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August 2018 Lombok earthquake

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This article is about the earthquake in August 2018. For the foreshock in late July 2018, see July
2018 Lombok earthquake.
This article documents a current event. Information may change rapidly as the event
progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable. The last updates to this article may
not reflect the most current information. Please feel free to improve this article or discuss
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August 2018 Lombok earthquake

A collapsed mosque in North Lombok

UTC time 2018-08-05 11:46:37


ISC event 612456510
USGS-ANSS ComCat
Local date 5 August 2018
Local time 19:46:35 (WITA)
Magnitude 6.9 Mw
Depth 31.0 km (19.3 mi)
8.287°S 116.452°ECoordinates:
Epicenter
8.287°S 116.452°E
Fault Flores Back Arc Thrust Fault
Type thrust fault
Areas Bali and West Nusa Tenggara,
affected Indonesia
Max.
VIII (Severe)
intensity
Tsunami 10.0 cm (3.9 in)[1]
6.4Mw, 29 July 2018
Foreshocks
22:47:37 (UTC), 05:47:37 WITA
Aftershocks 199[2]
98 dead[3][4]
Casualties 238 injured[5]
20,000+ displaced[6]

On 5 August 2018, a destructive and shallow Mw 6.9 (7.0 on Richter scale) earthquake struck the
island of Lombok, Indonesia. It was the main shock following its foreshock, a nearby Mw 6.4
earthquake on 29 July.

The epicentre was located inland, near Loloan Village in North Lombok Regency. As its rupture
spread to the north and reached the sea, tsunamis were generated. Severe shaking was reported
throughout the entire island while strong shaking was reported in the neighboring islands of Bali
and Sumbawa.

Widespread damage was reported both in Lombok and Bali. Officials stated that at least 80% of
structures in North Lombok Regency were either damaged or destroyed. In the aftermath of the
earthquake, 98 people were confirmed killed while more than 200 were confirmed injured. More
than 20,000 people were displaced.[7]

Contents
 1 Tectonic setting

 2 Earthquake

o 2.1 Intensity

o 2.2 Tsunami

 3 Casualties

 4 Damage

 5 Aftermath

o 5.1 Response
o 5.2 Search and rescue

o 5.3 International

 6 References

 7 External links

Tectonic setting

Tectonic setting of the region.

Indonesia lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area of significant volcanic and tectonic activity. In
particular, the archipelago is located between the Eurasian, Pacific and Australian tectonic plates.
[8]
The Australian plate subducts beneath the Sunda plate at 50-75 mm a year, forming the Sunda
Trench. This activity caused the Mw 9.2 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, one of the
strongest and most deadly earthquakes in recorded history.[9][10]

Lombok in particular lies on the destructive plate boundary between the Australian Plate and the
Sunda Plate. To the east of Bali, the plate boundary starts to involve a collision between the
leading edge of the Australian continent and the eastern part of the Sunda Arc and the western
end of the Banda Arc, also known as the Flores Zone. The Sunda Arc has produced a large
amount of powerful and devastating earthquakes in the past, including the 1977 Sumba
earthquake, 1994 Java earthquake and the 2006 Pangandaran earthquake and tsunami.[11] In
addition, the island also lies between two major geomagnetic anomalies of opposite signs.[12]

The North Lombok area, where the earthquake occurred, has a track record of earthquakes in the
past. One Mw 6.4 earthquakes in 1979 killed 37, with a more recent Mw 5.7 event in 2013 causing
no deaths but extensive damage was reported. Simulations by scientists from the University of
Mataram suggested that an earthquake stronger than Mw 6.0 could cause a small tsunami which
would be 13-20 cm in height, reaching Mataram within 18-20 minutes after the earthquake.[13]

Geologically, the rocks close to the epicenter are primarily tertiary to quartenary volcanic
sediments, with pre-tertiary to tertiary sedimentary and metamorphic rock. The soft rocks are
predicted to have caused an increase in the intensity of the earthquake.[14]

Earthquake
Shakemap for the August 2018 Lombok earthquake.

Focal mechanism of the earthquake by the USGS.

The earthquake occurred on 19:46 local time, at a depth of 31.0 km (19.3 mi) (USGS)[15] or
15.0 km (9.3 mi) (BMKG).[16] Shaking was felt as far away as Sumbawa in the east[17] and
Trenggalek Regency in the west.[18][19] Shaking was also felt in Pacitan Regency, East Java.[20]
The Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) stated that the
epicentre of the earthquake was located inland, on the northeastern slopes of Mount Rinjani.[16]
BMKG initially measured the earthquake's intensity at Mw 6.8 before revising it to 7.0.[21] The
United States Geological Survey initially measured the earthquake at Mw 7.0, before revising it
down to 6.9.[22]

Caused by the Flores Back Arc Thrust,[23] the earthquake struck just a week after the magnitude
6.4 earthquake which had killed 20. According to BMKG, this earthquake was a foreshock to the
Mw 6.9 one.[24] By 23:00 local time the day after, the BMKG had reported as many as 180
aftershocks.[2]

The earthquake interrupted a ministerial security council held in Mataram, which was attended
by Indonesian ministers Yasonna Laoly and Wiranto,[25] Australian minister Peter Dutton,[26] and
Singaporean minister K. Shanmugam.[27]

Despite the earthquake, no increase in activity was recorded for the nearby volcanoes of Rinjani
and Agung.[28]
Intensity

As the earthquake occurred at a relatively shallow depth and a powerful magnitude, the
earthquake caused severe shaking in the island of Lombok and strong shaking in the neighboring
islands. Indonesian officials released maps of the perceived shaking.[29] The largest city in
Lombok and the provincial capital, Mataram, recorded a maximum intensity of VIII (Severe).
The strongest shaking felt in the island of Bali was in Karangasem Regency with an intensity of
VI (strong) while, on the island of Sumbawa, the strongest shaking was felt in Bima with a
recorded maximum intensity of V (moderate).[30]

Tsunami

Following the earthquake, a tsunami warning was issued by BMKG for the North coast of
Lombok.[31] With a maximum expected height of just 50 cm, the tsunami struck at three
locations, the maximum of which was at 13.5 cm (5.3 in) in Carik, North Lombok,[32] and the
warning was removed later.[33] However, the warning had caused panic as the residents attempted
to evacuate to higher ground.[34] In the Gili Islands, residents and tourists were evacuated to the
hills in expectation of a tsunami.[35]

Casualties
As of 17:35 6 August local time, 98 people had been confirmed killed. Most victims were killed
by falling debris due to collapsed buildings. Deaths occurred in all regencies and cities on the
island — with most of the deaths being in North Lombok Regency. Of the 96 deaths in Lombok,
72 were in North Lombok, 16 in West Lombok (including 7 in the Gili Islands), 4 in Mataram,
and 2 each in Central Lombok Regency and East Lombok.[3][36] Officials confirmed that 2 people
had been killed in Bali.[4]

Hundreds of people were injured, overloading the capacity of medical sites and forcing them to
be treated outside.[37] Tens of injuries were also reported in Karangasem Regency, the
easternmost part of neighboring Bali.[38]

On 6 August at 07:45 local time, the regent of North Lombok Regency, Najmul Akhyar,
confirmed on live television that the death toll had risen to more than 100, as reports from his
districts revealed that at least 5 people had been killed in each district.[39] At 10:00 a.m local time,
the Head of the Central Data, Information and Public Relations of BNPB, Sutopo Purwo
Nugroho, said in a press conference that at least 91 people had been killed, all Indonesians, while
209 people were seriously wounded in the earthquake.[7][40]

Later that afternoon, Sutopo revised the death toll to 98 people as another 7 bodies were
recovered from the West Lombok Regency while the number of injured was raised to 236. He
added that the current death toll is not final and more information will come from the villages
that are cut off by the earthquake.[41]

There were many reports of collapsed mosques in Lombok. As the earthquake struck during isha
prayer, many people were trapped after the mosques they were in collapsed onto them. In
Lading-Lading village, North Lombok Regency, more than a dozen people were trapped inside a
mosque.[42]

Damage
Significant damage was widely reported in Bali. In Kuta, wall collapses were reported in two
department stores. Several temples were also damaged by the quake.[43] The ceiling of Ngurah
Rai International Airport was damaged although the airport remained operational.[44] Early
estimates by officials projected that economic losses would amount to over Rp 1 trillion (USD 69
million).[45] Terminal facilities of the Lombok International Airport were also slightly damaged,
but the runway, taxiway and apron were undamaged and remained operational.[46] Bali - Lombok
ferry services, however, were temporarily terminated. Ferry services returned to normal
operation on 6 August.[47]

Widespread damages were reported in Lombok Island. Officials stated that structures in
Sembalun and Sambelia Districts, in which the epicenter of the earthquake was located,
reportedly suffered the greatest damage. Telecommunications went down and blackouts were
reported throughout Lombok.[48] Thousands of houses were damaged, many of which had already
been struck by the foreshock.[49][50] A lack of construction regulations and technical knowledge of
builders regarding earthquake resistance, coupled with low economic ability, exacerbated the
damage.[51] At least three bridges reportedly had collapsed in Lombok[52].

Immediately after the earthquake, most of Mataram lost electrical power. Although some parts of
Lombok still received electricity, the load was only 50 MW compared to the normal 220 MW.[53]
Streets were jammed across Lombok as traffic lights were unusable and roads were blocked by
debris.[54] The Indonesian National Electricity Company (PLN) stated that electricity had been
restored in major parts of Lombok hours after the quake, even though around 25% of the area in
Lombok hadn't been restored.[55]

In Gili Trawangan, severe damage was reported to the island's cafes and resorts. As multiple
convenience stores were abandoned by their owners, cases of looting were widely reported
across the island.[56]

On 6 August, during a press conference, Head of the Central Data, Information and Public
Relations of BNPB, Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, stated that a preliminary report suggests that more
than 50% of structures in North Lombok Regency had been destroyed by the earthquake. West
Nusa Tenggara Governor Muhammad Zainul Majdi later stated that more than 80% of structures
in North Lombok Regency had either been damaged or destroyed.[57]

Aftermath
Response

Indonesian President Joko Widodo immediately phoned the Governor of West Nusa Tenggara,
Muhammad Zainul Majdi, and ordered him to observe the situation in Lombok. He later
extended his condolences to the affected.[58] During a press conference in East Jakarta, he ordered
airliners and officials to add flights and assistance for tourists who were leaving from Lombok
due to the earthquake.[59]

The Governor of West Nusa Tenggara, Muhammad Zainul Majdi, who had just attended a
ministerial meeting in Lombok,[60] immediately visited the survivors of the quake in Lombok and
decided to extend the state of emergency and to dismiss staff and students from every school in
Lombok.[61] As more casualties were brought in, he urged Indonesians to donate blood as there
were fears on decreasing bloodstock.[62]

The Minister of Religious Affairs Lukman Hakim Saifuddin asked Indonesians, including those
who were attending the Hajj, to pray for the affected families.[63] Deputy speaker of the People's
Representative Council Fahri Hamzah, who was elected from West Nusa Tenggara and had just
sent aid for the foreshock earlier the same day, called for donations and aid to be sent to the
affected areas.[64][65] The Indonesian Minister of Agriculture Andi Amran Sulaiman sent 10 billion
rupiah to the victims of the quake, collected from the ministry and including a year of his own
salary.[66]

Facebook activated its safety check in response to the earthquake.[67]

On 6 August, the Indonesian National Armed Forces deployed KRI Dr. Soeharso, a hospital ship,
multiple aircraft carrying medical supplies, aid and troops to the affected areas.[68] Medical units
of the Indonesian Marine Corps and Kostrad were also dispatched to the affected areas, in
addition to civilian medical personnel under the Ministry of Social Affairs.[69]

The Indonesian National Lines (Pelni) announced on 6 August that they would provide free ferry
services for humanitarian purposes. Logistics and aid would also be provided by the state-owned
company.[70] Indonesia Red Cross dispatched its medical personnel and around 26 tonnes of aid
to the affected areas, consisting of 2,000 tarpaulins, 2,000 blankets and 2,000 mattresses.[71]

Search and rescue

Tourists crowding the beach of Gili Trawangan to be evacuated.

The Indonesian Government confirmed that more than 1,000 people were trapped in Gili Islands,
consisting of approximately 700 local residents and 1,000 tourists, and added that ships had been
deployed to evacuate them from the area. Major damage was reported in Gili Trawangan[72]. The
search and rescue operation was severely hampered by blackouts, lack of heavy equipment and
downed telecommunication lines.[73]
The Coordinating Minister of Politics, Legal and Security Affairs, Wiranto, was ordered to
coordinate the management of the disaster response.[74] President of Indonesia Joko Widodo also
ordered all ranks in major Indonesian public institutions, including the Indonesian National
Police and officials from the Ministry of Social Affairs to coordinate with the emergency
response.[75]

International

United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, who met Joko Widodo in Jakarta the morning
before the earthquake, expressed his condolences and stated that "we are closely monitoring the
aftermath".[76] Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop visited Bali and stated that the Australian
Consulate-General in Bali had opened a hotline number for Australians. She stated that staff from
the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade had been dispatched to assess the
number of Australians who were affected by the quake.[77] In addition to extending condolences,
the Singaporean government donated USD 100,000 on top of a SGD 50,000 donation by the
Singapore Red Cross. The latter also planned to deploy volunteers to Lombok.[78] In a telegram,
Pope Francis offered his "heartfelt solidarity" and encouraged rescue workers and other
assistance to the victims.[79]

In response to the earthquakes on 29 July and 5 August, the British, Malaysian and Singaporean
governments issued a travel advisory for their citizens who were intending to visit Lombok.[80][81]
[82]
The Malaysian Embassy also setup an operations room to assist its nationals who were
affected by the earthquake.[83]

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Travel Advisory ke Lombok" (in Indonesian). Okezone. Retrieved 6 August 2018.

1.  "Malaysian Embassy opens operations room after second Lombok quake".


Bernama. The Star. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2018.

External links
 The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for
this event.

 ReliefWeb has a report on this event. - This link covers both the July and August Lombok
earthquakes

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← Earthquakes in 2018

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Earthquakes in Indonesia
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 Current events
 2018 disasters in Indonesia

 2018 earthquakes

 2018 in Indonesia

 August 2018 events in Asia

 Earthquakes in Indonesia

 West Nusa Tenggara

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