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S Zahid Nabi Dar Mairaj-ud-Din Mufti
Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering,
NIT Srinagar, J&K, India NIT Srinagar, J&K, India
Email: Email:

. Abstract— This Paper Concentrates on the Implementation of For short duration requirements BESS can bring about
genetically tuned Control Scheme for enhanced and better frequency control and stability while for longer duration
operation of compact rating battery energy storage system requirements it has the capability to offer energy management
(BESS) in load frequency control (LFC) applications. In contrast or function as reserves .It can also be used to exalt primary
to the traditional control schemes this paper proposes the use of generation by supplying energy during off peak periods. The
genetic algorithm (GA) for the automatic update of proportional desired use of the BESS in a power system demands the
and integral gains of the controller. The tracking of reference application of simultaneous control, in which the fundamental
power to actual power is also given in this paper. (inner) control loop aims at exchanging the desired power
between the BESS and the power system for enhanced
dynamic power system performance. Analyzing the
Keywords—: Battery energy storage system (BESS), load performance of the suggested scheme, a two area power system
frequency control (LFC), area control error (ACE) applications is considered [2]. The schematic diagram is shown in Fig. 1.
genetic algorithm (GA), adaptive generalized predictive control and the specifications of the power conversion system (PCS)
(AGPC). which is used for integrating the BESS with an electrical utility
system are given in Fig. 2.On one side the line side converter
I. INTRODUCTION manages a constant voltage on the dc links, and on another
side, integration of the BESS into the dc bus needs a fast
For satisfactory operation of a power system, the frequency bidirectional interface. In this paper a combined buck boost dc
should remain nearly constant. In a network, considerable drop to dc converter technology depending upon the insulated gate
in frequency could result in high magnetizing currents in power bipolar transistor is used for this purpose.
system equipments.The frequency of the system is reflected by
active power balance. As frequency is an essential feature right Tie-line

through the system, a deviation of active power demand at one

place is reflected all over the system by a change in frequency. Area-1 Area-2
Since a number of generators supply power into the system,
some means must be provided to allocate change in demand to
the generators. A speed governor at every generating unit
supplies the primary speed control function, while G
supplementary control emanating from a principal control
center allocates generation. The control of generation and Fig.1. Schematic of the interconnected power system with battery
frequency is generally ascribed as load frequency control
Energy storage is utmost demanding and complicated
issue of the industry either it be an electrical utility or for
Y   /Y
electrical industries. The modern and happening applications
are seen in the fields of electric hybrid vehicles, electric utility 12-PULSE
storage, portable electronics and storage of electric energy CONVERTER
produced by renewables. The persistent demand for profitable
energy storage has seen the evolution of advanced technologies POWER
which promise reliability, productivity less economic burden,
faster response .Energy storage can balance the deviations in CONTROL
supply and match the ever growing demand of electricity.
Fig.2. Basic configuration of BESS in power system.
II. BESS FOR MULTI AREA POWER SYSTEM The dc current entering the battery can be estimated from
Investigation on the effect of genetically tuned BESS on the the equivalent circuit analysis as per the following equations
LFC has been presented in our studies and the method to use
the small sized BESS is suggested[3]. Since linearized models V f
are used to investigate load frequency control. This paper Δsignal VS 0
COS 6
derives an incremental model for BESS operating at charging + +

mode and discharging mode. A two area interconnected power

system is considered for the computer simulation studies[4]. 
X C0

The fundamental configuration of an equivalent battery energy Vt 6 6 ED VCO + - +

system is shown in Fig. 3. It consists an equivalent battery  
containing a network of parallel/series combination of cells, - +
which are connected to 12 pulse cascaded bridge circuit via a  V B1 +
y/delta-y transformer, and a control scheme. The battery RB1
voltage range lies in between 1755 and 2925 volts [5]. The + 1 SRB1CB1

desired no load maximum dc voltage of the converter is
mathematically represented as:
E𝐷 = E𝐷O1 + E𝐷O2 = 2 × 3√ 𝑉𝑡 (1)
Where Vt is line to neutral voltage (RMS) voltage. The
final value of equivalent battery voltage is fetched from the
below given equations.
6 6 Fig 4. Block Diagram of BES incremental model
=3√ Vt (cosα1 +cosα2 )- XCO IBAT (2)
π π
Where the symbols used represent specific parameters of IBAT = (3)
the battery as RBT +RBS
XCO – commutating reactance, IBAT – DC current flowing RBP IBAT
into equivalent battery VBOC = (4)
α1- firing delay angle of converter 1, α2- firing delay angle VB1 = SR (5)
of converter 2 B1 CB1 +1
Depending upon the circuit analysis of the given
The equivalent circuit of BESS can be expressed as a converter, the consumed active power and reactive power by
converter integrated with an equivalent battery as given in Fig BESS are represented as per the below given equations.
PBAT =3 I V (cosα1 +cosα2 ) (6)
π BAT t
PBAT R B1 QBAT =3 I V (sinα1 +sinα2 ) (7)
vt 6 6
RBS As per the converter circuit analysis there are essentially
 COS  CB1
two control strategies
6 RBAT + -

X C0 V B1 + (1) P-Q modulation : α1 = α2 = 𝛼 (8)
R BP CBP - √6
I BAT PBAT =6 I V cosα (9)
π BAT t
QBAT =6 I V sinα (10)
π BAT t
(2) P modulation : α1 = −α2 = 𝛼 (11)
Fig. 3. Equivalent circuit of BESS π
QBAT = 0 (12)
In the above given Fig. 4 circuit VBOC is the open circuit
voltage of the battery, VB1 is battery over voltage, RBAT is Herein, 𝑉𝐶𝑂 = 𝐸𝐷 𝐶𝑂𝑆𝛼 is the DC Voltage with no overlap
.As only the incremental active power is needed in case of load
connecting resistance RBS is internal resistance , RB1 is over
frequency control, we select P modulation in this paper
voltage resistance, CB1 is over voltage capacitance , RBP is .Linearization of equation 9 results in obtaining of the
self-discharge resistance , CBP is battery capacitance. incremental power of the BESS:
ΔPBAT =V0CO ΔIBAT +I0BAT ΔVCO (13) command and constraint variable which is battery voltage or
stored energy. This control scheme is capable of handling all
The ΔIBAT will be decrementing all trough as the BESS is these issues by producing a feasible power command to BESS
under persistent charging mode due to increase of battery [8-9].The energy stored in the BESS is given by the following
voltage ΔVBCO and ΔVB1 .Primarily the constant current equations:
operating mode is the most effective for the BESS, the firing
angle 𝛼, should be so adjusted such that ΔVCO keeps the 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
BESS in constant power mode for the LFC .We divide ΔVCO 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑜 = 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑜 − 𝐶𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛
2 2 2 2
into two parameters (a) E𝐷 ΔVf to atone the power deviations 2 2
𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑎𝑥 + 𝐸𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 1
used by ΔIBES , and (b) E𝐷 ΔVs to acknowledge the system Edo = ( )2
disturbance .We attain 2
Edmin = 0.3 Edo; Edmax = 1.38 Edo (20)
.The fact that the tracking performance of the reference
If we let
power command matches the actual power command .Leads us
- ΔIBAT COSαо to the idea that a reference model can be cascaded with an
ΔVf = (15)
IоBAT integrator to predict the constrained variable energy storage in
BESS .The idea is illustrated in the following block diagram. It
Then the usage of the BESS in LFC is achieved by a is vital to note the BESS power as predicted by the reference
damping signal ΔVS model can also be obtained by Fig. 5.
BESSS is genetically trained by tuning the pi controllers for
Here KBP is the control loop gain and TBP represents the the optimum value[10]. So that the reference power command
measuring device time constant. The Δ signal is useful is tracking the actual power command. After tracking the
feedback from the power system in order to provide damping system, it is introduced to load frequency controller of two area
effect .Combination of above equations, the incremental model power system. In our system it is observed there is reduction in
of BESS is shown in Fig .4. The discharging mode of operation frequency deviation of the system that will help in future
of battery of the BESS also can be expressed by Fig 4. loading of the system for more thermal limits. the maximum
and minimum limits of charge discharge is neglected usually a
We can use the ignition angle β for the converter in lower limit is put for the capacitor voltage, say 30% of the
discharging mode. The power consumption of the BESS is rated value [10] . The upper limit of the BESS voltage is
√6 limited by the factors such as capacitor voltage rating
ΔPBAT = Vt IBAT COSβ, β=π-α (17) insulation level of capacitor and rating of the converter bridge.
= −𝐸𝐷𝑜 IBAT COS α = VCO IBAT (18) Below given Fig. 5 illustrate the two area power system. The
pi gains of the battery are tuned according to Fig.6. And the
The same result is attained in the below equation. frequency deviations of the two systems one with only LFC
and another with BESS integrated to LFC Of system is
ΔPBat = -IоBat ED ΔVs (19) compared in Fig 7.
P act
The incremental BESS model as shown can identify P ref
charging mode or discharging mode according to the sign of Signal Gain
IоBAT value, that is, the direction of initial current within the generat order
As there are dc breakers provided for countering too high
currents which would imperil service life of the battery, the output
changes of battery current is restricted .Also a limiter is
enforced over ΔVs due to VCO ≤ 𝐸𝐷0 .
Fig. 5. Tracking performance of BESS
BESS is installed in each control area of the interconnected
power system to damp electro mechanical oscillations and keep The BESS was fed by a signal generator having amplitude
frequency and tie power deviations to minimum. The 0.01 and frequency of 1hertz.The reference power command
supervisory control must command the BESS to react to a load was fed and the actual power command was tracked via setting
disturbance by instantly releasing or absorbing energy. Once the PI controller gains using genetic tuning value of
the disturbance is dealt with, the BESS unit should come back proportional gain and integral gain was obtained as 0.1254 and
to its nominal stored energy so that it is ready to face new 4.98745 respectively. From fig 6. It can be clearly seen that the
disturbance and control it[6-7]. Furthermore small rating of reference and actual command are perfectly overlapping in
BESS imposes constraints on control variable i.e.; power case of the BESS. The red line being the reference power
command and blue line being the actual power. From Fig 7 and
fig 8 two cases are considered and frequency deviations in both
these cases are compared .The first case is the load frequency 0.005
controller of the system without BESS and second case is the frequency deviation of area 1
LFC of a two area power system with incorporation of BESS. 0 frequency deviation of area 2 with BESS

Frequenc y Dev iations in Hz

It can be seen the frequency deviations in the two systems are
having a difference of .0034 although a minor one but with
constraints it will provide a boost to the power system. And -0.005
the System two reach’s steady state faster.




Power in per unit

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Fig 8. LFC with BESS
-0.006 The energy storage model used here was a combination of
series parallel resistances and capacitances, it has brought
about small improvement in the frequency deviation hence
more power can be transferred but to make the system more
0 1 2 3
Fig. 6. Ting performance of the
4 5 6 7 8
Battery Energy Storage system
9 10 is desired the system hit the various constraints like
Time in seconds
the maximum and minimum value of battery charge and
discharge and the system to be optimal a more optimized and
Area 1 frequency devaiation
best strategy would be to adopt adaptive generalized predictive
Area 2 frequency deviation
control strategy.
-0.005 Power System
K P1  K P2  120 Hz /( p .uMW )
-0.01 TP1  TP2  20 S
TT 1  TT2  0.3
K i1  K i2  0.2
-0.02 R1  R2  2.4 Hz /( p .u .MW ).
B1  B2  0.425 p .u .MW / radian
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T12  0.08674 p.u .MW / radian
Time in seconds
Fig.7. LFC without BESS

Battery voltage = 1755-2925 V dc
C BP  52597
C B1  1F
R BAT  0.0167
X CO  0.0274
K BP  100KV/HZ(Δ(f(feedbac k)
K BP  117KV/Hz(A CEfeedback )
TBP  0.005sec
R BP  10KΩ
R B1  0.001Ω
R BS  0.013
K P  0.1254(proporitional  gain)
K I  4.98745(in tegral  gain)

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