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Plan and procedure constitute a significant part of research. No research project can be undertaken without proper thinking and planning. The plan is

an overall scheme or programmed of research. It includes an outline of what the investigator will do from writing the hypothesis and their operational

implications to the final analysis of data (Kerlinger, 1973).

 Study population and sampling -- where did the data come from; how robust is it; note where gaps exist or what was excluded. Note the procedures used for
their selection;
 Data collection – describe the tools and methods used to collect information and identify the variables being measured; describe the methods used to obtain the
data; and, note if the data was pre-existing [i.e., government data] or you gathered it yourself. If you gathered it yourself, describe what type of instrument you
used and why. Note that no data set is perfect--describe any limitations in methods of gathering data.
 Data analysis -- describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data. If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each
research objective, including mathematical techniques and the type of computer software used to manipulate the data.


The finding of your study should be written objectively and in a succinct and precise format. In quantitative studies, it is common to use graphs, tables, charts, and other
non-textual elements to help the reader understand the data. Make sure that non-textual elements do not stand in isolation from the text but are being used to supplement
the overall description of the results and to help clarify key points being made. Further information about how to effectively present data using charts and graphs can be
found here.

 Statistical analysis -- how did you analyze the data? What were the key findings from the data? The findings should be present in a logical, sequential order.
Describe but do not interpret these trends or negative results; save that for the discussion section. The results should be presented in the past tense.


Discussions should be analytic, logical, and comprehensive. The discussion should meld together your findings in relation to those identified in the literature review, and
placed within the context of the theoretical framework underpinning the study. The discussion should be presented in the present tense.
 Interpretation of results -- reiterate the research problem being investigated and compare and contrast the findings with the research questions underlying the
study. Did they affirm predicted outcomes or did the data refute it?
 Description of trends, comparison of groups, or relationships among variables -- describe any trends that emerged from your analysis and explain all
unanticipated and statistical insignificant findings.
 Discussion of implications – what is the meaning of your results? Highlight key findings based on the overall results and note findings that you believe are
important. How have the results helped fill gaps in understanding the research problem?
 Limitations -- describe any limitations or unavoidable bias in your study and, if necessary, note why these limitations did not inhibit effective interpretation of the


End your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the study.

 Summary of findings – synthesize the answers to your research questions. Do not report any statistical data here; just provide a narrative summary of the key
findings and describe what was learned that you did not know before conducting the study.
 Recommendations – if appropriate to the aim of the assignment, tie key findings with policy recommendations or actions to be taken in practice.
 Future research – note the need for future research linked to your study’s limitations or to any remaining gaps in the literature that were not addressed in your

Black, Thomas R. Doing Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Inte

Black, Thomas R. Doing Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Integrated Approach to Research Design, Measurement and Statistics. London: Sage, 1999; Gay,L. R. and Peter Airasain. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and
Applications. 7th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merril Prentice Hall, 2003; Hector, Anestine. An Overview of Quantitative Research in Composition and TESOL. Department of English, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Hopkins, Will G. “Quantitative Research
Design.” Sportscience 4, 1 (2000); "A Strategy for Writing Up Research Results. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper." Department of Biology. Bates College; Nenty, H. Johnson. "Writing a Quantitative Research Thesis."
International Journal of Educational Science 1 (2009): 19-32; Ouyang, Ronghua (John). Basic Inquiry of Quantitative Research. Kennesaw State University.

Types of Quantitative Design

Descriptive research Correlational research Causal- Experimental research,

seeks to describe the attempts to determine the comparative/quasi- often called true
current status of an extent of a relationship experimental research experimentation, uses the
identified variable. These between two or more attempts to establish cause- scientific method to
research projects are variables using statistical effect relationships among establish the cause-effect
designed to provide data. In this type of the variables. These types relationship among a group
systematic information design, relationships of design are very similar of variables that make up a
about a between and among a to true experiments, but study. The true experiment
phenomenon. The number of facts are with some key is often thought of as a
researcher does not sought and interpreted. differences. An laboratory study, but this is
usually begin with an This type of research will independent variable is not always the case; a
hypothesis, but is likely recognize trends and identified but not laboratory setting has
to develop one after patterns in data, but it manipulated by the nothing to do with it. A true
collecting data. The does not go so far in its experimenter, and effects experiment is any study
analysis and synthesis of analysis to prove causes of the independent variable where an effort is made to
the data provide the test for these observed on the dependent variable identify and impose control
of the patterns. Cause and effect are measured. The over all other variables
hypothesis. Systematic is not the basis of this researcher does not except one. An independent
collection of information type of observational randomly assign groups variable is manipulated to
requires careful selection research. The data, and must use ones that are determine the effects on the
of the units studied and relationships, and naturally formed or pre- dependent
careful measurement of distributions of variables existing groups. Identified variables. Subjects
each variable. are studied only. control groups exposed to
Variables are not the treatment variable are
Examples of Descriptive manipulated; they are studied and compared to
Research: only identified and are groups who are not.
studied as they occur in a
 A description of natural setting. When analyses and
how second- conclusions are made,
grade students *Sometimes correlational determining causes must be
spend their time research is considered a done carefully, as other
during summer type of descriptive variables, both known and
vacation research, and not as its unknown, could still affect
 A description of own type of research, as the outcome. A causal-
the tobacco use no variables are comparative designed
habits of manipulated in the study. study, described in a New
teenagers York Times article, "The
 A description of Examples of Case for $320,00
how parents feel Correlational Research: Kindergarten
about the twelve- Teachers," illustrates how
month school  The relationship causation must be
year between thoroughly assessed before
 A description of intelligence and firm relationships amongst
the attitudes of self-esteem variables can be made.
scientists  The relationship
regarding global between diet and Examples of Correlational
warming anxiety Research:
 A description of  The relationship
the kinds of between an  The effect of
physical activities aptitude test and preschool
that typically success in an attendance on social
occur in nursing algebra course maturity at the end
homes, and how  The relationship of the first grade
frequently each between ACT  The effect of taking
occurs scores and the multivitamins on a
 A description of freshman grades students’ school
the extent to  The relationships absenteeism
which elementary between the types  The effect of gender
teachers use math of activities used on algebra
manipulatives in math achievement
classrooms and  The effect of part-
student time employment
achievement on the achievement
 The covariance of of high school
smoking and lung students
disease  The effect of
magnet school
participation on
student attitude
 The effect of age on
lung capacity

In this section of the study, firstly the research model will be presented. The space and
sample, data collection tools, the method, analysis of the data, findings and discussion will be
presented later.

Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of
data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using
computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups
of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.
Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. 12th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage, 2010; Muijs, Daniel.
Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS. 2nd edition. London: SAGE Publications, 2010.
Characteristics of Quantitative Research
Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent
variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either
descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A
descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality.
Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and
unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i.e., the generation of a variety of
ideas about a research problem in a spontaneous, free-flowing manner].