Vo}arstvo, 41, 157–158 (2007) 41–44 Journal of Pomology, 41, 157–158 (2007) 41–44

UDK: 634.1.22;632.1:3 Originalan nau~ni rad Original scientific paper

Vegetative and reproductive characteristics of plum cultivar ^a~anska Rodna in Troyan region
Hristina Dinkova, Ivan Minev, Teodora Stoyanova
Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, Troyan, Bulgaria E-mail: kris05@abv.bg Received 31 August, 2006; accepted 6 February, 2007
Abstract. Biological and morphological characteristics of the tree were studied, and a characterisation of the fruits was performed as well. The trees formed a moderately growing, widely open crown. The fertility was lavish. The fruits are blue in colour, oval-shaped, slightly flattened sidelong, with an attractive appearance. In the region where they were studied, they ripened in mid-August, producing fruits with a mean weight of 29 g. The quality of the fruit was very good; the content of the sugars was 11.48%, the stone was weighing 1.4 g and was separating. Another characteristic of the trees is that they were strongly infested by Plum pox virus (PPV), and the symptoms were visible on the leaves. The fruits, however, reached the picking ripeness without a deterioration of the taste qualities and without showing any characteristic symptoms of the disease themselves. This cultivar was slightly infested by the late brown root, red leaf spots and shot hole. Key words: plums, cultivars, fruit quality, diseases.

At the world market, there is an unlimited demand for plum fruits having the qualities of cv Kystendilska Sinya Sliva. The fruits of cv ^a~anska Rodna have similar qualities, which maintains the interest of plum growers for it. Because of the wide presence of the plum pox disease and the impossibility to grow Kyustendilska Sliva, alternative cultivars are searched for, which are suitable for contemporary plum production (Dragoyski et al., 1990, 2002; Minev et al., 1995). The genetic traits of the plum cultivars exerted a decisive influence on their biological and reproductive characteristics, but their expression also depends to a great extent on the soil and climatic conditions of their growing region (Iliev et al., 1977). Having this in mind, our objective was to study the vegetative and reproductive characteristics of the plum

cultivar ^a~anska Rodna under the conditions of the Troyan region, the main plum-producing region of our country.

Material and Methods
The study was conducted in a plum collection plantation established in 1994 with the cultivars Stanley and ^a~anska Rodna engrafted on rootstock Yellow Myrobalan. The trees were planted at 6/4 m spacing and trained by the freely growing system. The plantation slope varies from 3 to 8°, which necessitates antierosion sodding of interrow spacing. The following characteristics were studied: vegetative – trunk section (cm2), height (H), average diameter (d) and crown volume (V) of the trees (calculated by the formula V = π d2 H / 12 m3), annual growth (average number of branches,


average length of 1 branch and total growth) measured once at the end of vegetation on previously marked trees and reproductive – phenological calendar, yield, weight and size of 1 fruit and 1 stone and fruit qualities (Nedev et al., 1979). The cultivar reaction to the following economically more important diseases was observed: plum pox (Plum pox virus), red leaf spots (Polistigma rubrum), rust (Puccinia pruni spinosae), shot hole (Stigmina carpophila) and brown fruit rot (Monilinia fructigena). The cultivar Stanley was used as a control. The plantation was at the beginning of quickly increasing fruiting and grown without irrigation. The agricultural practices for its maintenance were applied according to the generally adopted technology for plum fruit production with reduced plant protection against plum fruit borer (Hoplocampa minuta Christ.) and plum fruit worm (Laspeyresia funebrana). The studies were conducted according to the Methodology for studying the plant resources in fruit species (Nedev et al., 1979).

Tab. 2. Annual growth in 2003–2004 Godi{nji rast u periodu 2003–2004. god. Cultivar Sorta Average number Average length Total of annual branches of one branch growth Prose~an broj Prose~na du`ina Ukupan jednogodi{njih gran~ica jedne gran~ice porast (cm) (cm) ______________________________________________________

^a~anska Rodna 25.2 17.56 442.5 Stanley - control 23.0 20.88 480.2 ______________________________________________________

^a~anska Rodna is distinguished for a softer wood than the other plum cultivars, including cv Stanley. Nevertheless in the years of observation no broken branches under the weight of the fruit load were recorded. During the first fruiting years the yields of cv ^a~anska Rodna were lower, as compared to cv Stanley, but at the age of 10 years on average 13.23% more fruits per tree were obtained than the control (Tab. 3). It was impressive that the wood productivity of this cultivar was higher, as compared to cv Stanley, which
Tab. 3. Yield of plum cultivars ^a~anska Rodna and Stanley for the period 2002–2004 Prinos sorti ^a~anska rodna i Stenli u periodu 2002–2004. god. ______________________________________________________ ^a~anska Rodna Stanley Year Godina kg/tree kg/cm2 kg/m3 kg/tree kg/cm2 kg/m3 ______________________________________________________ 2002 33.0 0.283 2.07 56.0 0.418 2.76 2003 38.0 0.364 3.33 46.0 0.275 2.12 2004 80.4 0.771 7.05 71.0 0.542 4.03 Σ yield 151.4 – – 173.0 – – Σ prinosa ______________________________________________________

Results and Discussion
The major characteristics of the growth vigour are trunk section and crown volume. The studied 8-year trees of cultivar ^a~anska Rodna had a trunk section of 104.28 cm². The tree sizes of this cultivar were relatively smaller, as compared to Stanley (Tab. 1).
Tab. 1. Relevant parameters of 8-year trees Relevantni parametri osmogodi{njih stabala Average Crown Trunk section diameter volume Cultivar Povr{ina preseka Height Prose~an Zapremina Sorta debla Visina pre~nik krune (cm²) (cm) (cm) (m³) ______________________________________________________ ^a~anska Rodna 104.28 370 318 9.79 Stanley 131.06 406 399 16.91 ______________________________________________________

They had an average height of 370 cm and an average diameter of 318 cm, so their crowns had a wideoval shape. The crown volume was also relatively smaller – by 35.26%, as compared to cv Stanley. That allowed using smaller planting spacing than those recommended for cv Stanley, i.e. the cultivar is adapted to the establishment of semi- and intensive plum plantations. The cultivar had moderate bud revival and branching of the annual growth, so the crowns were loose. The number of annual branches of cv ^a~anska Rodna was greater than cv Stanley and their average length was smaller, hence the total growth of the studied cultivar was smaller than the control (Tab. 2).

was evident in the yields per square centimetre of trunk and per cubic metre of crowns. The fruits reached picking maturity in the third tenday period of August, 2–3 days before those of cv Stanley. Their skin is dark-blue coloured. They are ovalshaped, slightly flattened on the sides. The abdominal suture is on the surface. The fruit flesh is greenish-whitish, tender, a little sour, sweet, juicy, with an aroma. The freestone is 1,4 g in weight. The fruit is 29,7 g in weight and is not inferior to Stanley in size (Tab. 4).
Tab. 4. Average size, weight of fruit and ripening time Prose~na veli~ina, masa ploda i vreme zrenja Stalk length Ripening Cultivar Height Width Thickness Du`ina Weight time Sorta Visina [irina Debljina peteljke Masa Vreme (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (g) zrenja ^a~anska Rodna 43.9 33.2 37.2 16.9 29.7 20–30. 08. Stanley 44.7 33.6 34.8 15.3 34.8 25. 08–05. 09. ______________________________________________________


In years characterized by frequent rainfalls during the period of fruit maturity there were cracks of the fruit skin and fruit flesh in a number of recognized cultivars, but similar damages to cv ^a~anska Rodna were not observed. The content of total sugars in fresh fruits was 10.70% and those of inverted sugar and saccharose were 7.82 and 2.74%, respectively (Tab. 5).
Tab. 5. Chemical composition of fresh fruits Hemijski sastav sve`ih plodova ______________________________________________________ Cultivar Sorta Dry Total Inverted matter sugars sugar Suve Ukupni Invertni Saccharose Acids Tannins materije {e}eri {e}er Saharoza Kiseline Tanini (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) ______________________________________________________

Analyzing the data of this study, it was found that the index of attack by rust (Puccinia pruni spinosae) on cv ^a~anska Rodna (0.84%) had the same value as that measured in the control treatment with cv Stanley. In both varieties the differences were significant. The studied cultivar showed low susceptibility to shot hole (Stigmina carpophila) (0.25%) (Tab. 6). When grown near to trees infected with Plum pox virus, cv ^a~anska Rodna is susceptible to the disease. The leaf symptoms were characteristic, very pronounced and covered the whole tree crown. The fruits had not the characteristic concavities of the disease and reached picking maturity without dropping and decreasing their palatability.

^a~anska Rodna 23.80 11.48 8.50 2.74 0.55 0.171 Stanley 20.05 11.69 8.22 3.30 0.62 0.181 ______________________________________________________

The studies showed that cv ^a~anska Rodna found suitable soil and climatic conditions for growing in the Troyan region. The trees had optimum growth and allowed obtaining yields of about 2000 kg/da. The crowns had smaller size than cv Stanley and could be planted more densely. The fruits reached picking maturity on 20–30 August. The cultivar deserves attention for its tolerance to economically important fungal diseases in plum. The reaction to the Plum pox virus allows its successful growing in regions with PPV infection.

The flowering of cv ^a~anska Rodna is mid-early. Usually it occurs in the first half of April in the studied region, partially coinciding with that of cv Stanley. The cultivar is self-fertile. During the study period there were no damages to cv ^a~anska Rodna caused by red leaf spots (Polistigma rubrum), which determines it as disease tolerant. In more humid years with favourable conditions for disease development there were only single spots (the recorded index of attack was 0.07%) (Tab. 6). No damages of economic significance caused by late brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) were recorded.
Tab. 6. Index of infection (%) by fungal diseases Indeks zaraze (%) gljivi~nim obolenjima ______________________________________________________ Rust Shot hole Red leaf spots R|a Rupi~avost li{}a Plamenja~a Cultivar (Puccinia pruni (Stigmina (Polistigma Sorta spinosae) carpophila) rubrum) ______________________________________________________ ^a~anska Rodna Average/Prosek 0.84 0.25 0.07 ______________________________________________________ SD 0.50 0.44 0.27 ______________________________________________________ Stanley Average/Prosek 0.84 0.21 0.11 ______________________________________________________ SD 0.57 0.41 0.32 ______________________________________________________

Dragoiski K., Minev I., Mondeshka P., Dinkova H., Mihovska B. (1990): Work to PPV in Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture Troian. Plant Scence, 4: 10–15. Dragoiski K., Dinkova H., Minev I. (2002): Rate of PPV infection of some plum cultivars depending on the rootstock and management systems. Acta Horticulturae, 577: 263–268. Iliev I., Vitanov M., Yoncheva M., Belyakov V. (1977): Plum. Publ. Hristo G. Danov, Plovdiv, pp. 3–55. Minev I., Dragoiski K. (1995): Interspecific hybrds of genus Prunus with a hide field resistance to Plum pox virus. Plant Scence, 4: 42–43. Nedev N., Grigorov Y., Baev H., Serafimov S., Strandzhev A., Kavardzhikov L., Lazarov K., Nikolov N., Dzhouvinov V., Popova L., Slavov N., Iliev P., Stoyanov D., Kunev I., Krinkov H., Vishanska Y., Topchiyska M. (1979): Methods of studying plant resources of fruit species. Fruit-growing Research Institute, Plovdiv, pp. 1–151.



Hristina Dinkova, Ivan Minev, Teodora Stoyanova
Institut za istra`ivanja u poljoprivredi i planinskom sto~arstvu, Trojan, Bugarska E-mail: kris05@abv.bg

Prou~avane su bilo{ke i morfolo{ke karakteristike stabla, a tako|e je izvr{ena i karakterizacija plodova. Stabla su formirala krunu umerenog rasta, {iroko otvorenog oblika. Bujnost je bila izuzetna. Plodovi su plave boje, ovalnog oblika, blago, bo~no zaravnjeni, atraktivnog izgleda. U regionu u kome su vr{ena prou~avanja, plodovi su sazrevali sredinom avgusta, i imali prose~nu te`inu od 29 g. Kvalitet plodova je bio jako dobar. Sadr`aj {e}era je iznosio 11,48%, dok se ko{tica odvajala i imala prose~nu te`inu od 1,4 g. Stabla su bila u velikoj meri zara`ena virusom {arke (Plum pox virus, PPV), ~iji su simptomi bili vidljivi na listovima. Sa druge strane, plodovi su dostigli zrelost branja, pri ~emu nisu izgubili na kvalitetu ukusa nisu pokazali nikakve karakteristi~ne simptome ove bolesti. Kod ove sorte je zapa`ena slaba pojava trule`i plodova, plamenja~e i rupi~avosti li{}a. Klju~ne re~i: {ljive, sorte, kvalitet vo}a, bolesti. Author’s address: Dr Hristina Dinkova Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture 281, Vasil Levski Str. Troyan 5600 Bulgaria


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