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CVG 4150
Fall 2016

Lecture 2
Roadway Design

Faculté de génie| Faculty of Engineering

Fundamental characteristic of any transportation system is the

motion of vehicles
 Kinematics and kinetics equations.
 Kinematics, is the branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects
without consideration of the masses of those objects nor the forces that may
have caused the motion.
 kinetics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the relationship
between motion and its causes (forces and torques).

Basic equations of motions of a single vehicle:

 rectilinear motion.
 curvilinear motion.


Rectilinear motion - motion of objects along straight line without any

reference to forces that cause the motion to
to t
vo v

xo xt x





Rectilinear motion – Example 1

A vehicle approaches an intersection at 30 mi/h (48km/h). At time t = 0, it
begins to decelerate at d = 16 ft/s2 (4.87 m/s2). Calculate the time it would take
the vehicle to stop. Given that at the beginning of deceleration the vehicle was
located 55 ft (16.76 m) away from the stopping line. Determine whether it was
be able to stop legally.

55 ft


Breaking distance
Common case of rectilinear motion is the case of a vehicle braking on a
grade (either uphill or downhill)
Distance a vehicle will travel from the point where its brakes are fully
applied to when it comes to a complete stop
It is affected by the original speed of the vehicle, the type of brake system
in use, and the coefficient of friction between its tires and the road surface.
It is customary to designate the braking distance, Db in the

horizontal direction rather than along the incline

Estimation of initial speed at which a vehicle was travelling prior to a collision

based on the length of skid marks

 Breaking distance

Air Resistance
a  wf cos "   sin "  0

&'( )
        , ,- =xcos "

2 α Normal Force

2.  /
(Uphill) X

G=tan " Y
W cos α
2.  /
α N=W cos α
f = 0.6 for dry, f = 0.3 for wet


 Breaking distance

 Breaking distance – Example 2

A driver of a car applied the brakes and barely avoided hitting an obstacle
on the roadway. The vehicle left skid marks of 88 ft. Assuming f = 0.6,
determine whether the driver was in violation of the 45 mi/h speed limit at
that location if she was travelling (a) uphill on a 3° incline, (b) downhill on
a 2.3°; (c) on a level roadway.

88 ft


 Curvilinear motion - An object moving in a curved path

1 2


2 1 

4565 7859 :8;8565 ∶  
(  0 8= :85> 5  1   

Norm9 :8;8565 ∶ 2   
1 2 
(ρ  B7C> 8. :C= C=6 8. D6 ; D 3

 Curvilinear motion
For a horizontal roadway cross section, the only forces in the normal direction
is due to the side friction
Banking or superelevation – components of vehicle’s weight increase the
resistance to the sliding tendency
Details of design of superelevation will be discussed in ‘Geometric Design of
Highways’ section.

n β
c A A


 Curvilinear motion
E sin F  .G E cos F  2 sin F  2 cos F  cos F
divided by Wcosβ

an= v2/R 6  .G  1  .G 6
F= f N = f W cos β B
Wx= W sin β Wy= W cos β 6  tan F
.G  :86..7:765 8. >76 .=7: 785
β W 6.G  0 .8= H;7:9 D7DH
N= W cos β

Curvilinear motion – Example 3

A vehicle is travelling along a horizontal circular curve of radius R = 1000 ft at
the legal speed limit of 60 mi/h. Given that the coefficient of side friction is 0.2,
determine the angle β at which the pavement should be banked to avoid
outward sliding.



 Relative motion
Motion of one particle in relation to another
RB/A = position vector of B with respect to the moving particle A.

y A
z RB/A
x RB


Relative motion – Example 4

A police car, A, equipped with a radar capable of measuring the relative speed
and the relative acceleration between it and another vehicle, B, is following a
suspected speeding vehicle in a 40 mi/h straight roadway. At the instant of
interest, the police car is accelerating 8 ft/s2 from a speed of 50 mi/h. The radar
reads vB/A = -5 mi/h and aB/A = -16 ft/s2. Determine the absolute speed and
acceleration of the vehicle, B.

v = -5 mph
a = -16 ft/s2


 Perception and reaction

Equations developed so far are based purely on the equations of motion
without taking into account the effect of driver performance on the motion
Braking distance considers the distance from the moment when the brakes
take effect and the moment when the vehicle reaches its final speed
Drivers require a certain amount of time to perceive and react accordingly
when a stimulus appears.

 Perception and reaction

Stopping distance = Braking distance + Time for perception-reaction x speed
Braking reaction (perception-reaction) time,
δ = 2.5 s
Driver response is related to driver characteristics and conditions (age,
medical condition, alcohol and drug use, fatigue, emotional condition, sleep


 Perception and reaction

 Time to react to unexpected information is longer than the time to

react to expected information

 Placing regulatory and information traffic signs should be clear and

properly spaced

Perception and reaction – Example 5

Using the data of Example 2, determine the stopping distance (Ds) horizontally and
along the pavement (Xs) in each of the three cases, given that the driver’s
perception-reaction time was δ = 1.5s.