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CVG 4150

Fall 2016

Lecture 2

Roadway Design

uOttawa.ca

motion of vehicles

Kinematics and kinetics equations.

Kinematics, is the branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects

without consideration of the masses of those objects nor the forces that may

have caused the motion.

kinetics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the relationship

between motion and its causes (forces and torques).

rectilinear motion.

curvilinear motion.

uOttawa.ca

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reference to forces that cause the motion to

∆x

to t

a

vo v

xo xt x

1

t+

2

uOttawa.ca

A vehicle approaches an intersection at 30 mi/h (48km/h). At time t = 0, it

begins to decelerate at d = 16 ft/s2 (4.87 m/s2). Calculate the time it would take

the vehicle to stop. Given that at the beginning of deceleration the vehicle was

located 55 ft (16.76 m) away from the stopping line. Determine whether it was

be able to stop legally.

55 ft

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Breaking distance

Common case of rectilinear motion is the case of a vehicle braking on a

grade (either uphill or downhill)

Distance a vehicle will travel from the point where its brakes are fully

applied to when it comes to a complete stop

It is affected by the original speed of the vehicle, the type of brake system

in use, and the coefficient of friction between its tires and the road surface.

It is customary to designate the braking distance, Db in the

based on the length of skid marks

uOttawa.ca

Breaking distance

Air Resistance

a wf cos " sin " 0

&'( )

, ,- =xcos "

*

+

1

2 α Normal Force

Weight

,-

2. /

(Uphill) X

G=tan " Y

,-

W cos α

2. /

(Downhill)

α N=W cos α

W

f = 0.6 for dry, f = 0.3 for wet

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Breaking distance

uOttawa.ca

A driver of a car applied the brakes and barely avoided hitting an obstacle

on the roadway. The vehicle left skid marks of 88 ft. Assuming f = 0.6,

determine whether the driver was in violation of the 45 mi/h speed limit at

that location if she was travelling (a) uphill on a 3° incline, (b) downhill on

a 2.3°; (c) on a level roadway.

88 ft

uOttawa.ca

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1 2

v

2 1

c

45657859 :8;8565 ∶

( 0 8= :85>5 1

?

Norm9 :8;8565 ∶ 2

@

1 2

(ρ B7C> 8. :C=C=6 8. D6 ;D 3

uOttawa.ca

Curvilinear motion

For a horizontal roadway cross section, the only forces in the normal direction

is due to the side friction

Banking or superelevation – components of vehicle’s weight increase the

resistance to the sliding tendency

Details of design of superelevation will be discussed in ‘Geometric Design of

Highways’ section.

R A A

n β

c A A

F W

W

uOttawa.ca

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Curvilinear motion

E

E sin F .G E cos F 2 sin F 2 cos F cos F

B

y

divided by Wcosβ

x

an= v2/R 6 .G 1 .G 6

F= f N = f W cos β B

Wx= W sin β Wy= W cos β 6 tan F

.G :86..7:765 8. >76 .=7:785

β W 6.G 0 .8= H;7:9 D7DH

N= W cos β

uOttawa.ca

A vehicle is travelling along a horizontal circular curve of radius R = 1000 ft at

the legal speed limit of 60 mi/h. Given that the coefficient of side friction is 0.2,

determine the angle β at which the pavement should be banked to avoid

outward sliding.

(β)

uOttawa.ca

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Relative motion

Motion of one particle in relation to another

RB/A = position vector of B with respect to the moving particle A.

y A

x

RA

z RB/A

B

x RB

z

uOttawa.ca

A police car, A, equipped with a radar capable of measuring the relative speed

and the relative acceleration between it and another vehicle, B, is following a

suspected speeding vehicle in a 40 mi/h straight roadway. At the instant of

interest, the police car is accelerating 8 ft/s2 from a speed of 50 mi/h. The radar

reads vB/A = -5 mi/h and aB/A = -16 ft/s2. Determine the absolute speed and

acceleration of the vehicle, B.

v = -5 mph

a = -16 ft/s2

uOttawa.ca

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Equations developed so far are based purely on the equations of motion

without taking into account the effect of driver performance on the motion

Braking distance considers the distance from the moment when the brakes

take effect and the moment when the vehicle reaches its final speed

Drivers require a certain amount of time to perceive and react accordingly

when a stimulus appears.

uOttawa.ca

Stopping distance = Braking distance + Time for perception-reaction x speed

Braking reaction (perception-reaction) time,

δ = 2.5 s

Driver response is related to driver characteristics and conditions (age,

medical condition, alcohol and drug use, fatigue, emotional condition, sleep

deprivation)

uOttawa.ca

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react to expected information

properly spaced

uOttawa.ca

Using the data of Example 2, determine the stopping distance (Ds) horizontally and

along the pavement (Xs) in each of the three cases, given that the driver’s

perception-reaction time was δ = 1.5s.

uOttawa.ca

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