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Mathematics

Problem Set #1

Due date: Wednesday, September 17, 2014 at the beginning of class

PART I

Do the following problems from the text by Shifrin.

Chap. 1.1 question 2, question 8

Solution to Chap. 1.1. question 2:

α0 (t) = (−a sin(t), a cos(t), b)

|α0 (t)|2 = a2 + b2

Reparametrize α by arc length:

Z t

s(t) = |α0 (u)|2 du

0

Z t

s(t) = (a2 + b2 )dt = (a2 + b2 )(t)

0

s s bs

α(s) = (a cos , a sin 2 , 2 .

(a2 2

+b ) (a + b ) (a + b2 ))

2

P, Q ∈ R3

α : [a, b] → R3

α(a) = P, α(b) = Q

v =Q−P

Rb

Length of α is a |α0 (t)|dt ≥ Q − P

It is a consequence of Cauchy-Schwarz that

Z b Z b

0

| α (t)dt| ≤ |α0 (t)|dt

a a

1

2

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus applied to vector-valued functions)

while the right hand side is the length of α. )

Revised solution to Chap 1.2 question 3(e))

Find the Frenet apparatus of the following curve.

α0 = (sinh t, cosh t, 1)

|α0 (t)|2 = 2 cosh2 (t)

α0 1

0

= √ (s, c, 1)

T =

|α | 2c

here we introduced the notation

c := cosh(t), s := sinh(t).

1 −s

T 0 = √ (c, s, 0) + √ (s, c, 1)

2c 2c2

1

= √ ((c, s, 0) + (− tanh(t))(s, c, 1))

2c

2

c − s2

0 1

T =√ , 0, − tanh(t)

2c c

1 s2 + 1 1

|T 0 |2 = 2 ( 2 ) = 2

2c c 2c

c2 − s 2

N =( , 0, − tanh(t)).

c

1

B = T × N = √ (−s, 1, −1)

2 2c3

3s 1

B 0 = √ (−s, 1, −1) + √ (−c, 0, 0))

2 2c 4 2 2c3

1

κ = |T 0 | = √

2c

3s 1 s 1 1 1

τ = −B 0 · N = − √ 2

(− + tanh(t)) + √ 3

= √ .

2 2c4 c c 2 2c3 2c 4 2c6

3

|f 00 |

We would like to prove κ = (1+|f 0 |2 )3/2

|α0 × α00 |

κ=

|α0 |3

α0 = (1, f 0 )

α00 = (0, f 00 )

so

α0 × α00 = f 00 (0, 0, 1)

Also |α0 |2 = 1 + |f 0 |2 This concludes the verification of the above for-

mula.

Solution to Chap. 1.3 question 1(a):

WLOG x = (0, 0, 1) and y = (s, 0, c) .

The arc of the great circle connecting x and y is

(α(t) = (sin u(t) cos v(t), sin u(t) sin v(t), cos u(t))

α0 = (cos(u) cos(v)u0 − sin u sin(v)v 0 , cos(u) sin(v)u0 + sin(u) cos(v)v 0 , cos(u)u0 )

So

|α0 |2 = (cos u cos vu0 −sin u sin vv 0 )2 +(cos u sin vu0 +sin u cos vv 0 )2 +(cos uu0 )2

Z Z

0 2

cos u cos(v)u0 )2 + (sin u sin(v)v 0 )2 − 2 cos(u) sin(u) cos(v) sin(v)u0 v 0

|α | =

Z

cos(u) sin(v)u0 )2 + (sin(u) cos(v)v 0 )2 + 2 cos(u) sin(u) cos(v) sin(v)u0 v 0

+

Z

+ cos2 (u)(u0 )2

Z Z Z

= cos (u)(u ) + sin (u)(v ) + cos2 (u)(u0 )2

2 0 2 2 0 2

(because the two terms with a factor of 2 have cancelled, and we have

used cos2 v +sin2 v = 1). The integral of |α0 |2 is minimized when v 0 = 0,

because each of the three terms in the last integral is positive.

PART II Do the following problem.

1.

4

x = u + sin(u), y = 1 + cos(u)

(Hint:

T = (cos u/2, − sin(u/2)).

Solution:

x = u + sin(u), y = 1 + cos(u)

x = (u + sin(u), 1 + cos(u))

T is in the direction of

dx du

= (1 + cos(u), − sin(u))

ds ds

2

(2 cos (u/2), −2 sin u/2 cos u/2) · u = 2 cos u/2 · u(cos u/2, − sin u/2)

Since

| (cos u/2, − sin u/2) |= 1

this is the unit in this direction. So

T = (cos u/2, − sin u/2)

1 du

κN = T0 = (− sin u/2, − cos u/2) .

2 ds

Since (− sin u/2, − cos u/2) is a unit vector, we must have N = t(sin u/2, cos u/2)

and

1 du

κ=

2 ds

ds

Hence the radius of curvature is ρ = 2 du , and ρ = 1/κ. Hence

dx dx ds ds

= =T .

du ds du du

So

x0 = (1 + cos u, − sin u)

u

κN = T0 = 2cos T

2

Since (− sin u/2, − cos u/2) is a unit vector, we must have N = −(sin u/2, − cos u/2)

and

dx dx ds ds

= = T

du ds du du

So

ds/duT = (1 + cos u, − sin u) = 2 cos u/2T.

ds

So du = 2 cos u/2. So the radius of curvature is ρ = 4 cos u/2.

5

= (u + sin u, 1 + cos u) − (4 sin u/2 cos u/2, 4 cos2 u/2)

= (u + sin u, 1 + cos u) − (2 sin u, 2 + 2 cos u)

= (u − sin u, −1 − cos u)

The evolute is given by the position of the centre of curvature.

So the equations for the evolute are

x = u − sin u, y = −1 − cos u.

Alternative solution:

Use the following formula for the evolute, denoted x∗ (Schaum’s

Outline p. 86):

Z

∗ N 1

x =x+ + cot τ ds + c B

κ κ

Note that the original cycloid curve

R x is a plane

curve, so the torsion τ

is zero and the definite integral τ ds + c is a constant. So the final

answer is

N

x∗ = x +

κ

in agreement with the earlier calculation:

x∗ (u) = (u + sin(u), 1 + cos(u)) − 2(2 sin u/2 cos u/2, 2 cos2 u/2)

= (u − sin(u), −1 − cos(u))

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