The Foundations of Buddhism

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THE FOUNDATIONS OF BUDDHISM
THE THREE JEWELS
1. Buddha 2. Dharma 3. Sangha

THE THREE REFUGES
1. I take refuge in Buddha, and I wish all sentient beings, Will awaken to the Great Path, and make the Supreme Resolution. 2. I take refuge in Dharma, and I wish all sentient beings, Will penetrate the sutras, their wisdom as deep as the ocean. 3. I take refuge in Sangha, and I wish all sentient beings, Will be brought together in Great Harmony, without any obstructions at all.

THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
1. Suffering exists. 2. Suffering has an identifiable cause: Desire to be and to have. 3. That cause may be terminated. 4. The means by which that cause may be terminated is the Noble Eightfold Path.

THE THREE PILLARS
1. Sila: M orality, charity & compassion. 2. Dhyâna: Practice & Concentration.

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The Foundations of Buddhism

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3. Prajna: Wisdom.

THE NOBLE EIGHT FOLD PATH
(Prajna) 1. Right understanding 2. Right thought (Sila) 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood (Dhyâna) 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration

THE ABSOLUTE TRUTH
Ultimate Reality. There is no "I" or being in to be found in any phenomena (namely the five aggregates).

THE RELATIVE TRUTH
The conventional truth. There is no self or being but we speak of truth conforming to the convention.

THE FIVE PRECEPTS
1. I will not kill

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The Foundations of Buddhism

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2. I will not steal 3. I will not engage in sexual misconduct 4. I will not lie 5. I will not take intoxicating beverages or drugs

THE FOUR GREAT VOWS
1. I vow to deliver innumerable sentient beings. 2. I vow to cut off endless vexations. 3. I vow to master limitless approaches to Dharma. 4 I vow to attain supreme Buddhahood.

THE THREE POISONS (FIRES)
1. Greed 2. Hatred 3. Ignorance

THE FIVE HINDRANCES
1. Sexual desire 2. Ill will 3. Sloth and torpor (laziness) 4. Restlessness and worry 5. Doubt

THE THREE MARKS OF EXISTENCE
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The Foundations of Buddhism

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1. Suffering (unsatifactoriness) 2. Impermanence 3. Not self

THE BRAHMA VIHARAS (FOUR SUBLIME STATES)
1. Loving - kindness 2. Compassion 3. Appreciation. 4. Equanimity

SAMANTABHADRA'S TEN GREAT VOWS
1. The first, to worship and respect all Buddhas. 2. The second, to praise the Tathagatas. 3. The third, to cultivate the giving of offerings. 4. The fourth, to repent all karmic obstructions. 5. The fifth, to rejoice in the merits of others. 6. The sixth, to request the turning of the Dharma wheel. 7. The seventh, to request that the Buddhas dwell in the world. 8. The eighth, to always follow the Buddhas in study. 9. The ninth, to always harmonize with livings beings. 10. The tenth, to transfer all merits to all others. All Buddhas of the past, present and future in all quarters. All Bodhisattva M ahasattvas. M aha Prajna Paramita.

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The Foundations of Buddhism

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TEN PARAMITAS (Perfections)
1. Generosity 2. M orality 3. Renunciation 4. Wisdom 5. Energy 6. Patience 7. Truthfulness 8. Determination 9. Loving-kindness 10. Equanimity

THE FIVE AGGREGATES
1. The Aggregate of form (matter). This includes the body, which is analyzed in the terms of four elements (solidity, fluidity, heat and motion) and their derivatives, which include our five basic sense organs (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body). 2. The Aggregate of feeling or sensation. Feeling/sensation are of three kinds: pleasant, unpleasant and neutral, and arise out of contact between a sense organ and a sense object. One extra sense organ comes into play here: the mind, which apprehends mind-objects (ideas, mental images, etc.) 3.The aggregate of perception. Perception is the faculty that actually recognizes an object by picking up its distinctive features. Its data comes via the interaction of the five sense organs and the mind with appropriate objects. 4.The aggregate of mental formations. This encompasses all the willed activities of mind, plus a few others. 5. The aggregate of consciousness. When a sense organ or the mind makes contact with an appropriate object, simple awareness but not actual recognition of that object is the function of consciousness, which arises in dependence on that object.

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DEPENDENT ORIGINATION
Dependent Origination is the doctrine of conditionality of all physical and physical phenomena. 1. Ignorance gives rise to 2. Volitional action, which in turn gives rise to 3. Conditioned consciousness, which in turn gives rise to 4. Name-and-form, which in turn gives rise to 5. The six bases, i.e., the five senses and mind, which in turn give rise to 6. Sense-impressions (Contact), which in turn give rise to 7. Feelings, which in turn give rise to 8. Desire or craving, which in turn give rise to 9. Attachment, which in turn gives rise to 10. Becoming, (the life- or rebirth process), which in turn gives rise to 11. Birth (or rebirth), which gives rise to 12. Old age, death - grief, lamentation, illness, sorrow, and despair.

THE TRIKAYA DOCTRINE
1. Nirmanakaya: his "Transformation (or Appearance) body." This is the body in which he appears in the world for the benefit of suffering beings. It is not a real, physical body but more a phantom-like appearance assumed by 2. Dharmakaya: his "dharma body," wherein he is one with the eternal dharma that lies beyond all dualities and conceptions. There is also 3. S ambhogakaya: his "Enjoyment (or Bliss) body." This is body that appears to bodhisattvas in the celestial realm where they commune with the truth of the M ahayana.

THE TEN FETTERS

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The ten factors that bind individuals to samsaric existence 1. Belief in personality 2. Skepticism 3. Attachment to rules and rituals 4. Sensuous craving 5. Ill will 6. Craving for material existence 7. Craving for non-material existence 8. Conceit 9. Restlessness 10. Ignorance

THE TWELVE ENTRANCES
The six sense - organs, (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind) and the six sense objects (sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and thought).

THE EIGHTEEN REALMS
The realms of the six sense - organs, their sense - objects and their perceptions.

THE SIX REALMS OF REBIRTH
1. Heaven 2. Diva (Asura) 3. Human 4. Animal

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The Foundations of Buddhism

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5. Ghost 6. Hell

THE FOUR ELEMENTS
1. Earth (solid) 2. Water (liquid) 3. Fire (heat) 4. Wind (motion)

THE FOUR CLINGINGS
The 4 kinds of Clinging are: Sensuous Clings, Clinging to Views, Clinging to mere Rules and Ritual, Clinging to the Personality - Belief 1. "What now is the Sensuous Clinging? Whatever with regard to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous passion, sensuous deludedness, sensuous fetters: this is called sensuous clinging. 2. "What is the Clinging to Views" 'Alms and offerings are useless... there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds...': all such view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging views. 3. "What is the Clinging to mere Rules and Ritual? The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules and ritual. 4. "What is the Clinging to the Personality - Belief? The 20 kinds of Ego-views with regard to the group of existence these are called the clinging to the Personality - belief."

WARNING TO THE ASSEMBLY (to be contemplated towards the day's end)
This day has passed. Our lives, too, are closing. Like fish with little water, Joy will not last. Let us work with pure effort. Work as we would were our heads aflame.
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Be mindful of impermanence. Be careful of idleness.

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