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S Zahid Nabi Dar Mairaj-ud-Din Mufti

Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering,

NIT Srinagar, J&K, India NIT Srinagar, J&K, India

Email: zahidnabi21@gmail.com Email: muftimd@yahoo.co

. Abstract— This Paper Concentrates on the Implementation of For short duration requirements BESS can bring about

genetically tuned Control Scheme for enhanced and better frequency control and stability while for longer duration

operation of compact rating battery energy storage system requirements it has the capability to offer energy management

(BESS) in load frequency control (LFC) applications. In contrast or function as reserves .It can also be used to exalt primary

to the traditional control schemes this paper proposes the use of generation by supplying energy during off peak periods. The

genetic algorithm (GA) for the automatic update of proportional desired use of the BESS in a power system demands the

and integral gains of the controller. The tracking of reference application of simultaneous control, in which the fundamental

power to actual power is also given in this paper. (inner) control loop aims at exchanging the desired power

between the BESS and the power system for enhanced

dynamic power system performance. Analyzing the

Keywords—: Battery energy storage system (BESS), load performance of the suggested scheme, a two area power system

frequency control (LFC), area control error (ACE) applications is considered [2]. The schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 1.

genetic algorithm (GA), adaptive generalized predictive control and the specifications of the power conversion system (PCS)

(AGPC). which is used for integrating the BESS with an electrical utility

system are given in Fig. 2.On one side the line side converter

I. INTRODUCTION manages a constant voltage on the dc links, and on another

side, integration of the BESS into the dc bus needs a fast

For satisfactory operation of a power system, the frequency bidirectional interface. In this paper a combined buck boost dc

should remain nearly constant. In a network, considerable drop to dc converter technology depending upon the insulated gate

in frequency could result in high magnetizing currents in power bipolar transistor is used for this purpose.

system equipments.The frequency of the system is reflected by

active power balance. As frequency is an essential feature right Tie-line

place is reflected all over the system by a change in frequency. Area-1 Area-2

Since a number of generators supply power into the system,

some means must be provided to allocate change in demand to

the generators. A speed governor at every generating unit

supplies the primary speed control function, while G

L B G

L B

supplementary control emanating from a principal control

center allocates generation. The control of generation and Fig.1. Schematic of the interconnected power system with battery

frequency is generally ascribed as load frequency control

(LFC)[1].

Energy storage is utmost demanding and complicated

issue of the industry either it be an electrical utility or for

Y /Y

electrical industries. The modern and happening applications

are seen in the fields of electric hybrid vehicles, electric utility 12-PULSE

BRIDGE BATTERY

storage, portable electronics and storage of electric energy CONVERTER

produced by renewables. The persistent demand for profitable

energy storage has seen the evolution of advanced technologies POWER

TR.

PT/CT

which promise reliability, productivity less economic burden,

faster response .Energy storage can balance the deviations in CONTROL

SCHEME

supply and match the ever growing demand of electricity.

Fig.2. Basic configuration of BESS in power system.

II. BESS FOR MULTI AREA POWER SYSTEM The dc current entering the battery can be estimated from

Investigation on the effect of genetically tuned BESS on the the equivalent circuit analysis as per the following equations

LFC has been presented in our studies and the method to use

the small sized BESS is suggested[3]. Since linearized models V f

are used to investigate load frequency control. This paper Δsignal VS 0

COS 6

XC0

derives an incremental model for BESS operating at charging + +

0

IBES

6

system is considered for the computer simulation studies[4].

X C0

IBAT 1

system is shown in Fig. 3. It consists an equivalent battery

RBSRBAT

VBAT

containing a network of parallel/series combination of cells, - +

which are connected to 12 pulse cascaded bridge circuit via a V B1 +

PBAT

y/delta-y transformer, and a control scheme. The battery RB1

+

voltage range lies in between 1755 and 2925 volts [5]. The + 1 SRB1CB1

desired no load maximum dc voltage of the converter is

mathematically represented as:

VBOC

RBP

6

sin 1SRBPCBP

E𝐷 = E𝐷O1 + E𝐷O2 = 2 × 3√ 𝑉𝑡 (1)

𝜋

Where Vt is line to neutral voltage (RMS) voltage. The

final value of equivalent battery voltage is fetched from the

I 0BAT

below given equations.

VBAT =ED cosα- RC IBAT BATTERY

6 6 Fig 4. Block Diagram of BES incremental model

=3√ Vt (cosα1 +cosα2 )- XCO IBAT (2)

π π

−VBOC −VB1+ VBT

Where the symbols used represent specific parameters of IBAT = (3)

the battery as RBT +RBS

Where

XCO – commutating reactance, IBAT – DC current flowing RBP IBAT

into equivalent battery VBOC = (4)

SRBP CBP +1

RB1IBAT

α1- firing delay angle of converter 1, α2- firing delay angle VB1 = SR (5)

of converter 2 B1 CB1 +1

Depending upon the circuit analysis of the given

The equivalent circuit of BESS can be expressed as a converter, the consumed active power and reactive power by

converter integrated with an equivalent battery as given in Fig BESS are represented as per the below given equations.

3.

√6

PBAT =3 I V (cosα1 +cosα2 ) (6)

π BAT t

√6

PBAT R B1 QBAT =3 I V (sinα1 +sinα2 ) (7)

ED V BAT π BAT t

vt 6 6

RBS As per the converter circuit analysis there are essentially

COS CB1

two control strategies

6 RBAT + -

X C0 V B1 + (1) P-Q modulation : α1 = α2 = 𝛼 (8)

R BP CBP - √6

I BAT PBAT =6 I V cosα (9)

π BAT t

√6

QBAT =6 I V sinα (10)

π BAT t

(2) P modulation : α1 = −α2 = 𝛼 (11)

CONVERTER BATTERY

√6

PBAT =6 Vt IBAT cosα=𝐸𝐷 𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑇 𝐶𝑂𝑆𝛼 = 𝑉𝐶𝑂 𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑇

Fig. 3. Equivalent circuit of BESS π

QBAT = 0 (12)

In the above given Fig. 4 circuit VBOC is the open circuit

voltage of the battery, VB1 is battery over voltage, RBAT is Herein, 𝑉𝐶𝑂 = 𝐸𝐷 𝐶𝑂𝑆𝛼 is the DC Voltage with no overlap

.As only the incremental active power is needed in case of load

connecting resistance RBS is internal resistance , RB1 is over

frequency control, we select P modulation in this paper

voltage resistance, CB1 is over voltage capacitance , RBP is .Linearization of equation 9 results in obtaining of the

self-discharge resistance , CBP is battery capacitance. incremental power of the BESS:

ΔPBAT =V0CO ΔIBAT +I0BAT ΔVCO (13) command and constraint variable which is battery voltage or

stored energy. This control scheme is capable of handling all

The ΔIBAT will be decrementing all trough as the BESS is these issues by producing a feasible power command to BESS

under persistent charging mode due to increase of battery [8-9].The energy stored in the BESS is given by the following

voltage ΔVBCO and ΔVB1 .Primarily the constant current equations:

operating mode is the most effective for the BESS, the firing

angle 𝛼, should be so adjusted such that ΔVCO keeps the 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

BESS in constant power mode for the LFC .We divide ΔVCO 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑜 = 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑜 − 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛

2 2 2 2

into two parameters (a) E𝐷 ΔVf to atone the power deviations 2 2

𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑎𝑥 + 𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 1

used by ΔIBES , and (b) E𝐷 ΔVs to acknowledge the system Edo = ( )2

disturbance .We attain 2

Edmin = 0.3 Edo; Edmax = 1.38 Edo (20)

ΔPBAT =V0CO ΔIBAT +I0BAT ΔED (ΔVf + ΔVs )=I0BAT ΔED ΔVs

(14)

.The fact that the tracking performance of the reference

If we let

power command matches the actual power command .Leads us

- ΔIBAT COSαо to the idea that a reference model can be cascaded with an

ΔVf = (15)

IоBAT integrator to predict the constrained variable energy storage in

BESS .The idea is illustrated in the following block diagram. It

Then the usage of the BESS in LFC is achieved by a is vital to note the BESS power as predicted by the reference

damping signal ΔVS model can also be obtained by Fig. 5.

KBP

ΔVS = Signal (16) IV. SIMULATION STUDIUES

1+STBP

BESSS is genetically trained by tuning the pi controllers for

Here KBP is the control loop gain and TBP represents the the optimum value[10]. So that the reference power command

measuring device time constant. The Δ signal is useful is tracking the actual power command. After tracking the

feedback from the power system in order to provide damping system, it is introduced to load frequency controller of two area

effect .Combination of above equations, the incremental model power system. In our system it is observed there is reduction in

of BESS is shown in Fig .4. The discharging mode of operation frequency deviation of the system that will help in future

of battery of the BESS also can be expressed by Fig 4. loading of the system for more thermal limits. the maximum

and minimum limits of charge discharge is neglected usually a

We can use the ignition angle β for the converter in lower limit is put for the capacitor voltage, say 30% of the

discharging mode. The power consumption of the BESS is rated value [10] . The upper limit of the BESS voltage is

√6 limited by the factors such as capacitor voltage rating

ΔPBAT = Vt IBAT COSβ, β=π-α (17) insulation level of capacitor and rating of the converter bridge.

π

= −𝐸𝐷𝑜 IBAT COS α = VCO IBAT (18) Below given Fig. 5 illustrate the two area power system. The

pi gains of the battery are tuned according to Fig.6. And the

The same result is attained in the below equation. frequency deviations of the two systems one with only LFC

and another with BESS integrated to LFC Of system is

ΔPBat = -IоBat ED ΔVs (19) compared in Fig 7.

P act

The incremental BESS model as shown can identify P ref

Zero BESS

charging mode or discharging mode according to the sign of Signal Gain

IоBAT value, that is, the direction of initial current within the generat order

hold

or

BESS.

As there are dc breakers provided for countering too high

currents which would imperil service life of the battery, the output

changes of battery current is restricted .Also a limiter is

enforced over ΔVs due to VCO ≤ 𝐸𝐷0 .

Fig. 5. Tracking performance of BESS

III. BESS CONTROL

V. RESULTS

BESS is installed in each control area of the interconnected

power system to damp electro mechanical oscillations and keep The BESS was fed by a signal generator having amplitude

frequency and tie power deviations to minimum. The 0.01 and frequency of 1hertz.The reference power command

supervisory control must command the BESS to react to a load was fed and the actual power command was tracked via setting

disturbance by instantly releasing or absorbing energy. Once the PI controller gains using genetic tuning value of

the disturbance is dealt with, the BESS unit should come back proportional gain and integral gain was obtained as 0.1254 and

to its nominal stored energy so that it is ready to face new 4.98745 respectively. From fig 6. It can be clearly seen that the

disturbance and control it[6-7]. Furthermore small rating of reference and actual command are perfectly overlapping in

BESS imposes constraints on control variable i.e.; power case of the BESS. The red line being the reference power

command and blue line being the actual power. From Fig 7 and

fig 8 two cases are considered and frequency deviations in both

these cases are compared .The first case is the load frequency 0.005

controller of the system without BESS and second case is the frequency deviation of area 1

LFC of a two area power system with incorporation of BESS. 0 frequency deviation of area 2 with BESS

It can be seen the frequency deviations in the two systems are

having a difference of .0034 although a minor one but with

constraints it will provide a boost to the power system. And -0.005

the System two reach’s steady state faster.

0.01

-0.01

ACTUAL POWER

-0.015

0.006

0.004

-0.02

0.002

-0.025

Power in per unit

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time

-0.002

Fig 8. LFC with BESS

-0.004

VI. CONCLUSION

-0.006 The energy storage model used here was a combination of

series parallel resistances and capacitances, it has brought

-0.008

about small improvement in the frequency deviation hence

-0.01

more power can be transferred but to make the system more

0 1 2 3

Fig. 6. Ting performance of the

4 5 6 7 8

Battery Energy Storage system

9 10

robust.it is desired the system hit the various constraints like

Time in seconds

the maximum and minimum value of battery charge and

0.005

discharge and the system to be optimal a more optimized and

Area 1 frequency devaiation

best strategy would be to adopt adaptive generalized predictive

Area 2 frequency deviation

0

control strategy.

APPENDIX A: SYSTEM DATA

-0.005 Power System

K P1 K P2 120 Hz /( p .uMW )

-0.01 TP1 TP2 20 S

TT 1 TT2 0.3

-0.015

K i1 K i2 0.2

-0.02 R1 R2 2.4 Hz /( p .u .MW ).

B1 B2 0.425 p .u .MW / radian

-0.025

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

T12 0.08674 p.u .MW / radian

Time in seconds

Fig.7. LFC without BESS

APPENDIX B

BESS (10MW/40MWH)

Battery voltage = 1755-2925 V dc

C BP 52597

C B1 1F

R BAT 0.0167

X CO 0.0274

K BP 100KV/HZ(Δ(f(feedbac k)

K BP 117KV/Hz(A CEfeedback )

TBP 0.005sec

R BP 10KΩ

R B1 0.001Ω

R BS 0.013

K P 0.1254(proporitional gain)

K I 4.98745(in tegral gain)

REFERENCES

1. M.D.Mufti,S.A.Lone,S.J.Iqbal,M.Ahmad AND M.Ismail, “Super-

capacitor Based Energy Storage System for improved Load Frequency

Control ,”Electric power system Research ,vol.79,no.1,pp.226-233,2009

2. O.I.Elgerd, “Electric Energy Systems Theory An

Introduction,”India:Tata Mcgraw-Hill,1982

3. M.D.MUFTI,S.J.IQBAL,S.A.LONE AND Q.-U.AIN, “Supervisory

Adaptive Predictive Control Scheme For Super-Capacitor Energy

Storage System,”IEEE Systems Journal,Vol.Pp,Issue99,2013

4. R. J. Abraham, D. Das and A. Patra, “ Effect of Capacitive Energy

Storage on Automatic Generation Control,” in the 7th International

Power Engineering Conference 2005-IPEC2005, vol. 2, pp.1070-1074,

Singapore, 2005

5. Lu, C. -F., Liu, C. -C., & Wu, C. -J. “Effect of Battery Energy Storage

System on Load Frequency Control Considering Governor Deadband

and Generation Rate Constraint,” IEEE Transactions on Energy

Conversion, vol. 10, no.3, pp.555-561, 1995

6. P. F. Ribeiro. B. K. Johnson, M. L. Crow, A. AR soy and Y. Liu,

“Energy storage for advanced power applications,” Proceedings of the

IEEE, vol. 89, no. 12, pp. 1744-1756, 2001.

7. A. G. Ter-Gazarian, “Energy Storage for Power Systems,” UK: IET

Power and Energy Series, 2011.

8. S. C. Tripathy, R. Balasubranium and P. S. C. Nair,”Small Rating

Capacitive Energy Storage for Dynamic Performance Improvement of

Automatic Generation Control,” Proceedings of the IEE-C, vol. 138, no

1, pp.103-111, 1991.

9. T. Himaya and G. Okabe, “Coordinated Load Frequency Control

Between lFC Unit and Small Sized High Power Energy Capacitor

System,” in 2004 International Conference on Power Systems

Technology- POWERCON-2004,pp.1229-1233, Singapore, 2004.

10. Y. J. Cao and Q. H. Wu, “Teaching Genetic Algorithm using

MATLAB,” International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education

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