than all other dates. Similar differences among sowing time were
observed by other researches (Fraz et al 2006- Singh and Sekhon 2007 Moneum et al
2012). The higher total biomass production under early sowing may be attribute to the
condition which were more supportive to taller palnts and vigorous vegetative growth.
Biological yield were not significantly genotyupic difference with respect to biological
yield. However the result are contradiction to the findings of other researchers (Singh
and Sekhon et al 2007 Singh ) who showed significant difference between biological
yield of varieties .In case of planting geometry , 22.5 cm x 10cm produced slightly
higher biological yield than 30 cm x 10 cm. The more biomass produced at narrow row
spacing may be due to more plant population me significantly higher in closer spacing
than the wider on.

Table 14 Biological grain and straw and harvest index of mungbean as influenced by
sowing time , variety planting geometry.

Treatment Yield (kg /ha) Harvest index

Biological Graiin Strew %

Sowing time

1 July 4981 794 4187 16.0

10 July 4361 1146 3215 26.6

20 July 4129 1327 2648 33.4

30 July 3925 1327 2802 32.6

CD (p= 0.05) 576 86 595 5.1

Varieties

PAU 911 4257 1122 3135 27.4

ML 818 4442 1150 3292 26.9

CD ([= 0.05) NS NS NS NS
Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 4286 1124 3162 27.3

22.5cm x 10 cm 4412 1148 3264 27.0

CD (p=0.05) NS NS NS NS

4.3.6 Grain Yield

Grain yield of a plant is the result of interplay of its generic make up and environmental
condition in which plant grows. Various agronomic factors / input also affect the
growth and yield of the crop plant. The efficiency of various factors can be assessed
mainly by their contribution to the economic yield. Data on grain yield recroded under
different sowing time, varieties and planting geometry are presented in Table 14 and Fig
5.

The 20 July sown crop recorded 1327 kg/ha grain yield, which was significantly higher
than 1 July ( 794 kg/ha ) and 10 July (1277 kg /ha ) sowing Higher than 1 july ( 794
kg/ha ) and 10 July ( 1277 kg /ha) sowing. Higher grain yield in 20 july sown crop
might be due to higher number
6000
5000
Sowing time
4000 1-Jul
10-Jul
3000
20-Jul
2000 30-Jul

1000
CD (p= 0.05)
0
1

Sowing time

5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000 PAU 911
1500 ML 818
1000
500
0
1 2 3 4

Varieties

5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
30 cm x 10cm
2000
1500 22.5cm x 10 cm
1000
500
0
1 2 3 4

Planting geometry
Of pods/plant and number of grains/pod(table 13) which could be owing to higher
module number(Table 7) and dry weight of nodules/plant (Table 8). In earlier studies
at Ludhiana, high grain yields of mungbean have been reported in case of 8 July
(Singh and Sekhon, 2007 ) and 5-25 July sowings (Singh et al., 2010). However, the
present study and other recent studies indicate that 20 Juky sown mungbean provides
the highest grain yield which may possible be due to change in climate, Lesser yield
in caseofearly sowing could also be due to the attack of mungbean yellow mosaie
virus (MYMV) (Appendix-VI). In case of varieties i.e. PAU 911 and ML 818
statistically similar grain yield was recorded , which might be due to their similar
genetic make up. Similarly both the planting geometry treatments i.e. 30 cm * 10 cm
and 22.5* 10 cm showed non-significant difference in grain yield. All interactions
found to be non-significant (Appendix-VII).

4.3.7 Straw yield

Differences among sowing time with respect to straw yield were found to be
significant (Table 14). The 1 July sown crop recorded significantly higher straw yield
as compared to other sowing times. The crop sown on 1 July produced 7.5, 10.7 and
11.9% higher straw yield than 10 July, 20 July and 30 July sowings, respectively.
Higher straw yield in case of 1 July own crop might be due to the more vegetative
growth i.e plant height (Table 4), branches/plant (Table 6) and DMA (Table 5).
Significant effect of sowing time on straw yield has been reported by Kumar et al
(2009) and Miah et al (2009).

The planting geometry of 22.5 cm * 10 cm produced slightly higher straw


yield than 30 cm * 10 cm, which might be due to higher number of plants per unit
area. However, stra yield was non-significantly affected by varieties and planting
geometry.

4.3.8 Harvest index

The data on harvest index under different sowing time, varieties and planting
geometry are presented in Table 14. Harvest index is a measure of physiological
productivity potential of a crop. It indicates the ability of a crop plant to convert the
dry matter into economic yield. It is the ratio of grain yield to biological yield.

The harvest index in 30 July sown crop was significantly higher as compared
to in 1 and 10 July sowing. However, having indices were statically at par in case of
20 and 30 July sowings. This might be the result of short vegetative period of growth
and comparatively long reproductive period (Table 12), as also reported by Fraz et al
(2006). Sejjon et al (2000) also found similar results and opined that the increased
harvest index with late sowing could be related to high assimilate use efficiency due
to increased sink capacity. Differences in harvest index under different sowing dates
of mungbean has also been reported by other researches (Kabir and sarkar 2008,
Miah et al 2009, Jahan andAdam 2012). In case of varieties and planting geometry
the differences with respect to harvest index were found to be non-significant.
However , the results are contradictory to the findings of Singh et al (2007) and
Kabir and Sarkar (2008) who showed significant differences in harvest index under
different planting geometries.

4.4 Chemical Analysis

4.4.1 Nitrogen content in grains

The proteinaceous value of pulses can be calculated by nitrogen content in


grains. Differences sowing time , varieties and planting geometry (Table15) Non
significant differences in nitrogen content in moonbeam grains under different
sowing time (Chahal 1998) and genotypes (Singh 2009) have been reported.

4.4.2 Protein content in grain

Mungbean is rich in protein content . It was calculated by multiplying the


percentage nitrogen sowing time in grain with a factor of .25/

Difference in sowing time with respect to protein content were found to be


non- significant (Table 15.) Similar result were observed by Aulakh and Vashist
(2007) and Kumar et al (2009) . Similarly , varieties and planting geometry with
respect to protein content in grains were found to be statistically at par with each
other . Non significant (Chahal 1998) and significant (Singh 2009) gentypic effects
with respect to protein in grains have been reported.

4.4.3 Protein Yield

Protein yield was calculated by multiplying the percentage protein content


with grain yield and divided by 100.

Sowing time significantly influenced protein yield (Table 15) Protein yield
recorded in 20 July sowing was significantly higher than in 1 July and 10 July
sowing . However protein yield of 20 and 30 July sown crop was statistically at par
with each other. Varities and planting geometrics showed non significant
differences in terms of protein yield.
Table 15 Effect of sowing time , Varities and planting geometry on nitrogen and ortein
content in grains and protein yield at mungbean .

Treatment Nitrogen content Protein content Protein yield

(%) (%) (kg./ha)

Sowing time

1 July 3.57 22.31 177.4

10 July 3.55 23.18 254.5

20 July 3.53 22.11 293.6

30 July 3.52 22.04 281.5

CD (p= 0.05) NS NS NS

Varieties

PAU 911 3.54 22.14 248.3

ML 818 3.55 22.18 255.2

CD (p= 0.05) NS NS NS

Planting Geometry

30 cm x 10cm 3.55 22.23 249.9

22.5cm x 10 cm 3.53 22.09 253.6

CD (p=0.05) NS NS NS
4.5 Economic Analysis

4.5.1 Gross Return

The 20 July sown crop gave significantly higher gross returns than I july and 10 July
sowing (Table 16). However these were at par with 30 July sowing .Gross returns were
not significantly affected by varieties and planting geometry .

4.5.2 Net Returns

The 20 July sown crop gave significantly higher net return than 1 July and 10 July
sowing ( Table 16) However these were at par with 30 July sowing Varieties and
planting geometry showed non significantly effect with respect to net returns.

4.5.3 Benefit cost ratio

The maximum benefit : cost ratio ( 1.37) was obtained with 20 July sowing , which
was closely followed by crop sown on 30 July However , minimum benefit : cost ratio
was recorded with 1 July sowing due to poor grain yield under early sown condition.
Different varieities and planting geometric recorded almost similar benefit : cost
ration . This may be due to statistically similar net returns for both the treatment.

Table 16 Effect of sowing time varieties and planting geometry on economic return of
mungbean

Return (Rs / ha ) Benefit :Cost ratio

Treatment Gross Net

Sowing time

1 July 34058 9378 0.38


10 July 50454 25774 1.04

20 July 58399 33719 1.37

30 July 56199 31519 1.28

CD (p= 0.05) 4097 4097

Varieties

PAU 911 49370 24690 1.00

ML 818 50184 25504 1.03

CD (p= 0.05) NS NS

Planting Geometry 49011 24331 0.99

30 cm x 10cm 50543 25863 1.05

22.5cm x 10 cm NS NS

CD (p=0.05)
CHAPTER 5

SUMAMRY

The present investigation “Response of mungbean [ Vigna ratiata (L) Wilezek ] Varities to
sowing time and planting geometry was undertaken at the experimental are public section Department
of plant breeding and Genetics Punjab Agriculture university, Ludhiana during kharif 2012 The
summary of present investigation is given below:

At global level pulses are the third most important group of crops Mungbean is an important pulse
crop . India ranks first in the world in area as well as production of mungbean . It is an excellent
sources of high quality protein essential amino and fatty acid fibers , minerals and vitamins . The
mungbean plant fix large amount of atmospheric nitrogen and improve soil health. Among the various
agronomic proactive sowing time and planting geometry are the most important factors influencing the
yield of mungbean . the climatic change and global warning has deleterious effect on crop production in
terms of period of maturity and yield shortage of water supply aberrant weather condition deteriorating
soil health increasing insect pest attack keeping in view the above there was a need to re- evaluate the
performance of recommended varieties of mungbean under different time of sowing and planting
geometry in the chaining climate scenario .

According to the different experimental studies conducted by vaior workers, it has been revealed that
the grain yield and yield attributing characters of mungbean very with sowing time under different
locations and agro climatic condition. From the review of different field experimental studies, it has
been revealed that different genotypes of mungbean differ in phenology growth attributes yield
attributing characters and grain yield due to difference in their genetic make up. Planting geometry is
the spatial arrangement of crop plants and optimum planting geometry is a pre requisite for higher
productivity From the review of different studies it is observed that planting geometry also greatly
influence the productivity of the crop. It varied according to sowing time., genetic characters of
genotypes and location.

The experiment comprised of four sowing time viz 1 July , 12 July j, 20 July and 30 July two
varieties i.e PAU 911 and ML 818 and two planting geometry viz 30 cm x 10 cm and 22.5 cm x 10 cm.
The trial was laid out n a split – split plot design with for replication ..Available nitrogen and organic
carbon content of te soil of experimental field were low , while available phosphorus potassium content
were medium. The soil reaction (pH) and electrical conductivity were in normal range ./
Recommended cultural practice and plant protection measure were followed throughout the corp
growing season.

Sowing time had non- significant effect on plant stand /m row length at 1.5 days after sowing
(DAS) and at harvest stage. Plant height data recorded showed that 1 July sown crop showed
significantly highest dry matter acculturation (DAM) at all the period of observation . Number of
branches plant counted in 1 July showing the periods of observation number of was significantly
higher than in 20 july and 30 july sowing at 45 and 55 was significantly higher that in 20 July and
30 July sowing at 45 and 55 DAS whereas at harvest 1 July sown crop produced higher number of
nodules at 35 DAS at 35 DAS , 30 July was at par with 20 July sowing. Similarly dry weight of
nodules plant was significantly highest leaf area was recorded under 1 July other three sowing
time. Significantly highest leaf area was recorded under 1 July other three sowing time There was
no significant of sowing time on days taken to emergence . The 1 July sown crop took slightly more
time for Flower initiation 50% flowering. Pod inititiation and maturity as compared to other three
sowing time. The yield attributing characters voz [pds/ plants pod length and grain pod in 20 July
sowing were at pare with 30 July sowing but significantly higher than 1 an 10 July sowings. The
harvest index of 30 July sown crop was significantly higher that o 1 and 10 July sowing. However
harvest indices of 20 and 30 July sown crop were statistically at par with each other. The differences
were non- significant with respect to nitrogen and protein content in grains. However protein yield
of 20 July sowing was significantly higher as compare to 1 and 10 July sowing and statistically at
par with 30 Jly sowing. The 20 July sown crop recorded significantly higher monetary return that 1
and 10 July sowings. Was statistically at par with 30 July sowing.

Plant stand / m row length plant height and number of branches / plant did not differ significantly
between varieties at 25 and 35 DAS differences in DMA / plant were non significant between the
varieties. PAU 911 recorded higher number nodules / plant than ML 818 at 35 DAS .However dry
weight of nodules at 55 was higher in ML 818 as compared to PAU 911.

Differences in leaf area were non –significant between n PAU 911 and M<L 818 at 35
DAS .However at 55 DAS ML, 818 recorded significantly between varieties but ML 818 took
slightly more time for flower initiation 50% flowering pod initiation and maturity as compared to
PAU 911. Emergence did not differ significantly between varieties but ML 818 took slightly more
time for flower initiation 50% flowering pod initiation and maturity as compared to PAU 911. The
yield contributing characters i.e pods / plant, pod length ad 100 grain weight were non significantly
higher than in ML 818 Differences in grain yield straw yield biological yield harvest index
nitrogen and protein content in grains protein yield and monetary returns were non significant
between varieties .

Plant stand / m row length and plant height at 25 and 35 DAS were non significant between planting
geometrics. At 45, 55 DAS and at harvest planting geometry of 22.5 cm x 10 cm attained higher
plant height . The 30 cm x 10 cm recorded higher DMA per plant than 22.5 cm x 10 cm geometry.
The planting geometry of 30 cm x 10 cm registered significantly higher leaf area per plant at 356
and 55 DAS as compared to closer planting of 22.5 cm x 10 cm geometry. The planning geometry
of 30 cm x 10 cm registered significantly higher cm. Days taken to emergence did not differ
significantly between planting geometry but 30 cm x 10 cm took slightly more time for flower
initiation , 50% but 30 cm x 10 cm took slightly more time for flower initiation Number of pods.
Plant pod length and grains / pod were significantly higher in 30 cm x 10 cm than in 22.5 cm x 10
cm ., In case of 100 grain weight difference was non- significant between planting geometrics. The
biological yield grain yield straw yield harvest index nitrogen and protein content in grains protein
yield and monetary returns under different planting geometrics were statistically at par .\

Conclusion

On the basis of one year investigation on response of mungbean [ Vigna readiata (L.) Wilezek }
varieties to sowing time and planting geometry , it can be concluded that for Kharif mungbean 20
july sowing produced higher grain yield which is however statistically at par with 30 July sowing .
Varieties PAU 911 and ML 818 produced similar grain yield. Planting geometry of 30 cm x 10 cm
and 22.5 cm x 10 cm recorded statistically similar grain yield.