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University of Benghazi Faculty of Engineering

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Department

IE464 - Human Factors Engineering - Fall 2016

Topic: 1- Introduction
• What is Human Factors/Ergonomics?
• The Scope of Human Factors/Ergonomics?
• Professional Organizations


• Wickens, C., Lee, J., Liu, Y., Gordon-Becker, S., An Introduction to Human Factors
Engineering, 2nd Edition, 2004, Pearson Prentice Hall.
• Bridger, R., Introduction to Ergonomics, 2003, Taylor & Francis.
• Kroemer, K., Kroemer, H., Kroemer-Elbert, K., Engineering Physiology, Bases of Human
Factors/Ergonomics, 4th edition, 2010, Springer.
1- Introduction 2

What is Human Factors/Ergonomics?

• The International Ergonomics Association (IEA) defines
Ergonomics as :
• Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline
concerned with the understanding of interactions among
humans and other elements of a system, and the profession
that applies theory, principles, data, and other methods to
design in order to optimize human well-being and overall
system performance.
• Practitioners of ergonomics and ergonomists contribute to the
design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments
and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs,
abilities and limitations of people.
1- Introduction 3

What is Human Factors/Ergonomics?

• The goal of human factors may be define as making the human

interaction with systems one that
• Enhance Performance (increase productivity and reduce errors)
• Increases safety
• Increases user satisfaction
• Human factors involves the study of factors and development of
tools that facilitate the achievement of these goals.
• Tradeoffs may exist between these goals. Enhanced productivity
may sometimes cause more operator errors, potentially
compromising safety.
1- Introduction 4

What is Human Factors/Ergonomics?

• In the most general sense,

the three goals of human
factors are accomplished
through several procedures
in the human factors cycle,
1- Introduction 5

The Scope of Human Factors/Ergonomics?

• IEA broadly grouped the domains of specialization within

the discipline of ergonomics into three major categories:

• Physical ergonomics
• Cognitive ergonomics
• Organizational ergonomics
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The Scope of Human Factors/Ergonomics?

• Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomical,

anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics
as they relate to physical activity. (Relevant topics include
working postures, materials handling, repetitive movements,
work related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety
and health.)
1- Introduction 7

The Scope of Human Factors/Ergonomics?

• Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such

as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they
affect interactions among humans and other elements of a
system. (Relevant topics include mental workload, decision-
making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction,
human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to
human-system design.)
1- Introduction 8

The Scope of Human Factors/Ergonomics?

• Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of

sociotechnical systems, including their organizational structures,
policies, and processes. (Relevant topics include communication,
crew resource management, work design, design of working
times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics,
cooperative work, new work paradigms, virtual organizations,
telework, and quality management.)
1- Introduction 9

The Scope of Human Factors/Ergonomics?

1- Introduction 10

The Scope of Human Factors/Ergonomics?

 About the two terms: Human Factors and Ergonomics
• Jastrzebowski produced a philosophical treatise on “An Outline of
Ergonomics or the Science of Work” published in Poland in 1857.
• the name was re-invented by Murrell in the UK in 1949.
The emphasis was on equipment and workspace design and the
relevant subjects were held to be anatomy, physiology, industrial
medicine, design, architecture and illumination engineering.
• In the USA, the discipline emerged known as Human Factors, but its
scientific roots were grounded in psychology (applied experimental
psychology, engineering psychology and human engineering).
• nowadays, the two terms are being used interchangeably to cover
the same common interests of both: “design systems to fit humans”
• both professional organizations representing the filed in the USA and
UK have recently changed their names to include both terms.
1- Introduction 11

Professional Organizations

• Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES)
• International Ergonomics Society (IEA)
• Chartered Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors (CIEHF)

• National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

• Occupational Safety & Health Administration