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UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL

GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

Danna jessa r. menciano

August 31, 2015


UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

WHAT IS COMMUNICATION

 Communication is the purposeful activity of information exchange between two or


more participants in order to convey or receive the intended meanings through a
shared system of signs and semiotic rules.

 Communication takes place inside and between three main subject categories:
human beings, living organisms in general and communication-enabled devices (for
example sensor networks and control systems).

 Communication in living organisms often occurs through visual, auditory, or


biochemical means. Human communication is unique for its extensive use
of language.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages.
Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic
communication, chronemic communication, gestures, body language, facial
expression, eye contact, and how one dresses. Speech also contains nonverbal
elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation, tempo, and stress.
Research has shown that up to 55% of human communication may occur through
non verbal facial expressions, and a further 38% through paralanguage. Likewise,
written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial
arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

 VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependent on a number of factors and
cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal
communication, listening skills and clarification. Human language can be defined as
a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by
which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common
properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during
human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns
of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around
them. Languages tend to share certain properties, although there are exceptions.
There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed
languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical
formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human
languages. The communication is two way process instead of one way.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Effective communication occurs when a desired thought is the result of intentional or


unintentional information sharing, which is interpreted between multiple entities and
acted on in a desired way. This effect also ensures that messages are not distorted
during the communication process. Effective communication should generate the
desired effect and maintain the effect, with the potential to increase the effect of the
message. Therefore, effective communication serves the purpose for which it was
planned or designed. Possible purposes might be to elicit change, generate action,
create understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view. When
the desired effect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communication are
explored, with the intention being to discover how the communication has been
ineffective.

BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION

Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message and intention
of the message being conveyed which may result in failure of the communication
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
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process or an effect that is undesirable. These include filtering, selective perception,


information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension,
gender differences and political correctness.

 Stress and out-of-control emotion. When you’re stressed or emotionally


overwhelmed, you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-
putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk patterns of behavior.
Take a moment to calm down before continuing a conversation.
 Lack of focus. You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking. If
you’re planning what you’re going to say next, daydreaming, checking text
messages, or thinking about something else, you’re almost certain to miss nonverbal
cues in the conversation. You need to stay focused on the moment-to-moment
experience.
 Inconsistent body language. Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is
being said, not contradict it. If you say one thing, but your body language says
something else, your listener will likely feel you’re being dishonest. For example, you
can’t say “yes” while shaking your head no.
 Negative body language. If you disagree with or dislike what’s being said, you
may use negative body language to rebuff the other person’s message, such as
crossing your arms, avoiding eye contact, or tapping your feet. You don’t have to
agree, or even like what’s being said, but to communicate effectively without making
the other person defensive it’s important to avoid sending negative signals.

STRENGTHENING
COMMUNICATION SKILLS

1. Become an engaged listener

 People often focus on what they should say, but effective communication is less
about talking and more about listening. Listening well means not just understanding
the words or the information being communicated, but also understanding the
emotions the speaker is trying to communicate.
 There’s a big difference between engaged listening and simply hearing. When you
really listen—when you’re engaged with what’s being said—you’ll hear the subtle
intonations in someone’s voice that tell you how that person is feeling and the
emotions they’re trying to communicate. When you’re an engaged listener, not only
will you better understand the other person, you’ll also make that person feel heard
and understood, which can help build a stronger, deeper connection between you.
 By communicating in this way, you’ll also experience a process that lowers stress
and supports physical and emotional well-being. If the person you’re talking to is
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

calm, for example, listening in an engaged way will help to calm you, too. Similarly,
if the person is agitated, you can help calm them by listening in an attentive way and
making the person feel understood.

***How to become an engaged listener***

If your goal is to fully understand and connect with the other person, listening in an
engaged way will often come naturally. If it doesn’t, try the following tips. The more you
practice them, the more satisfying and rewarding your interactions with others will
become.

 Focus fully on the speaker, his or her body language, tone of voice, and other
nonverbal cues. Tone of voice conveys emotion, so if you’re thinking about other
things, checking text messages, or doodling, you’re almost certain to miss the
nonverbal cues and the emotional content behind the words being spoken. And if the
person talking is similarly distracted, you’ll be able to quickly pick up on it. If you
find it hard to concentrate on some speakers, try repeating their words over in your
head—it’ll reinforce their message and help you stay focused.
 Favor your right ear. The left side of the brain contains the primary processing
centers for both speech comprehension and emotions. Since the left side of the brain
is connected to the right side of the body, favoring your right ear can help you better
detect the emotional nuances of what someone is saying. Try keeping your posture
straight, your chin down, and tilting your right ear towards the speaker—this will
make it easier to pick up on the higher frequencies of human speech that contain the
emotional content of what’s being said.
 Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns, by
saying something like, “If you think that’s bad, let me tell you what happened to
me.” Listening is not the same as waiting for your turn to talk. You can’t concentrate
on what someone’s saying if you’re forming what you’re going to say next. Often, the
speaker can read your facial expressions and know that your mind’s elsewhere.
 Show your interest in what’s being said. Nod occasionally, smile at the person,
and make sure your posture is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue
with small verbal comments like “yes” or “uh huh.”
 Try to set aside judgment. In order to communicate effectively with someone, you
don’t have to like them or agree with their ideas, values, or opinions. However, you
do need to set aside your judgment and withhold blame and criticism in order to fully
understand a person. The most difficult communication, when successfully executed,
can lead to the most unlikely and profound connection with someone.
 Provide feedback. If there seems to be a disconnect, reflect what has been said by
paraphrasing. "What I'm hearing is," or "Sounds like you are saying," are great ways
to reflect back. Don’t simply repeat what the speaker has said verbatim, though—
you’ll sound insincere or unintelligent. Instead, express what the speaker’s words
mean to you. Ask questions to clarify certain points: "What do you mean when you
say," or "Is this what you mean?"
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
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AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

2. Pay attention to non verbal signals

When we communicate things that we care about, we do so mainly using nonverbal


signals. Nonverbal communication, or body language, includes facial expressions,
body movement and gestures, eye contact, posture, the tone of your voice, and even
your muscle tension and breathing. The way you look, listen, move, and react to
another person tells them more about how you’re feeling than words alone ever can.

Developing the ability to understand and use nonverbal communication can help you
connect with others, express what you really mean, navigate challenging situations,
and build better relationships at home and work.

 You can enhance effective communication by using open body language—


arms uncrossed, standing with an open stance or sitting on the edge of your seat,
and maintaining eye contact with the person you’re talking to.
 You can also use body language to emphasize or enhance your verbal
message—patting a friend on the back while complimenting him on his success, for
example, or pounding your fists to underline your message.

3. Keep stress in check

To communicate effectively, you need to be aware of and in control of your


emotions. And that means learning how to manage stress. When you’re stressed,
you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal
signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk patterns of behavior.

4. Assert yourself

Direct, assertive expression makes for clear communication and can help boost self-
esteem and decision-making. Being assertive means expressing your thoughts,
feelings, and needs in an open and honest way, while standing up for yourself and
respecting others. It does NOT mean being hostile, aggressive, or demanding.
Effective communication is always about understanding the other person, not about
winning an argument or forcing your opinions on others.

To improve assertiveness:

 Value yourself and your opinions. They are as important as anyone else’s.
 Know your needs and wants. Learn to express them without infringing on the
rights of others.
 Express negative thoughts in a positive way. It’s OK to be angry, but you must be
respectful as well.
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

 Receive feedback positively. Accept compliments graciously, learn from your


mistakes, ask for help when needed.
 Learn to say “no.” Know your limits and don’t let others take advantage of you.
Look for alternatives so everyone feels good about the outcome.

WHAT IS COMMITMENT?

 Commitment is dedication to a particular organization, cause, or belief, and a


willingness to get involved.

 People who are committed to an organization or effort truly believe that it is


important, and they show up, follow through, and stick with it.

 The more people who are committed to your organization, the greater the
momentum you can generate to get the job done.

Commitment is the backbone of a group or organization. It is what gives a group its


strength.

Here are several reasons it is important:

 The more committed people there are, the more effective they are in influencing
others. If a whole group acts with determination and commitment, great numbers of
people will really pay attention.
 People who are committed are the ones who don't take discouragement seriously --
they don't give up. They set an example for those who don't have the confidence or
experience to go through the hard times and hold out for the rewards of success.
 People cooperate at a higher level when they share commitment. Commitment
fosters camaraderie, trust, and caring -- the stuff a group needs to keep it going for
the long run.
 If people are committed to an effort for a period of time, they will learn what they
need to know to be more effective. People need time to try things out, make
mistakes, and then figure out a strategy that works.
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GRADUATE SCHOOL
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All the time, any time. Commitment doesn't usually occur at one moment. It grows within
people over time.

Commitment grows when people:

 Work together
 Feel successful at what they do
 Make decisions together
 Work through conflicts
 Support one another's leadership
 Have fun and play together
 Overcome obstacles
 Hold each other to high principles
 Appreciate and respect one another
 Challenge one another to take the next step
 Build relationships
 Experience a victory together
 Learn from mistakes and setbacks
 See their leaders model commitment

Commitment can decrease when people when the opposite is true – when they don’t
communicate well, don’t build relationships and support one another, become embroiled in
unresolved conflicts, don’t live their principles, and don’t see leaders demonstrating
commitment.

Although commitment grows in a natural way, you, as a leader or group member, can foster
commitment in your organization. You can build commitment into your organizational
culture. Although it is invisible, commitment is a very real quality that you can do
something about if you are willing to focus your attention on it.
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

HOW CAN YOU MOBILIZE AND


SUSTAIN COMMITMENT?

How do you build and sustain commitment? How do you get your hands on that invisible
quality and make it grow in your organization?

First, let's think about why people become involved in and committed to a group or
organization. Start with yourself: Why are you are committed to your project or
organization?

What is most important to you?

 The goals of your group?


 Your vision of what is possible?
 The people with whom you work?
 The length of time you've invested in this group?
 Your role in your group or organization?
 What you've learned in this group?
 The satisfaction you get from doing significant work?
 Other reasons?

People commit to a group or organization because they gain something important from their
involvement. When you invite them to become involved, you are not only asking for their
help, you are offering them an opportunity to:

 Work on an issue that is important to them


 Benefit the community
 Meet and spend time with like-minded people
 Expand their skills
 Be a part of a team
 Learn how to lead
 Rise to a challenge
 Meet high standards
 Accomplish something significant
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

HOW CAN YOU STRENGTHEN


GROUP COMMITMENT?

 WELCOME PEOPLE INTO YOUR ORGANIZATION

Sometimes, all people need in order to become involved is to feel genuinely welcome. If
they don't feel welcome, they’ll soon leave. As a leader, you can set an example by
personally welcoming whoever walks through the door or asks about joining your
organization or initiative. Ask them questions and get to know them, and make them feel
valued. That not only gives people a good feeling about the effort and encourages them to
become involved, but it also provides the basis for developing a relationship that helps you
function as a leader and acts to cement commitment in the future.

Teach everyone in your organization to welcome new people. Make it part of your
organizational culture. You can also set up a Welcoming Committee for open meetings or
special events, or you can set up a buddy system. People in your organization will
understand that welcoming is a job to be taken seriously.

 BE OPEN AND CLEAR ABOUT THE MISSION, PRINCIPLES, AND


GOALS OF YOUR ORGANIZATION

People have to know what they are committing to. They want to join an organization if they
share similar principles and goals. Make sure that everyone in your organization is familiar
with its mission, principles, and goals.

As a leader, talk openly about why you care about these principles and goals. For example,
if you are working to develop a mentor program for teens in your community, talk about
why that program is important to you. You might tell people how your life would have been
different if an adult had not committed some time and attention to you when you were a
teen.

 MODEL COMMITMENT YOURSELF

Everyone looks to the leader of a group or project to see if she is committed. If you care
about the work, it will show in your attitudes and actions. People will watch to see how you
act, and they will follow your lead. If they can count on you, it is more likely that you will be
able to count on them. If you stay late to send out a mailing, others will be willing to do so.
Commitment is contagious.
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GRADUATE SCHOOL
AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

On the other hand, if you are working so hard that you are burnt out and always unhappy,
people will take note of that too and they will shy away from following your lead. Try to
strike a balance: don’t make commitment look like an impossible burden

 GIVE PEOPLE WORK TO DO

If someone shows interest in becoming involved in your group, don't wait too long to give
them something to do. People need to feel that they are making a significant contribution in
order to feel committed. Find out what they are interested in doing and see if you can
match their interests to some work that needs to be done.

Also, give new people a job that brings them in contact with other people in the
organization. That will draw them into the group sooner and more easily.

 PICK OUT THE RIGHT LEVEL OF CHALLENGE FOR PEOPLE

People need to feel successful and they also need to stretch their abilities. Both are
important. When you are first getting to know someone, try to match them with work in
which you think they can achieve some success. This will help people to feel good about
themselves and will encourage them to stay.

As you get to know them better, give them gradually increasing challenges. Being
challenged keeps people excited about the work they are doing. Sometimes people will need
encouragement to try things they have never before considered. Sit down and talk to people
to find out what jobs they would like to try. It is a worthwhile investment of time, because
they will know that you care about them and their development, not just about what they
can produce for you.

 BUILD AN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN WHICH STAFF,


VOLUNTEERS, AND MEMBERS APPRECIATE AND RESPECT EACH
OTHER

People need to feel respected and appreciated in order to stay connected and committed to
a group or organization. This is simple and important, but sometimes not easy to
remember. Still, there are several steps you can take to build a group or organizational
culture in which people treat each other well:

 Model appreciation and respect: Take the time to think about the people with whom
you are working and openly appreciate them and their work. Although some people
may be surprised when you do it, everyone likes to be appreciated. Treat everyone
the same way you would have others treat you – with respect and good humor. You
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GRADUATE SCHOOL
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may be the leader, but that doesn’t mean you’re more important as a human being
than the person who answers the phone or helps with a mailing.
 Teach people in your organization to notice what is going well, rather than just
noticing what needs to be improved. For example, you can open meetings by having
each person talk about

what they have done well since the last time you met. You can also have people
show appreciation to each other as a way to close meetings.

 In heated discussions or conflicts, make sure people continue to show respect for
each other. Conflicts can be important growing periods. To ensure they are useful
rather than destructive, do not let people personally attack each other. Keep
discussions to the issues. If people have personal conflicts, mediate the conflict or
bring in an outside person to do so.

 LISTEN, LISTEN, AND LISTEN

Listening is a powerful tool. Everyone could use someone to listen to them. When you listen
to others with respect, they sense that you have confidence in them and are interested in
what they think. In turn, your interest and confidence helps them to think clearly and
creatively.

If you want young people, old people, immigrants, low-income people, people of color, or
anybody else to be committed to your organization, listen to them. Try asking a teenager or
young person to share their thinking on a topic with you. How do you think we should
design this community center? What is the key issue in this neighborhood? That teenager
may be surprised, at first, because adults so rarely care about what they think. However, if
you can break through their "cool," teenagers will be delighted to tell you what they think.

 SUPPORT PEOPLE’S LEADERSHIP

To help sustain commitment in your group or organization, think about each person as a
potential leader and train them to lead. If people view themselves as a leader of a group,
they will view the group as theirs. They will have a feeling of ownership, and will be more
likely to take initiative to make sure things work well.

We traditionally think of leaders as the people who are the directors of the organization and
make all the important decisions, but you can expand your definition of leadership. For
example, you can view the event organizer as one of the key leaders, but the person who
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informally resolves conflicts is a leader, too. Even the person who gets everyone in the
room laughing when the energy bogs down is performing an important leadership function.

Help people to recognize their leadership talents, and encourage them to try out more.
Invite them to speak in public or chair a meeting. You don't have to give people leadership
titles, but sometimes it helps them to take themselves seriously.

Even though people have different levels of leadership skills, everyone can contribute
something of importance. Everyone has a point of view that is valuable. Everyone has
talents to share.

 CELEBRATE

Don't forget to celebrate. Any excuse will do: a victory, an organization's anniversary, a
time to give out prizes or certificates to volunteers or workers, or a cultural sharing time are
all good reasons for people to get to together, relax, and enjoy each others company.

A FEW EXTRA TIPS

 Commitment grows steadily but often slowly. Be patient. It will come.


 Appreciate whatever level of commitment a person can make. People will vary
greatly in their level of commitment and that's okay. Some people will have more
time, more interest in the your goals and mission, and a greater understanding of
the value of commitment than others.
 You can always invite and encourage people to do more. If they do, great. If they
don't, appreciate them for what they can do.
 Don't guilt-trip people into commitment. It generally doesn't get the long-term
results you want. People need to feel that their contribution matters, even if it is
small. If they feel that they are a disappointment to the leader, they may not stick
around.
 People are often yearning for meaning in their lives. When you ask people to commit
to an effort, cause, or organization, you are offering them something of high value.

Sources :

http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/leadership/leadership-functions/build-sustain-
commitment/main

http://www.helpguide.org/articles/relationships/effective-communication.htm
UNIVERSITY OF BOHOL
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AS IV – ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT

1. Is the purposeful activity of information in order to convey meanings through a shared


system of signs and semiotic rules:
a. Research
b. Health Teaching
c. News
d. Communication
2. Describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages:
a. Verbal Communication
b. Telepathic Communication
c. Written Communication
d. Non-verbal Communication
3. Which of the following is a barrier of communication:
a. Giving detailed information
b. Clarity
c. Directness
d. Lack of focus
4. Is dependent on a number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important
interpersonal skills:
a. Non-verbal Communication
b. Chat
c. Instant messaging
d. Verbal Communication
5. It means expressing your thoughts, feelings, and needs in an open and honest way,
while standing up for yourself and respecting others.
a. Respect
b. Understanding
c. Honesty
d. Assertiveness
6. Is dedication to a particular organization, cause, or belief, and a willingness to get
involved:
a. Commitment
b. Relationship
c. Communication
d. Nursing
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7. When is good time to build and sustain Commitment:


a. Anytime
b. Every Year
c. Never
d. Once a month
8. Which of the statement is true:
a. The more committed people there are, The more effective they are in
influencing others.
b. People cooperate at a higher level when they don’t share commitment.
c. People who are committed are the ones who take discouragement seriously
d. If people are committed to an effort for a period of time, they won’t learn what they
need to know to be more effective.
9. People need to feel respected and appreciated in order to stay connected and
committed to a group or organization.
a. True
b. Undecided
c. False
d. It depends
10. Commitment grows when people:
a. Work together
b. Destroy relationships
c. Discourage ones role
d. Disrespects one another

II. If you are a Nurse Manager, How will you sustain group commitment among your team?