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H allma rk in g i s the ac cu rate determin atio n and offic ial reco rdin g of th e pro po rtio na te con te nt of pre ciou s me tal in gol d. H allma rk s are th us offi cial mark s use d in many cou ntri es as a g ua ra ntee of purity o r fi nene ss of gol d jewelle ry.
The produc t ce rtif ica ti on sc heme is bas ically vo lun tary a nd aim s a t pro vi din g quality, s afe ty and de pen dabi lity to th e ul ti ma te cu stomer. Prese nce of ce rtif ic atio n ma rk k nown as S ta ndard Mark on a produc t is an a ss uran ce of co nformity to th e s peci fic ation s. Th e co nfo rmi ty is en su re d by re gul ar s urve illance of th e lic ense e's pe rf ormance by su rpri se ins pec ti ons and te stin g of sample s, draw n both f rom th e f ac to ry a nd the marke t.
F PO- F rui t Pro du cts Orde r - 1955, promul gate d un der se ction 3 of th e E sse ntia l Commo di tie s Act - 1955, aim s at regu lati ng s ani ta ry a nd hygie nic con di tio ns in man ufacture of f rui t, vege ta ble pro du cts. It is mandatory fo r all man ufacturers of f rui t & ve getable pro du cts to obtain lice nse un der thi s Order to en su re good qual ity produc ts , man ufactured under h ygie nic co ndi ti on s. The F rui t Pro du ct O rder l ays down th e mi nimum requireme nts for:
Consumer in Market
All the people participate in the market either as consumer or seller or producer. Any person who buys a commodity or service for direct use or ownership. I, you, we all are consumers when we buy a product or service. But people who acquires goods or services for resale or use in production and manufacturing cannot be considered consumer. In free market economics, consumers dictate what goods are produced and are generally considered the center of economic activity. Individual consumption of goods and services is primarily linked to the consumer's level of disposable income, and budget allocations are made to maximize the consumer's marginal utility. Within law, the notion of consumer is primarily used in relation to consumer protection laws, and the definition of consumer is often restricted to living
persons (i. Consumers are explioted in the following ways – 1. Lack of safety Many electronic devices are produced localy lacking the required inbuild safeguards. it is called consumer exploitation. not corporations or businesses) and excludes commercial users. durability. quality. There are also various non-profit publications. This causes accidents to the consumer 5. In many costly items like oil. Adulteration Adulteration means mixing of low quality products to a superier quality product. Consumer exploitation In market.False or incomplete information Sellers easily misuse consumers by giving wrong information about it’s price. selling of defected home appliances. traders sell goods of sub standard quality. 3. As potential voters are also consumers. it’s effect on health. consumers are often exploitated. safety. such as inequalities of bargaining power between a consumer and a business. consumer protection takes on a clear political significance.e. dedicated to assist in consumer education and decision making. substandard quality drugs. For ex – selling of medicines beyond expiry date. The sellers do not provide the satisfactory services after sale despite the necessary payments. It causes monitary loss to the consumer as well as it spoils their health 2. either by the shopkeeper or by the producer by giving him poor quality and adulterated goods or by charging more prices for a commodity or service. . Concern over the interests of consumers has also spawned much activism. reliabilty expiry date. adulteration is made in order to earn higher profits. When a consumer is cheated in anyway. Sub-standard quality Sometimes. such as Consumer Reports and Choice Magazine. etc. as well as incorporation of consumer education into school curricula. A typical legal rationale for protecting the consumer is based on the notion of policing market failures and inefficiencies. ghee and spices. maintainance cost and term and conditions of purchase 4.Unsatisfactory after sale Many high cost durable item need an extra care.
consumer are often harassed and undue conditions are put under them 10. special pads advertised to increase height might have no result.Limited Information The producers and sellers are free to produce any good or service in any quantity and there is no regulation of prices.6.Rough behavier and undue condition In matters like LPG. which had not been officially launched by company in a particular country despite of high demand. It is called hoarding. 8. sellers and producers advertise with false claims of the product. But consumers have access to limited information which might be incomplete or false 2. etc to the consumer is of great importance. condition of use.Dubligate article Many false and dubligate article are being sold to the consumers. such as mobile phone. traders charge a price higher than the maximum retail price (MRP).Advertisement with false claims Many times. Under weighting and under measurement The traders do not weight or measure the goods correctly when they sell it in the market Factors Consumer exploitation is caused because of the following factors – 1. In order to earn high profits. A product. 7. They sale the goods later when the prices rise. This creates artificial scarcity of goods. This case can easily be seen during black marketing. than the product is imported from some other country and sold with higher price. 11.Higher prices Very often. etc. For ex – a fairness cream might not work. They had poor quality. fixing of new telephone line. providing full and correct information about different aspects of products like price. The consumer buy the product with high price out of curiosity and felt exploited when the company officially launch the product. buissnessmen creates artificial scarcity by hoarding.Hoarding and artificial scarcity When goods which are meant for public are kept in godowns illegally without reporting to the government. These fake products are mainly imported from mostly from China. In such cases.Limited Supplies . quantity. 9.
2) Making existing and potential customers knowledgeable about products/services. therefore. medicines. Once they are educated and made aware of the schemes that have been drawn up for their benefit and also the redressal forum that is available. the benefit of various schemes.The consumer are explioted. social and legal obligation of the buissness or government towards the consumer is called consumer awareness.Low level of literacy Illiteracy is one of the major droback that leads to consumer exploitation. The level of consumer counsiousness in our country is generally low. The sellers have an upper hand in fixing the prices of such products 4. to educate the common consumers particularly those in rural areas who are more susceptible to exploitation. etc. Consumer protection has earned an important place in the political. There is a growing realisation that consumer are needed to be aware of unfare practices done by the shopkeepers and producers. Limited supplies are usually a result of lower production of goods as compared with the demand. The consumer are not aware of their rights and duties Consumer awareness The awakening among consumer by their rights and duties. The process of development along with the expanding globalisation and liberalisation process has increased the number of consumer related issues. consumer awareness programs create more informed . will reach the common consumers of the country. the Government has taken many steps including legislative. when the goods and services are available in limited quantity. in true sense. The need of the hour is. This gives rise to the tendency of hoding and price asclation 3. economic and social agendas of many nations.Limited competition In many cases. a few sellers control the entire market and manupulate the price and availability of commodities such as durable goods. to protect consumers. Need For Consumer Awareness 1) Only knowledgeable and alert consumers aware of their rights and responsiblities can protect themselves effectively. In India. auto-mobiles.
Therefore. Consumers cannot purchase products and services if they do not know they exist. There was no legal system or law available to consumers to protect themselves from unethical and unfair practices and expliotaion by sellers. packaged drinking water. it is important to implement consumer awareness programs that will introduce and make the target audience aware of the products and services a company offers. Consumer awareness programs can be initiated through the utilization of flyers. guides. etc. those products and services will remain on the front line in sales. information posted to a Web site. fact sheets. it was considered to be responsibility of the consumer . in cases of products of mass consumption like LPG cylinders. Consumer Movements There was dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair practices were being induged in by the shopkeepers. television. brochures. 3) Consumer awareness is making the consumer aware of His/Her rights. The producers can use these logos provided if they follow certain quality standards. So in order to get a clear picture of the level of exploitation of consumers. Quality marks The Government of India has taken certain steps for standardisation of products through Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Agmak. cement. and becomes a rare one. and other sources depending upon the topic and the message delivered. If specific products and services are better known. radio. In case of any defective product or deficiency of services. However. the Agmark for agricultural products and the Hallmark is for jewellery.buying decisions. These standards are not to be followed by all producers compulsorily. A lack of consumer awareness in any industry can harm sales. Many people are ignorant of their rights to get protected against the exploitation by so many others. So when there is a forum for such redress of grievances there seems to be no such exploitation by many. BIS caters to the industrial and consumer goods. These logos and certification help consumer get an assured quality of the goods and services. the awareness is required. it is mandatory on the part of the producers to get certified by these organisations. school programs. It is important as one should not be misled by producers.
The Act has also led to setting up of seprate Departments of Consumer Affairs in Central and State . Consumer Protection Act 1986 (COPRA) In 1986. Today. This was a tool for nation to adopt measures to protect consumers. It is a quasi-judicial machinery. These are known as National Consumer Commission at Delhi. popularly known as COPRA to protect the interest of the consumers. even for a small amount of money. It has enabled the consumers to have the right to represent in the consumer courts. consumer can go to consumer courts or consumer forum to get justice. These factors gave birth to the consumer movements in India. The Act provides for establishment of Consumer Disputes Redressal Agencies at District. UN role in the consumer movement In 1985 United Nations adopted the UN guidelines for Consumer Protection. State Consumer Comission and District Forum. This led the foundation for consumer movement. The Act was amended in 1991 and 1993. etc gave birth to consumer movements in an organised form in the 1960s.to be careful while buying a commodity or service. simple and inexpensive manner. To make consumer movement effective. Consumer International has became an umbrella body of 240 organisations from over 100 countries. Till 1970s. should be made. hoarding. consumer organisations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions. They form consumer groups to look into the malpractices in ration shops and over crowding in the road passenger transport. Early attempts Rampant food shortages. This became basis for consumer advocacy group to press their government to accept their demands for protection for consumers against unscrupulous traders and shopkeepers. State and National levels for the protection and promotion of consumer interests and to redress their grievances in a speedy. the Government of India enacted Consumer Protection Act 1986. Most people do not make compliant to redressal their grievances. it was necessary that every compliant. adulteration of food and edible oil. Now. black marketing.
Complaints involving costs and compensation of over Rs. Complaints involving costs and compensation between Rs. Three to five copies of the complaint on plain paper are required to be submitted by the . Thus. Complaints involving costs and compensation upto Rs. 1986 this law. With the enactment of The Consumer Protection Act. COPRA is an important step in the consumer movement in India.Government which focus exclusively on the rights of the consumers. Thus you can proceed with your case at minimum expenses. Here. It has become the vehicle for enabling people to secure speedy and inexpensive redressal of their grievances. This enables citizens to have all the information about functions of government departments. 20 lakhs are required to be filed at the District Consumer Redrassal Forum. consumers now feel that they are in a position to declare “sellers be aware” whereas previously the consumers were at the receiving end and generally told “buyers be aware”. he can challenge the same before the State Commission and against the order of the State Commission a consumer can come to the National Commission CONTENTS OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT Procedures for filing complaints and seeking redressal are simple. consumer courts have been set up at District. The citizens have the right to know all the particulars of goods and services they purchase. There is no need to hire a lawyer as you can fight your own case. 1 crore are required to be filed at the State Commission which is situated in all the State capital cities. Consumer Forums / Courts Consumer Court is the name given to special purpose courts. Various claims are dealt with these courts. There is no fee for filing a complaint before the District Forum.National Consumer Grievances Redrassal Forum. an Indian citizen can file a case in a very simple format. State and National level. 1 Crore are required to be filed at the National Commission at . New Delhi 110001 If a consumer is not satisfied by the decision of the District Forum. 5th Floor. Janpath Bhawan. To help an ordinary citizen. that deal with cases regarding consumer disputes and grievances. 20 lakhs and Rs. Right to Information Act was enacted. the State Commission or the National Commission. No courtfee is required. mainly in India and elsewhere. One can go to consumer court to seek redressal. ( A stamp paper is also not required). In October 2005.
(d) Documents.. if any... FORMAT OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT BEFORE THE HON’BLE NATIONAL/STATE/DISTRICT CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION AT NEW DELHI/STATE CAPITAL/DISTRICT NAME. as the case may be....... description and address of the opposite party or parties... description and the address of the complainant. Consumer education is an important part of this process and is a basic consumer right that must be introduced at the school .. which are hazardous to life and property.. (e) The relief which the complainant is seeking. The purchased goods and services availed of should not only meet their immediate needs... COMPLAINANT AND Rights and Duties of a Consumer Education is a life long process of constantly acquiring relevant information.. consumer education is incomplete without the responsibilities and duties of consumers....... However... The complaint should be signed by the complainant or his authorized agent.. 1986.. in support of the allegations contained in the complaint.... Right to Safety Consumers have right to be protected against the marketing of goods and services. IN THE MATTER OF : (Name and address of complainant) . IN THE MATTER OF : (Name and address of the accused) knowledge and skills. COMPLAINT UNDER CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT. The complaint is to be filed within two years from the date on which cause of action has arisen... (c) The facts relating to complaint and when and where it arose. OPPOSITE level The most important step in consumer education is awareness of PARTY consumer rights....complainant or his authorized agent in person or could be sent by post to the appropriate Forum / Commission... as far as they can be ascertained.. The rights of consumer are as follows – 1.. but . (b) The name . and this influences individual behaviour to a great extent. A complaint should contain the following information:(a) The name.
Before purchasing. expiry of the product. It also includes right to be represented in various forums formed to consider the consumer's welfare. quantity. it may harm the consumer resulting in injury or death or damage to property. It also includes right to fair settlement of the genuine grievances of the consumer. government and local bodies. For ex – if an electronic good. Consumer should be informed – how to use the product. Consumer have the right to be educated about – unfair practices by traders and . Ignorance of consumers. potency. They should preferably purchase quality marked products such as ISI. He/she must have access to the variety of goods avaiable and must be able to compare the relative quality and price of similar product. standard and price of goods so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices. 6. gas cylinders. Right to Consumer Education Means the right to acquire the knowledge and skill to be an informed consumer throughout life. 3. consumers should insist on the quality of the products as well as on the guarantee of the products and services. Right to be heard Consumer's interests should receive full and sypathic consideration in the formation and execution of economic and other politics which effect the consumer. chemical product. it means right to be assured of satisfactory quality and service at a fair price 4. etc. etc happen to have any manufacturing defect. Consumer had the right to be heard by the manufacturers.AGMARK. In case of monopolies. Right to Seek redressal Consumer have the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers. 5. Right to Informed Consumers have right to be informed about the quality. is mainly responsible for their exploitation. Right to Choose Consumer has the right to choose the product at competitive price which are fair and reasonable. traders.also fulfil long term interests. particularly of rural consumers. purity. This will enable him/her to act wisely and responsibly and also enable him/her to desist from falling prey to high pressure selling techniques. etc 2. what safety measures or precations are to be taken to avoid injury.
4. Consumers must make complaint for their genuine grievances. 5.Whenever possible. quick response and remedial measures in case of any wrong happening. warranty or guarantee. One should preferably purchase quality product. 3.Provision of the address of the manufacturer with other contact details is significant as the customer may ultimately have to fall back in case of need. 1. MRP. such as ISI. Whenever possible. wherever such standards are prescribed. 2.manufacturers. the consumer should look at the quality of product as well as guaranty of the product and services. one should insist of waranty card. etc. etc as the case may be. etc could be very helpful to save consumers from big hassles and losses. Many times. with each unit of product. operational instructions. They can also take the help of consumer organisations in seeking redressal of their grievances.Consumer should form consumer awareness organisation which can be given representation in varies commities formed by the government and other bodies in matters related to consumer 4. steps to safeguard their interest and responsibilites of the consumer in connection with excersie of their practises Duties of consumer are as follows – 1. While purchasing the goods.The producers are under obligation to produce goods conforming to the prescribed standards.Consumer should know their rights and must excercie them Role Of Producers The role of producers is very significant with far reaching consequences. Agmark is for agricultural product 2. their ingredients. consumer should ask for cash memo for the item purchased 3. .Packing of products to reach them safe at the end user point. their complaint may be of small value but its impact on the society as a whole may be very large. their do and don'ts. ISI mark product or Agmark. date of manufacture and expiry. provisions of relvent law inacted to prevent unfair trade practices.They must provide written literature giving details to reasonable extent about the products.
There should be consumer’s active involvement to protect the interest of all consumers.answers.com/arun. He/she should redress their grievances even if the amount for the product is not high because it’s impact on the soceity is large. each unit tested and certified.tripod.html#b www. Source(s): Google.consumercourt. a high volume of troubles gets eliminated by facilitating the consumer rights this way providing right quality products. Conclusion An aware consumer is the one who is aware of all unfair practices by the shopkeepers and the producers. He/she should checks at various shops and buy a commodity or service at a competetive price.Wikipedia.com/index.Yahoo.netfirms.saxena/consum2.If the producer take all reasonable care. an aware consumer should express his/her solidarity by forming consumer awareness organisation which may get representation in various committes formed by the government. he/she should be informed about the following before purchasing a product 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Details about ingredients used Price Batch Number Date of manufacture Date of expiry ISI marked or Agamark or Hallmark Address of manufacturer Warnings and Instructions for use Also.Ask.in .Starware.nic.com. http://www. outlookindia.htm http://members. He/she should be conscious of his/her rights and duties and therefore.Consumerreports.fcamin.
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