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Unit 5 Test Review

1. How does evidence of rock formation, fossils, and climate support the theory of
continental drift?

2. What is the evidence that led to the discovery of seafloor spreading? 1. Samples
show that basaltic oceanic crust and overlying sediment become younger as the
mid-ocean ridge is approached, and the sediment cover is thinner near the ridge.
2. The rock making up the ocean floor is considerably younger than the
continents, with no samples found over 200 million years old, as contrasted with
maximum ages of over 3 billion years for the continental rocks. This confirms that
older ocean crust has been reabsorbed in ocean trench systems.

3. Explain the significance of magnetic patterns on seafloor spreading. You can get a
geologic time scale.

4. Explain the process of seafloor spreading. The thinness of the crust at the rift
makes it easier for the material to rise, and as it rises it becomes molten and
emplaces itself to form new oceanic crust when it solidifies.

5. What are the 6 plate boundaries, explain how each one moves, and what are the
effects of each? Also be able to recognize a diagram of each of the plate

6. Explain how convection in the mantle is related to plate tectonics.

7. Explain how plate tectonics influences the formation of volcanoes. They will push
on each other while they are moving toward each other and it will cause and uplift
causing a mountains

8. Name and describe how the 3 major zones of volcanism: convergent, divergent,
and hot spots work. A convergent plate boundary occurs when two plates collide,
compressing the crust to create mountain ranges such as the Himalayas. Divergent
boundaries happen when two plates move apart or divide.

9. Explain why hot spots such as Hawaii and Yellowstone are moving. Because they
are active and when hot spots are active they are always moving.

10. Know the basic anatomy of a volcano and the following parts: conduit, vent,
crater, caldera, end magma chamber.

11. Know the three major types of volcanoes and be able to describe them in terms of
size and shape, type of eruption, composition, and how they are formed, and be
able to recognize a diagram and/or photograph of each.

12. Explain how magma influences volcanic activity? If the magma is flowing with
high viscosity then the activity will be high.

13. Describe the role of pressure and dissolved gases in eruptions.

14. Describe the 3 types of eruptions and which volcanic zone causes them to form.
Shield which are the biggest with gentle slopes these only have quiet eruptions.
Cinder volcanoes which are the smallest with quiet and explosive eruptions.
Composite are always explosive and are the 2nd largest volcanoes.

15. Why are pyroclastic flows more dangerous than slow oozing lava? With slow
moving oozing lava you can get away and if you breathe in the pyroclastic flows
it’s like cement in your body and you will die.

16. Why is magma that is very viscous produce a violent and explosive eruption?
Because there is high silica content this causes eruptions.

17. Mountains, large cliffs, and dikes and sills are formed when magma cools and
forms plutons because of when the two plates collide in a convergent boundary.

18. Explain how volcanic eruptions change the atmosphere, hydrosphere and other
parts of the Earth? They eat through the layers of the atmosphere and if they do it for
a long time well die.

How does stress and strain affect rock? It will make it bigger.

21. Explain the difference between elastic and plastic deformation? Elastic is how far
it stretch and plastic is how far it stretches before it breaks

22. What are the three major types of faults, how do they move, and draw a
diagram of each one?

23. Explain the difference between the three main types of seismic activity and draw
each one.

24. What is the difference between the focus and the epicenter? Focus is above the
epicenter and the epicenter is in the middle.

25. Explain how seismic waves have been used to determine the structure and
composition of the Earth’s interior.

26. What is the difference between the Richter scale and the Mercalli scale? Richter
is measured in earthquakes and mercalli is volcanoes.
28. What are the three factors that influence the amount of damage caused by an

29. List and explain the four factors that are considered in predicting an earthquake.