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Chapter 1


Background of the Study

Pandesal is a typical Filipino bread that is traditionally served as a breakfast roll.

It is a common bread roll made of flour, eggs, yeast, sugar and salt. Usually, it is soft,

airy, chewy and has a slightly crunchy crust outside. This bread roll is widely enjoyed

throughout the day and they are almost synonymous to rice in Filipino meals. It is

commonly served hot and consumed by dipping in the coffee. It can also be

complemented with butter, cheese, jam, or peanut butter.

This bread roll became a part of Philippine cuisine that’s why it has varieties like

raisin pandesal, whole wheat pandesal and cheese pandesal. It is also commonly referred

as “poor man’s bread” because it became a cheaper alternative of rice during the war era.

Taro or usually referred as “gabi”, is a tropical plant grown all over the

Philippines. It was once one of the most edible root crops in the world because it is

loaded with essential nutrients and vitamins, but this starchy tuber has faded from the

grocery list of modern Filipino consumers, who are unaware of the healthy benefits of the

crop. It is closely related to cassava, another nutritious food that is abundant in the

Philippines. Its stem and petioles are the main ingredients of “laing” and “ginataan”

cooked in coconut milk. Aside from its stem and petioles, its corm is mixed in


Taro corm, the root crop, provides numerous health benefits. It contains

cryptoxanthin, a member of carotenoid family that are proven antioxidants and their role

in protecting the body from free-radical damage has been well established. Recent studies

have shown that cryptoxanthin also plays an important role in preventing many forms of

cancer such as skin cancer and prostate cancer. Taro corm is also a good source of dietary

fiber, vitamins B, C, and E, iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, thiamine,

riboflavin, and folate. It has low content of saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. It has

been prescribed in the past as effective in combating malnutrition and indigestion. It is

also known as an effective treatment to ulcers, eczema, diarrhea, asthma and bronchial


Aside from other varieties of pandesal, the fact that taro corm has many beneficial

effects to people’s health, the researcher will conduct this study to determine the

probability of producing pandesal from taro corm flour.

Significance of the Study

This study determined the acceptability of pandesal out of taro corm flour. It

aimed to make a different and more nourishing pandesal than the plain one. This study

was conducted to make something out of taro corm that was rarely used and to improved

the production and consumption of this edible crop. This aimed to provide numerous

health benefits to people. Additionally, this study helped entrepreneurs to come up with

another nutritious food product out of taro corm.

Scope and Limitations

The researcher determined the acceptability of pandesal out of taro corm flour.

This study focused on the use of taro corm as a flour in making pandesal not on the whole

plant itself and not on the other plants’ corm.


Statement of the Problem

This study was conducted to determine the acceptability of pandesal out of taro

corm flour. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the nutritive value of pandesal out of taro corm flour?

2. What is the acceptability of pandesal out of taro corm flour in terms of:

a. Color;
b. Odor;
c. Taste; and
d. Texture?

3. Is there any significant difference between the pandesal out of taro corm flour and the

commercial one in terms of:

a. Color;
b. Odor;
c. Taste; and
d. Texture?


1. Pandesal out of taro corm flour has no nutritive value.

2. Pandesal out of taro corm flour is not acceptable in terms of:

a. Color;
b. Odor;
c. Taste; and
d. Texture?
3. Pandesal out of taro corm flour is not comparable to commercial pandesal in terms of:
a. Color;
b. Odor;
c. Taste; and
d. Texture?

Definition of Terms

 Pandesal – a common bread roll in the Philippines made of flour, eggs, yeast,

sugar, and salt

 Taro – referred as gabi in the Philippines. It is a perennial, tropical plant

primarily grown as a root vegetable for its edible starchy corm, and as a leaf


 Corm – a rounded thick modified underground stem base bearing membranous or

leaves and buds and acting as a vegetative reproductive structure

 Carotenoid- a colorful plant pigment some of which the body can turn into

vitamin A

 Cryptoxanthin - natural carotenoid pigment found in foods that can be converted

to vitamin A in the body


Chapter 2


This chapter presents a brief discussion of related studies and literature reviews by

the researcher that have relevance on the present study. These related studies and

literature will provide discussions, directions and concepts that will serve as guide for this


Local Study

In Anda, Bohol, Philippines, many Giant Swamp Taro, a type of taro plant, are

dying because it is not taken as food. So to promote Giant Swamp Taro, researchers

thought of making recipes out of taro so that it can be fully utilized. The products were

developed at Bohol Island University, Main Campus, Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Philippines

for Academic Year 2012-2013. This study ventured to produce Espasol utilizing Giant

Swamp Taro flour as the main ingredient. Espasol is a type of rice cake made out of rice

flour cooked in coconut milk, sweetened and dusted with toasted rice flour. The

researchers believed that in this study, the Giant Swamp Taro farmers can get benefit

from the new recipes, their taro corms can be utilized as a snack item and not be left

behind unconsumed or unutilized or just as food for hogs. This study is related with the

study of the researcher because taro corm will be also used as a flour. The researcher will

be able to compare this study to the study conducted by researchers in Bohol Island State


Foreign Study

According to the study of Amy C. Brown and Ana Valerie (2006) about the

medicinal uses of taro corm, as poi, this corm has potential use as a probiotic - defined by

FAO/WHO as, “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts

confer a health benefit to the host." No scientific studies have explored the possibility of

poi being used as a probiotic in medical nutrition therapy, however, an investigator

determined that the predominant bacteria in poi are Lactococcus lactis (95%) and

Lactobacilli (5%), both of which are lactic acid-producing bacteria. They conclude that

taro corm also deserves to be researched as having a possible beneficial role in those

medical conditions shown to improve with the use of fermented dairy products: diarrhea,

gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's

disease and ulcerative colitis), cancer, depressed immune function, and inadequate lactase

digestion. With this study, the researcher will have a scientific basis in concluding that

taro corm is really rich in nutrients.

Moreover, taro corm has provided a nutritious staple food for Hawaiians and

other Polynesians throughout the Pacific for centuries. In the Hawaiian culture, cooked

taro that is blended, mixed with water and fermented is called "poi." The use of poi is

said to have led Captain James Cook and other early western visitors to Hawaii to

describe native Hawaiians as being an exceptionally healthy people. More recent

scientific studies have substantiated the observation that pre-western contact Hawaiians

were among the healthiest races on earth.

In the book of Dr. Weston Price, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration (2005), he

states that Hawaiian Islands present one unique difference in the method of preparation of

their taro. They cook the root as do all the other tribes, but having done so they pound the

taro, mix it with water and allow it to ferment for several hours, usually twenty-four or

more. The incidence of dental caries was only 2 percent. Dr. Price correlates the health of

native people directly with the percent of dental cavities observed. He concluded that taro

corm as poi are high in vitamins, minerals and enzymes. The nutrition in poi is better

utilized than other foods due to fermentation (similar to yogurt) and small starch

granules, high amounts of alkaline-forming elements in poi reduce gastrointestinal

disturbances and are better tolerated. This helps prevent dental caries and provides

valuable nutritional support for individuals who suffer from indigestion, malnourishment

special health problems and those recovering from illnesses.

Taro corm has a higher caloric value than potatoes. The majority of calories come

from the complex carbohydrates like, amylose and amylopectin. Free of gluten this root

vegetable is a great attraction to those who cannot consume gluten. It is also high in

phyto-nutrients such as dietary fiber and antioxidants. Taro contains 4.1 grams of fiber

per 100 grams of taro. The fiber content slows digestion causing glucose to drip slowly

into the bloodstream thus stabilizing blood sugar levels (Jo, 2014)

Chapter 3

This chapter presents the research method that will be conducted in this study. It

also deals with data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design

The research design that was used in this research proposal was completely

randomized design. This specific research design focused in the use of different

treatments. The researchers used these five kinds of treatments to determine the

acceptability of the different amount of the commercial and taro corm flour in making



The different treatments that were used in this study were the following:

Treatment A – 150g taro corm flour and 50g commercial flour

Treatment B – 100g taro corm flour and 100g commercial flour

Treatment C – 85g taro corm flour and 115g commercial flour

Treatment D – 200g taro corm flour

Treatment E – 200g commercial flour

Materials and Equipment

The researcher used the following materials and equipment in making the taro

corm flour:

2 ½ kg taro corm grinder/high-powered blender

peeler/Knife bowl

chopping block/board fine strainer & woven tray


The researcher used the following materials and equipment in making the pandesal:

1 1/2 tsps. active dry yeast 1 cup milk

2 eggs, lightly whisked small bowl

4-5 cups flour (taro corm) 2 large bowls

3-4 cups of commercial flour small bowl

1 1/2 tsps. sugar plastic foil

1 1/4 cups warm water knife

1/4 cup melted butter, softened metallic tray

1/3 cup sugar oven

1 tsp. salt


The researcher performed the following steps in making the taro corm flour:

Prepare the taro Peel the taro Using the knife, slice
corms and wash corms using knife it into thin pieces on
it thoroughly or a peeler. the chopping board.
with water.

Gather the sliced taro Place the sliced taro

Wash again the sliced
corms and grind them corms under the sun
taro corms with water
thoroughly using the for 1 ½ day or 2 days.
and place them on the
grinder/blender Let the taro corms
metal tray/large
dry completely.
woven tray.

After grinding, put Use the fine strainer

the grinded taro to separate wanted
corm/ taro corm flour particles of flour
in a bowl or any from unwanted
container. materials.
Fig.1 Methodology Flowchart

In making the taro corm flour:

Step 1
Prepare the taro corm and wash it thoroughly with water.
Step 2
Peel the taro corm using knife or a peeler.
Step 3
Using the knife, slice it into thin pieces on the chopping board.
Step 4
Wash again the sliced taro corms with water and place them on the metal tray/large
woven tray.
Step 5
Place the sliced taro corms under the sun for 1 ½ day or 2 days. Let the taro corms dry
Step 6
Gather the sliced taro corms and grind them using the grinder/blender
Step 7
After grinding, put the grinded taro corm/ taro corm flour in a bowl or any container.
Step 8
Use the fine strainer to separate wanted particles of flour from unwanted materials.

The researcher performes the following steps in making the pandesal:

In a bowl, mix sugar, salt, 2

In small bowl, put yeast, eggs, milk, flour and butter.
Prepare all the sugar and warm water. Add in yeast mixture. Add
needed ingredients. Cover for 10 minutes. flour until desired

Punch down the dough in a Cover with plastic foil

metallic tray then divide into Knead until smooth about
and set aside for 1 hour 10 minutes. Form into a
two portions and slice into 16
equal portions. Allow to rest
until the size doubles. ball and transfer into a
for five minutes. This will be the dough. well-oiled mixing bowl.

Shape each portions into a Bake at 350

ball and roll on degrees Fahrenheit
breadcrumbs to coat. Let for 18-20 minutes or
rise again for 20-30
until golden brown.

Fig.2 Methodology Flowchart


In making the pandesal out of taro corm flour:

Step 1
Prepare all the ingredients that will be used in making pandesal.
Step 2
In small bowl, put yeast, sugar and warm water. Cover and set aside for 10 minutes.
Step 3
In a large bowl, mix sugar, salt, milk, eggs and flour, rub in butter. Add in yeast mixture.
Slowly add additional flour until desired consistency.
Step 4
Knead until smooth about 10 minutes. Form into a ball and transfer into a well-oiled
mixing bowl (large bowl).
Step 5
Cover with plastic foil and set aside for 1 hour until the size doubles. This will be the
Step 6
Punch down the dough in a wide metallic tray to release carbon dioxide then divide into
two portions and slice into 16 equal portions. Allow to rest for five minutes.
Step 7
Shape each portions into a ball and roll on breadcrumbs to coat. Let rise again for 20-30
Step 8
Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 18-20 minutes or until golden brown.

Statistical Analysis
The data obtained was statistically analyzed using the Mean in Microsoft Excel.

This statistical data obtained from the computation of the software was interpreted.

Evaluation of Acceptability
The researcher asked 30 respondents to evaluate the acceptability of pandesal out

of taro corm flour in terms of color, odor, taste and texture. The respondents rated the

pandesal using the following scale:

Numerical Value Descriptive Value

5 – Highly Acceptable
4 – Moderately Acceptable
3 – Acceptable
2 – Slightly Acceptable
1 – Not Acceptable

The researcher determined the acceptability of pandesal out of taro corm flour

using the likert scale after the evaluation of the respondents:

Numerical Value Descriptive Value

4.20 - 5.00 – Highly Acceptable
3.40 – 4.19 – Moderately Acceptable
2.60 – 3.39 – Acceptable
1.80 – 2.59 – Slightly Acceptable
1.00 – 1.79 – Not Acceptable

Ammar M., Hegazy A., et. al., (2009). “Using of Taro Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat
Flour in Bread Makin.” World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences
Brown A. & Valiere A. (2006). "The medicinal uses of poi." Journal List of Author Manuscript
Day, P. (2005). "Poi: Wisdom of the Ancient Hawaians .. Healing Food for Today."
Jo, D. (2014). "Taro- forgotten vegetable.Nutrition Blog.”
Khushbu, Shah. (2016) "How Pandesal Became a Filipino Breakfast Staple".Eater.Retrieved 23
April 2017.
Pobar, R., Balo, E., (2012-2013). "Acceptability of Value Added Products from Giant
Swamp Taro (Cystosperma chamissonis) Corm." 1JERD- International Journal of
Environmental and Rural Development (2014) 5-1
Price, W. 2005) “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration"
http://www.philstar com/agriculture/458569/eat-gabi-its-healthy.-your-body
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