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Edited by Bill Travis and Anne Watson Swager
15 AIN VREF 0.1 F 0.1 F AD6640
Differential amp drives high-speed ADC
Chau Tran, Analog Devices Inc, Wilmington, MA
he schematic in Figure 1 is the dis62 crete-element version of an A/D+ VIN converter drive circuit. The circuit AD9631 467 78 converts a single-ended input to a dif+ ferential output. The ADC’s reference 350 1000 voltage determines the common-mode range of the differential outputs. The + 750 1/2 circuit contains two AD9631 OP279 Figure 1 1/2 amplifiers—one connected in OP279 noninverting mode, and the other con+ 0.1 F nected in inverting mode. The OP279 425 467 350 amplifiers buffer and scale the ADC’s reference voltage to set the common350 mode range of the two outputs. The circuit in Figure 1 requires many resistors. AD9631 + The two 15 resistors help prevent oscillation arising from the capacitive in127 puts of the ADC. The circuit has several disadvantages, such as poor gain accuracy, high distortion, and limited This ADC driver uses many resistors and is prone to errors. speed. The circuit in Figure 2 is an improved ADC driver. RF The circuit consists of one AD8132 amplifier and four resistors. You can Figure 2 set the gain of the system by adAD8132 justing the ratio of RF to RG. The input accommodates both single-ended and dif-
VOM 5 R1 1k VOCM AIN
Differential amp drives high-speed ADC ..........................................107 Circuit provides flexible gain ranges ..................................................108 High-resolution volume-unit meter simplifies CD recording ..............................110 Small, portable altimeter operates from a single cell ........................112 Circuit breaker monitors leakage current ............................................116
RG 8 RG 1 + 2.5k + R2 1k
4 VOP VCM 2
An integrated amplifier provides improved accuracy and higher speed. www.ednmag.com June 21, 2001 | edn 107
Figure 4 shows the gain error and the low distortion in the circuit of Figure 2. The waveform at the node VOCM indicates the output-balance error. The topology of Figure 2’s circuit also improves the common-mode rejection ratio, because it provides level-shifting to the reference voltage of the ADC. Is this the best Design Idea in this issue? Vote at www.ednmag.com/edn mag/vote.asp.
ferential signals. The circuit in Figure 2 is a low-distortion, high-speed (300MHz-bandwidth) driver.You can also use it to drive precision delta-sigma ADCs. Figure 3 shows the performance at 10 MHz and unity gain (RF RG 499 ).
VIN 500 mV p-p 10 MHz
VIN 500 mV p-p 10 MHz
VOCM 10 mV/DIV
At 10 MHz and unity gain, the out-of-phase outputs have low distortion.
The output-balance error in Figure 2’s circuit is lower than 1 mV with a 500-mV, 10-MHz input signal.
Circuit provides flexible gain ranges
Luo BenCheng, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
ertain designs need a program- the gain from 1 to 1000. IC2, a CD4051, You can compute the weighting resistors, mable-gain amplifier with a wide is a programmable, low-voltage 1-of-8 R0 to R7, for a given input-output signal gain range and high accuracy and analog multiplexer, which connects to range as follows: VOUT VIN(1 2RK/common-mode rejection. Usually, it’s eight weighting resistors, R0 to R7, to in- (RX RON)), where RON is the on resistwise to exploit a programmable-gain in- crease the gain range of the circuit. The ance of the CD4051, typically 125 . RK is strumentation amplifier, such as an overall gain of the circuit depends on the the 50-k internal feedback resistor of AD625. Unfortunately, the gain range of value of the selected weighting resistor. the AD623, and RX is one of the selected weighting resistors. IC3, a such standard parts is VCC Z4 CD4052, is a 2-of-8 programfixed at certain values, limC Z3 VSS 7 IC2 CHANNEL mable-difference-input IC. iting their flexibility. FigB 8 4 Z2 CD4051 SELECT + A IC1 You can control the port-seure 1 shows a multichan6 VOUT AD623 1 lect pins, Z0 and Z1, of IC3 and nel, eight-level-program5 R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 VSS 3 Z2 to Z4 of IC2 with a C, such mable-difference-amp2 Z1 as an AT89C51 or an 80C196. lifier circuit. IC1, an 13 A Z0 IC3 AD623, operates from a With the aid of some software, B 3 CD4052 single supply. This amplithe circuit can provide self-adVSS V V+ VSS fier is a low-power, lowjusting gain. INPUT DIFFERENCE SIGNAL cost instrumentaFigure 1 Is this the best Design Idea in tion amplifier that this issue? Vote at www.edn offers good accuracy. A You choose the weighting resistors to obtain the optimum gain ranges for mag.com/ednmag/vote.asp. single external resistor sets your application.
108 edn | June 21, 2001
High-resolution volume-unit meter simplifies CD recording
Chester Simpson, National Semiconductor, Santa Clara, CA
igitally recorded music on CDs offers superior quality to that recorded on vinyl records or tape, but most prerecorded CDs have an annoying char-
acteristic: The average volume levels of the recorded signal can vary by as much as 14 dB from disk to disk. Significant variances, such as 4 dB, can occur from track to track
on a single CD. This variation can be a problem when recording your own CDs because you can end up with large variations in loudness between songs.
NOTES: 1. ALL CAPACITORS ARE CERAMIC. 2. R5 IS A 100-k AUDIO-TAPER POTENTIOMETER; R1 IS A 10-k LINEAR POTENTIOMETER; AND ALL OTHER RESISTORS ARE 1/8W, 5%. 6 1k L R R3 1k 7 1.25V REFERENCE 1k + 12 + 1k R4 430 ON 0.1 F + 3 2 8 + IC1A LM358 4 1 9V ALKALINE 3.3V 1k 16 + R5 100k AUDIO GAIN ADJUST CW 1k 1 + 5 6 200k 20k RISE-TIME ADJUST R2 820 4 1k 4.6 dB 1k N/C 9 BAR/DOT SELECT 1k 18 + 3.2 dB 17 + 2 dB 0.9 dB 2k POWER ON 8 1k 14 + 1k 15 + D1 0.9 dB 13 + 1.6 dB 3 IC2 LM3914 10 + 11 3.6 dB
CD RECORDING DECK
LINE OUT L R
CD INPUT L R
VOLUMEUNIT METER JACKS
0.01 F 0.01 F 51k 51k
CW 1N914 200k R1 10k LINEAR C1 1 F 560k 2 5 +
A high-resolution, average- (not peak-) reading volume-unit meter produces an accurate reading of loudness.
110 edn | June 21, 2001
Another feature of IC2 is that the resistors connected to Pin 7 externally program the LED current. The resistor values in Figure 1 result in an LED current of approximately 8 mA. To conserve power, the circuit leaves the bar/dot-select pin, Pin 9, open to select “dot” mode. IC2 has some built-in overlap, so that at least three LEDs are on at any time during typical operation of the meter, which eliminates flicker and makes the meter easier to view. You use this volume-unit meter with the peak-reading meter in the recording deck. You should initially set up the recording levels by finding the loudest portion of the music and adjusting the record level of the deck to approximately 4 to 5 dB below the peak clip level the meter shows on the CD deck. The CDdeck makers advise against any clipping because it causes distortion. Backing off by 4 to 5 dB from the clip level allows some headroom in case later-recorded tracks have higher dynamic range (the ratio of peak signal level to average signal level). You should then set the gain-adjust potentiometer, R5, so that the 0-dB LED lights on the loudest sound. Adjust subsequent track-record levels to this same level, based on the average loudness, to ensure that the deck’s recording meter does not exceed the clip level. Adjust R1, the rise-time adjust, so that the meter will respond to average level changes but miss fast peaks. This control is user-adjustable, and the optimum setting depends on the music type. The meter’s bandwidth is approximately 250 Hz to 2 kHz; the upper limit depends on R1’s setting. This bandwidth selects the range of sound that most reflects perceived loudness based on the ear’s frequency response. Lower bass signals typically have large signal levels in absolute magnitude, but the ear hears these signals less due to the FletcherMunson effect. If they register on the meter display, the bass-frequency signals would indicate higher loudness than you actually hear. The ear also perceives very-high-frequency sounds less loudly than absolute magnitude would suggest, although the effect is not as pronounced as the lowfrequency roll-off. So, to get an accurate approximation of loudness, the meter measures the middle range where the ear is most sensitive. The battery current was measured and found to be 22 mA while operating, which means the expected battery life of a 9V alkaline battery should be at least 20 hours. Because the meter sets only record levels, you can switch it off during recording to conserve the battery. The circuit connections to the external stereo system are in the line coming from the line outputs of the CD-recording deck and going to the input of the receiver/amp. The meter effectively connects in parallel with the input of the receiver/amp. For this reason the volumeunit meter’s input impedance is very high to prevent loading the line output.
CD digital-recording decks typically have peak-reading-only volume-level meters. This feature is adequate to prevent clipping but does a poor job of reading the average volume, or loudness, level. If you set the recording levels just below the peak clip level, average volume variances of 6 to 8 dB can result due to varying levels of dynamic-range compression in recording the original material. A high-resolution, average- (not peak-) reading volume-unit meter produces an accurate reading of loudness (Figure 1). The meter connects to the line outputs from the recording deck to monitor signal level. IC1A sums the left and right channels and adjusts gain. This adjustment allows you to calibrate the 0-dB LED, D1, to the signal level of your CD recorder. IC1B is a precision rectifier, which sends the positive portion of the signal to the input of IC2, an LM3914 dot/bar-display IC. R1, R2, and C1 filter the signal to the input of IC2 to provide an averaging effect. R1 adjusts the rise time of the signal, which increases or decreases the meter’s ability to track a fast rising signal. Increasing R1 slows rise time, making the meter more average-reading than peakreading. IC2 contains all the necessary circuitry to drive a 10-LED string as well as an internal reference. R3 and R4 bias up the bottom of the resistor string to 0.4V above the ground pin, which effectively reduces the total decibel range of the meter and increases the resolution and accuracy of each LED step.
Is this the best Design Idea in this issue? Vote at www.ednmag.com/edn mag/vote.asp.
Small, portable altimeter operates from a single cell
Todd Owen, Linear Technology Corp, Milpitas, CA
ome sports enthusiasts want to know altitude changes from an initial elevation. A small, lightweight, portable altimeter is easy to design using modern micromachined pressure transducers. Inverting barometric pressure
and compensating for nonlinearities in air-pressure changes with respect to altitude produces a reasonably accurate altimeter. Figure 1 shows a small, handheld altimeter based on a micromachined pres-
sure transducer. The circuit takes advantage of the inverse relationship between air pressure and altitude. The aim of this circuit is to be small, lightweight, and portable. Accuracy is not paramount; errors as high as 3%, such as a 300-ft error
112 edn | June 21, 2001
ciated components then inverts the output of the instrumentation to provide a voltage that is inversely proportional to air pressure. D4 and R1 introduce the nonlinear gain, and the final output is directly proportional to altitude. R2 performs gain calibration in the signal-conditioning circuitry. This potentiometer calibrates out any normal variations in part tolerances and sets the altimeter for a 100-mV change in output for every 1000 ft of altitude. The circuit has some initial offset, as well as an offset that is determined by barometricpressure variations. You can use R3 to R5 to null this offset, giving a 0 to 1V output for 0 to 10,000 ft of altitude. Altimeter testing was performed using a DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter for an ascent to 13,000 ft, followed by free descent—limited by the engineer’s parasitic drag—to 3000 ft. Subsequent deployment of an aerodynamic decelerator (Precision Aerodynamics Icarus Omega 190) prevented engineer injury or circuit damage. Aircraft rental for testing is available at many local airports. Extensive instruction in free descent and the use of aerodynamic decelerators are highly recommended before undertaking testing of this nature. Contact USPA at 1-703-8363495 for further information. Is this the best Design Idea in this issue? Vote at www.ednmag.com/edn mag/vote.asp.
5V + +
at 10,000-ft altitude, are acceptable. The speed of the circuit is also not critical: Extreme changes in altitude in milliseconds may prove fatal to whoever is attempting to read the output. The heart of the altimeter is an NPC1220-015-A-3L pressure transducer. This 5-k bridge provides 0 to 50 mV of output voltage for a 0- to 15-psi pressure range. To power the transducer and signal-conditioning circuitry, a micropower dc/dc converter, IC1, generates 5V from a single AA battery, and a charge pump generates a 5V supply. The output of the transducer drives an instrumentation amplifier, IC2, which provides an initial gain of 21. A nonlinear gain stage comprising IC3B and asso-
L1 10 H
5 1M 10 F
1.5V AA CELL
VCC GND 4
2 LT1004 1.2
100k 1000 pF
5V LUCAS NOVASENSOR NPC-1220-015A-3L 1 4 1 4 2 1 5V 7 IC2 2.43k LT1167 G 21 3 8 3 4 5V 1k 549k 2 6 NOTES: D1 TO D3: MOTOROLA MBR0520L. L1: COILCRAFT D01608-103. R3 59k R4 50k RSET 5 R5 14.3k 0 TO 2V 0 TO 20,000 FT
3 + 2
D4 1N5711 38.3k
169k R2 10k 6 5 IC3A LT1490 V125
1 TO 4 2 DIGIT DVM
To produce a reasonably accurate altimeter, conditioning circuitry inverts the barometric pressure of a micromachined pressure transducer and compensates for nonlinearities in air-pressure changes with respect to altitude.
114 edn | June 21, 2001
Circuit breaker monitors leakage current
Sharath Kumar, Gemplus R&D Centre, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
he residual-current circuit break- ever, if this voltage exceeds tolerable lim- output goes high. This output controls er in Figure 1 continuously monitors its, the circuit immediately deactivates Q1. When Q1 turns on, Q2 turns off, the supply lines for any leakage cur- the relay, thereby disconnecting the faulty which deactivates the relay. Two trim potentiometers facilitate rent and immediately disconnects the load. Any further or repeated attempts to supply if necessary. Load-supply wires, restart the device with the faulty load re- tripping at user-preset levels. R2 controls both live and neutral, pass through the sult in repeated tripping of the relay. You the coarse setting, and R1 provides for finmagnetic core of the CR4311-5 trans- have to manually disconnect the faulty er adjustments. Typically, the muscles in the human body can tolerate current up ducer (www.crmagnetics.com), which load and restart the device. monitors the supply current. Under norThe circuit configures IC1B as a preci- to 20 mA. Hence, R1 and R2 must have mal circumstances, because the current sion, fast-acting voltage comparator. IC1A settings that cause the relay to trip at leakflowing in both conductors is equal and provides a stable 6V reference to IC1B. age currents of greater than 15 mA that opposite, no flux is generated in the When the voltage on the noninverting in- the transducer senses from the loadtransducer core. However, under faulty put of IC1B rises above the preset refer- mains supply wires. R3 allows control conditions, the current in the live wire ex- ence voltage on its inverting input, the over the hysteresis. D1 to D3 provide protection. C1 and C2 are decoupling ceeds the current in the neutral and charge-pump capacitors, rewire, which catalyzes the producspectively. tion of flux in the core. TRANSDUCER Figure 2 A 12V, 0.5A mains power-supThis transducer core has a CR4311-5 ply unit is sufficient to effectively secondary winding that generates run the circuit. The relay contacts a voltage based on the produced AC MAINS TO must have a rating suitable for the flux. The generated voltage ranges SECONDARY LOAD SUPPLY load. Figure 2 shows the wiring from 0 to 10V and is directly prolayout for attaching the circuit to portional to the sensed ac curan ac-mains circuit. All comporents. RESIDUAL-CURRENT nents are standard industrial A high-speed comparator, IC1B, CIRCUIT BREAKER RELAY detects this generated voltage and grades and are commonly avail12V DPDT compares it with a set reference. If able. the detected voltage is within a tolerable range, the relay remains The residual-current circuit breaker uses a transducer to moniIs this the best Design Idea in active, and the load remains con- tor the supply current and a relay to disconnect the mains from this issue? Vote at www.edn nected to the mains supply. How- the load. mag.com/ednmag/vote.asp.
2.2k C1 0.1 F D2 1N4148 IC1A LM319A + 12 4 R1 5k R2 10k 100k 220k 270k 1M D3 1N4148 100 pF 4.7k TRANSDUCER CR4311-5 68k 3.9V 220k SECONDARY 5 10M 9 10 2.2k + C2 100 F 25V DC D1 1N4148
RELAY 12V DPDT NC TO LOAD
AC MAINS SUPPLY Q2 BC107
22k R3 2.2k
IC1B is a precision, fast-acting comparator and controls whether the relay is active based on a preset reference-voltage level.
116 edn | June 21, 2001
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