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Graeme LOFTS
First published 2012 by All activities have been written with the safety of both teacher
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd and student in mind. Some, however, involve physical activity
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064 or the use of equipment or tools. All due care should
be taken when performing such activities. Neither the
Typeset in 10.25/13 pt Guardi publisher nor the authors can accept responsibility for any
injury that may be sustained when completing activities
© Clynton Educational Services and described in this textbook.
Evergreen Quest Pty Ltd 2012

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.

National Library of Australia

Cataloguing-in-publication data

Author: Lofts, Graeme.

Title: Science quest. 10/Graeme Lofts;
Merrin J. Evergreen.
Edition: Australian curriculum ed.
ISBN: 978 1 7424 6149 6 (pbk).
978 1 7424 6150 2 (eBook)
Notes: Includes index.
Target audience: For secondary school students.
Subjects: Science — Textbooks.
Other authors/
contributors: Evergreen, Merrin J.
Dewey number: 500

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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
About eBookPLUS v
About this book vi
Preface viii
Acknowledgements ix

1 Think quest . . . 2 3 Evolution 114

3.1 Patterns, order and organisation: Classification 116
ABCs of attitude 4
3.2 Biodiversity 118
Layers of learning 7 3.3 Natural selection 123
1.3 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR 3.4 Patterns, order and organisation: Evolution 128
Change my mind 10 3.5 Long, long ago 132
1.4 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR 3.6 Yesterday’s plants 136
The quest continues 12
3.7 Fossils 139
1.5 The evolution revolution 16 3.8 More evidence for evolution 145
1.6 DNA — this is your life! 22 3.9 Origin of whose species? 149
Einstein’s impact 25
3.10 See you later, alligator 152
Storyboards and Gantt charts 156
Nuclear news 27
1.9 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR Study checklist/ICT 158
Decisions, responsibilities and ethics 31 Looking back 159
Banned! It’s for your own good! 37 Natural Selection — the board game! 162
See quest 39
Study checklist/ICT 44
4 Chemical patterns 164
Looking back 45 4.1 Patterns, order and organisation:
The periodic table 166
4.2 Small but important 174
2 Getting into genes 48
4.3 When atoms meet 177
2.1 Patterns, order and organisation: Nuclear matters 50 4.4 When sharing works best 179
2.2 Unlocking the DNA code 56 4.5 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR
2.3 Who do you think you are? 62 How reactive? 181
2.4 Dividing to multiply 66 4.6 Finding the right formula 184
2.5 The next generation 72 4.7 THINKING TOOLS
Concepts and mind maps 188
2.6 What are the chances? 79
Study checklist/ICT 190
2.7 Changing the code 85
Looking back 191
2.8 Predicting with pedigree charts 89
ICT activity:
Exposing your genes 94 The mystery metal 192
2.10 Domesticating biotechnology 100
SWOT analyses and priority grids 106
Study checklist/ICT 108
Looking back 109
ICT activity:
The gene lab 112

CoNtENtS iii
5 Chemical reactions 194 8 Forces, energy and motion 304
5.1 Form and function: Plastic facts 196 8.1 Ready, set, go 306
5.2 A game of balance 199 8.2 Measuring speed 308
5.3 Precipitation reactions 202 8.3 Speeding up 311
5.4 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR 8.4 Let’s go for a ride 313
Chemicals can be a health hazard 204
8.5 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 316
5.5 A world of reactions 208
8.6 What’s your reaction? 318
5.6 Producing salts 212
5.7 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR 8.7 Getting down to work 320
Fuelling our lifestyle 214 8.8 Systems: Energy ups and downs 322
5.8 The need for speed 218 8.9 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR
Making cars safe 325
5.9 A cool light 221
Cycle maps and storyboards 327
Target maps and single bubble maps 223
Study checklist/ICT 329
Study checklist/ICT 225
Looking back 330
Looking back 226
ICT activity:
ICT activity:
Flavour fountain 228 Rock’n’rollercoaster 332

6 The mysterious universe 230 9 Science quests 334

6.1 Observing the night sky 232 9.1 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR
6.2 The sun 234 Daring to dream 336
6.3 Stability and change: Stars — a life story 236 9.2 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR
Superheroes to super science 340
6.4 Stability and change: The changing universe 241
6.5 How it all began 243 Nano news 343
Eyes on the universe 247 Gardening in the laboratory 348
6.7 Anybody out there? 250 9.5 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR
6.8 THINKING TOOLS Tapestries within our biosphere 353
Priority grids and matrixes 254 9.6 SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR
Study checklist/ICT 256 DNA — interwoven stories 357
Space trekking 362

7 Global systems 258

7.1 Revisiting cycles and spheres 260
7.2 Patterns, order and organisation: Climate patterns 266
eBook plus
10 Psychology
7.3 Global warming 269
7.4 Heating up for Thermageddon? 274 eBook plus
11 Forensics
7.5 Some cool solutions 278
7.6 Global warming — believe it or not? 282
Glossary 366
7.7 Ozone alert! 285
7.8 Biodiversity and climate change 289 Index 376


Biosphere 2 293
SWOT analyses and fishbone diagrams 297
Study checklist/ICT 299
Looking back 300
ICT activity:
The fifty years after . . . 302

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about ebookPLuS v

The Science Quest 10 Australian Curriculum Edition
textbook, eBookPLUS and student workbook The mysterious YOUR
are designed for students who come to the universe QUEST 7 The photograph of PG 0052+251
was taken by the Hubble Space
(a) Where is the Hubble Space

science classroom with a range of interests, On any cloudless night, a pattern of stars,
galaxies and clouds of gas appears to spin
see and sometimes spectacular, but always
raising questions in our minds about the past
Twinkle, twinkle
Twinkle, twinkle little star, how I
(b) Why are the photographs
taken by the Hubble Space

above our heads. Yet against this backdrop, and the future. wonder . . . Telescope clearer than those

backgrounds and learning styles. The topic units changes are taking place — often hard to So the nursery rhyme goes. When
you gaze at the night sky, it’s
difficult to avoid wondering about
taken by larger telescopes on
the Earth’s surface?

Where Earth fits

provide an in-depth coverage of the Australian what stars really are. What are they
made up of? From where do they
get their energy? How are they into the universe
created? Do they shine forever?

curriculum. Each unit provides a range of

Until almost 400 years ago, most
THINK astronomers believed that the Earth
1 What is a star? Write your own was at the centre of the universe.
description of what a star is. It was surrounded by a ‘celestial

investigations, stimulus material and activities to The Large Magellanic Cloud is

160 000 light-years from Earth.
2 What is the name of the nearest
star to the planet Earth?
3 How are stars formed?
sphere’ on which the stars were
attached. The moon orbited the
Earth. The sun and planets were
It is about one-third the size of 4 Does a star ever die? also believed to orbit the Earth.

engage and challenge students.. our galaxy, the Milky Way. 5 List all of the objects other than
stars that you can see in the night
Then, quite quickly, the idea that the
sun was the centre of the universe
became accepted. We now know
(a) The quasar PG 0052+251 is 1.4 billion
light-years away. That is, when you look
at its image, you are seeing it as it was
1.4 billion years ago.
that the Earth is just a tiny part of (b) The Hubble Space Telescope. Even though
• Patterns, order and organisation
Looking back in the solar system, which is a tiny
speck in a galaxy known as the Milky
it is much smaller than many telescopes
on the ground, it can see much further into
• Form and function
• Stability and change
time Way. The sun is one of about 400
billion stars in the Milky Way, and
the universe because it is above the Earth’s
The object in photograph (a),
• Scale and measurement the Milky Way galaxy is one of about

thought-provoking chapter openings, including a list of all the • Matter and energy
• Systems
above right, is not a star. It is a
quasar called PG 0052+251. It
emits much more light than any
130 billion galaxies in the universe.
star could. Quasars are found 8 Which people and events caused

Overarching ideas, Science understanding content descriptions The universe contains features including galaxies,
stars and solar systems, and the Big Bang theory
can be used to explain the origin of the universe.
only at very large distances from
the solar system. Observations
of distant objects like quasars
the change in thinking about the
place of the Earth in the universe
about 400 years ago?

and Elaborations covered in each section Elaborations

Identifying the evidence supporting the Big Bang
theory, such as Edwin Hubble’s observations and
• What is cool about sunspots?
provide clues about how the
universe began.
9 How do we know so much more
about the distant parts of the
universe now, in the twenty-first
the detection of microwave radiation THINK century, than we did 400 years ago
Recognising that the age of the universe can be
• Where are stars formed? 6 Astronomers believe that quasars when people were arguing about
derived using knowledge of the Big Bang theory • Why do stars appear to show different colours? are formed when black holes at the whether the Earth or the sun was
Describing how the evolution of the universe,
• How old is the universe? centre of galaxies begin to pull in the centre of the universe?
including the formation of galaxies and stars, has • How does a red giant become a white dwarf? gas and stars from the galaxy. 10 Given that the Earth is such a
continued since the Big Bang • What can we actually see from space? (a) What is a black hole? tiny speck, would you expect to
• Is there life elsewhere in space? (b) What is a galaxy? find other, similar planets in the
This is an extract from the Australian Curriculum.
Any elaborations may contain the work of the author.
• The universe may have started with a ‘big bang’, (c) To which galaxy does the solar universe? If so, where would you The solar system is just a tiny part of the
but what is the ‘big crunch’? system belong? rotating Milky Way galaxy.
expect to find them?



Your Quest activities and investigations can be used to:
It’s all relative INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 6.1 • show connections between science and students’ own experiences
Observing the night sky The apparent movement of
objects at different distances
is due to the actual movement
The effect of parallax
KEY INQUIRY SKILL: • Take a walk around Earth’s ‘orbit’
and, at several different points,
• provide opportunities for students to demonstrate their current
of the observer. It is an effect • processing and analysing data and
sketch the appearance of the ‘stars’
When you look up into the sky on a clear night, you will see after him, used his telescope to
countless specks of light stretching from horizon to horizon. check three particularly bright
stars: Sirius, Procyon and Arcturus.
called parallax. In 1837, German
astronomer Friedrich Bessel
became the first person to provide
a number of traffic cones (‘witches’ hats’)
relative to one another and to
even more distant objects such as
trees and fence posts.
thinking on topic concepts.
the celestial sphere model, He found that the position of each
Seeing stars first proposed by the Greek one relative to surrounding stars
proof of a parallax effect when
observing stars. As the Earth
pencil and paper DISCUSS AND EXPLAIN
Looking again later the same night, astronomer Ptolemy in 150 AD, was noticeably different from the 1 Looking at your sketches, did the
orbits the sun, the positions of • Mark a circle on the school oval positions of the stars relative to
you should clearly see many of was not correct. The apparent positions recorded by ancient Greek
stars change very slightly relative to represent Earth’s orbit around one another appear to change as
the same recognisable patterns as circular motion of the fixed astronomers centuries before.
to each other. If all the stars were the sun. you moved around the orbit?
before, but they will have moved pattern of stars at night is in fact There were even slight differences
the same distance from the Earth, • Place a series of traffic cones 2 Can you see any difference
to a different position in the sky. due to the rotation of the Earth. between Halley’s observations and
this would not happen. at different distances from the between the relative movements
From these simple observations, those of Danish astronomer Tycho
Observations of a stellar parallax circle to represent stars nearby
it is easy to conclude that the sky
is a crystal-clear sphere dotted
A closer view Brahe about 150 years earlier. Never
again could the stars be described as
effect indicate that some stars and far away.
of the nearby stars compared with
those of the more distant stars?
The development of the telescope in are relatively close to us while
with the tiny lights we call stars. ‘fixed in the heavens’.
This ‘celestial sphere’ seems to
rotate above our heads, carrying
the sixteenth century allowed Earth-
bound astronomers to see objects in
the sky with much greater precision Questions about
others are much further away.
The transparent celestial sphere of
the past must be banished, to be
with it the fixed patterns or replaced by an even more awe- REMEMBER
constellations of gleaming stars.
than ever before. Observations
using telescopes showed that many
different types of objects in the sky
Halley’s observations raised some
inspiring image — that of star-
studded space stretching before us
1 How did the invention of the telescope change our view of the night sky
from Earth?
chapter reinforce the topic
Wandering stars could be identified. These included new questions about stars. Why with no known boundary or end. 2 Explain why the planets were given a name that means wanderer.
Close observation shows stars
that appear to wander about
single or double stars, groups of
stars called galaxies, clusters of
should only a few stars move
quickly enough for their motion to HOW ABOUT THAT!
3 What do we mean by the term parallax?
4 How did observations of a stellar parallax effect change our ideas about the
concepts and provide a
among the constellations. These galaxies, and clouds of gas and dust be noticed? Why do they happen universe?
include the planets (meaning
‘wanderers’), the sun and the
moon, and a few other heavenly
called nebulae.
In 1718, English astronomer
Edmond Halley, who is perhaps
to be among the very brightest
stars? Perhaps some stars are
closer to Earth than others. Being
A light-year is not a measure of
time! It is a measure of distance.
In one year, light travels a distance
5 The estimated distances from Earth to some stars and galaxies are listed
comprehensive practical
below. How long would it take to reach each of them, travelling at the
bodies such as meteorites and
comets. We now know that
more well-known for his
identification of the comet named
closer, they would appear brighter
than other stars and their motion
would be detectable against the
of 9 500 000 000 000 or 9.5 ì 1012
kilometres. This distance is called a
speed of light (about 300 000 km/s)?
Proxima Centauri
Our own star
The closest star after the sun
1.5 ì 108 km
4.0 ì 1013 km
program for Year 10
sph Jupiter
backdrop of more distant, and Centre of Milky Way Our own galaxy 2.5 ì 1017 km
students. Investigations

therefore dimmer, stars. 1.5 ì 1018 km


Sun Magellanic Clouds One of the closest galaxies


USING LARGE NUMBERS Andromeda Galaxy One of the closest galaxies 1.4 ì 1019 km
Mercury Quasars Very distant objects 1.4 ì 1023 km
Venus Very large numbers are often written
using scientific notation. This allows
us to avoid writing lots of zeros and
6 Explain why the planets that are visible to the naked eye appear to change
are placed in context, to
Moon also makes the number easier to
read, because the reader does not
have to count the zeros. For example,
the distance between the Earth
position against the fixed patterns of other stars.
7 Radio waves travel through space at the same speed as light, which is
about 300 000 km/s. How long would it take a radio message from Earth to
help students relate their
reach the solar system’s nearest neighbouring star?

In 150 AD, the Greek astronomer Ptolemy

and the sun averages 150 million
kilometres. This could be written
as 150 000 000 km or, in scientific
8 Is it likely that a spacecraft from Earth will ever venture out to planets
practical work findings to
notation, as 1.5 ì 108 km. orbiting the closest stars? Present some calculations to support your

A time-lapse photograph of the sky clearly

shows the apparent movement of the stars.
suggested that the stars were attached to a
‘celestial sphere’ that rotated above our heads.
According to Ptolemy, the sun, the planets and
the moon also orbited the Earth.
The Horsehead Nebula in the constellation
of Orion. A nebula is a cloud of dust and gas,
visible as a glowing or dark shape in the sky
against a background of stars.
Some other examples are:
• 45 000 000 000 = 4.5 ì 1010
• 700 000 000 000 000 000 = 7.0 ì 1017.
sheet 6.1 Observing stars
topic concepts.

Understanding and inquiring activities at the

end of each section cover a full range of lower to
higher order activities, including ebookPLuS activities.


Thinking tools 6.8 TH I N KI N G TO O L S

Stability and change: sections in each Priority grids and matrixes THINK AND CREATE
1 Use a priority grid to evaluate each of the following

chapter build current and future challenges in space exploration.

The changing universe students’ thinking 1. Draw two continuums that cross through each other at right angles.
2. Divide each line into six equal parts.
(a) Completing and maintaining a permanent
Earth-orbiting space station
(b) Building and operating a permanent base on
(c) Sending a space probe to Proxima Centauri
3. Put a label such as Difficult on the left end of the horizontal line and Easy on the right.
Will the sky you see tonight ever be the Doppler suggested that the same effect we notice (d) Searching for extraterrestrial life forms
same again? Within a person’s lifetime,
the patterns of stars and galaxies in the
in sound waves might be seen in light as well. The
Doppler effect would produce a change in the
frequency of light waves emitted from a moving
skills. 4. Put a label such as High reward at the top of the vertical lines and Low reward at the bottom.
5. Think of an activity and assess it using these two lines, placing a mark where you think it fits
best. Repeat this for other activities or ideas.
6. Compare and discuss your marked positions with those of others in your class. Share your
2 A matrix can be used to compare the twentieth
century’s two competing theories about the universe.
Copy and complete the matrix below, using ticks to
A permanent base on Mars is a real possibility. But how important is it?
Are the benefits worthwhile? A priority grid can be helpful in answering
night sky do not seem to change. The source. The French physicist Armand Fizeau show which statements apply to one, both or neither questions like this.
ideas, values, views and judgements, and listen to those of others.
constellations move across the sky as the suggested that this change in frequency might be 7. After your discussions and reflections, write your final positions directly onto the grid. of the theories.
Earth spins on its axis and moves in its orbit seen by comparing the spectrum of light from a
around the sun, but any changes in their moving source with that from a stationary one. Statement Big bang theory Steady state theory
Which is the best option The universe has no beginning.
relative positions can not be seen with the Helps you make decisions and see
unaided eye. Photographic techniques INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 6.4 how your views and judgements to follow and why? The universe began with a single point called singularity.
how to ...?
show us the movements of the stars and compare with others The universe is expanding.

tell us that what we see as permanent is Doppler effect using rotating question The universe always looks the same.
why use?
actually a universe in a state of continuous sound source The red shift in the spectrum of visible light coming from stars and
galaxies provides evidence for the theory.
and often violent movement and change. Priority grid
KEY INQUIRY SKILL: Similarity New stars and galaxies are created to replace those that move away
• processing and analysing data and information Good result due to expansion of the universe.
Stars on the move Equipment:
Choice 1 6 Both help you to
think about This theory explains the amount of helium in the universe.
The movement of stars towards or away from the Choice 2
a source of sound that can easily be spun in a circle, e.g. a comparison patterns or key This theory is supported by the measurement of the current
Earth can be measured using the Doppler effect. 5
battery-powered electronic buzzer that produces a single points in the temperature of the universe (about -270 èC).
Difficult to do

also called
Easy to do

Christian Johann Doppler was an Austrian physicist note or a whistle fastened securely in the information. This theory was first supported by a Catholic priest.
who noted the change in pitch that results from a 1 2 3 4 5 6
end of a length of rubber tubing
source of sound approaching or moving away. We
often hear the same effect when a high-speed train or
aeroplane passes us or when we hear the pitch of a
a length of strong string
a partner
Concepts are explored Priorities grid;
decision grid
Choice 5 3

Choice 4
Matrixes classify
The theory will never be proven incorrect.
An end was put to this theory in 1965.

fire-engine’s siren drop as the fire-engine goes by.

As the train approaches, the sound waves reaching
A whistle can be used as
through visually 1
Bad result
Choice 3
information based
on the presence or
absence of key
3 Use matrixes to compare:
(a) red giants and white dwarfs
(b) three theories about how the universe might end
you are bunched up. The frequency is higher features; priority (c) living in space and living on Earth.
and you hear a higher pitch. a rotating sound source.
stimulating and example
grids help you to
‘scale’ various
• Ask your partner to spin the sound source around
in a circle on the end of the piece of string. If you are
using a whistle, your partner should blow through the
attached rubber tubing to produce a sound. Listen
detailed diagrams good result
Topic Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature

As the train speeds away, the sound waves

reaching you are more spread out. The
carefully to the note produced.
CAUTION: Take care while spinning the source. Ensure
that the string is strong enough and that no-one is in
that engage visual 1
the path of the rotating source of sound.
frequency is lower and you hear a lower pitch.
1 What can you hear happening to the pitch of the buzzer?
and linguistic 3
New stars are forming right now in nebulae like this throughout the universe.
According to one theory, this has been happening forever; according to
another theory it has been happening only for about 14 billion years.
2 When is the pitch highest? When is it lowest?

vi about tHIS booK

Study checklist gives students a detailed
outline of the content covered in the chapter. Looking back sections provide a range of chapter review activities.

STUDY CHECKLIST ICT LOOKING BACK accompanying worksheets

eBook plus
Summary 1 Solve the crossword puzzle at right.
1. 2.

4. 5. 6.
can be found in the student
■ describe and distinguish between planets, stars, eLESSONS
constellations, galaxies and nebulae
■ describe and explain the motion of stars and planets
of the solar system as seen from Earth
Biggest bang
Watch a video from the ABC’s Catalyst program about
6. Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence
7. The constellation of which the Saucepan is a
part (also known as the Hunter)

8. 9.
workbook and as Word files in
gamma rays.
■ identify the sun as a star
■ explain how stars are able to emit energy
■ describe the lifetime of stars of different sizes and
Searchlight ID: eles-1074

The expanding universe

8. The name given to the range of colours of
visible light
10. The distance travelled by light in a year (two
10. 11. 12.
appreciate the timescale over which changes in stars In this eLesson you will learn about the big bang theory and 13. The name of two space probes that are carrying
take place why the universe continues to expand today. messages into space in the form of gold plaques 13.
■ interpret the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram in 14. A natural display of lights on Earth that occurs
terms of the absolute magnitude, temperature and during periods of high activity on the sun’s
classification of stars 14.
15. The galaxy of which the solar system is a part CHAPTER 6: The mysterious universe
■ distinguish between absolute and apparent (two words) Worksheet 6.8
magnitude 16. Most of the interstellar matter between the stars Science Quest 10: pages 00-00
consists of this element. 15.


1. An effect that shows that some stars are closer
The mysterious
■ identify evidence supporting the big bang theory, to us than others
universe: Summary
such as Edwin Hubble’s observations and the 2. The Earth’s only natural satellite
detection of background microwave radiation 3. The sun is one of these.
■ compare the big bang theory with the steady state 4. The famous equation E = mc2 is attributed to this man. 9 Two different theories about the beginning of the Student: ................................................................................................................. Class: ...............................................
theory 5. The violent fate of some very massive stars universe emerged during the twentieth century.
Searchlight ID: eles-0038 (a) Name the two theories. Use the listed words to complete the sentences.
■ describe how the universe has changed since the big 9. The ‘red’ planet of the solar system
(b) Which of the two theories proposed that there was
11. A group of stars. The solar system is a tiny speck in one absolute protostar electrons spiral observer
bang and how it might continue to change in the Entropy: Is the end of the universe nearer than we thought? no beginning?
future such group. constellations space giants billion radio
Watch a video from the ABC’s Catalyst program about the (c) Which of the two theories lost favour in 1965? Why
12. The universe seems to be doing this. did it lose favour? fusion time nuclei expansion temperature
end of the universe.
Searchlight ID: eles-1073 nebulae afterglow pulsars helium
SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR 2 Why are the constellations we see now so different from 10 In your own words, write an account (about 200 words)
the way they were many centuries ago? of the first second after the big bang. 1. Groups of stars form patterns that are called ........................................
■ describe how radio telescopes and arrays of INTERACTIVITIES 2. Our solar system is part of a large ............................. galaxy called the Milky Way.
radio telescopes are used by astronomers and 3 During which process is the energy emitted by stars 11 Which of the three theories about the end of the
released? Describe the process. universe described in section 6.5 do you think is 3. Clouds of dust and gas in interstellar space are called ........................................
astrophysicists to observe distant parts of the universe Star cycle the most likely to be correct? Give reasons for your 4. The apparent movement of stars at different distances is caused by the movement of
■ explain how orbiting space telescopes are used to This interactivity tests your understanding of the life cycle of 4 Explain the difference between the apparent magnitude answer. the ...................... This effect is called parallax.
gather data from deep space and how they compare a star by challenging you to drag and drop labels onto their of a star and its absolute magnitude. 5. According to the big bang theory, the universe is about 13.7 .............................. years old.
correct places in the cycle. 12 For what do each of the following abbreviations stand?
with Earth-based telescopes 5 Use the data in the table in section 6.3 to answer the (a) COBE 6. The first stage of the big bang involved the formation of .......................... and space. The early
■ recognise the role of Australian astronomers and Searchlight ID: int-0679  following questions. universe was very small and very hot. Space then underwent rapid .......................... and as it
(b) WMAP
Which of the stars Alpha Centauri, Betelguese and Rigel: expanded it cooled.
astrophysicists and facilities such as telescopes, arrays 13 What is cosmic microwave background radiation and
Shifting spectral lines (a) is brightest when viewed from Earth on a clear 7. Quarks and ..................... were the first matter particles to form. Subsequent cooling led to proton
and observatories in the exploration and study of the why does it exist? and neutron formation which then combined to form ...........................
This interactivity tests your understanding of red shift and night
universe 8. Red shifting of lines in star spectra is consistent with the stretching of .......................... as the
blue shift by challenging you to choose the correct spectrum (b) has the greatest actual brightness 14 At what speed do radio waves travel through space?
■ recognise the importance of IT specialists and the in a series of questions. (c) is faintest when viewed from the Earth on a clear universe expands.
15 Outline two major advantages of using radio telescopes
development of fast computers in processing the data night? 9. The big bang theory can explain the large amount of ...................... relative to hydrogen in the
Searchlight ID: int-0678 instead of light telescopes to view events in deep space universe.
obtained by Earth-based and orbiting telescopes from the Earth’s surface.
6 How have scientists gained their knowledge of the 10. Microwave background radiation has been detected by instruments aboard satellites. This
■ appreciate that the study of the universe and the Expansion of the universe life and death of stars if the processes involved take 16 Many of the billions of stars in the universe are similar microwave radiation is the cooled ........................ of the big bang.
exploration of space involves teams of specialists Use this interactivity to help enhance your understanding of millions of years to occur? to our sun. We already know that planets orbit many of 11. Stars are formed when gravity causes gas and dust to come together and heat up. Eventually a
from different branches of science, engineering and the model of the universe expanding like a balloon. these stars. These planets are called exoplanets. .......................... is formed and then finally a star of a given mass.
7 What is the difference between a neutron star and a
technology Searchlight ID: int-0057 black hole? (a) Exoplanets are too small to be seen with any 12. Stars like our sun evolve into red .......................... before they explode.
■ recognise that financial backing from governments 8 The Doppler effect is most commonly associated with telescopes. Explain how we know that they exist. 13. Red supergiants evolve into black holes or ............................
or other organisations is required for major scientific eBook plus
(b) Why is it unlikely that a spacecraft carrying humans 14. The ........................................ magnitude of a star is a measure of its real brightness when all stars
the changing pitch of a sound as its source moves
investigations and that this can determine if and when INDIVIDUAL PATHWAYS past you. For example, the pitch of the noise made
will ever reach planets outside the solar system? are compared at the same distance.
research takes place by a speeding train increases as it approaches you 15. The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram plots the surface .......................... of the star versus its absolute
Activity 6.1 Activity 6.2 Activity 6.3 magnitude. This diagram helps us understand the evolutionary life cycle of a star.
■ critically evaluate media reports about the existence The mysterious Investigating the Investigating the
and decreases as it moves away from you. Explain
of extraterrestrial life how the Doppler effect is relevant to the study of the 6.8 The mysterious universe: Summary 16. Stars generate their energy by nuclear .......................... in which hydrogen nuclei join together to
universe universe universe further sheet
universe. form heavier nuclei.
17. The universe can be studied using optical (visible light) telescopes as well as ..........................
64 Science Quest 10 Student Workbook © John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2011

ICT provides a summary of Puzzle and summary worksheets

each chapter’s ebookPLuS can be found in the student workbook
eLessons and interactivities. and as Word files in eGuidePLuS.


eBook plus
eLesson The big bang THE RED SHIFT

How it all began The expanding universe

Learn about the big bang theory and why the universe
continues to expand today.
According to the most commonly accepted theory
among cosmologists, the universe began about
15 billion years ago with a ‘big bang’.
The red shift provides evidence for an expanding
universe. This evidence supports the big bang
theory and causes problems for those supporting
the steady state theory. A steady state universe could
When and how did the universe begin? Was Following the discoveries about the expanding expand only if new stars and galaxies replaced those
universe by Edwin Hubble, two major theories about
THE EINSTEIN CONNECTION that moved away. There is no way to explain how
there a beginning? Perhaps it was always The big bang theory would not make any sense at all these new stars and galaxies could be created from
the beginning of the universe became popular — the
there. If there was a beginning, will there be if it were not for Albert Einstein’s famous equation. nothing. Apart from that, these young stars and
big bang theory and the steady state theory.
an end? The study of the answers to these How could matter be created from nothing? Well, galaxies have not been found by astronomers.
questions is called cosmology. the singularity before the big bang was not ‘nothing’.
1. The big bang (t = 0) 6. One second after the big bang 9. Two hundred million years after the big
It was a huge amount of energy (with no mass) THE ELEMENTS
(t = +1 s) bang (t = +200 000 000 years)
concentrated into a tiny, tiny point. The amounts of hydrogen and helium in the
It’s hard to imagine, but at this moment there
was no space and no time. All that existed was The universe was probably more than a The first stars had appeared as gravity Einstein proposed that energy could be changed universe support the big bang theory. According
energy. All of the energy was concentrated into trillion trillion kilometres across. It had pulled atoms of hydrogen, helium and lithium into matter. His equation E = mc2 describes the to the steady state theory, the only way that helium
a single point called singularity. cooled to about ten billion degrees together. Nuclear reactions took place change. can be produced is by the nuclear reactions taking
2. One ten million trillion trillion Celsius. inside the stars, causing the nuclei of the atoms E represents the amount of energy in joules.
1 to fuse together to form heavier nuclei. Around place in stars. About 8.7 per cent of the atoms in
trillionths of a second later (t = + 43 s) 7. Five minutes after the big bang m represents the mass in kilograms. the universe are helium. This is far more than could
10 some of the newly forming stars, some of the
Time and space had begun. Space was (t = +5 min) c is the speed of light in metres per second
The nuclei of hydrogen, helium and
swirling clouds of matter cooled and formed be produced by the stars alone. The percentage of
expanding quickly and the temperature was clumps. This is how planets began to form. (300 000 000 m/s).
about 100 million trillion trillion degrees lithium had formed among a sea of helium atoms can, however, be explained by their
10. One billion years after the big bang
Einstein’s equation also describes how matter can creation as a result of the big bang.
Celsius. (The current core temperature of the electrons.
(t = +1 000 000 000 years) be changed into energy. That is what happens in
sun is 15 million degrees Celsius.) 8. Three hundred thousand years after
The universe was beginning to become a little nuclear power stations, nuclear weapons and stars.
3. One ten billion trillion trillionths of a the big bang (t = +300 000 years)
second after the big bang (t = + 134 s) The universe was about one thousandth
‘lumpy’. The force of gravity pulled HOW ABOUT THAT!
10 matter towards the ‘lumpier’ WORKING WITH BILLIONS AND TRILLIONS
of its current size. It had cooled to about
The universe had expanded to about the size regions, causing the first The big bang theory was first proposed in 1927 by
3000 °C. Electrons had slowed down One billion is equal to one thousand million; that is,
of a pea. Matter in the form of tiny particles galaxies to form. Georges Lemaitre, a Catholic priest from Belgium. But
enough to be captured by the nuclei of 1 000 000 000, or 109.
such as electrons and positrons (positively hydrogen, helium and lithium, forming it wasn’t called the ‘big bang theory’ then. Ironically,
charged electrons) had formed. Particles
10 One trillion is equal to one thousand billion; that is,
the first atoms. There was now enough

Science as a human collided with each other, releasing huge

amounts of energy in the form of light.
Until this moment there was no light.
empty space in the universe to allow
light to escape to the outer edges.
For the first time, the universe 9
1 000 000 000 000, or 1012.
So one billion trillion is 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000,
or 1021.
the name ‘big bang’ was invented by Fred Hoyle, one of
the developers of the steady state theory. He used the
name to try to ridicule the cosmologists who proposed
the big bang theory.

endeavour sections 4. One ten thousandth of a second after

the big bang (t = + 1 4 s)
Protons and neutrons had formed as a
was dark.
When numbers get that large, there are too many
zeros to count. It is much easier to use powers of ten
notation, or scientific notation.
In 1933, Lemaitre presented the details of his theory
to an audience of scientists in
result of collisions between smaller particles. California. Albert Einstein,
incorporate knowledge The universe was very bright because light
was trapped as it was continually being
reflected by particles.
The steady state theory
by then recognised as one
of the greatest scientists
of all time, was in the

and understanding of 5. One hundredth of a second after

the big bang (t = + 1 s)
The universe was still expanding and
7 According to the steady state theory, proposed in
1948, there was no beginning of the universe. It was
always there. The galaxies are continually moving
audience. At the
end of Lemaitre’s
cooling rapidly. It had grown to the 5 away from each other. In the extra space left between presentation

the personal, social, same size as our solar system,

but there was still no such
thing as an atom.
the galaxies, new stars and galaxies are created. These
new stars and galaxies replace those that move away,
Einstein stood,
applauded and
announced, Sections include descriptions of eLessons,
so that the universe always looks the same.

environmental, cultural 3 The great debate

‘That was the
most beautiful
and satisfactory interactivities and weblink-based
and historical significance 1
A huge debate between those who supported the steady
state theory and those who supported the big bang
theory raged from 1948 until 1965. During that period,
explanation of
creation that I
have ever heard’. activities available in eBookPLUS.
and relevance of science. THE MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE 243
the evidence supporting the big bang theory grew.


6.3 O V E RA R C HI N G I D EA S
Stability and change: ideas are covered
specifically in
Eyes on the universe
they emit a lot more radiation and are travelling
away from us at huge speeds. Quasars are believed
to be the most distant objects in the universe.
Artificial satellites can be used to look at the Earth
or to look into space. An inward-looking satellite
Stars — a life story these sections and
• discover pulsars, which are huge stars that have
can sweep the surface of the Earth every day, using
collapsed, emitting radio waves. Because pulsars
cameras and remote sensors to observe and measure Movie stars come and go. Some have brief the characteristics of hundreds of people and using
For hundreds of years, light telescopes have been used to observe what lies beyond
the solar system. To find out what’s in deep space, in the most distant parts of
spin rapidly — a bit like a lighthouse — the radio
waves reach the Earth as radio pulses.
events on the surface hundreds or thousands of
kilometres below. An outward-looking satellite can
careers while others seem to go on forever.
It’s very much the same with the stars in the
patterns in the data to draw conclusions about the
life of one individual.
are also woven
see directly into space, its view unobstructed by the Ancient Babylonian astronomers divided the
the universe, observing visible light is not enough. We rely on other parts of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
The Very Large Array in
New Mexico consists of
27 dishes, each with a
atmosphere, pollution and dust. Light pollution,
an increasing problem for Earth-bound observers
as our cities grow, is not an issue for an observer in
sky. Stars come and go — they don’t last
forever. However, their ‘careers’ are usually
much longer than those of the movie variety.
stars visible to the unaided eye into six classes. (The
number 6 was clearly important — the Babylonians
were also responsible for dividing an hour into
throughout the
The Arecibo dish in Puerto Rico is the largest single radio
telescope in the world. It is 305 metres across.
diameter of 25 metres,
arranged in a Y shape. This
is the equivalent of a single
radio telescope with a
Inward-looking satellites are used for:
• collecting weather and climate data, providing early
A star is born
60 minutes!) The brightest stars were called class
one; the dimmest, class six. This scale became
the basis for the magnitude scale we use today.
diameter of 35 kilometres. warning of events (such as volcanic activity and Dust and gas are not evenly distributed in interstellar The scale has been extended to higher numbers
changing ocean currents) and showing long-term space. There appear to be currents of denser material to include very dim objects that are visible only
trends swirling throughout the universe. Within these through the most powerful telescopes. Also, some
• collecting data used for mineral exploration, crop currents, the density sometimes reaches the critical of the brightest objects turn out to be brighter than
analysis, mapping, and identifying long-term figure of 100 atoms per cubic centimetre. At this magnitude one, so zero magnitude and even negative
erosion or degradation point, gravity takes hold and the gas and dust begin to magnitudes are included in today’s scale.
• strategic defence (‘spy-in-the-sky’) systems collapse, forming a cloud. Such clouds of interstellar
• communications for telephones, television, radio matter are called nebulae and are really like star
and computer data. nurseries. The Great Nebula in the constellation INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 6.2
Outward-looking satellites are used for: of Orion (see the next photograph in this section)
• observing the other planets and bodies circling is a nebula large enough to be seen with the naked Heat produced by compressing
Eyes in orbit the sun eye. The collapse continues under the influence of
a gas
There are more than 2500 satellites currently orbiting • observing stars, galaxies and other remote objects gravity, forming visible globules in the nebula cloud.
the Earth, many of them constantly watching the in space As the globules collapse further, any original gas KEY INQUIRY SKILL:
Earth’s surface and atmosphere. Others provide views • watching for comets and asteroids that may hit cloud is accelerated. Before the temperature is high • processing and analysing data and information
the Earth enough for nuclear fusion to occur, the now dense
of the universe that could never be seen from the Equipment:
Detecting radio waves SHARPEN UP! Earth’s surface through the atmosphere. • listening for signs of extraterrestrial life. cloud is known as a protostar. At the same time, the
a bicycle pump
Images produced by single radio telescopes are The Hubble Space Telescope is an example of an increasing pressure causes the temperature to rise and
Until the accidental discovery in 1931 that stars Trash ’n’ treasure in orbit outward-looking satellite. It was carried into orbit the conditions are right for a star to be born. a tyre with inner tube
not very sharp. To solve this problem, signals from
emitted radio waves as well as light, the only way groups of telescopes pointed at the same object are Some of the satellites orbiting the Earth are active about 600 kilometres above the Earth’s surface by • Using an energetic pumping action, inflate a tyre with
to observe distant stars and galaxies was with
light telescopes. Like light and other forms of
combined to produce sharper images. and use radio signals to send streams of data down
to the surface. Others have stopped working but
the space shuttle Discovery in 1990. The Hubble
Space Telescope, until it stops working, collects
The young, the old and the dead the bicycle pump. Alternatively, just pump the bicycle
pump with your finger partially covering the open end
electromagnetic radiation, radio waves travel continue to circle the globe. Some satellites in lower images by collecting and analysing data in the form A quick glance around the night sky shows us so the air does not escape.
through space at a speed of 300 000 kilometres per Learning from radio waves orbits will gradually slow down as a result of the thin of visible light, ultraviolet radiation and infra-red that stars differ quite noticeably from one another, • Now feel the body of the pump.
second. Radio waves from deep in space are collected As well as telling us about the size, shape and atmosphere. They will spiral in towards the Earth in radiation from deep space. It produces spectacularly both in how bright they appear to us and in their
by huge dishes and reflected towards a central a fiery finish as they burn up on re-entry. The fate of clear images that are relayed back to Earth by radio colour (see Investigation 6.3). Some of them are DISCUSS AND EXPLAIN
movement of every type of star (from our own
antenna. The waves are then analysed by a computer, others far beyond the atmosphere is an eternity of waves. relatively close to the Earth, while others are much 1 What change has been observed?
sun to stars at the outer edges of the universe),
which produces an image that we can see. radio telescopes reveal information about a star’s circling the Earth. They have joined the pile of ‘space The Hubble Space Telescope was the first space further away. There are young stars, middle-aged 2 How does an increase in air pressure affect the
Radio telescopes can detect tiny amounts of temperature and the substances from which it is junk’ gradually accumulating in near-Earth orbit. telescope that could be serviced while in orbit, and stars like the sun, old and dying stars, and exploded temperature of the surroundings?
energy. In fact, the total amount of energy detected in made. Radio telescopes can work out what a star is All satellites orbiting the Earth are held there by its useful life has been dependent on transporting stars. By collecting details of a wide range of stars, (The opposite effect can be observed when carbon
ten years by even the largest radio telescopes would made up of by using the fact that different elements the Earth’s gravitational pull directed to the planet’s astronauts to and from Earth aboard space we can trace the various stages of development of dioxide gas is released from a soda bulb.)
light a torch globe for only a fraction of a second. emit different frequencies of radio waves. centre. This means that the centre of every orbit shuttles. Now that NASA’s space shuttle program typical and unusual stars. This is like looking at
They can detect signals from much further away Radio waves have, among other things, allowed us coincides with the centre of the Earth. Some orbits has ceased, servicing is no longer possible. When
than light telescopes can. to: skim as close as a few hundred kilometres above the the orbiting telescope stops functioning it will be 236 SCIENCE QUEST 10
Unlike light waves, radio waves can travel through • analyse the distribution of stars in the sky surface. Others take a more distant view. The time ‘deorbited’ by an unmanned space mission so that
clouds in the Earth’s atmosphere, and can be viewed • discover quasars, which, before 1960, were taken for one complete revolution (the period of it plunges harmlessly into the ocean.
in daylight as well as at night. Radio waves also pass believed to be normal stars. They are like stars, but orbit) of a satellite depends on its height above the The Hubble Space Telescope will eventually be
through clouds of dust and gas in deep space. Earth. Greater heights result in greater periods. replaced by the James Webb Space Telescope, which


about tHIS booK vii

To the student The Science Quest Australian Curriculum Edition series is a
valuable asset for teachers, and an interesting and relevant
Science is both a body of knowledge and a way of learning. It
resource to the students who are using it. Science Quest
helps you to understand the world around you: why the sun
Australian Curriculum Edition eBookPLUS comes complete with
rises and sets every day, why it rains, how you see and hear,
online support for students, including a downloadable copy of
why you need a skeleton and how to treat water to make it
the complete text or individual chapters, interactivities to help
safe to drink. You can’t escape the benefits of science. When-
students investigate concepts and video eLessons featuring
ever you turn on a light, eat food, watch television or flush
real scientists and real-world science, all available at the
the toilet, you are using the products of scientific knowledge
JacarandaPLUS website (
and scientific inquiry.
Exclusively for teachers, the online Science Quest
Global warming, overpopulation, food and resource short-
Australian Curriculum Edition eGuidePLUS provides answers
ages, pollution and the consequences of the use of nuclear
to questions, advice and suggested additional resources,
weapons are examples of issues that currently challenge our
testmaker questions with assessment rubrics, and worksheets
world. Possible solutions to some of these challenges may be
and answers.
found by applying our scientific knowledge to develop new
Graeme Lofts and Merrin Evergreen
technologies and creative ways of rethinking the problems.
It’s not just scientists who solve these problems; people with
an understanding of science, like you, can influence the
future. It can be as simple as using a recycling bin or saving
energy or water in your home.
Scientific inquiry is a method of learning. It can involve,
for example, investigating whether life is possible on other
planets, discovering how to make plants grow faster, finding
out how to swim faster and even finding a cure for cancer.
You are living in a period in which knowledge is growing
faster than ever before and technology is changing at an
incredible rate.
Learning how to learn is becoming just as important as
learning itself. Science Quest Australian Curriculum Edition has
been designed to help you learn how to learn, enable you to
‘put on the shoes of a scientist’ and take you on a quest for
scientific knowledge and understanding.

To the science teacher

This fourth edition of the Science Quest series has been
developed in response to the Australian curriculum for
Science. The Australian curriculum focuses on seven
general capabilities (literacy, numeracy, ICT competence,
critical and creative thinking, ethical behaviour, personal and
social competence, and intercultural understanding). The
history and culture of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders,
Australia’s engagement with Asia, and sustainability have
been embedded with the general capabilities where relevant
and appropriate.
Science Quest Australian Curriculum Edition interweaves
Science understanding with Science as a human
endeavour and Science inquiry skills under the umbrella
of six Overarching ideas that ‘represent key aspects of a
scientific view of the world and bridge knowledge and
understanding across the disciplines of science’.
The Australian Science curriculum provides the basis
for the development of a Science curriculum in schools
throughout Australia. However, it does not specify what you
do in your classroom and how to engage individual classes
and students.

viii PREFaCE
The authors would like to thank Dianne, Aaron and Dean File:Plagiomnium_affine_laminazellen.jpeg; 359/(marsupial
Lofts, Genevieve Marett, Michael Matar, Linda and Geoff evolutionary tree)/© Nilsson et al/
Johns, and Sharon, Gwenda and Kevin Deacon for their pmc/articles/PMC2910653/figure/pbio-1000436-g002/ ñ Coo-ee
support, encouragement, advice and patience throughout the Picture Library: 179 ñ David Malin Images: 232(bottom left)/
development of the Science Quest series. Anglo-Australian Observatory/David Malin ñ © Department of
Innovation, Industry, Science & Research: 356 (mother-fish fossil)
In addition, we would like to acknowledge the friendly
ñ © Digital Stock: 318 (bottom left) ñ © Digital Vision: 123 (dense
and professional advice of the many colleagues who have forest), 194, 316 ñ Discovering Fossils: 142 (cast, mould)/www.
contributed ideas, provided constructive criticism and inspired ñ Doris Taylor: 348 (Doris Taylor)/Photo
us to continue when the task seemed overwhelming. We would by Patrick O’Leary, University of Minnesota ñ Dreamtime
especially like to thank our publisher Neale Taylor for his Kullilla-Art: 47 (bottom right)/© Michael J. Connolly
encouragement, ideas and patience during the preparation of (Mundagutta-Kulliwari), Dreamtime Kullilla-Art, www.dreamtime.
this edition. ñ © Electrolux Communications Asia: 298 (top right)
The publisher would like to thank the following copyright ñ © Emmanuel Buschiazzo: 359 (top left) ñ © Fabiano Ximenes:
holders, organisations and individuals for their assistance and 280 (Fabiano Ximenes) ñ Fairfax Photo Library: 271 (top left)/©
for permission to reproduce copyright material in this book. Fairfax Photos/Brendan Esposito ñ © Gabor Forgacs: 348 (Gabor
Forgacs, print-out blood vessels) ñ Genetic Science Services: 94
(dog licence, DNA profile)/Courtesy of Genetic Science Services
Images ñ © Getty Images: 2/Gamma Keystone-France; 10 (bottom left)/
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(bottom right)/Martin McCarthy; 87/Chris Dascher; 88 (top left)/ right)/Hulton Archive; 33/Dan McCoy/Rainbow; 149 (top left)/De
Evgeny Kan; 88 (top right)/Peter Mautsch; 129 (dolphin)/ Agostini Picture Library/Dea/A. Dagli Orti; 152/Colin Anderson;
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Isselée; 131 (dolphins)/Krzysztof Odziomek; 131 (sharks)/Josh Lewis; 331/The Image Bank/Romilly Lockyer; 341 (bottom right)/
Friedman; 131 (seahorse)/kristian sekulic; 131 (gold finch)/Andrew Ulof Bjorg Christianson/Rainbow ñ © Professor Guang Shi: 355
Howe; 131 (pine siskin)/Frank Leung; 131 (sea dragon)/Marketa ñ Herald & Weekly Times: 37/A photographed table of soft drinks
Ebert; 131 (numbat)/Martin Pot; 133 (butterfly)/Jordan to go with article ‘Schools set to lose their fizz — Falling flat at
McCullough; 192 (top right)/Barýþ Muratoðlu; 262 (bottom left)/ Canteens, lollies and chips next on hit list’, 23 April 2006, Sunday
terrasprite; 263 (bottom right)/Jeffrey Diamond; 263 (top right)/ Herald Sun, p.4 ñ © James Watanabe: 354 (Phidiana crassicornis)/
Aleksandrs Jemeïjanovs; 266 (left)/-Vladimir-; 274 (bottom left)/ Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, http://seanet.
James Richey; 280-1 (eucalypt trees)/Dean Turner; 320 (teenager ñ © Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert: 272 (right) ñ © John I.
on escalator)/btrenkel; 320 (teenager mowing lawn)/Kjell Garver: 359 (top right)/© John I. Garver ñ © John Wiley & Sons
Brynildsen; 335/Antonis Papantoniou; 339/Osuleo ñ Dr Al Australia: 74 (clasped hands, detached earlobe, attached earlobe),
Rowland: 51 (stained centromeres)/Courtesy of Dr Al Rowland 221 (top)/Photo by Renee Bryon; 170 (top right)/Photo by Coo-ee
ñ Australian Antarctic Division: 271 (top right)/2183D6: Handling Picture Library; 204 (bottom)/Photo by Werner Langer; 308
an ice core at Law Dome, near Casey station Australian Antarctic (bottom right)/Taken by Kari-Ann Tapp ñ John Wiley & Sons, Inc.:
Division, photo by Mandy Holmes © Commonwealth of Australia 260 (bottom)/G. Brum et al, Biology: Exploring Life, 2nd edition,
ñ Australian Gas Light Company: 216 (top) ñ Australian National John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1994, p. 12 ñ Judy West: 137 (top right) ñ
Herbarium: 138 (top and bottom) ñ © AAP Image: 53 (bottom)/ © Keith McLean: 349/(Keith McLean) ñ © The Kobal Collection:
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(bottom left)/AP; 157 (Toumai fossil)/AP via AAP/Nature; 364 338 (Star Trek)/Paramount/Bad Robot; 338 (I, Robot)/20th Century
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& Valerie Taylor; 127/M.W.F. Tweedie; 153 (leadbeater’s possum)/ (top left)/Cannon/DC Comics; 340 (top right)/Universal/Marvel
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during day and night)/Klaus Uhlenhut ñ © Bearcage Productions: Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation ñ © Learning
356 (Dr Katherine Trinajstic) ñ Bionic Vision Australia: 365/© Fundamentals: 278 (top) ñ © Lochman Transparencies: 129
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chlorotica), 358 (bottom right) ñ Copyright Clearance Center: 364 Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences
(bottom)/© The Orange County Register ñ © Corbis Australia: 21 ñ © Mike Kuiper: 360/VPAC Ltd ñ MPFT — Centre National De
(top left)/Hulton-Deutsch Collection; 22 (bottom right), 244/ La Recherche Scientifique: 157 (reconstruction of Toumai
Bettmann; 45 (top left)/Archivo Inconografico, S.A.; 89 (left)/epa/ fossil)/© MPFT (sculpture: E.Daynes) with permission by Centre
Barbara Walton; 149 (Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace)/© National De La Recherche Scientifique ñ National Human
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(bottom centre), 22 (bottom left), 77 (left), 116 (bottom right), 351 Scientist, p. 14 ñ Newspix: 155/Brett Faulkner; 309 (bottom right)/
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X-ray), 198, 334, 343, 346 (bottom right)/SPL; 23 (top right)/ Patston, Gaparingu Naputa and Tim Patston, July 1996, ABC
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x CoNtENtS
ve rs e , and sometimes I think
e u ni we’r
in t h en ot.
a lon In
’e re





the id

stagge e
a is quite
ri n g.
u th
r C.
Are you ethical? Does it matter? What
influences your opinions, values and beliefs?
How do your attitudes affect when, how
Think quest
think the way that you do? Is it ever worth
changing your mind? Why doesn’t everyone
think the same way as you do? Who are you
and why you learn? How and why do you and who are you yet to become?

The ethical thing

to do
• What are the ABCs of attitude?
• Are you obeying the proximate rules of
• What are four key ways of knowing?
• What have Socrates, Karl Popper and
Thomas Kuhn got to do with thinking about
• What scientific event occurred the year that
Einstein was born?
• Is all news about radioactivity bad?
• Can unethical behaviour ever be justified?
• Who owns genetic material?
• Should the government be able to control
what and how much you eat and drink?
• Patterns, order and organisation SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOUR
• Form and function Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are
• Stability and change refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community.
• Matter and energy Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology,
and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries.
SCIENCE UNDERSTANDING People can use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept claims,
The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next explanations or predictions.
involves DNA and genes.
Advances in science and emerging sciences and technologies can significantly
The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities.
things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence.
The values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus on scientific
This is an extract from the Australian Curriculum. Any elaborations may contain the work of the author. research.
QUEST (d) Analyse the language and style of writing used in the
article. What kind of audience do you think this article
was written for?
(e) Do you think you need to be a scientist to understand
What makes you, you? what the author is writing about?
(f ) Did the article headline grab your attention and
Who are you? What do you need? Why do you react in make you want to read more? If not, how could it be
the ways that you do? Possible answers to questions improved?
about the essence of who you are may be related to: (g) Research one of the events or issues mentioned
• the chemical instructions in the DNA that you and write your own article about it. Collate the class
inherited from your parents articles into a journal or newspaper.
• your experiences and the environment in which 2 One of these articles was written almost ten years ago.
you live (a) What types of environmental and scientific problems
• a combination of both of these. do you think people faced at the time?
Are you a product of your genes and your (b) Are they similar or different to those we face today?
environment, or do they both contribute to make (c) Use the internet to find out more about the following
you who you are? Scientists have been involved in issues mentioned in the articles:
this ‘nature versus nurture’ debate for many years. (i) carbon tax
(ii) China syndrome
Which do you think is the key contributing factor to
(iii) nuclear power
why you are you?
(iv) millennium bug.
(d) How do you think people’s opinions of the above
Bombarded by the media issues have changed in the past ten years? Justify
your answer.
We are in an age of information. In fact, you are
continually being bombarded by it! How can you
begin to make sense of it all? How can you better
evaluate it? How can you incorporate this new Our supposedly middle-aged sun has been behaving
information into what you already know to develop a like an adolescent of late, hurling huge clouds of
particles at us after its face broke out in spots.
better understanding of the world in which you live?
ydn Sydney Morning Herald,, 2 December 2003
To effectively evaluate articles in the media you
need to be able to determine what the facts are,
nuclear react or fails
and consider the type of journalism, the quality of
‘B a n g ’ w h en a r po wer, science
writing and the article’s ability to effectively present g as failsafe nu
There is no such l Kruszelnicki said yesterday.
ar fail
its message. commen ta to r K e. They won’t
rs are not failsaf ’
‘Nuclear reacto can go bang as Chernobyl did,
w ay . Th ey
in a safe March 2011
Dr Kruszelnick
What makes good news?
Read the article headlines and opening paragraphs at right, Nuclear crisis is no longer fiction
and then answer the questions below. The nightmare scenario for Japan’s crippled nuclear
1 For each article, consider the following. power plants is the so-called China syndrome.
(a) What do you think the article is about? The Hollywood movie The China Syndrome portrayed
a near-meltdown of nuclear fuel rods in a US reactor.
(b) What type of article do you think it is? Is it:
Herald Sun, 15 March 2011
(i) sensational
(ii) informative il Millennium bug melee
(iii) entertaining misses the true
(iv) thought provoking?
degree of our challenge
Tim Flannery’s 1000-year
(c) Use the internet to find further content from each carbon concession is a stra
man that will no doubt bur w
n brightly throughout the
article and find out more about the story by using contested carbon tax deb highly
search parameters such as the article headline, The Australian, 29 March
newspaper source and publication date.

eBook plus

ABCs of attitude Meet Professor Veena Sahajwalla

Meet an engineer who is also a television
presenter on The New Inventors.

Sitting on the fence can be boring! It’s okay Although beliefs reflect what we think and know
to have an attitude. In fact, you can have about the world, they do not have to be based on
fact. While you may see the world through the lenses
lots of attitudes. in your eyes, your perceptions are filtered through
your beliefs and assumptions.
Who are you?
Your family, cultural and social environments also
Who you are, or your sense of identity, is a result play a part in how you perceive the world. Your
of your attitudes, opinions, values and beliefs. attitudes, values and beliefs may be quite different
Attitudes are a combination of feelings, beliefs and due to the influence that these factors have on how
actions. These may be negative or positive and may you shape and organise your understanding of what
be towards an event, object or person. happens around you. The time that you live in is
Social psychologists generally agree that there are also important. Imagine the effect this has had on
three main components to any attitude: scientists throughout different times in history.
• Affective
• Behavioural
• Cognitive. Showing an attitude
Affective Behavioural Cognitive Attitudes can be communicated both verbally and
non-verbally. We express them in the words that
we speak, our posture, our use of space, gestures,
facial expressions, and the tones, inflections,
volume and pauses in our speech. Another way of

Public zone

Social zone

The affective The behavioural The cognitive Personal zone

component of your component of your component of your
attitude involves attitude involves attitude involves your Intimate zone
your feelings towards how you express thoughts, beliefs and
School grounds


people, events and yourself. opinions.

Close friends
now well zone


things. You

inner centre
The ABCs of attitude
Not k

15–45 cm
Opinions, values and attitudes involve making 46 cm–1.2 m
judgements about the desirability of something,
1.2–3.6 m
whereas beliefs usually do not. Your values may
involve making personal judgements and represent over 3.6 m
a deeper commitment than an attitude would.
Values also act as standards in your decision making. Proximate rules: think of specific examples of how they apply to you and
Opinions can be expressed as a point of view that others around you.
is based on known facts or available information.

communicating our attitudes may be through the use TO LEARN . . . OR NOT TO LEARN?
of paralanguage. Paralanguage is communicating
Learning often involves taking a risk. Taking risks
your specific meaning through the way that you
can make you feel uncomfortable and take you out
speak, as well as what you say.
of your comfort zone. There are times when it is
necessary to sacrifice competence and control, and to
NOT TOO CLOSE! tolerate frustration and confusion. Imagine how far a
Our attitudes can also be expressed by the distance scientist would get if they took only the easy, well-
that we place between ourselves and others. trodden path. How many amazing discoveries would
Proximate rules determine the physical distance (in remain hidden and out of reach?
zones) that is comfortable between people depending There are other times when the risks and potential
on their relationships. learning are not to your advantage. At these times
you need to protect yourself. Can you think of
The language of examples when this may be appropriate?
understanding Read between the lines
Create Solve

W ho are you and who Produce Decide
Tell a story
are you yet to become? Apply Show
How can your use of Translate
language and non-verbal Explain Justify
communication give the Judge Interpret
right impression about
who you are? How do your Evaluate Language of
attitudes affect when, how understanding Be aware of
and why you learn? Can you Compare
remember different types of Perspective Self-knowledge
learning in different ways? Recognise
How can you make your Argue Empathy
learning and understanding Consider Imagine Reflect
more effective? Analyse
Criticise Believe Relate Self-assess
Be like

What sorts of questions

do you ask yourself to
decide whether you
should take on new


THINK AND DISCUSS (a) a physicist (c) a chemist

(b) an environmentalist (d) a psychiatrist.
1 Think about your reactions over the last week.
Is there anything that makes you feel uneasy or 8 What do you think is meant by a self-fulfilling prophecy?
uncomfortable? If so, ask yourself: Give an example.
• Is this how I really want to behave? 9 It has been said that ‘Our beliefs and values are hard
• Is this who I am or who I want to be? to think about because they are what we think with’
• What are my core values? (K. Egan). What is your opinion on this statement? Share
• What can I do to realign my actions with my values? your opinion with your team. Use a cluster or mind map
2 (a) Create your own cartoon that could be used to to summarise your discussion.
promote thinking about attitudes. 10 (a) Use a target map to sort the words below. Show the
(b) Share your cartoon with others in the class in a positive words in the centre circle and the negative
class gallery. words in the outer circle.
(c) As a class, select four cartoons from the class gallery. accept, harmful, undesirable, like, believe in, agree
(d) Individually, write a background story for one with, morality, disagree with, tolerate, desire, dislike,
cartoon to describe what has led to the attitude ethics, important, unethical, desirable, beliefs, virtues
shown. (b) Share your target map with your team. Comment on
(e) Share your stories with your team. any similarities or differences.
(f ) Share and discuss your stories with others who 11 Suggest ways in which you can use language positively
have written for the same cartoon. Comment on when you are communicating with others.
any similarities or differences in the stories.
12 For each of the questions below, provide a response and
3 List three things that you value. Give reasons why suggest which type of understanding it belongs to.
you value them. (a) What are some common misconceptions about
4 A bias is a preference that may inhibit your impartial spiders?
judgement. (b) What does your language reveal about your self-
(a) Give an example of how you are biased. confidence?
(b) Bias may be revealed by comments that are (c) How and when could you use a toothbrush?
exaggerations, generalisations, imbalanced (d) What are the different points of view about stem cell
opinions stated as facts and emotionally charged research?
words. Look through a newspaper and select (e) What would it be like to be a genetic engineer?
two articles that show examples of bias. Bring (f ) What are my strengths and weaknesses in science?
these articles to school and discuss the bias with 13 Sketch your own ‘How can I get there?’ map and add
members of your class. side-path comments that may be goals, strategies or
(c) Suggest why it is important to know your biases. tasks that can help you reach your dreams.
5 Discuss the following statements with your team, 14 If you always retreat from uncertainty, then you
then summarise your discussions in a PMI chart. may end up with a limited range of knowledge and
(a) Teenagers between the ages of 14 and 16 should know-how. If you always dive into the unknown, your
be isolated from the rest of the community and life may be exciting, although possibly very short!
schooled in live-in camps. (a) Gather your thoughts on the above statements.
(b) Abortion for any reason should be illegal. (b) Share your thoughts with your partner. Suggest
(c) Vaccinations against measles, whooping cough real-life examples for each statement.
and meningitis should be compulsory for all
15 Visual thinking tools can be very useful in helping you
Year 10 students.
decide which learning opportunities are worth taking on.
6 Think of examples of cues (what it looks and sounds (a) In your team, brainstorm examples of potential
like) that convey: learning situations that may require careful
(a) a positive attitude (c) disbelief consideration.
(b) a negative attitude (d) agreement. (b) With your team, analyse two of these potential
7 A stereotype is a collection of beliefs that are held learning situations using either a SWOT or PMI visual
about people belonging to a particular category. thinking tool (see section 1.11).
While they can help us make sense of the world, they (c) Reflect on the ideas or strategies that you might use
can also lead to discrimination and self-fulfilling when you are deciding whether or not to jump into
prophecies. Suggest a stereotype for: a new learning situation.


The Rs of learning
Layers of learning power
Resilience is about believing in
yourself and having the ability
Learning can happen in layers. For instance, when you to tolerate sometimes feeling a
learn a new game you start by learning what the game is little uncomfortable. As learning
about — you acquire the specific conscious knowledge. is an emotional business, your
As you play the game, you begin to develop the more ability to tolerate emotions is
important. Learning is not always
intuitive know-how that is necessary to play it well. fast and smooth; there can be
frustrating flat spots, exhilarating
highs and upsetting setbacks.
Resilience helps you to stick
with it and recover from any
disappointments. It is important
Imagination: using in learning to help you tolerate
skills of fantasy, your emotional seesaw.
visualisation and
Reflectiveness is being self-
storytelling. These
skills help you to aware and mindful of what
create and explore could be and what has been. It
hypothetical worlds. involves being open-minded and
sometimes standing back and
Intuition: where looking at the big picture; asking
your creative yourself if your own assumptions
ideas germinate are getting in the way of the
and develop. truth.
Responsibility is being able
Intellectual skills: to manage yourself and your
of language and
learning. It’s about monitoring
reasoning. You use
these to segment, your progress and thinking
analyse and about other options and different
communicate your perspectives.
experience. Resourcefulness is knowing
what tools you have and when
Immersion: in the to use them. It’s about taking
experience using responsible risks and using a
practical tools to range of appropriate learning
explore, investigate
tools and strategies.
and experiment.

The Is of learning
Your learning may involve the use of tools from
drawers in your learning cupboard:
• imagination
• intuition
• intellectual skills
• immersion.
The illustration above describes how these tools
can be put to use to enhance your learning.

Lifelong learning WAYS OF KNOWING
Many argue that we are currently in an age of
Learning can be considered as ‘what you do when you information overload. We are constantly being
don’t know what to do’. Learning to learn can involve bombarded with information from a variety of
using your social and material tools and resources to sources, many of these associated with the media.
get better at knowing when, how and what to do when Some of the information that you are exposed to may
you don’t know what to do. Your understanding of not be accurate or the whole story. The information
the world is shaped by what you experience directly or may be biased in the selection, emphasis, word
what is communicated to you by others. choice and context used. It is important that when
interpreting information you are aware of these
Persist when
possible biases. You also need to be aware of your
Make choices times are tough Use a varied own biases!
about what to tool kit of learning
In making sense of this new information, you
learn and when approaches
need to focus on the ways in which you build your
Lifelong knowledge. How you — as a ‘knower’ at the centre
learning of your learning — use your senses (e.g. sight, sound,
Have the courage
and enthusiasm
Engage smell, touch and taste) to perceive your world, and
intellectually emotion, reason and language to interpret what you
to take responsible
Make choices about with uncertainty sense. As you read through the information in this
learning risks
when to not take up chapter, view them through the lenses of these four
learning invitations ways of knowing.


(b) For three of the statements in part (a), share your
Where do you stand? opinions by being involved in constructing a class
(a) On your own, score each of the statements below ‘opinionogram’.
on a scale of 0 to 4 where 0 = strongly disagree and (i) Divide the classroom into five zones, and assign a
4 = strongly agree. score of 0 to 4 to each zone.
ii) Each student now stands in the zone that indicates
• Books are better than movies.
their score for the first statement.
• Fiction is more interesting than non-fiction.
(iii) Discuss the reasons for your opinion with the
• Only wealthy students should get an education.
students in your zone.
• Science classes should include science fiction stories.
(iv) Suggest questions that could be used to probe
• If something is too hard, it’s not worth trying.
students in different opinion zones.
• Students who get below 50 per cent on a test do not
deserve an education. (v) With students in other zones, discuss their views
and share with them the reasons for your opinion.
• At 15 years of age you have a sense of who you are.
(vi) Reflect on what you have heard from others.
• You are weak if you feel the need to belong.
Decide if you want to change positions and, if so,
• If you failed before, don’t bother trying again.
change. Give a reason why you are changing.
• You can have ownership without possession.
(vii) Repeat steps (ii)–(vi) for two other statements.
(viii) Reflect on what you have learned about the
opinions and perspectives of others.
(ix) In your teams, discuss any insightful comments,
ideas or opinions.
(x) Suggest questions that could be used to more
closely probe reasons for your classmates’
opinions. Share these probing questions with your
(xi) Suggest how you have demonstrated resilience,
reflectiveness, responsibility and resourcefulness
0 1 2 3 4
during this activity. Comment on things that you
Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
disagree may change if you were to do the activity again.

e Fe
Topic Feature Feat tur Featu



Feature ure Featu
Ide Feat Feature
Feat Id Fea

ur a tu

Feature Idea Conc

Feature Feature Fea
dea ep
Concept Concept


pt re

Fe re
Feature atu


Feature Feature atu ure

Idea Idea Idea Idea Topic Feature

atu ure

ept Topic


Feature Idea onc Conc Idea ture
ept Fea

ure Feature
Feat Idea Feat
Feature Feature ur

Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature





Feature Feature eat


Topic Feature
Feature Feature Feature Feature
3 Attributes Brainstorming What if?
4 Classifying
First event

Looks like Sounds like

Next event
Sequencing Thinking Visualising
Next event Critical Creative
Next event

Evaluating Evaluating Associating

Last event
Comparing and Topic/theme/idea
Strengths Weaknesses contrasting Plus Minus Interesting
• • • A
• • • Predicting
Opportunities or topic Threats • • •
Analysing bias and • •

assumptions • • Feel

Hear See B
Topic 1 Topic 2

Cause Cause
Topic 3 group A group B
made from KWL
the common Cause Cause
Ways of features of What What we Want What we
knowing topics 1 Cause Cause Cause we Know to find out have Learned
and 2
Cause Cause Cause
group C group D group E


REMEMBER, THINK AND SHARE What resources do you need to achieve them? What
1 (a) In what order do you think that immersion, are your current strengths and weaknesses? Suggest
intuition, imagination and use of intellectual how you can utilise your strengths and develop your
skills happen in your learning? Give an example. weaknesses.
(b) Do you think it is the same order for all types of 4 (a) Construct a mind map on the four Rs of learning
learning? Explain. power.
2 What are your attitudes to your learning? Do you (b) Add to this map examples of how you could show
believe that learning is important to you? If you and develop each of these. You may wish to include
do not value your learning, your learning power sketches, figures or quotes.
will be weakened. Discuss your responses to (c) Share your mind map with others and add any of their
these statements with your class. Comment on ideas that you think are helpful in developing these Rs.
similarities and differences highlighted from your 5 Use a Y chart to show what resilience looks, sounds and
discussion. smells like.
3 Do you think strategically about your learning? Give work
an example of how you do this. What are your goals? 1.1 Layers of learning


Change my mind Thomas Kuhn

‘One thing only I know, and • paradigms — or ways of thinking.

that is that I know nothing.’ Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996) saw
science as being generated by basic
This statement is often linked
theories or groups of ideas that are
to a Greek philosopher called followed and defended by scientists. These paradigms
Socrates (470–399 BC), who are accepted even when data suggests that they may
had a major impact on Western not be true. Only when the evidence against the
thinking and philosophy. This theory becomes too great does the paradigm change,
statement, however, also goes to be replaced by another, until it, too, is replaced.
against what is commonly
thought about science and HOW ABOUT THAT!
scientists. Some consider that Newton (1643–1727) and
Socrates science will always have the Descartes (1596–1650)
answers and that scientists Newton’s theory of universal gravitation stated that
know all. Not only is such a belief untrue, everything was attracted to everything else.This would
it is also potentially dangerous. Thinking mean that the sun’s gravity would keep the Earth and
flexibly and with an open mind are better other planets in orbit. Descartes, however, did not think
traits for a scientist to possess. The history that force could be transmitted through empty space and
suggested that the Earth was in some kind of whirlpool
of science and philosophy is littered with that revolved around the sun.
theories that at one time were considered
Another difference between these theories was their
to be answers, but were later disregarded. predictions about the shape of the Earth. Newton’s
theory suggested that the Earth would be flatter at
A tree of knowledge the poles and fatter at the equator due to the effects of
gravitational force. Descartes’
What is now considered science may also be theory suggested the opposite.
described as a branch of philosophy. This branch is In 1737, two expeditions
involved in trying to explain our observations from left France to travel around
both inside and outside our bodies. There are many the world and measure the
different ways to analyse the tree of knowledge that curvature of the Earth to
we call science. Three of these ways are: resolve the dispute. Upon
• inductionism — suggests that scientific their return, both expeditions
knowledge is proven knowledge and that large provided measurements that
amounts of first-hand data, unbiased observations supported Newton’s prediction.
and a structured method can lead to theories that
can become universal laws
• falsification — the
philosopher Karl Popper
(1902–1994) believed
that no theory was ever
proven beyond doubt.
He believed that theories
were just educated
guesses and if they failed
rigorous testing they
Karl Popper should be thrown out.

surprising predictions about possible. If correct, this theory
Changing theories the evolution of the universe. could overthrow the established
Theories can change overnight, Previously, galaxies were thought view of gravity and dark matter.
or take a very long time to to have formed from relatively These two areas underpin
change. Theories that were once dense pockets of matter with dark almost everything known about
popular and well accepted may matter holding them together. astronomy. MOND may also
be discarded when too much The laws of the MOND theory lead to a rethinking of Einstein’s
evidence builds up against them. suggest a different picture is theory of relativity.
They are replaced by a theory
which better fits the observations. 1933 Fritz Zwicky coins the term ‘dark matter’ to describe unseen mass or
The examples in this section ‘gravitational glue’ in galaxy clusters.
describe a past instance of rival 1978 Astronomers show that many galaxies are spinning too quickly to hold
theories and a current debate in themselves together unless they are full of dark matter.
1983 Mordehai Milgrom publishes a modified gravity theory called MOND. It
INVISIBLE STUFF explains why galaxies don’t fly apart without using dark matter, but remains
at odds with Einstein’s relativity.
Until recently, it was accepted that
about 23 per cent of our universe 1990s Studies of galaxies and galaxy clusters show that their gravity bends light
was made up of stuff that we more strongly than is expected without dark matter. MOND researchers start
can’t even see. This invisible dark devising improved theories to explain extra light bending.
matter is said to lurk in the hearts
1994 Jacob Bekenstein and Roger Sanders prove that any theory that resolves the
of galaxies and keep the outermost light-bending issue and meshes MOND with relativity must involve at least
stars from flying off into the void. three mathematical fields.
It is thought to be responsible
for the appearance of clusters of 2000 New data on the cosmic microwave background reinforces the standard, dark
galaxies. But what if this isn’t the matter picture of the universe.
2004 Jacob Bekenstein devises a version of MOND that is consistent with relativity.
Newton’s theories are again
being questioned. A growing 2005 Constantinos Skordis and others show that relativistic MOND provides a good
number of astrophysicists support fit to the microwave background data.
a controversial new theory called
Modified Newtonian Dynamics Dark matter vs MOND. Will the MAXIM Pathfinder spacecraft detect gravitational anomalies that will
(MOND), which has led to some support MOND?



1 Brainstorm and list scientific theories that are no 6 Find out more about the life and times of Newton and
longer in favour. Descartes. Write a newspaper article of the times to
2 Isaac Newton defined his three laws of motion. What describe their rival theories.
were they and are they still accepted? 7 Research one of the following scientists and outline a
3 What is bad science? Give examples. theory that they have been involved in constructing:
4 (a) State what you think the modern goals of science Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford,
are. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Francis Crick, Gregor Mendel,
(b) Suggest the goals of science 100 years ago. Albert Einstein.
(c) Comment on any similarities and differences. 8 Research a scientist of your choice and find out some of
5 (a) Use an annotated sketch to describe what you their contributions to science and what life was like when
believe is the commonly held image of a scientist. they were alive. Dress up as the scientist and take on
(b) Use a visual thinking tool to describe the media’s their character in discussions with other classmates.
representation of scientific research. 9 What is herb lore? Does it have any place in science?


The quest continues

W hy question? Why bother asking questions about
the world around you? Why not just accept the way
things are? What makes scientists do what they do?
Do we really need science?
Science does not occur in a vacuum. Science is about people and
their quest to find out about the hows, whys and wheres of the
world around them. Science employs as its most important tools
imagination, insight and the desire to understand or find out for
the individual or for others. Some discoveries have been made
accidentally, others after sequential and thorough use of scientific
methods and procedures. The societies in which scientists live
greatly influence the science in which they become involved.
Science quests throughout history
Year Scientific events Other events
1784 Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals. Life expectancy is about 35.5 years.
1829 Stephenson’s Rocket launches the start of the Jean-Baptiste de Larmack dies and Jules Verne turns 1.
railway age.
1831 Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction.
1833 Gauss’s electric telegraph key is invented.
Anselme Payen isolates the first enzyme — diastase.
1834 Lindsay achieves continuous electric light.
1837 Photography is invented.
1838 Matthias Schleiden suggests that all plants are made
up of cells.
1842 Ether anaesthesia is invented.
1845 Parson’s giant telescope begins a new era of
1846 Guncotton, the first modern explosive, is invented.
1848 The Year of Revolutions: Second Republic in France
1852 Vulcanite (hard rubber) is created. Third Empire begins under Louis Napoleon.

1853 The internal combustion gas engine is invented.

1854 Chemically produced aluminium is created.
1855 Ruhmkorff’s bichromate battery is created.
1857 Singer’s domestic sewing machine is invented.
The first electric street lighting is installed in Lyon.
1858 Rudolf Virchow suggests that cells can only arise
from pre-existing cells.
1859 Darwin’s On the Origin of Species is published. Gregor Mendel turns 37 and Charles Darwin turns 50.
1863 Huxley’s Man’s Place in Nature is published and TNT Jules Verne’s Five Weeks in a Balloon is first published.
is invented.

Year Scientific events Other events
1864 Nobel introduces nitroglycerine and Pasteur introduces Jules Verne’s A Journey to the Centre of the Earth is
pasteurisation. first published.
1865 Aerophore, a compressed-air diving apparatus, is invented by Jules Verne’s From the Earth to the Moon is first
Rouquayrol and Denayrouze. published.
Gregor Mendel discovers patterns of inherited characteristics.
1868 Leclanché invents a dry-cell non-rechargeable battery.
1869 Celluloid is discovered. Marie Curie turns 2 and H.G. Wells turns 3.
Dmitri Mendeleev proposes the periodic table.
1870 Chewing gum and the washout toilet are introduced. Jules Verne’s Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the
Sea is published.
1873 Remington introduces the mass-produced typewriter. Jules Verne’s Around the World in 80 Days is
1876– Thomas Edison makes his first talking machine — the
1878 phonograph.
1878 The cathode-ray tube (later the basis for television) is
invented and Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.
1879 Swan makes the first practical electric light bulbs in London
and Edison makes them in the USA.
1885 Daimler and Benz work on the first motorcar with an internal
combustion engine.
1887 Hertz discovers electromagnetic waves (the basis for radio).
1889 Data-processing computer using punched cards is invented.
1892 Ivanovsky discovers the virus.
Diesel engine is invented.
1893 The solar-electric cell is invented.
The first open-heart surgery is performed.
1894 Marconi’s wireless telegraphy is invented. Aldous Huxley is born.
1895 Röntgen discovers X-rays. H. G. Wells’s The Time Machine is published.
1896 Cavendish discovers electrons.
1898 Krypton and neon are discovered. H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds is published.
Holland’s submarine is invented. Albert Einstein turns 19, Alexander Fleming turns
Curie discovers the two radioactive elements radium and 17 and Howard Florey is born.
1899 Electric wave-wireless telephone and the wire H. G. Wells’s The First Men in the Moon is
tape-recorder are invented. published.
Guglielmo Marconi invents the ‘wireless’. The Boer War begins.
1900 Planck’s quantum theory is proposed. Von Zeppelin’s dirigible Life expectancy is about 45 years.
airship is invented.
1901 The first signals are sent across the Atlantic Ocean and Australia becomes a federation.
received. The first electric hearing aid is invented.
Wilhelm Röntgen’s discovery of X-rays wins him one of the
first Nobel Prizes.
1902 The ionosphere is discovered by Kennelly-Heaviside and
hormones are discovered by Bayliss and Starling.
1903 The Wright brothers fly in their first successful ‘heavier than
air’ machine.
1905 Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is published and the first Jules Verne dies.
artificial joint is used in arthritic patient’s hip.
1911 Ernest Rutherford (‘father of nuclear energy’) proposes a Aldous Huxley has his 17th birthday.
model for the atom.

Year Scientific events Other events
1914 World War I begins.
1927 George Lemaître theorises that the universe has been
expanding from a ‘primal atom’. His theory is later
popularised as the ‘big bang’.
1928 Penicillin is accidentally discovered by Alexander
1929 Electroencephalogram is first introduced and Hubble’s
Law, a strong pillar of the ‘big bang’ theory, is discovered.
1930 Pluto is discovered.
1931 Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World novel is first
published (written in 1930).
1933 The first electron microscope is built.
1936 The first artificial heart is invented. James Watson turns 4, Rosalind Franklin and Isaac
Asimov turn 16, Francis Crick turns 20.
1939 World War II starts.
1943 Barbara McClintock suggests the existence of ‘jumping
genes’ in her studies on maize.
1944 Pfizer is the first to mass-produce penicillin. Infant deaths steadily decline.
1945 Kidney dialysis machine is first used and the first atomic World War II ends.
bomb is detonated during a secret test in Alamagordo,
New Mexico.
1947 The sound barrier is broken. The supersonic age begins.
1948 George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four is written.
1953 Watson and Crick decipher the structure of DNA.
1957 Sputnik is launched.
1963 Robert A. Heinlein’s Time for the Stars is first published.
John F. Kennedy is assassinated.
1965 Frank Herbert’s Dune is first published.
1969 ‘One small step for a man — one giant leap for mankind’
— Neil Armstrong is the first man to walk on the moon.
1971 Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is used to
diagnose illnesses. Black holes are discovered by sensors
of the Explorer 42 spacecraft in the Cygnus constellation.
1972 The first global views of Mars are returned by
Mariner 9.
1976 Genentech company is formed by the venture capitalist Isaac Asimov’s The Bicentennial Man is published.
Swanson and the biochemist Boyer to exploit Boyer’s
gene-splicing techniques.
The Viking 1 makes the first landing on Mars.
1977 George Lucas’ Star Wars is released.

1980 Life expectancy is about 75 years.

1982 Sally Rider is the first US woman in space. Robert A. Heinlein’s Friday is first published.
Anne McCaffrey’s The Crystal Singer is published
(written 1974–1975).
1983 Barbara McClintock wins the Nobel Prize for Medicine
for her discovery of ‘jumping genes’.
1984 Meteorite ALH-84000 is discovered in Antarctica.
1988 The National Institutes of Health and the Department of
Energy embark upon the International Human Genome
1989 Physicist Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time is

Year Scientific events Other events
1990 Gene therapy is first attempted on a human. Retirees outnumber teenagers for the first time in
1995 The first electronic atlas of the human body is created —
the visible man whose frozen cadaver was sliced into
one-millimetre increments.
1996 The first complete genome of a life form, a yeast, is
US scientists reveal that meteorite ALH-84000 is Martian
and contains organic compounds and microfossils.
1997 The cloning of Dolly the sheep is revealed.
1998 Evidence of planets orbiting stars in other galaxies is found.
1999 Simple organic molecules discovered in outer space, Human chromosome 22 is sequenced.
leading to new hypothesis about extraterrestrial life.
2000 Australia’s first cloned animal is born — Suzi the calf. Olympic Games are held in Sydney.
Scientists at Monash University are involved in developing a Human chromosome 21 is sequenced.
method of growing body parts from embryonic stem cells.
2001 ‘9/11’: Hijacked planes crash into the World Trade
Center in New York.
2003 The Human Genome Project completed. More than 20 000 Australia’s population reaches 20 million.
human genes mapped.
2004 The remains of an 18 000 year old, one metre tall hominin
skeleton found on the Indonesian island of Flores is formally
named Homo floresiensis and nicknamed the ‘hobbit’.
2006 A paralysed man has a brain implant that allows him to Commonwealth Games are held in Melbourne.
control a computer using the power of thought. Steve Irwin (known as The Crocodile Hunter) dies
The definition of a planet is changed and Pluto is now after being stung by a stingray while filming a
considered a dwarf planet. marine documentary.
A genetic study suggests that human and chimp ancestors
may have interbred long after their lineages had split.
2008 The first direct observations of exoplanets are made. US president Barack Obama is elected.
Ice is discovered on Mars.
2010 The first self-replicating synthetic bacterial cell is created.


INVESTIGATE 5 Find out about the Nobel Prize winners’ sperm bank.
1 Find out more about one of the scientific quests in the Discuss the ethics associated with it.
timeline in this section and present your findings as a
poster to the class.
6 Use the information in this section to produce a
2 Add other scientific quests, events or Australian Nobel crossword or scientific trivial pursuit game.
Prize winners to the science quests timeline.
7 Create a timeline for the events that you feel were the
3 (a) Select a year (or time period) and find out as many most important science quests.
different scientific discoveries as you can.
(b) Find out what life was like for people who lived at INVESTIGATE, THINK AND CREATE
this time and take note of any other events that 8 Find out about a scientific discovery and what life was
were occurring during that time. like during the time of this discovery. Write a story or play
(c) Suggest implications of the scientific discoveries about the event and then act it out to the class.
or events on the people of that time and on
9 Read one of the novels shown in the science quests
people in future times.
timeline and suggest future inventions or discoveries
4 Find out about the winners of scientific Nobel Prizes that the ideas in the novel may lead to.
and their work. Present your information as an


The evolution revolution

Do you and the apes that With technological advances and forms of life. He developed his
you see at the zoo share new knowledge, refinements have classification system ‘for the
been made to Darwin’s theory and greater glory of God’, rather
a common ancestor? This
continue to be made. The theory than in the interest of scientific
concept caused much of evolution itself is evolving. understanding. His ideas, however,
controversy between were used as a basis for the
religion and science.
Evolution development of the theory of
Like many other scientific
theories, although one person
may be credited as its sole creator
it is really a story of awareness,
relationships, passion and wonder.
The development of a theory
usually requires an appreciation
and connection of what has been
before and the transfer of this
knowledge to new knowledge or
discoveries. It often involves seeing
links, patterns or connections
that can tie all of the knowledge
together into a new framework of


Darwin points out the similarities between
Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802)
humans and apes, by an unnamed artist in
The London Sketch Book, 1874 was not only a British physician
and leading intellectual of his Carolus Linnaeus (1708–1778), the ‘father of
time, but also Charles Darwin’s
The theory of grandfather. He believed that all
living organisms originated from HINTS IN THE GROUND
evolution — bigger a single common ancestor and
Without the contribution of
in 1794 published Zoonomia — a
than one man book that sowed the seeds for
geologists, the theory of evolution
may still not have been developed.
The concept of organisms sharing later ideas regarding the theory of
Geology bestowed a great gift
common ancestors contributed to evolution.
upon Darwin’s generation of
the development of the theory of scientific thinkers — the gift of
evolution. Although this theory CLASSIFYING LIFE time.
is usually credited to one man — Carolus Linnaeus (1708–1778) In the eighteenth century, it was
Charles Darwin (1809–1882) is considered the founder of believed by many that the Earth
— it is really a culmination of the taxonomy — the branch of was only around 6000 years old
ideas of many individuals both biology concerned with naming and that — other than changes
in Darwin’s time and before it. and classifying the diverse brought about by sudden,

dramatic catastrophes (like evidence that contradicted the contained. Smith noticed a regular
Noah’s biblical flood) — it was theological teachings of the time. pattern to the distribution of types
unchanging. This was the theory English surveyor William of fossils in the particular rock
of catastrophism. Smith (1769–1839) made great layers in the different locations
contributions to the development where he worked. This pattern
An underground time machine of geology and could be suggested that the Earth must be
James Hutton (1726–1797) considered the ‘father of English very old and that successive strata
proposed the theory of geology’. He is credited with had been laid down one on top of
gradualism, which suggested that creating the first nationwide the other. His observations also
Earth’s geological features were geological map (more information suggested that different types of
due to the cumulative product of can be found in his biography, The organisms had appeared, lived for
slow but continuous processes. map that changed the world (2002)) a while, and then been replaced by
He used money from his farming and was the first person to make a others.
and the invention of a process for systematic study of fossils. Born in the same year as
manufacturing the chemical sal Smith was the son of a William Smith, Baron Georges
ammoniac to devote his life to his blacksmith and his life was not Cuvier (1769–1832) played a
scientific quests. It was not until an easy one. He published his key role in the development
almost ten years after he presented first geological map of Britain in of palaeontology (the study
his theories to the Royal Society 1815. Unfortunately, the map of fossils). He is credited with
of Edinburgh in 1785 that they was plagiarised and he became recognising that fossils in deeper
were taken seriously enough to bankrupt and then served time in strata were older than those in
be vigorously attacked. Hutton’s debtor’s prison. He did not receive strata closer to the surface.
response was to publish Theory recognition for his contributions Sir Charles Lyell (1797–1875)
of the Earth in 1795. Hutton’s until many years later, in 1831. was born the year that James
geological theories were built Smith’s work as a surveyor took Hutton died. He incorporated
upon by others who also observed him down into mines where he Hutton’s gradualism into
observed different layers of rocks uniformitarianism theory —
(strata) and the fossils that they

Geologist William Smith (1769–1839) is Diagram showing characteristic fossils in the

credited with creating ‘the map that changed different layers of strata. These studies led to
the world’. the development of stratigraphy. Baron Georges Cuvier (1769–1832)

the antithesis of catastrophism. then suggest that the lengthened of the inheritance of acquired
Lyell was also to play a key role necks that resulted from this traits, and is well known for his
in Darwin’s decision to finally stretching were passed on to their experiment that cut the tails off
publish, and formally presented offspring. mice to collect evidence that
Darwin’s (and Wallace’s) theory tail loss during the parent’s
of evolution to the scientific SEEDS OF INHERITANCE lifetime was not inherited by their
community in1858. Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), offspring. He was later also to
an Austrian monk, used peas of suggest that chromosomes were
USE IT OR LOSE IT! different colours and shapes in the basis of heredity.
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck his experiments and is responsible
(1744–1829) was one of the for the development of the DARWIN’S JOURNEY OF
first scientists to suggest that fundamentals of the genetic basis SELECTION
populations of organisms changed of inheritance. Although most In 1831, a 22-year-old Charles
over time and that old species of his work was destroyed, his Darwin set sail on a five-year
died out and new species arose. gene idea was recognised 34 years voyage on the HMS Beagle. It
He believed that if a particular after his death and provided a was a journey that would greatly
feature was not used then it would mechanism for natural selection. change his views on life. He noted
eventually be lost over succeeding Living around the same time the similarities and differences in
generations. He also suggested as Mendel, Herbert Spencer the flora and fauna inhabiting the
that changes acquired within the (1820–1903) suggested the concept different regions that he visited. His
lifetime of an individual could of the survival of the fittest. observations made him question
be passed onto its offspring. The Born twelve years after Mendel, the belief at the time that the Earth
example often given to describe August Weismann (1834–1914) was only a few thousand years old
this theory relates to the long demolished Lamarck’s theory and that its organisms were the
necks of giraffes. Lamarck’s unchanging work of a creator.
explanation would be that the Darwin was particularly puzzled
giraffes had to stretch to reach by the features of animals on the
the leaves high up in the trees, Galapagos Islands near South
stretching their necks. He would America. On these islands, he
noticed a number of different
species of finches that were similar

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744–1829) is

often referred to in terms of the ‘use and
disuse’ and acquired inheritance theories. Gregor Mendel (1822–1844) used peas
Although his theories have been discredited of different shapes and colours to collect
in favour of Darwin’s, his theories are making data that provided him with patterns of
a comeback in new findings in the science of inheritance. Much of Mendel’s work was
epigenetics. destroyed by the church. Charles Darwin

in size and colour, but varied in describing his theory of evolution.
the size and shapes of their beaks. This forced Darwin to reconsider
He recorded that these variations publishing his previously
suited them to particular types of unpublished work on his theory.
foods. Given his wife and family’s
religious connections, this must
Darwin’s doubts doubled have been a difficult personal time
By the time Darwin had sailed
for him and later for his family.
from Galapagos, his observations
On the advice of Sir Charles
and awareness of the ideas of
Lyell and the eminent botanist Sir
the geologist Sir Charles Lyell
Joseph Hooker, Darwin decided
(who had been influenced by
to publish his work along with
James Hutton) led him to doubt
Wallace’s essay in a joint paper.
the church’s position that the In July of 1858, Sir Charles Lyell
Earth was static and only a few presented Darwin’s previously
thousand years old. He was unpublished 1844 essay along
particularly influenced by Lyell with Wallace’s work to the
and Hutton’s views that geological Alfred Wallace (1823–1913) sent his theory of
Linnean Society of London. Later,
change resulted from slow, evolution to Darwin.
in 1859, Darwin finally published
continuous actions rather than his book On the Origin of Species by
sudden events. reading a book titled Essay on Means of Natural Selection. Many
After returning home in 1837, the Principle of Population (1798). people were outraged by the
Darwin began his notebooks on This book was written by the suggestion that humans could
the origin of different species and mathematician, economist and be related to apes. There were
in 1844 (at 35 years of age), wrote founder of demography Thomas many debates and arguments
his essay On the Origin of Species. Malthus (1766–1834), and had about the theory of evolution. A
Aware of the controversy that also influenced Darwin’s thinking. young anatomist, Thomas Henry
such ideas may fuel, this essay was Wallace connected what he had Huxley (1825–1895), fought
to remain unpublished for over remembered from this book to the case for evolution in many
ten years. his observations. It is documented public debates. He did this so
that the idea of survival of the fiercely that he became known as
WHY DO SOME DIE AND fittest then came to him in a flash.
‘Darwin’s bulldog’. Eventually,
SOME LIVE? In his autobiography, My Life: A
the scientific community came to
Record of Events and Opinions (1905),
While Darwin continued to accept Darwin’s theory, some even
Wallace wrote:
develop his theory, an English expressing embarrassment at not
naturalist reached the same It occurred to me to ask the having thought of such a simple
question, why do some die and explanation before.
conclusion. His name was Alfred
some live? And the answer was
Wallace (1823–1913). Wallace was
clearly that, on the whole, the
a school teacher with a passion best fitted lived.
for botany and collecting plants Darwin’s theory was different
and insects. Like Darwin, Wallace Within two evenings, Wallace had from others in that it included a
had travelled extensively and made written an essay on his theory of process by which evolution could
many detailed observations of evolution and sent it to Darwin in occur. Although this process is
variations in the species that he the next mail. often referred to as ‘survival of
came across. In 1848, he began a the fittest’, he called it natural
series of expeditions, first to the PUBLISH OR PERISH selection. He believed that by
Amazon and later to the Malay Imagine the shock of seeing your this process a single species
Archipelago where he stayed for life’s work summarised in a letter, could have given rise to many
eight years. sent to you for comment on new species, and that these new
In February 1858, while he its possible publication. This is species were much better suited
was recovering from a bout of what must have happened when to the environment in which they
malaria, Wallace remembered Darwin opened Wallace’s letter lived.

Natural selection proposes the Some view this as the time when
following: science broke away from religion.
1 There is variation of inherited Would it still have occurred if
characteristics in a species Wallace had not sent his theory
and some of these variations to Darwin? Would the theory of
will increase the chances the less well-known Wallace have
of surviving in a particular been taken seriously? Given the
environment. changing ideas and new knowledge
2 In the struggle to survive, those being discovered at that time,
members with favourable traits would someone else have come up
will have an increased chance with the same idea?
of survival over others.
3 Surviving members have
an increased chance of
Brave new world
reproducing and passing on There are two other Huxleys
their inherited favourable traits that have had an impact on how
to their offspring. we see the world. Both of these
4 Over time and many are the grandsons of Thomas
generations, organisms will Henry Huxley. Sir Julian Huxley
possess traits that are better (1887–1975) was involved in
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825 –1895) was often suited to their environment the formulation of Darwinian
described as ‘Darwin’s bulldog’ and had his and increase their chances of evolution that incorporated
own adventures in his early twenties aboard survival. developments in genetics and
the HMS Rattlesnake.
palaeontology. Aldous Huxley
(1894–1963) was the author of
novels that both inspired and
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744–1829) caused fear, as well as increasing
Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) public awareness of the possible
implications of science for our
future humanity. The novels Brave
New World (1932) and Island (1962)
James Hutton (1726–1797) Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) (and their subsequent movies)
have caused many to pause,
Alfred Wallace (1823–1913) reflect and consider the potential
ethical issues that new scientific
Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802) discoveries and their applications
Charles Darwin (1809–1882) may hold for our species.

Carolus Linnaeus (1708–1778) Sir Charles Lyell ( 1797–1875) Sir Julian Huxley (1887–1975)

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–1895)

Baron Georges Cuvier (1769–1832) August Weismann (1834–1914)

William Smith (1769–1839)

Aldous Huxley (1894–1963)

1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000

The theory of evolution is a culmination of ideas from many different individuals.

Huxley family tree (partial)

Thomas Henry Huxley Anne Heathorn

1825–1895 1825–1915

Julia Arnold Leonard Huxley

1862–1908 1860–1933

Julian Huxley Aldous Huxley

1887–1975 1894–1963

Julian Huxley Aldous Huxley


REMEMBER selected scientist and construct a PMI chart

1 Who are the two people jointly credited with about your findings.
developing the theory of evolution? (v) As a class, discuss how your combined
research could be organised into a novel
2 What did Darwin conclude from the observations he about the development, presentation and final
made during his voyage on the HMS Beagle? acceptance of Darwin and Wallace’s theory of
3 Summarise the process of natural selection. evolution.
4 Outline the contributions of the following to the (vi) Write your own novel of the collective material
theory of evolution: Linnaeus, Darwin, Lyell, Hutton, and then create a screenplay or storyboard
Wallace, Mendel. that enables you to tell the story of the
development of the theory to others.
(vii) Present your screenplay or storyboard to the
INVESTIGATE, THINK AND DISCUSS class. Try to make your presentation as creative
5 (a) Use the timeline and information in this section as possible.
to answer the following questions. (viii) Find out more about the people and books
(i) Research the time period in which these mentioned in these pages (e.g. Theory of the
scientists grew up (refer to section 1.4 to Earth (1788), Zoonomia (1794), An Essay on
get started). the Principle of Population (1798), Principles
(ii) Imagine what life was like and the sorts of Geology (1830–33), The Origin of Species
of beliefs that were held by the majority (1859), The Map That Changed the World
in the society in which they lived. Collect (2002)) and their contributions to our scientific
resources and record notes to summarise understanding of the world in which we live.
your findings. (b) Add other social, cultural, religious, political or
(iii) As a class, in teams, select one of the historical events to the timeline. Select one of the
scientists discussed in this section. scientists and incorporate this information into what
Rigorously research your scientist to find life must have been like for them. Comment on the
out as much as you can about their life influence that their contributions to the theory of
(both personal and professional). Write a evolution may have had on their personal lives.
biography about your scientist. (c) Suggest where the discovery of DNA would fit into
(iv) Research the other characters in this the timeline. Discuss the effect that this has had on
section that may have influenced your the evolution theory.


DNA — this is your life!

Even though DNA is as old from pus on bandages. Miescher deoxyribose and the nitrogenous
as life itself, we have only gave the compound that he base in each nucleotide was one
isolated from these cell nuclei the of four different types: adenine
recently been introduced name nuclein. (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) or
to it. Like the story of the cytosine (C).
theory of evolution, DNA
has its own story: a story
In parts of three Levene also suggested that
the nucleotides could be joined
In 1929, over fifty years since together to form chains. Although
of passion, imagination
its discovery, Phoebus Levene his theory was correct in terms
and determination that showed that DNA was made up of of the chain formation, it was
has involved the use of repeating units called nucleotides. incorrect in other aspects of its
new technologies and the Each of these nucleotides structure. His tetranucleotide
development of many more. consisted of a sugar, a phosphate model contributed to scientists
group and a nitrogenous base. of the time favouring proteins,
In the nucleotides that make up rather than DNA, as the carrier of
Greetings, DNA! DNA, the sugar was found to be genetic information.
The abbreviation DNA is so Phosphate
well known, that it is often used
as a word itself. DNA is the
DNA carries
abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic
Sugar Base
messages from one
acid. As the name suggests, it
is a type of nucleic acid. It was
generation to next
not until around 1869 that we G The experiments of Alfred
were formally introduced to S
Hershey and Martha Chase in
DNA, when it was discovered by 1953 supported those of Oswald
Friedrich Miescher. Working in Avery in 1943, suggesting that

a laboratory located within a castle DNA rather than proteins were


in Germany, Miescher — a young the molecules through which


Swiss post-graduate student — genetic information was carried

isolated it from the nuclei of cells between generations.

Friedrich Miescher Phoebus Levene Oswald Avery

A with T & G with C A key piece of the puzzle
In 1950, Erwin Chargaff contributed to our The next piece of the puzzle to solve the structure
understanding of the structure of DNA by his careful of DNA was contributed (some say without her
and thorough analysis of the four different types of knowledge) by Rosalind Franklin.
nucleotides and their ratios in DNA. His research led Rosalind Franklin and Maurice
to the concept of base pairing. This concept states Wilkins had decided to crystallise
that in DNA every adenine (A) binds to a thymine DNA so that they could make
(T), and every cytosine (C) binds to a guanine (G). an X-ray pattern of it. They were
This is now known as Chargaff’s rule. specialised in making X-ray
diffraction images of biological
A molecules so that they could be
analysed to find out information
T Examples of how base pairing using
Chargaff’s rule can be shown about their three-dimensional
G structures. Franklin’s X-ray
diffraction picture of a DNA
molecule provided important clues Rosalind Franklin provided
a key clue to solve the
about the shape of the molecule.
structure of DNA.

Double helix
James Watson and Francis Crick were building a DNA
model to try to solve its structure. They were shown
Franklin’s X-ray diffraction image of DNA, which
strongly suggested that DNA was a helical shape. They
used this information, as well as that from Chargaff
and other researchers (such as their American
colleague Linus Pauling), to successfully solve the
structure of DNA. At last the structure was identified!

Erwin Chargaff


Pentose (A, T, C or G)
A nucleotide

eBook plus
Complementary DNA
Construct a replicate DNA strand by dragging the correct
complementary base into sequence. Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray diffraction picture provided important clues
int-0133 about the shape of the DNA molecule.


REMEMBER 16 Investigate more about the history of how we have

1 State what DNA is an abbreviation for. obtained our genetic knowledge. Present your findings
as a timeline.
2 Provide an example of a nucleic acid.
17 Investigate the effect that our increased knowledge
3 Identify the year and name of the scientist who first about the structure and function of DNA has had on:
discovered DNA. (a) our species (b) other species (c) our planet.
4 State the source of cells in which DNA was first 18 Investigate and report on the development of the
isolated. Watson and Crick double helix model of the structure
5 Use a diagram to show how the three sub-units that of DNA.
make up DNA are organised. 19 Use internet research to help you to identify three
6 Outline what the research of Hershey, Chase and questions that could be investigated about DNA. Collate
Oswald suggested. these questions as a class, and then select one to
7 Describe what is meant by Chargaff’s rule. investigate and report on.
8 Describe Rosalind Franklin’s contribution to the eBook plus DNA double helix
discovery of the structure of DNA.
9 Explain how Watson and Crick used information 20 Discuss the following Paired Sugar
available to determine the structure of DNA. statement: bases phosphate
‘Had Maurice Wilkins .
THINK AND CREATE and Rosalind Franklin GC
10 Use your own materials to construct a model of the had a more harmonious TA
. .
double helix structure of DNA. working relationship AT . One nucleotide
11 Use the information in this section and other sources it is likely that Franklin is made up of a
C. sugar phosphate
to construct a timeline on the development of our would have been
. linked to a base.
understanding about DNA. involved in writing the AT
. .
12 Construct a paper model of DNA. Some suggested scientific paper where . C .G
the structure of DNA .
shapes you could use to represent the parts that . A. T
make up a DNA molecule are shown below. was first described, and .
that she would have . G .C
been given the same .
credit for discovering .
Sugar Phosphate the structure of DNA as TA
group . .
Watson and Crick.’ AT.
. .
Use the Rosalind GC .
Franklin weblinks in .
Thymine Adenine your eBookPLUS to
research this question C
Guanine Cytosine
Watson and Crick with their
13 Evaluate the model you made in question 12. DNA molecule figure
Which aspects of the structure of DNA does your
model show accurately? In what ways is your model
different from an actual DNA molecule?

14 Select one of the scientists discussed in this section,
research them and write a biography about their life
and scientific contributions.
15 Find out more about DNA and how knowledge
about its structure is being used in research and
other applications. Present your findings as a
documentary, animation or in a multimedia format.

In his study on Brownian

Einstein’s impact motion, Einstein confirmed the

existence of atoms. While other
scientists were debating whether
light was a particle or a wave,
his theory of the photoelectric
Albert Einstein’s (1879–1955) effect, which described the
contribution to modern interaction of light and matter,
physics is unique. Over a suggested it was both.
His theory of special relativity
hundred years ago, when
examined the nature of space
he was only 26 years old, he and time. The relativity theory is
published a series of original called ‘special’ because it doesn’t
theories that changed the include the effects of gravity.
way we see the universe. He He showed how space and time
published revolutionary ideas could mix and match depending
on your point of view. Special
on the photoelectric effect,
relativity stated that an atomic
special relativity and Brownian clock travelling at high speed in

Albert Einstein
Old Grove Rd.
Nassau Point
Peconic, Long Island
August 2nd, 1939
F. D. Roosevelt,
President of the United States,
White House
Washington, D. C.
Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been
communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element
uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in
the immediate future. Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen
seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the part of
the Administration. I believe therefore that it is my duty to bring to your
attention the following facts and recommendations.
In the course of the last four months it has been made probable —
through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in America
— that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large
mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities
of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost
certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future.
This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs,
and it is conceivable — though much less certain — that extremely
powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single
bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very
well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding
territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for
transportation by air.

A mushroom-shaped cloud is often associated

Einstein’s 1939 letter to President Roosevelt with an atomic bomb explosion.

a jet plane ticks more slowly than a stationary clock.
His theory also explained how an object could shrink
in size and gain mass at the same time. It was this
theory that led to the famous equation E = mc2 which
links energy and matter. This led to the realisation
that huge amounts of energy are released in nuclear
reactions. While this has provided some benefits, it
has also led to detrimental applications such as the
production and use of atomic bombs.

Shifting tides
What are the laws of nature? A physical law
may be a hypothesis that has been confirmed
by experiments so many times that it becomes
universally accepted. Current research and advances
in technology are increasingly leading some to
question the constants or laws that have formed
the basis for our science laws (including Einstein’s
theory of special relativity).
It is good to question what we think we know.
Sometimes, the changes in technology and in
our attitudes, values and beliefs can alter what we
previously thought was a given. Questioning your
assumptions can also lead you to deep insights. An image of Einstein — is this how he would have liked to have been


INVESTIGATE, THINK AND DISCUSS 2 (a) Find out what prompted Einstein to write the letter
1 (a) Carefully examine the cartoon below and then to President Roosevelt.
research Einstein’s theory of relativity. (b) What were Einstein’s thoughts on this application of
(b) On the basis of your findings, explain which ideas theories that he had been involved in?
the cartoonist is trying to incorporate. Suggest (c) If you were Einstein, suggest how you would feel
how the cartoon could be improved. and what you would do if you were in his situation.
(c) On your own or in a team, design your own Present your thoughts in a letter that you would
cartoon to demonstrate possible applications of write to a close friend.
Einstein’s theory of relativity. 3 Use the Einstein weblink in your eBook plus
eBookPLUS to find out more about
Einstein. Then create your own Einstein web page.
4 Find out more about Einstein’s life. Seek information
on his professional achievements, his background and
personal milestones, and the social and political climate
in which he lived. Present your findings in an annotated
timeline. Where possible, include images and photos.
5 Search the internet for images of Einstein on t-shirts.
Select five designs and construct a PMI chart about
6 Reflect on Einstein’s quote ‘Imagination is more
important than knowledge’. What is your opinion on this
statement, in terms of science?

elements in the periodic table have more than one

Nuclear news isotope. While isotopes have the same number of

protons, they differ in the number of neutrons that
they contain. This can make them unstable.

Scientific discoveries have led to an Electron
amazing number of creative inventions Neutron
that have provided us with technologies Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3
to further increase our knowledge, make
life easier and save lives. Some applications Uranium is an example of an element that is
associated with nuclear energy. Small amounts
of our scientific knowledge have, however, of uranium occur naturally in soil and rocks. The
also destroyed life. three naturally occuring isotopes of uranium are
uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238.
Nuclear energy When each of these breaks
down or decays, it produces
in the news alpha particles and gamma
rays. The rate at which a
Applications of our
particular isotope decays
knowledge of the atom
is specific to that type of
have enabled us to develop
isotope. This rate of decay
technologies that have
is described in terms of
had both beneficial and
the time taken for the
disastrous consequences.
concentration to fall to half
The dreadful effects of the
its initial value. This is called
atomic bombs dropped
its half-life. While the half-
in Japan in 1945 and the
life of uranium isotopes is
Chernobyl nuclear power
more than a billion years,
station accident in 1986
the half-life of the isotope
colour the emotions of
iodine-131 is about eight
many with regards to the
appropriateness of such
More recently, the 2011 Decay curve for iodine-131
earthquakes in Japan and consequent damage to 100
their nuclear power plants are fresh in our minds. 90
During the time of this disaster, the media was 80
Iodine-131 parent isotope (%)

littered with articles — some using unfamiliar 70

scientific terminology and ideas, and some written
to instil fear. Headlines used terms such as radiation, 50%
radioactivity, isotopes and millisieverts — terms that
many readers may not have understood. This disaster 40
also provided those opposed to the use of nuclear 30 25%
energy with a new weapon of their own to wield 20 12.5%
against its possible future or continued use. 10 6.25% 3.13%
1.56% 0.78% 0.39%
0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 6.4
What is radioactivity? Elapsed time (in days)
The atoms of elements are made up of a nucleus
that contains positively charged protons and Iodine-131 is used in nuclear medicine and is also a product of nuclear
fission. The half-life of iodine-131 is about eight days. High concentrations
neutrons with no charge. Outside the nucleus,
of iodine-131 are dangerous, as they can cause thyroid cancer.
electrons are organised in shells. Most of the

Using nuclear energy Radiation — it’s all around us
Scientists have developed many different ways to Radioactive substances occur naturally as part of the
use radioactive substances; such as in the diagnosis Earth’s crust. The radiation that we are exposed to
and treatment of diseases, in the dating of fossils and from this source is called background radiation.
other archeological artifacts, in scientific experiments
to track reactions — even to power submarines, cities Sources of radiation
and smoke detectors.

Radon 42%
Medicine 14%
Nuclear industry 1%

Building/soil 18%
Cosmic 14% Natural radiation
Food drink/water 11%
Nuclear medicine imaging techniques use isotopes with a short half-life.
Isotopes such as fluorine-17 can be used to find tumour cells using a Most of our annual radiation dose is due to radiation exposure from
technique known as a positron emission tomography (PET). natural sources such as radioactivity in rocks and soil and cosmic
radiation. The rest may be related to human activities such as X-rays and
other medical procedures, and a very small amount due to fallout from
past testing of nuclear weapons.


Nuclear radiation is the result
of hundreds of different
types of unstable atoms.
Although many of these exist
in our natural environment,
many are created in nuclear
reactions. Of main concern
to human health is ionising
radiation, because it can
damage living tissue.

The absolute age of fossils or organic

archaeological artifacts can be
determined by a technique called
carbon dating, which uses an isotope
of carbon.

The three main types of ionising radiation are the nuclear plant in Japan after the 2011 earthquake
alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. were given potassium iodide. When given within
Alpha particles are only dangerous if emitted around 24 hours of exposure, it can prevent the
inside the body, as they cannot penetrate our skin. thyroid from taking up the radioactive form.
Although beta particles can penetrate our flesh, they
can be easily stopped by materials such as wood or Waste or
aluminium. Exposure to beta particles may be like a fallout
slow-healing sunburn. Gamma rays are a concern,
however, as they can deeply penetrate through
Air Water
our natural barrier. It is for this reason that people
working in fields that expose them to radiation wear
special badges to detect and monitor their exposure.
The biological effect of radiation can be measured
in radiation dose units called sieverts (Sv) or
millisieverts (mSv). For workers in uranium mining
or nuclear power plants, the public dose limits for
exposure are generally around 1 mSv/year above the Plants
background exposure.


High doses of iodine-131 have been linked to thyroid Animals
cancer. It is for this reason that people living near

eBook plus
Australian nuclear future
Watch an ABC Catalyst episode about the future for nuclear The reason that food, water and air in Japan during the time of the
energy in Australia. nuclear power disaster was tested for iodine-131 can be seen in
eles-1075 the figure above.

IS THIS THE END FOR NUCLEAR POWER? will hang like a noose over any debate for the next
Japan nuclear radiation fears intensify: aftershocks rock 20 years at least. With political parties so attuned to
Tokyo as the Japanese government’s ability to handle the what those much-maligned ‘focus groups’ say, even
radiation crisis comes under question. those who are bullish on the energy source won’t touch
it. Which must be a source of some annoyance to them.
There’s nothing like a meltdown to concentrate the
Having a generation who haven’t grown up pondering
the mushroom cloud meant that eventually it might
It might come as a surprise to those only old enough
be discussed again. Those hopes have been dashed,
to think the great scientific battle of our time is about
regardless of what happens to the Japanese reactors.
a thing called climate change, but there’s a far larger
And that’s a quandary for those looking at a
shadow that has hung over an Armageddon-fascinated
sustainable energy future. At present, nuclear is the
race. The tragic events in Japan have brought nuclear
major player anywhere baseload-wise. There’s a frantic
power back into focus. Seldom has a scientific debate
race to find an alternative, and when one inevitably
been less about the science and more about the
emerges, nuclear will be killed off. It will be good
emotion. But it’s for good reason.
riddance. Not because it is good or bad, but because
For close to 50 years, the greatest fear of our time
instead of wasting time debating something that
was nuclear holocaust. And when that receded with
takes years to build, we can spend it, and resources,
the fall of the Berlin Wall, the fear shifted to the ageing
considering options that are publicly palatable, the
technology in ‘shonky’ countries. Despite the likes
most important consideration of all. Just ask any
of its number one Australian fan, Ziggy Switkowski,
politician. Or their focus groups.
postulating that the events in Japan will create a ‘pause’
here, it’s hard to share his enthusiasm. Those events The Age, 16 March 2011


THINK, ANALYSE AND INVESTIGATE (c) What is meant by a ‘nuclear holocaust’? Do you agree
that this has been mankind’s greatest fear for almost
1 Use the Nuclear power in Japan
eBook plus 50 years? Explain.
weblink in your eBookPLUS and your
(d) Do you think that different generations will share
own research to report on:
their common views on nuclear energy due to their
(a) the need for nuclear power in Japan, its history
own personal timeline of histories? Justify your view.
and uses
(e) What is meant by the term ‘a sustainable energy
(b) the consequences of Japan’s 2011 earthquake and
tsunami on their nuclear power supply
(f ) How does nuclear energy rate as sustainable energy?
(c) how the media reported on the 2011 Japan
What are the benefits, limitations and weaknesses of
natural disaster
nuclear power?
(d) examples of how science was used in the media to
(g) Summarise the opinion of the author as expressed in
explain the disaster or justify resulting actions
the article.
(e) public views about Japan’s natural disaster and (h) State your own opinion on the key points raised in
possible nuclear power meltdown the article. Provide reasons for your opinions.
(f ) publicised views of scientists during this time
(g) the effect of Japan’s 2011 earthquake and tsunami 4 Use the graph below and internet research to answer the
following questions.
on global views regarding nuclear power
(a) Which two countries receive the highest average
(h) your opinion about building nuclear power plants
annual doses from natural radiation sources?
in Japan.
(b) Find out possible reasons for this being the case.
2 Use the Chernobyl accident weblink eBook plus (c) Find out if there are any dangers to human health
in your eBookPLUS and your own from such a high annual dose.
research to report on: (d) The radiation patterns for the two countries are
(a) the need for nuclear power in Russia, its history different. Find out the implications of this difference.
and uses
(b) the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl Average annual doses from natural radiation sources
accident in 1986
(c) media reports of the Chernobyl accident 8
and its consequences over the last 25 years
(d) examples of how science was used in the
media to explain the disaster or justify 6
resulting actions
(e) public views and opinions about

nuclear power as a result of the 4

Chernobyl accident
(f ) similarities and differences between
the Chernobyl accident and the Japan 2
disaster — in particular, the fear of a
potential nuclear meltdown.
(g) publicised views of scientists during this time

Germ e



Neth urg


Luxe taly








(h) the effect of these events on global views






regarding nuclear power.


(i) your opinion about building nuclear power

plants in Australia. Cosmic rays Gamma outdoors Gamma indoors Radon
3 Read through the article Is this the end of nuclear
(a) Find out what is meant by the term ‘Armageddon- THINK, DISCUSS AND CREATE
fascinated’, and comment on whether you agree 5 There has been a lot of negative media attention about
with the author’s statement. Include reasons for nuclear power. If nuclear power is bad, why is it used?
your opinion. Find out more about the positive aspects of nuclear
(b) Do you agree with his view that the scientific power. Create your own brochure, newspaper article,
debate has been ‘less about science and more advertisement, marketing campaign or documentary on
about emotion’? Justify your view. the benefits of nuclear power.


Decisions, responsibilities
and ethics
If you really wanted something, how far Shona gets a place in the musical, she will have a
would you go to get it? What wouldn’t duty towards her fellow actors. We often think of
having a duty as being required to act in a certain
you do?
way; for example, telling the truth. Shona may
have several duties, such as learning her lines and
attending rehearsal sessions.

Duties often derive from goals and rights. For
example, if you are accused of a crime and appear
in court, you have a right to a lawyer, regardless
of whether you are innocent or guilty. Your lawyer
has a duty to try to get you acquitted — this is your
lawyer’s goal.
Some situations can become very complicated. For
example, a dying man asks his doctor not to keep
him alive any longer. Does the doctor have a duty to
carry out the man’s wishes because of the man’s right
to decide when and how to die? Or does the doctor
have a duty to ignore the man’s wishes because of
the goal of preserving life?
Difficult decisions
If you wanted the lead in the school play, what would
you do? Might you take up music lessons or buy the
Science and ethics
selecting teacher gifts? How about stealing a script Scientists are also influenced by goals, rights, needs
so you can get that bit of extra practice in? and duties. A goal of many scientists is to investigate
the world around us and attempt to develop
GOALS AND RIGHTS explanations of why and how it behaves as it does.
Some scientists may also consider this to be their
Shona in the illustration above wants to get a place
duty or the fulfilment of a need — or even their right
in the school musical. This is Shona’s goal — it is
to do so!
something she wants to achieve. However, Shona
Science is often used to help us answer
does not have a right to a place in the musical,
questions about how we can apply this knowledge.
although, as a student of the school, she does have
For example, if we want to know the effect of a
the right to try for a place. A right is something we
particular diet, drug or some other factor on athletic
have if we can expect to be treated in a certain way,
performance, science can provide some answers.
no matter what the consequences. A right is different
The goals, rights and duties of scientific
from a need.
investigations become less clear when science is
asked to provide us with answers about what we
NEED AND DUTY should do and how we should behave. Ethics are
A need is something we require. We all have the involved in shaping our ideas about what is right and
need to feel we are doing something worthwhile. If wrong.

Should science delve into the
mysteries of life? Who decides
what will be researched and
how discoveries will be used?
Is science all about fame and
fortune, or is it about seeking
the truth? What is your image
of science?

ETHICS been used? Who is responsible for how the

knowledge is used? These issues are relevant to
Ethics involve your moral values. While some ethical
many examples of current scientific research.
values are universal and widely accepted around the
world, other ethical values vary — not only between
countries, but also between different religions and
communities. They may also vary within families, Medical research can be driven by need or greed.
between different generations and throughout Sometimes it can provide important information,
different times in history. knowledge and understanding that can not only
A particular scientific investigation or application improve life, but also save it. Sometimes it can
of technology may be acceptable to one group of achieve this goal as well as make a lot of money for
people, but highly offensive to another. Different those involved in the research or its funding.
belief systems might give rise to different ethical
principles and practices. These may influence the
types of scientific investigations performed
and the ways in which they are

Scientific research
— cash or cure?
Scientific research is responsible
Industry research and
for discoveries that have been
development departments
of great value to humankind. A Military
quick glance around us shows
lots of products of science that
Universities and
increase our efficiency and
research facilities
improve our lifestyles. Scientific
research is also responsible
for discoveries that have had
negative effects on individuals, E
communities, countries and our ET ILA T
environment. But when we talk TOP SE
about responsibility, is it science
and the discoveries that are Secret research projects Public access research Secret research projects
responsible, or is it the way in
which the knowledge has An example of the movement of money in science

Public institutions, such as
universities, carry out medical Bid to activate cells goes horribly wrong
research to increase our LONDON: The drug involved in the trial that resulted in six volunteers
becoming critically ill is designed to activate the killer cells of the
understanding and contribute immune system. TGN1412 appears to have done so in this case to
to the development of possible spectacularly damaging effect.
h 6
7 The Australian, 1
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solutions to current or potential
future problems. Some of this Global pleas for drug testm Drug trial se
victims nt men’s
research is linked to making DOCTORS in London treating six young iimmunity ‘h
men who aywire’
money and some purely for the became seriously ill after takin
a g part in a drug
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c tastrophical ug that went
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s sstem to go s’ immune
Medical research in private e
h haywire.
The Age, 23
companies may also contribute to March 2006
Human guinea pigs in agony
our knowledge, understanding and more like a holiday at
THE ads made the job sound ent.
problem solving — their key goal, Club Med than a med ical exp erim DOUBT CAST OVER DRUG
r e
however, is to make a financial e they were going to explode. g
Their heads felt like TRIAL SAFETY
dura g
tion of you r stay — and no shoppinn
profit. The type of research being food for the rnet site calling forr THE adverse side effects that occurred in
or washing up’, promised the inte a drug trial that hospitalised six healthy
funded may be influenced more by ntee r.
healthy young men to volu volunteers could have been predicted.
its money-making potential than The Advertiser, 19 March 200 BBC News
by its potential to reduce human
suffering and improve quality of
life. GIE
A new drug, TGN1412, was designed to treat
HOW ABOUT THAT! leukaemia and certain autoimmune diseases such
as rheumatoid arthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis, the
Bird flu body’s immune system turns upon its own tissue and
In the past century, variations of the bird flu virus
H5N1 have been responsible for pandemics in which
large numbers of humans died. The viruses H1N1 in
1933, H2N2 in 1957 and H3N2 in 1968 preceded the
appearance of H5N1 in 1997.
Some articles in the media suggest that the offspring
of a modified H5N1 virus may contribute to the end of
the human race. Scientists have stated that if there is
mixing of the genetic material of the human flu virus
with this bird flu virus, it may create something that our
immune systems can’t fight. In such a situation, millions
of people may die. Individual genetic variations may be
a key factor in the outcome of who will live and who HOW ABOUT THAT!
will not survive.
Our main chance of survival may be the development Old viruses
of a vaccine against a virus that does not yet exist. It is Only about 75 per cent of the world’s children are being
another example of how possible need can direct the vaccinated against viruses such as measles, whooping
journey of scientific discoveries. In this frenzy to create cough and chickenpox. Some new vaccines, for example
vaccines, many issues arise. How much information against hepatitis and meningitis, have hardly been used
should be shared with companies, governments, at all. If these vaccines can reduce the chance of others
countries and the public? Will only those who can becoming ill or dying from particular diseases, who has
afford treatment receive it? Is this the new form of the responsibility to make sure that they are effectively
natural selection? Who is responsible for taking control used? Should the individual take responsibility, or should
and regulating the research and its discoveries? it be the community, government or scientists?

attacks it. TGN1412 is a powerful result. This very painful condition Their discovery, however, was
antibody that works by binding can also cause bleeding and can not recognised for a number of
to the immune system’s T cells, be difficult to treat. In some cases, years. Their ideas faced strong
causing them to activate and surgery is required. It was thought opposition from the scientific
multiply rapidly. that lifestyle factors, such as spicy community. Firm in his conviction
TGN1412 made headlines in food and stress, were key factors that that these bacteria were the
2006 after its first trial on human triggered these painful ulcers. real cause of ulcers, and that
subjects. It was given to six healthy In 2005, Australian scientists they could be easily cured by
young men in the UK, and caused Barry Marshall and Robin Warren antibiotics, Marshall took a
severe adverse reactions that received the Nobel Prize in drastic step. He drank a container
required intensive care. One man’s Medicine for their research on of Helicobacter pylori to infect
head swelled to three times its stomach ulcers. They showed that himself! Fortunately for him (and
normal size, causing excruciating the actual cause of many stomach us), although he experienced
pain. The worst affected trial ulcers was not lifestyle, but the considerable discomfort, he was
volunteer was 20-year-old Ryan presence of the bacteria Helicobacter cured by antibiotics.
Wilson, who was in a coma for pylori. This revolutionary finding Were Marshall’s actions ethical?
three weeks after taking the drug. meant that ulcers could be treated There are strict regulations on
Drug trial volunteers are mainly with antibiotics. experimentation on humans.
young people, and many are Did this give him the right to
backpackers and students who are infect himself? Was it his duty?
attracted to the payments made Apparently Marshall had carried out
by pharmaceutical companies. a risk assessment and had decided
Other controversies have arisen that the benefits of experimenting
following drug trials in Nigeria on himself outweighed the risks
and India, where it was unclear involved. Do you agree with his
whether patients had given their conclusion? If you were him, is this
informed consent. what you would have done?
How much information should
be given to drug trial volunteers? AGRICULTURE — FOOD FOR
Who should be involved in THOUGHT
trialling new drugs?
Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the human With an increasing global human
stomach cause stomach ulcers. They move population comes the need for an
ANIMALS FOR TESTING their hair-like structures to travel around increased food supply. Traditional
Is it ethical to use animals in the stomach lining. plant breeding methods are being
scientific research? Animals are replaced with new technologies.
used in scientific research to test A The realist
the effects of cosmetics, different Drug trials are expensive and will add to the cost of
surgical techniques, types of the drugs, which is already high. B
diseases and their treatments, and
B The humanist C
to find out more about how their
Testing takes time and we
and our bodies function. During
already know that these drugs
some of this research animals
have been effective. There are
may experience pain, suffering people dying who are in need
and even death. There are many of these drugs now.
ethical issues related to the use of
animals in scientific research, the C The ethicist
types of animals used and whether We have a responsibility to
the research itself is ethical. test these drugs to ensure
that they are completely
safe for all members of
TAKING RISKS society. The most rigorous
If acid inside your stomach eats into testing should always be
your stomach lining, an ulcer can carried out.

One of these includes the use of genetic modification the plant is modified. This technology can involve
(GM). This technology enables plants to be designed moving genes between different species, so that
with features that increase crop yields and quality. the resulting plant is transgenic (contains DNA
Some applications of genetic modification enable from different species). Ethical issues include the
the development of crops that are resistant to following:
herbicides, (for example, canola), can make their own • Is it right to interfere with nature?
pesticides (for example, cotton) or contain added • Does the addition of an animal gene to a plant
nutrients (for example, rice). make it suitable for vegetarians?
There is considerable debate about the use of • Should GM foods show this status on their labels?
genetic modification because it involves changing • Who should receive the profits?
the plants at a molecular level. The actual DNA of • Who has ownership of the modified plants?


Where do I stand on ethical issues 3 For at least two of the statements, share your opinions
by being involved in constructing a class
in science? ‘opinionogram’.
(i) Divide the classroom into five zones, and assign a
KEY INQUIRY SKILLS: score of 0–4 to each zone.
• communicating
(ii) Each student should stand in the zone that
• processing data and information indicates their score for the first statement.
Recent scientific and technological advances are (iii) Have a member of the class record the number of
associated with some very complex and difficult decisions, students at each point of the scale.
responsibilities and ethical issues. (iv) Discuss the reasons for your opinion with the
1 On your own, score each of the statements below students in your zone.
on a scale of 0–4, where 0 = strongly disagree and (v) Suggest questions that could be used to probe
4 = strongly agree. students in different opinion zones.
(vi) Share reasons for your opinion with students in
• Immunisation of children should be compulsory.
other zones and listen to their reasons for their
• Genetic manipulation of food crops and animals
should be illegal.
(vii) Reflect on what you have heard from others. Decide
• IVF technology should be publicly funded.
if you want to change positions and, if so, change.
• Nuclear reactors should be built in each Australian Give a reason why you are changing.
state and territory. (viii) Have a member of the class record the number of
• Cosmetics should be tested on other animals prior to students at each point of the scale.
their availability to humans. (ix) Repeat steps (ii)–(viii) for the other two statements.
• The development of new drugs should be done by (x) Reflect on what you have learned about the
non-profit organisations rather than those that may opinions and perspectives of others.
make a profit from it. (xi) Suggest questions that could be used to more
• If an effective but expensive drug is available to cure closely probe reasons for your classmates’ opinions.
a life-threatening disease, it should be available to Share these probing questions with your class.
everyone, not just those who can afford it. (xii) Construct graphs showing the opinion scales for
• Genetically modified food should be clearly labelled each statement and comment on any observed
as such. patterns.
• Close relatives of humans, such as monkeys and (xii) Construct a PMI chart for each statement based
chimpanzees, should not be used as animals in on opinions and statements made by others in the
scientific research that tests the effectiveness of class.
treatments against various diseases. (xiii) Select one of the statements (ensure it is different
• Scientists should be allowed to experiment on from the statement debated in part (b)) and
themselves. organise a class debate.
2 Research two of the issues above. Construct a table with
reasons for and against. Compare and discuss your table
with others. Organise a class debate on one of the issues.


THINK AND DISCUSS • irradiating food to maximise its shelf life

1 (a) Laura is a member of the pre-musical performance • public funding of IVF technology
squad. Shona would like to be a member of the • reducing irrigation to improve water quality of rivers
squad. Think about this situation and the goals, • building a new nuclear reactor in Australia.
rights, needs and duties that Laura and Shona each Research one of the issues above. Make a table of the
have, and then copy and complete the table below. reasons for and against the issue and present your findings
(b) How people behave in any situation is largely to the class.
determined by how they perceive the relative 3 Discuss the following statements with your team. Record
importance of their goals, rights, needs and your discussions in PMI tables.
(i) Describe how Shona may behave if she
• Scientists have a responsibility to consider the wider
effects of their research.
perceives that her goals and needs are of
greater importance than those of others.
• Science should have an international rule book that
states what is allowed and what is not.
(ii) Contrast this with the behaviour you may
expect if she perceives her duties as being less
• Individuals can influence the type of scientific research
important than those of others.
(iii) How do you think Laura and Shona should
• The government controls what is done with scientific
behave towards each other?
• Science should not have to answer to anyone.
Person Goals Rights Needs Duties • Companies should have total ownership of any
research they financially support.
• Scientific discoveries should belong to everyone.
Teacher in charge of INVESTIGATE AND REPORT
casting 4 Select a topic from the following list and research the
types of issues facing science and scientists.
Audience for the
Stem cells, nanotechnology, virology, radiation, nuclear
power, genetic engineering, genetic testing, IVF, abortion,
Rest of the cast vaccinations, AIDS, H5N1, mad cow disease, gene therapy,
SARS, H1N1, biological warfare, chemical warfare,
earthquakes, nuclear power plants
(a) Organise your findings in a web page, PowerPoint
presentation, poster or visual thinking tool.
(b) Discuss your findings with others in your team. As a
team, try to identify relevant values, beliefs, opinions
and attitudes which may contribute to people having
different perspectives.
(c) Present your findings to the class and get them
to construct their own PMI charts based on the
information that you provide.
5 (a) Find out more about pandemics H1N1 in 1933, H2N2
in 1957, H3N2 in 1968 and H5N1 in 1997.
(b) Could they have been avoided? If so, suggest how.
(c) Write a story from the perspective of a child who
lost one of their family or friends to one of these
2 We have had to face some very complex and difficult
6 Research and organise a class debate on one of the
issues because of recent scientific and technological
advances. Examples of issues being faced in Australia
(a) The Manhattan Project
(b) Embryonic stem cell research
• compulsory immunisation of children (c) Chernobyl and nuclear power stations
• genetic manipulation of food crops and animals to (d) Genetic testing
optimise such things as their resistance to pests and work
their growth rate
(e) Organ transplants sheets 1.2 Science and ethics
1.3 Difficult decisions


Banned! It’s for your

own good!
Imagine being told ‘No treats for you! You To calculate the mass of sugar in one 375 mL can
will have spinach, capsicum and tomato of drink, use the formula below:
on wholegrain bread and no butter!’ Who 11.04 × volume
Mass of sugar =
tells you what to eat? Should you listen? 100
Do others really care what you put into 11.04 × 375
your mouth? So, mass of sugar = = 41.4 g
In 2006, the Victorian government decided to Since one teaspoon of sugar has a mass of
address the types of food that are available to approximately 4 grams, divide the mass of sugar in
school students. One of the reasons for this was one can of drink by 4.
the growing concern about the number of obese
children in the state. Soft drinks containing 41.4
= 10.35 teaspoons
sugar were the first to be on their no go list. Do 4
you think the government has the right to make Therefore, one can of soft drink might contain
such a decision? What is your opinion on this over 10 teaspoons of sugar.

How much sugar?

To calculate how much sugar is in a can or bottle of
drink you must first find the nutrition information
section on the label. A typical non-diet soft drink
might contain 11.04 grams in 100 mL.

Sugar content of some common foods

80 73.6% 73.2%
Sugar content (%)

60 55.3%
40 36.6%
20 18.6% 13%
10.5% 10% 8.9%
10 7.0% 3.0% 2.6%











Wh read



rs b




ole roll


e ju










Fizz and tell

1 Survey the class to find out:
(a) how much soft drink they consume in a week
(in millilitres)
(b) which types of soft drinks are consumed.
2 (a) Present your results in a format that can be
shared with others.
(b) Comment on your results. Were they what you
expected or were you surprised? Were there
patterns? What other sorts of information
would you like to know to further analyse the data?
3 Comment on whether your data supports the
following statement: ‘Almost 80 per cent of teenagers
consume soft drinks weekly, with 10 per cent drinking
more than one litre per day.’ UNDERSTANDING AND INQUIRING


1 (a) What types of drinks may be banned from
Victorian state schools?
More fizz and tell (b) How much sugar do most non-diet soft drinks
Consider the following statement: contain?
(c) Calculate the mass of sugar in a two-litre bottle of
‘Sugar-loaded soft drinks should be banned from all
Australian schools to reduce teenage obesity.’
(d) Calculate the number of teaspoons of sugar in a
1 Construct a PMI chart on the statement. two-litre bottle of Coke.
2 Do you agree with this statement? (e) Calculate and graph the amount of sugar in a
3 (a) In the classroom, construct a human graph to 375 mL can or bottle of each of the drinks in the
show people’s opinions on the statement. Stand table at the beginning of this section.
in positions to indicate your feelings about the
statement. For example:
2 Do you think that too much soft drink is being
Strongly disagree (0) — stand next to the left-hand wall
drunk by people your age? Should it be changed or
Agree (2) — stand in the centre of the room
monitored? What are some implications about the
Strongly agree (4) — stand next to the right-hand wall.
amount of soft drink consumed?
(b) Have a discussion with students standing near you
to find out the reasons for their opinion.
3 What are your opinions on the state government
being able to dictate the types of foods that are
(c) Listen to the discussions of students in other
available to children in schools?
(d) Construct a SWOT diagram to summarise what 4 Do you think the Victorian government’s ban on
you have found out. soft drinks in schools will help reduce obesity in
(e) Record the results of the human graph and teenagers? Give reasons to support your opinion.
examine them to answer the following questions. 5 What other lifestyle habits should the government be
(i) What was the most popular attitude? Suggest involved in? How should they approach this? Provide
a reason for this. reasons why you think they should be involved.
(ii) What was the least popular attitude? Suggest
a reason for this. INVESTIGATE AND SHARE
(iii) Do you think this attitude pattern is 6 Is childhood obesity a real issue in Australia?
representative of other Australians your age? Research various resources to gather as much
Explain. relevant information as you can. On the basis of your
(f ) On the basis of your discussions, have you research and personal beliefs, construct an argument
changed your attitude since the start of this to prepare for a debate with someone who has an
activity? If so, how is it different and why? opposing view.


See quest
Visual thinking tools can be used to help share your issues. They can also be useful in helping you to
thinking and to be able to see how and what other evaluate ideas and to consider various alternatives in
people are thinking. They can be used to clarify key your decision making. Examples of some of the types
ideas, show links and suggest relationships, and of thinking and their visual tools are shown in the
prompt discussions on many different topics and table throughout this section.

Thinking tools
Single bubble map Feature Target map Irrelevant
Q: What do I Q: How can we
already know Feature Feature agree on what is Relevant
about this relevant to our
topic? discussion? Topic
Feature Feature

Feature Feature

Feature Feature

Cluster map Idea

Q: How could I Idea Idea
Idea Idea
develop this idea?
Idea Idea

Idea Topic

Idea Idea Idea

Idea Idea

Mind map e Fe
Feat tur Featu



Q: What are the Feature ure Featu

Ide Feat
Id Feature
main points? Feat Fea

Ide a tu




ture ept

pt re
Fe re



atu ure


cept Topic

Id e

Feature Idea Con Conc

ept Idea Fea
ure Feature
Feat Id e a Feat
e ur

Id e





Thinking tools
Tree map Affinity map
Q: How do the parts of a topic Q: What are the common themes in different viewpoints?
relate to each other?
Group 1 Group 2

Concept Concept View or View or View or View or

response response response response

View or View or View or View or

Idea Idea Idea Idea response response response response

Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature Group 3 Group 4

View or View or View or View or

response response response response

View or View or View or View or

response response response response

Plus, minus, interesting (PMI chart) KWL

Q: What are other points of view? How can I prepare to make Q: What do I know about this topic? What do I want to know
a decision? about it? What have I learned?

Plus Minus Interesting What What we Want What we
we Know to find out have Learned
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •

T chart Y chart
Q: What does the problem or situation look and sound like? Q: What does the problem or topic look like, sound like and
feel like?

Looks like Sounds like


Hear See

Thinking tools
Corner thinking Hourglass
Q: What is the relationship between these ideas? Q: What is the topic? What do I/we know about it? What if . . .?

A Know/recall


What if?

Concept map
Link Topic Link
Q: How can I describe this topic to
someone else? Main idea Main idea
Link Link Link
First-level idea Main idea First-level idea
Link Link Link
Link First-level idea First-level idea
Link Second-level idea
Second-level idea Link Link
Second-level idea Second-level idea
Third-level idea

Double bubble map

Feature Feature Feature
Q: What are the main points? Feature Feature
Feature Topic Topic Feature
Feature Feature
Feature Feature Feature

Priority grid Continuum

Q: What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of this Q: How extreme is this idea? How strongly do I and others feel
idea? What is the best way to tackle the problem? about it?

Priority grid
Good result Lowest Highest

Eat nutritious Drink water

meals regularly to hydrate
Difficult to do

Easy to do

Not exercise Not enough

your brain sleep
Bad result

Thinking tools
Venn diagram SWOT analysis
Q: How can I describe this topic to someone else? Q: What are the strengths and weaknesses of the idea?
Topic 1 Topic 2
Strengths Weaknesses

Topic 3
made from
the common
features of
topics 1 Issues
Opportunities Threats
and 2

Ranking ladder Matrix

Q: How important is this? Which is the highest priority? Q: How do the parts of a topic relate to each other?

1 Topic Feature Feature Feature Feature Feature

2 1
3 2
4 3

Flowchart Storyboard
Q: How can you record the stages that occurred? Q: What are the main ideas or scenes?

First event A B C
Outline of Outline of Outline of
scene 1 scene 2 scene 3
Next event D E F
Outline of Outline of Outline of
scene 4 scene 5 scene 6
Next event

Next event

Last event

Gantt chart Cycle map
Q: How do actions in the story or event Q: What patterns can be seen in these
overlap? events?
Action Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Cycle
Event A
Event F Event B

Event E Event C
Event D

Relations diagram Algorithm

Q: What is causing the problem? Q: How can different decisions I make solve this problem?

Cause 4

Cause 1 Action

Problem Decision

Action Yes
Cause 2 Cause 3 Action

Cause 5 Cause 6

Q: What could have Cause group A Cause group B
caused this event Cause Cause
to happen? Cause Cause
Cause Cause
Cause Cause Cause
Cause Cause Cause
Cause Cause Cause
Cause group C Cause group D Cause group E

■ investigate the history and impact of developments in
eBook plus
genetic knowledge eLESSONS
■ consider how information technology can be applied
Meet Professor Veena Sahajwalla
to different areas of science
Meet an engineer who is also a television presenter on
■ describe how science is used in the media to justify The New Inventors.
people’s actions
Searchlight ID: eles-1071
■ use knowledge of science to evaluate claims,
explanations and predictions
Australian nuclear future
■ recognise that financial backing from governments Watch a video from the ABC’s Catalyst program about the
or commercial organisations is required for scientific future for nuclear energy in Australia.
developments and that this can determine what
Searchlight ID: eles-1075
research is carried out
■ outline examples of how scientific understanding,
models and theories are contestable and are refined
over time through a process of review by the scientific Complementary DNA
■ provide examples of how advances in scientific
understanding often rely on developments in
technology and technological advances are often
linked to scientific discoveries
■ suggest how values and needs of contemporary
society can influence the focus of scientific research
■ provide examples of how advances in science and
emerging sciences and technologies can significantly
affect people’s lives, including generating new career

■ use internet research to identify problems that can be
■ evaluate information from secondary sources as part Construct a replicate DNA strand by dragging the correct
of the research process complementary base into sequence.
■ develop ideas from your own or others’ investigations Searchlight ID: int-0133
and experience to investigate further
■ combine research from primary and secondary sources
■ outline issues relating to investigations involving animals
■ design and construct appropriate graphs to represent
data and analyse graphs for trends and patterns
■ suggest more than one possible explanation of the
data presented
■ use spreadsheets to present data in tables and
graphical forms
■ describe how scientific arguments are used to make
decisions regarding personal and community issues
■ present ideas using oral presentations and contribute
to group discussions
eBook plus
■ use secondary sources and your own findings to help INDIVIDUAL PATHWAYS
explain a scientific concept
Activity 1.1 Activity 1.2 Activity 1.3
■ use the internet to facilitate collaboration in joint Think Quest Developing thinking Investigating Think
projects and discussions Quest further

1 Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution sat unpublished for (b) Can you think of an example of how our scientific
over ten years. knowledge has developed in a way similar to that
(a) Suggest why it suggested by the model?
took him such a (c) Suggest how the model could be improved.
long time to make 3 Research examples of drugs or tests that are known to
his ideas public. encourage people to tell the truth.
(b) There have been (a) Find out how they work.
many caricatures (b) Do you believe that you have the right not to be
of Charles Darwin forced to tell the truth? Explain why.
over the years. (c) Do you think that lie detector tests and truth
Suggest what serums or treatments should be used to force
the creator of the people to tell the truth or test whether they are
cartoon at right telling the truth? Justify your response.
is suggesting. Do
you consider this 4 Use the issues map below to help you identify various
accurate in terms perspectives on one of the following issues.
of Darwin’s theory? • Watering of gardens should be illegal.
Explain your answer. • Cars should be driven only when there are at least
(c) Outline the key ways in which the theory of four occupants.
evolution differed from the accepted theological • Scientists should be allowed to research whatever
view of the time. they want.
(d) Identify the other scientist who is responsible for • If a vaccine for the dangerous variant of H5N1 is
proposing the theory of evolution. Suggest why he synthesised, it should be given only to children under
is not as well known as Charles Darwin. 10 years of age.
(e) Identify at least five other people involved in the
development and acceptance of the theory of Ethical
evolution and state their key contribution.
(f ) If a scientist were to propose a new theory about Social/
creation that signficantly differed from the currently Ecological
accepted view, suggest how this might be received
by the scientific community and the general public.
(g) Suggest a possible alternative to the theory of
evolution. Provide reasons to support your theory.
2 Carefully observe the figure below.
New discoveries Political Technological

5 Study the timeline below of the developments of
various inventions. These are approximate times
Consider Clarify because their development involved building on the
ideas of others over time.
(a) Select an invention from the timeline that interests
New New you.
(b) Investigate how and why it was developed and who
theories technology
was involved.
(c) Write a story about the history of its development
(a) Do you think that this figure effectively summarises and invention.
how we mix new information to rethink ideas and
improve our scientific knowledge?

Electric Stainless
Chemical Petrol Integrated
light steel Nylon
industry engine circuit
Steam — dyes Telephone Polythene
Electric Car Aeroplane chip
engine Steel motor Transistor Laser

BC 1700 1850 1870 1880 1890 1910 1940 1950 1960

11 Use the ‘learning placemat’ below to show:
6 Research the experimentation undertaken by the CIA (a) the key points that each team member (groups of
involving truth drugs, LSD, mind control and biological four) remembers from this chapter
weapons in the 1950s in America. (b) a group summary of a discussion about individual
(a) What sort of testing did they do, to whom and for learning.
what reason?
(b) Do you think that their actions were justified?
(c) Collect information on Frank Olson, a CIA agent.
What do you consider the true story to be?
(d) Find out more about The Manchurian Candidate books Group
and movies. Construct a SWOT on the strength of the


evidence and details that you find out.
7 Consider each of the belief statements in the mind map
below. Rank them from those you agree with the most
to those you agree with the least. Explain your ranking.
Compare and discuss your ranking with others.



12 Suggest factors that may influence a decision as to

whether money should be spent on researching a cure
for a particular disease. Provide possible reasons for
these factors.
13 Suggest consequences that our increased knowledge
of the structure and function of DNA has for both
individuals and the society in which we live.
14 Should the labelling of genetically modified foods be
8 In your learning journal, reflect on: compulsory? Justify your response.
(a) what you have learned from this chapter 15 Should Australia build nuclear power plants to supply
(b) any parts of the chapter that were of particular our growing population with the energy supplies we
relevance to you need? Justify your response.
(c) ways in which information in this chapter may have
changed how you think about or react to something. 16 With great advances in technology, there have also
been disasters. In 1937, the Hindenburg — a hydrogen-
9 Use the 321 tool filled airship — violently exploded while it was
shown at right docking at a refuelling tower. Find out more about
to unlock your the development of this technology, the cause of the
thinking on: Hindenburg explosion and the consequences of this
• 3 interesting 3 Interesting things event for subsequent developments in aviation.
17 Carefully read through each of the following statements.
• 2 important points For each statement, decide whether you agree or
• 1 personal point disagree and then justify your response.
for each section in
this chapter. • Scientific discoveries and understanding often rely
on developments in technology and technological
2 Important things
• Financial backing from governments or commercial
organisations determines the type of scientific
research and development that is carried out.
• Scientific understanding, models and theories are
1 Personal thing changed over time through a process of review by the
10 Scientific ideas and theories can change over time. Does scientific community.
this mean that those previously accepted were totally • The focus of scientific research can be influenced by
wrong? Discuss and explain your response. the current values and needs of society.

• Advances in science and technologies can have a Below are some figures that provide clues as to how
significant effect on people’s lives. these people made sense of their world. Research and
report on ways other cultures have developed their
• Scientific knowledge should be used to evaluate
knowledge and transmitted it from one generation to
whether you should accept claims, explanations or the next.
21 Use the Dreamtime stories, Emu in eBook plus
18 Computer animations, like the simulation shown below the sky and Indigenous stories
involved in studying black holes, have greatly increased weblinks in your eBookPLUS and listen to one
our knowledge and improved our understanding of of the Dreamtime stories available from the Indigenous
how our world operates. Research other examples of Australia page of the Australian Museum. Draw a picture
how information technology has been used to enhance to illustrate the story.
our scientific knowledge and understanding.
The emu, the
possum and
the Southern

19 Margaret Burbridge (below) was a British astronomer.

She contributed to discoveries about the origin of
elements by examining light emitted from galaxies.
(a) Find out more about her research and
(b) Suggest why there are so few women recorded
throughout our scientific history.
(c) Suggest ways in which more women can be
encouraged and provided with opportunites to be
involved in scientific research, and acknowledged for
their involvement and discoveries.

A depiction of a Dreamtime story by artist Michael J. Connolly.

Source: Michael J. Connolly (Mundagutta–Kulliwarri)
20 Different cultures may hold different views about the
world. Ancient civilisations of Egypt, China and Babylon
explained the night sky and creation in a way quite
different from scientists of today. Australian Indigenous work 1.4 Think quest: Summary
people also hold their own views and understanding.

Can you roll your tongue? Did you know
that your genes determine whether you
can? Do you fit into your genes or do
Getting into genes
and the environment in which they
live. New technologies have harnessed
genetic machinery in order to change
they fit into you? The characteristics of or create new organisms. What are the
living things are determined by both the implications of manipulating the raw
genetic information that they contain material of life?

• Patterns, order and organisation
• Form and function
• Stability and change
• Scale and measurement
• Systems
The transmission of heritable characteristics
from one generation to the next involves DNA
and genes.

Describing the role of DNA as the blueprint for
controlling the characteristics of organisms
Using models and diagrams to represent
the relationship between DNA, genes and
Recognising that genetic information passed
on to offspring is from both parents by meiosis
and fertilisation
Representing patterns of inheritance of a
simple dominant/recessive characteristic
through generations of a family
Predicting simple ratios of offspring genotypes
and phenotypes in crosses involving
dominant/recessive gene pairs or in genes that THINK ABOUT THESE
are sex-linked
Describing mutations as changes in DNA or
• Do you have a Darwin’s point?
chromosomes and outlining the factors that • Why don’t hairs grow on stomach linings?
contribute to causing mutations • What have monks, peas, mathematics and
genes got in common?
This is an extract from the Australian Curriculum. • What have Xs and Ys got to do with sex?
Any elaborations may contain the work of the author. • Designer babies — should we or shouldn’t we?
QUEST 5 Bring to school a collection of photographs from as many
members of your family as you can.
(a) For at least one member of your team, carefully
observe each photograph of the family members,
Genes looking for similarities.
(b) Construct a table with the family features that you
THINK, SHARE AND DISCUSS have observed and indicate which family members
In your team, look at the pictures of the individuals in the have these features.
families shown below and share your observations. (c) Can you see any patterns or make any interesting
suggestions on these observations? If so, discuss and
1 Record any patterns that you notice.
record these.
2 If the following couples had another child, suggest (d) Discuss which characteristics may be passed from
what their eye colour may be and give a reason for your parent to child and which may not.
suggestion. (e) Make a summary of your discussion to share with
(a) Ken and Margaret Davis other teams. Add any other interesting points from
(b) Kevin and Gwenda Swift these discussions to your team summary.
(c) Geoff and Linda Davis
3 Suggest a reason why Geoff (brown eyes) and Linda
(blue eyes) had brown-eyed and blue-eyed children,
whereas Ken (brown eyes) and Margaret (blue eyes) had
only children with brown eyes.
4 Martin Swift’s fiancée, Justine, has blue eyes, but both of
her parents have brown eyes. If Justine and Martin have
children together, what colour eyes do you think may be
possible? Discuss reasons for your response.

Davis family Swift family

BB bb bb bb

Ken Margaret Kevin Gwenda


Bb Bb Bb Bb bb bb bb bb
6 Read and think about each of the following statements,
then state whether you agree, disagree or don’t know.
Discuss your decisions with your team.
(a) Because June and Frank have five sons, the chance of
Merrin Stuart Sharon Geoff Linda Ben Martin Michael their next child being a daughter is increased.
(b) People who have committed very violent crimes
should be sterilised because their children will also
be violent.
(c) Parents should be allowed access to technologies
Bb Bb bb bb that enable them to select the gender and specific
characteristics of their children.
(d) Technologies that alter the gametes (sperm and ova)
should be illegal.
Sarah Genevieve Bree Cameron



Patterns, order and

organisation: Nuclear matters
Where did you called chromosomes, which are located within the
get those pointed nucleus of the cell.
ears, big nose and
10 µm

long toes from?

Endoplasmic Features or traits
reticulum — that are inherited
a network are passed from one
of transport generation to the
channels next in the form of
Nuclear Nucleolus a genetic code. This
membrane code is written in
encloses a molecule called
nucleus deoxyribonucleic
acid (DNA) and is
located within the
DNA nucleus of your cells.
Nuclear pores — double
connect nucleus Scanning electron micrograph showing double-stranded chromosomes
helix An animal cell
and cytoplasm Chromosomes

DNA: past, present and future Your body is constantly making new cells for
Most of your body cells contain all of the DNA replacement, growth and repair. It achieves this
instructions that are needed to make another you. by a process called mitosis, which is a type of cell
Your DNA, however, is more than just a genetic division.
blueprint of instructions; it also an ‘ID tag’ and a very Prior to cell division your DNA replicates itself,
special ancient ‘book’ that holds secrets both from and this long molecule (2–3 metres) bunches itself
your ancestral past and for your possible futures. up into 46 little packages called chromosomes.
They are called chromosomes (chromo = ‘coloured’
+ some = ‘body’) because scientists often stain them
Cell Nucleus
with various dyes so that they are easier to see.
Chromosome Chromosomes are only visible when a cell is about
to divide or is in the process of dividing. When your
DNA Gene cells are not dividing, chromosomes are not visible
as the coils are unwound and the DNA is spread
Suggest words to describe each link. throughout the nucleus.

GENES (sex cells)
Each genetic instruction that codes for a particular Cells
trait (for example, shape of ear lobe, blood group Suggest how
Somatic cells these terms
or eye colour) is called a gene. Genes are made up are linked.
(body cells)
of DNA and are organised into larger structures

SEX CELLS Chromosomes — more than
Another type of cell division called meiosis is used
in the production of sex cells or gametes: ova (ovum one type
is the singular form) and sperm. This process results
Chromosomes can be divided into two main types:
in the chromosome number being halved, so instead
autosomes and sex chromosomes.
of pairs of chromosomes in each resulting cell, there
is only one chromosome from each pair. Autosome

Ovum Chromosomes
(23 chromosomes) X chromosome
Gametes Zygote Sex
(sex cells) (46 chromosomes) chromosomes
Sperm Y chromosome
(23 chromosomes) Which words could be used to describe each link?

Which words could be used to describe each link?

Of the 46 chromosomes in your somatic cells, there
The genetic information that you received from
are 44 present in both males and females that can be
your mother was packaged into 23 chromosomes in
matched into 22 pairs on the basis of their relative
the nucleus of her egg cell (ovum), and the genetic
size, position of centromere (refer to the following
information that you received from your father was
figure) and stained banding patterns. These are called
packaged into 23 chromosomes in the nucleus of the
autosomes. They are given numbers from 1 to 22
sperm that fertilised your mother’s egg cell. When these
on the basis of their size, chromosome 1 being the
gametes fused together at fertilisation, the resulting
largest of the autosomes and chromosome 22 the
zygote contained 23 pairs of chromosomes (one pair
from each parent) — a total of 46 chromosomes.
The members of each matching
pair of chromosomes are
described as being homologous.
Cell division Suggest words
Those that are not matching
to describe are called non-homologous.
Meiosis each link. For example, two number 21
chromosomes would be referred
to as homologous, and a number
21 chromosome and a number
Cells of your body that are not your sex cells are 11 chromosome would be
often referred to as body cells or somatic cells. non-homologous.
With the exception of your red blood cells (that
lose their nucleus when mature so they can carry Homologous chromosomes have the same relative size,
more oxygen), all of your somatic cells contain position of centromere and stained banding patterns.
chromosomes in pairs within their nucleus. This
double set of genetic instructions (one set from
each parent) makes up your genotype. The visible
expression of the genotype as a particular trait or
feature is called the phenotype. The phenotype may
also be influenced by your environment.

Phenotype Suggest how chromosomes
these terms showing stained
Environment are linked. centromere


SEX CHROMOSOMES Too many or too few
The other two remaining chromosomes are
the sex chromosomes. In humans, these differ Sometimes a genetic mistake or mutation can occur
between males and females. Females possess a pair that results in more or less of a particular type of
of X chromosomes (XX) and males possess an chromosome. Down syndrome is an example of
X chromosome and a Y chromosome (XY). It is the a trisomy mutation in which there may be three
sex chromosomes that are important in determining number 21 chromosomes instead of two. Turner’s
an individual’s gender (whether they are male or a syndrome is an example of a monosomy mutation
female). that results in only one sex chromosome (XO).

Your kind of karyotype

Differences between the chromosome pair size,
shape and banding can be used to distinguish them
from each other. Scientists use
these differences to construct
a karyotype. Cells about to
divide are treated and stained,
mounted on slides for viewing,
and photographed. These
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 photographs are cut up and
rearranged into pictures that show
the chromosomes in matching
pairs in order of size from largest
to smallest. Karyotyping can
reveal a variety of chromosomal
disorders such as Down syndrome
and Turner’s syndrome.
The gender of an individual
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 X Y can also be determined using
karyotyping. In humans, females
Human chromosomes in order of size with banding patterns possess two similar-sized X sex chromosomes. In
and centromere males, however, their sex chromosomes are not
matching — they possess an X chromosome and a
smaller Y chromosome.

Some examples of chromosome changes and approximate incidence rates. Which syndrome is an
example of a trisomy? A monsomy?
Chromosome change Resulting syndrome Approximate incidence rate
Addition: whole chromosome
Extra number 21 (47, +21) Down syndrome 1/700 live births
Extra number 18 (47, +18) Edwards syndrome 1/3000 live births
Extra number 13 (47, +13) Patau syndrome 1/5000 live births
Extra sex chromosome (47, XXY) Klinefelter syndrome 1/1000 male births
Extra Y chromosome (47, XYY) N/A 1/1000 male births
Deletion: whole chromosome
Missing sex chromosome (46, XO) Turner syndrome 1/5000 female births
Deletion: part chromosome
Missing part of number 4 Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome 1/50 000 live births
Missing part of number 5 Cri-du-chat syndrome 1/10 000 live births

turned this enzyme back on. Their results showed
that after four weeks, new brain cells were developing
and tissue in several organs had regenerated — and
the mice were living longer. If this happens in mice,
what might future research suggest for humans?


Working with DNA

• planning and conducting

1 teaspoon of finely ground wheatgerm
14 mL of isopropyl alcohol (or equivalent)
A human karyotype
1 mL of liquid detergent
20 mL of hot tap water (50–60 èC)
Has the secret of age reversal test tube
measuring cylinders
been discovered? rubber stopper
In the 1970s, a Tasmanian-born scientist, Dr test-tube rack
Elizabeth Blackburn, made a discovery that was Pasteur pipette and bulb
to contribute to our understanding of how cells glass stirring rod
age and die. She showed how the presence of a
cap of DNA called a telomere on the tip of the Aim: To extract DNA from ground wheatgerm
chromosome enabled DNA to be replicated safely • Draw a table in your book, allowing room for
without losing valuable information. Each time observations in the form of a diagram: immediately after
the cell divides, however, these telomeres shorten. adding the alcohol; at 3- and 15-minute intervals; and
When the telomeres drop below a certain length, after you have collected and removed the DNA.
the cell stops dividing and dies. This is a normal • Add the wheatgerm and hot water to a test tube. Twist
part of ageing. Blackburn and her colleagues later the stopper in and shake for 3 minutes.
discovered an enzyme, telomerase, that was involved • Add 1 mL of detergent and mix gently with the glass
in maintaining and repairing the telomere. In 2009, rod for about 5 minutes. Do not create foam.
Blackburn and her colleagues were awared the Nobel • If you do create foam, suck it out with the Pasteur
Prize in Physiology and Medicine for their work on pipette.
how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and
• Tilt the tube at an angle and slowly pour in the alcohol
the enzyme telomerase. so that it sits at the bottom.
Other scientists are now also involved in finding
CAUTION: Do not mix!
out more about the exciting possibilities that our
understanding of this process may open up. In • Note your observations in your table.
2010, for example, another • Fill in your observations after 3 minutes and again after
scientist, Mariela Jaskelioff, 15 minutes.
and her colleagues in • Collect the DNA with the glass rod. Feel it with your
America genetically fingers and make your final observations.
engineered mice with short
telomeres and inactive DISCUSS AND EXPLAIN
telomerase to see what 1 What colour did you expect DNA to be? Why do you
would happen when they think it was the colour that you observed?
2 How could you confirm that it really was DNA?
Dr Elizabeth Blackburn 3 Suggest improvements to the experimental design.



REMEMBER 7 Each species has a particular number of chromosomes.

1 State the name of the: The table below shows some examples of the number of
(a) molecule that DNA is an abbreviation for chromosomes in the body cells of some organisms.
(b) location of DNA in a human cell (a) Using the data in the table, construct a column
(c) structures that genes are organised into graph.
(d) type of cell division used to produce gametes (b) Identify the species with the:
(e) male sex gamete (i) highest total number of chromosomes
(f )female sex gamete (ii) lowest total number of chromosomes.
(g) process in which sex cells fuse together (c) Carefully observe your graph, looking for any
(h) cells of your body that are not sex cells patterns. Discuss possible reasons for these.
(i) double set of genetic instructions (d) Do you think that the number of chromosomes
(j) particular trait or feature that results from your reflects the intelligence of an organism? Provide
genotype and environment reasons for your response.
(k) chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes (e) Suggest the number of chromosomes in the sex
(l) protective cap of DNA on the tip of chromosomes. cells of a:
(i) housefly
2 Suggest why chromosomes are stained with dyes. (ii) sheep.
3 Are chromosomes always visible in a cell? Explain.
Number of chromosomes in body cells
4 State how many chromosomes you would expect to (non-sex cells) of some living things
find in a human:
(a) somatic cell Number of Number of
(b) gamete. chromosomes chromosomes
5 Distinguish between the following pairs of terms. Species of in each Species of in each
(a) Ovum and sperm living thing body cell living thing body cell
(b) X chromosome and Y chromosome
(c) Sex chromosomes and autosomes Chimpanzee 48 Tomato 24
(d) Somatic cells and sex cells Euglena 90 Cabbage 18
(e) Mitosis and meiosis (unicellular
(f ) Homologous and non-homologous organism)
(g) Gene and DNA
Fruit fly 8 Frog 26
6 The following questions refer to figures A and B below.
(a) Carefully observe the figures and suggest features Koala 16 Pig 40
that would be useful in matching the chromosomes Onion 16 Platypus 52
into pairs.
(b) On the basis of information in the karyotype, Shrimp 254 Rice 24
suggest the gender of A and B. Justify your
Sugarcane 80 Sheep 54
(c) Suggest why karyotyping can only be carried out
on cells that are about to divide.


8 Carefully observe the karyotypes A and B below. 50
(a) Suggest the gender of the individual in A and in B.
Justify your responses.

Risk of Down syndrome child (per 1000 births)

(b) Use your observations and the chromosome change 40
table in this section to:
(i) suggest which type of chromosome change is
shown in each figure
(ii) suggest the name of the resulting genetic
(c) One of these disorders is also sometimes described
as Trisomy 21. Suggest a reason for the use of this

20– 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
29 Age of mother (years)


11 Find out more about the research of Mariela Jaskelioff
and colleagues at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in
Boston and answer the following.
ANALYSE, INTERPRET AND INVESTIGATE (a) Describe the features of the genetically engineered
9 Observe the figures below that show the chromosomes mice in their experiment.
belonging to four different types of organisms. (b) How did these features change after the telomerase
was activated?
(c) Suggest implications of their research.
12 (a) Research and report on Elizabeth Blackburn’s:
(i) contribution to our understanding of DNA
(ii) stance on stem cell science that resulted in her
Kangaroo (6 pairs) Human (23 pairs) losing her position on the President’s Council on
(b) (i) What is bioethics?
(ii) What is the Presidential Commission for the
Study of Bioethical Issues, and what does it
have to do with science? How does it differ
from the President’s Council on Bioethics?
Domestic fowl (18 pairs) Fruit fly (4 pairs) (iii) Use the Bioethics weblink in
your eBookPLUS to find out eBook plus
(a) Suggest whether these figures are showing
chromosomes from somatic cells or sex cells. Justify more about the types of issues
your response. that have been considered by the Commission.
(b) Suggest which organisms possess chromosomes: 13 If each cell nucleus has about a metre of DNA, how does
(i) most like humans (ii) least like humans. it all fit in? Use the internet to locate animations that
Justify your responses. demonstrate how DNA is organised so that it can fit into
(c) Do any of your observations in (b) surprise you? cells.
Explain why.
10 The graph above right shows the relationship between
Down syndrome and maternal age.
14 Use the Karyotype weblink in your eBook plus
eBookPLUS. Follow the instructions
(a) Observe the graph and describe any patterns.
provided to prepare and interpret karyotypes for some
(b) Suggest a hypothesis about Down syndrome and
maternal age.
work 2.1 Genes and chromosomes
(c) Research and report on types, causes and sheet
symptoms of Down syndrome.



Unlocking the DNA code

Did you know that all living things share Phosphate P
the same genetic letters? This universal Sugar Nitrogenous base S G
genetic language provides strong evidence
that all life on Earth evolved from one

A nucleotide is made up
ancient cell line.

of phosphate, sugar and a
nitrogenous base.
Key codes
Like other eukaryotic organisms, Cell membrane Mitochondrion
DNA is located within the nucleus
and mitochondria of your cells. Nucleolus
While both types of DNA (nuclear
and mitochondrial) share a number
of features in common, they also
Golgi body
differ. These differences will be
considered later. In this section, we Ribosome Chromosome
will be focusing on your nuclear,
DNA double helix
rather than mitochondrial, DNA.

Cell Nucleus DNA Nucleotides

Suggest how these terms are linked. Endoplasmic



Like other nucleic acids, DNA molecules are made Adenine (A)
up of building blocks called nucleotides. Each
nucleotide is made up of three parts: a sugar part, a
Thymine (T)
phosphate part and a nitrogenous base. The figures Nitrogenous
below and above right show some ways in which the base
components of nucleotides may be drawn. Guanine (G)

Cytosine (C)

Each nucleotide in DNA may contain one of four nitrogenous bases.

(e.g. deoxyribose)
The nucleotides are joined
Nitrogenous DNA is made up together in a chain. The sugar and
base of nucleotides. phosphate parts make up the outside
frame and the nitrogenous bases are P
While the sugar (for example, deoxyribose) and joined to the sugar parts. A
phosphate are the same for each nucleotide in DNA,
the nitrogenous base may vary. The four possible P
types of nucleotides in DNA are adenine (A), Nitrogenous bases are attached to G
the sugar part of the nucleotide.
thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G).

A DNA molecule is made up of two chains of The sequence of nucleotides in DNA is often
nucleotides. Hydrogen bonds join them at their described in terms of the nitrogenous bases that they
complementary (or matching) nitrogenous base pairs. contain. For example, if the first nucleotide contains
Adenine binds to thymine and cytosine to guanine. guanine, the second contains adenine and the third
This matching of the nitrogenous bases is often thymine, then this sequence would be described as
referred to as the base-pairing rule. GAT. This sequence of three nucleotides in DNA is
For example, a segment of DNA that has one referred to as a triplet. Although some of these DNA
strand with the code GATTACA would have a triplets code for a start (e.g. TAC) or stop (e.g. ATT,
complementary strand of CTAATGT. In its double- ATC or ACT) instruction, most code for a particular
stranded view it looks like this: amino acid. The triplet GAT, for example, codes for
the amino acid aspartine.
The sequence of these triplets in DNA contains
CTAATGT the genetic information to make your body’s
DNA molecules have the appearance of a double proteins. This includes all of your hormones,
helix or spiral ladder. Using the spiral ladder enzymes, antibodies and many other proteins that
metaphor, DNA could be considered as having a are essential for your survival. If one of these triplets
sugar–phosphate backbone or frame, and rungs or (or its bases) is incorrect or missing, it may result in
steps that are made up of complementary base a protein not being coded for or produced — which
pairs of nitrogenous bases joined together by could result in death.
hydrogen bonds. P
Nitrogenous bases The DNA code is read
three bases at a time. P
S A Triplet


Sugar/phosphate strand

DNA splits here

Sugar and phosphate backbone

Free nucleotides
used to build
mRNA strand

Double helix — the code for life. The of cell
DNA molecule is really very complex,
but a model can help understanding. Messenger
RNA strand
(mRNA) Nuclear pore
Inside the through which the
nucleus mRNA passes into
the cytoplasm


Adenine (A)
attached to
pairs with
(e.g. deoxyribose) Thymine (T)
attached to
DNA Nucleotides Guanine (G)
made up of base types of
pairs with
used in Cytosine (C)

Can you suggest how ideas of patterns, order and

organisation can be used to describe the structure Base sequence of
and function of DNA? three nucleotides Triplet Amino acid
called codes for

Protein synthesis: reading

the code (a)
5' P • •
DNA is in your genes, and it tells you how to
make proteins. The instructions for making
P • • P P
proteins are coded for in the sequence of the
nitrogenous bases in DNA. Within the nucleus, G • •C G
these instructions are transcribed into another P • • P P
type of nucleic acid called RNA. This process is
called transcription. This RNA copy then moves T A U
to a ribosome in the cytoplasm (free floating or P • • P P
attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum).
C• • G C
It is at the ribosome that a genetic message is 3' 3'
translated into a protein. DNA 5' RNA

DNA mRNA Amino acid How many differences can you identify between DNA and RNA?
instructions transcription instructions translation sequence in protein

The DNA message is transcribed into a mRNA message that is translated TRANSCRIPTION
into a protein.
The first step in making a protein involves the
unzipping of the gene’s DNA. When the relevant
INTRODUCING RNA part of the DNA strand is exposed, a special copy of
Like DNA, RNA is a type of nucleic acid and is the sequence is produced in the form of messenger
made up of nucleotides. Its nucleotides, however, RNA (mRNA). The process of making this
are different from those of DNA. RNA contains the complementary mRNA copy of the DNA message is
sugar ribose (instead of deoxyribose), and uracil called transcription.
(instead of thymine) is one of its nitrogenous bases. It As its name suggests, messenger RNA (mRNA)
is also shorter and single-stranded. passes through the pores of the nuclear membrane
Another difference is that the triplet code in into the cytoplasm to take its genetic copy of the
mRNA is referred to as a codon. The complementary protein instruction message to ribosomes. These
mRNA codon for the start triplet TAC in DNA, for may be free floating in the cytosol or attached to the
example, would be AUG. rough endoplasmic reticulum.

DNA transfer RNA (tRNA) are involved in this process.
template tRNA already located in the surrounding cytosol
G collects and transfers the appropriate amino acid to its
RNA matching code on the mRNA. These amino acids are
Sugar/phosphate strand joined together by peptide bonds to make a protein.

DNA splits here contains join together

mRNA Amino acids Proteins
code for to form

Free nucleotides Proteins are made up of amino acids.

used to build
mRNA strand
Messenger RNA
Cytoplasm of cell

Messenger Nuclear pore

RNA strand (mRNA) through which the Polypeptide Methionine
Tyrosine Glycine
Inside the mRNA passes into chain (start)
nucleus the cytoplasm
mRNA codons code for particular amino acids.
The complementary mRNA that had been transcribed from a segment of
DNA triplet and corresponding mRNA codon
and amino acid
DNA strand message DNA triplet mRNA codon Amino acid
unzips exposed copied as AAT UUA Leucine (leu)
ACG UGC Cysteine (cys)
A section of the DNA unzips so that the mRNA copy can be made. TAC AUG Start/methionine (met)
Messenger RNA CGG GCC Alanine (ala)
A .... T CAT GUA Valine (val)
C .. G .
G .. C ATG UAC Tyrosine (tyr)
G T A U A CCA GGU Glycine (gly)
A Transcription
A A Polymerase Polypeptide
During transcription, an RNA molecule chain
is formed with bases complementary Amino acid
to the DNA’s base sequence.
Ipsa scientia potestas est. Unless you speak Latin, you A
will need some help to translate this sentence! Once CG
U Translation G UA
it is translated, you can then do something with C
it. This is similar to the meaning of the sentence: C
U Ribosome
Knowledge itself is power. A C UG
Once the mRNA has reached the ribosome, its UG A CC
message needs to be translated into a protein. AUGCGU
The ribosome and another type of molecule called


Plants also rely on proteins for their survival.
Precious proteins Their growth and many other essential activities
Why are proteins so important? Proteins form parts are regulated by hormones (such as auxins) and
of cells, regulate many cell activities and even help enzymes. Proteins such as chlorophyll are also
defend against disease. Your heart muscle tissue involved in capturing light energy, which is an
contains special proteins that can contract, enabling essential part of photosynthesis.
blood containing haemoglobin and hormones to
be pumped through your body. Haemoglobin is a
protein that carries oxygen necessary for cellular
Switched on or off?
respiration. Many hormones are proteins. Insulin, Different genes are responsible for different
glucagon and adrenaline, for example, are hormones characteristics, such as the colour of flower petals, the
that influence activities of your cells. Enzymes markings on a snail shell, or a person’s blood group
are also made up of protein and can be involved or eye colour. Every body cell in an organism has the
in regulating metabolic activities such as those in same set of genes called a genome, but not all genes are
chemical digestion and respiration. Antibodies are active. Some have to be switched on to act and some
examples of proteins that play a key role in your have to be switched off at different stages in the life of
immune system in its defence against disease. a cell. This is why hairs do not grow on the stomach
lining and cheek cells do not grow on toenails.


REMEMBER (c) nitrogenous base, sugar, phosphate, deoxyribose,

1 Who am I? State the name(s) of the: ribose, DNA, RNA, uracil, thymine, guanine, cytosine,
(a) building blocks that make up DNA adenine
(b) three parts that make up nucleotides (d) DNA, mRNA, transcription, translation, amino acids,
(c) four possible types of nitrogenous bases in DNA protein.
(d) four possible types of nitrogenous bases in RNA 6 For the DNA code below, suggest the (a) corresponding
(e) complementary base that pairs with thymine in DNA mRNA strand and (b) amino acids.
(f )complementary base that pairs with adenine in RNA TAC CAT CGG CCA ATG ACG CGG CGG ATT
(g) sequence of three nucleotides in DNA that code for 7 All cells of a particular living thing, such as a spider, have
an amino acid the same sets of genetic instructions, but not all of that
(h) sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that code organism’s cells have the same structure and function.
for an amino acid Suggest what causes this and why cell specialisation is
(i) two steps in protein synthesis so important.
(j) site of protein synthesis
(k) set of genes within a cell of an organism. THINK AND DISCUSS
2 Construct a Venn diagram or matrix table to summarise 8 Copy and complete the Venn diagram below using the
the similarities and differences between: following terms: thymine, uracil, deoxyribose, ribose,
(a) DNA and RNA double-stranded, single-stranded, triplets, codons,
(b) transcription and translation adenine, guanine, cytosine, phosphate, nucleic acid.
(c) nucleic acids and amino acids
(d) codons and triplets.
3 What is meant by the base-pairing rule? Use a diagram
in your response.
4 Explain the importance of protein synthesis.
5 Construct flowcharts, diagrams or concept maps to
show connections or links between the following terms: Nitrogenous
(a) cells, DNA, nucleotides, nucleus base
(b) nitrogenous base, sugar, phosphate, nucleic acid,

9 Copy and complete the Venn diagram below using the INVESTIGATE
following terms: nucleus, protein, mRNA, ribosome, DNA, 13 With increased knowledge and understanding, previous
mRNA, protein, mRNA, mRNA. metaphors used to describe DNA are increasingly
appearing to be less accurate in describing its
complexities. The double helix, for example, describes its
shape but not its function.
Location: Location: (a) Find out more about two of the metaphors below and
suggest reasons why each is becoming less useful.
Product: • Double helix • Computer code of life
message message
• Chemical building block • Symphony of life
transcribed into translated into
• Alphabet of life • Blueprint
• Book of life
(b) In six words or less, suggest a metaphor that could
be used to communicate what DNA is all about —
especially to those who do not have a background
Transcription Translation in Biology. Provide reasons to support the use of
your metaphor.
CREATE 14 James Watson (co-discoverer of the structure of DNA)
and Craig Venter were both involved in investigating
10 Design and make a model showing a simplified
the human genome.
structure of DNA. Decide whether you wish to make a
(a) Find out more about science as a eBook plus
3D or a 2D (flat) representation.
human endeavour by following
(a) What kinds of materials could you use in your
their two different stories of genome exploration,
what they have in common, and how and why
(b) Evaluate your model. What does it show or do well?
they clash. Start by clicking on the James Watson
What is it not able to show or do well? weblink in your eBookPLUS.
11 Devise a role-play that demonstrates the way proteins (b) Use the DNA ownership weblink in your eBookPLUS
are formed. to watch an interview with James Watson in
12 Rhymes such as the one below help us remember new which he raises some interesting issues about the
information. Read or sing it, spelling out the triplets and ownership of scientific discoveries that are worth
codons with your fingers. Create your own rhyme about reflecting on and discussing with other students.
protein synthesis. 15 Scientists have discovered a gene switch that has
restored youthful vigour to ageing failing brains in
DNA is in my genes rats. Results from investigations suggest an on switch
for genes involved in learning. Injection of an enzyme
Tells me how to make proteins
enables them to flip the switch on and improve the
Got my genes from Mum and Dad
learning and memory performance of older mice. Find
Mixed them up and made me glad
out more about this type of research or other research
DNA is in my genes that involves switching on genes.
Tells me how to make proteins.
16 Draw a timeline to show the rate
of identification of human genes. eBook plus
DNA bases read times three
Always starting with TAC A computer database called OMIM
(On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man) keeps a regular
mRNA codon would be AUG
update. Use the OMIM weblink in your eBookPLUS to
DNA triplets tell the story of me
access the OMIM website.
DNA bases read times three
17 Read section 1.6 in this book and also use other sources
Always starting with TAC.
to research two scientists who contributed to the
ATT, ACT, ATC discovery of the double helix model of DNA. Write a
Stop making proteins for me brief account of their work.
mRNA codons for this would be 18 Investigate further discoveries that have been made
UAA, UGA, UAG about DNA. Construct a timeline to share the who, what
ATT, ACT, ATC and when of your findings.
Stop making proteins for me. work 2.2 DNA



Who do you think you are?

You are very special. You have your Human
Homo sapiens
very own unique DNA sequence. You Fruit fly
have inherited this sequence from your Drosophila
ancestors. You are a human. melanogaster

Where are your genes?

Much of who and what you are is determined
by your genes. Genes determine many of the
traits and characteristics that make you, you.
A gene is a segment of double-stranded DNA
When was your genome map sequenced?
that contains information that codes for the
production of a particular protein or function.
Located on specific chromosomes, humans Brewer's
possess around 20 000–24 000 genes within their Nematode worm yeast
cells. The position occupied by the gene on the Caenorhabditis Saccharomyces
chromosome is called its locus. Genes that are elegans cerevisiae
located on the same chromosome are described
as being linked. flies about 160 million base pairs and brewer’s yeast
around 12 million.
Human chromosome 7
Total number of genes: approx. 1440
The Human Genome Project
Broadly speaking, the Human Genome Project
(HGP) was an international investigation involved
Polydactyly in identifying, sequencing and studying the
genetic instructions within humans. Now that
the information has been obtained, how can it be
interpreted and further analysed? What are some of
the applications of this new knowledge? What are
The locus for the cystic fibrosis
the potential benefits? What are the ethical, social
Susceptibility to heart disease gene is on chromosome 7.
Polydactyly, cystic fibrosis and and political issues that may arise?
Cystic fibrosis one form of colour blindness are
One form of colour blindness linked genes — they are located JUST THE INGREDIENTS
on the same chromosome.
It was anticipated that once we had the human
genome sequenced, many mysteries would be
Genome maps unfolded, answers to ancient riddles would be
unlocked and a new understanding of who we are
The total set of genes within an individual or cell is would be unwrapped. Unfortunately, rather than an
referred to as its genome. The study of genomes is explosion of wonder and explanation, the sequencing
called genomics. Genome maps describe the order only promoted more questions. Just like knowing the
of genes and the spacing between them on each ingredients for a cake or the components that make
chromosome. The genome size is often described in up a car, we had the list, but not the delicious cake or
terms of the total number of base pair (or bp). The the speeding racing car.
total genome size for organisms varies considerably: The Human Genome Project and the sequencing
humans have about three billion base pairs, fruit of other organisms revealed that the same homeotic

and other regulatory genes that caused a fly to be
a fly were also used to make a human a human.
Parts of our genome were found to be virtually T h e c a se fo r ge n e
interchangeable with those of our close primate p a te n ts
‘cousins’. The source of our diversity was not
Patents are an essenti
articulated. Rather than revealing the source of our al incentive for
investment in research
diversity and uniqueness, our genome brought us .
Australasian Science,
closer to that of other life on Earth. March 2011

While the Human Genome Project and its
technologies have provided us with information
about the structure of DNA, perhaps it should be
considered only part of the story. To understand
more about its function, we may need to know
more about the DNA of our ancestors. Maybe there
regulation c
save persona
are environmental triggers that switch on or off
particular genes? If some of these involve lifestyle
triggers, then could we be affected by the events
genome scann
not kill it
that our ancestors experienced? A new field called
epigenetics suggests that this may be the case. This end of
beginning of the
idea suggests that chemical changes can occur as a Are we witnessing
no m ics’?
result of environmental exposures and experiences ‘personal ge New Scientist, 31
Ju ly 2010
that modify the DNA to a switched on or switched
off form and that these changes can be inherited.
This theory suggests that experiences of your
great grandmother, for example, may have led to the
switching on or off of particular genes of hers, and
the modified gene(s) may have been inherited by her
descendants. Will you be involved
G in activities or events that change L IV E LO N G A N D P R
which of your genes are switched O S P E R , IF
G on, and then pass these genes in
this form to future generations? If a genome test L ET Y O U
A coul d predict your
odds of living to
G 100, would you
know? want to
Gene sequencing New Scientist, 10
July 2010
G Gene sequencing involves
G the identification of the order
T of nucleotides along a gene.
T DNA sequencers use four
T different-coloured fluorescent
G dyes (each binding to A, T, C
or G in DNA) to identify the
nucleotide sequence as it builds a
complementary copy to the DNA S y n t h e t i c g e n
w h a t n ell rexprtes?ents a small step with
template sample provided. An
example of the output of a DNA
sequencer is shown at left. Our artificial ce
G giant potentia 29 May 2010
G New Scientist,

Laser Computer DNA sequencers identify the base sequence

signal output of sections of a DNA fragment.


• Mouse and human genomes both have about • Our genome is almost 20 times the size of that of the
three billion bases, of which only three per cent fruit fly and contains far more ‘junk’ DNA.
code for functional genes. The rest is considered to • Of the 289 human disease genes that researchers have
be ‘junk’ DNA. looked for in the fruit fly’s DNA sequence, they have
• Since mice and humans diverged from a common located close matches for 60 per cent of them.
ancestor millions of years ago, most of the DNA that • Is this ‘junk’ DNA really junk? Could it have a purpose?
codes for functional genes has remained similar, What have we found out about how it? Does having
whereas the ‘junk’ DNA has mutated and is now more or less junk make a difference?
extremely different.


REMEMBER (c) Suggest a reason why they all use the same letters
1 Define the following terms: gene, locus, linked, genome, in their genetic coding system.
gene sequencing, gene map, genomics.
2 Describe the relationship between the following terms. Type of
(a) Gene, chromosome, locus, linked organism Section of gene sequence
(b) Gene, genome, genomics, genome map
(c) Gene, gene sequencing, nucleotides, nitrogenous Duck TAG GGG TTG CAA TTC AGC ATA GGG ATC
bases, DNA
3 Now that the human genome has been mapped, Human TTG TGG TTG CTT TTC ACC ATT GGG TTC
suggest three questions that could be asked.
4 Did the sequencing of the human genome answer our
questions about why humans were unique? Explain.
7 Who do you think should know if you had a higher risk
THINK AND DISCUSS of dying from a genetic disorder in 15 years’ time?
5 Copy and complete the Venn diagram below using the 8 (a) Read each question on the signposts in the
following terms: gene, located, chromosome, same. illustration on the next page and record your
immediate response. Try to make up your mind.
What kinds of implications (for example, ethical,
legal, social) are associated with each question?
Location of Genes (b) In a group of about four, discuss each question.
on on In separate lists, record the arguments involved in
Genes the answering each question. Research additional
Chromosome information if necessary.
(c) Consider the arguments carefully, then each
person in the group should review their first set
of responses.
(d) Did you change your mind about any of your
responses? What factors influenced your decision?
Did any member of the group change their
Locus Linked response?
(e) If you were a different person involved in the
6 Different genetic instructions within and between debate, such as a parent or medical scientist, would
species are due to different nucleotide sequences in you give different responses? Explain.
their genes. The table above right shows part of the
sequences of different genes from various organisms.
(a) Suggest how they are similar.
9 Research and report on Craig Venter and Francis Collins
and their research on the human genome.
(b) Suggest how they are different.

10 Guidelines have been developed for companies in (a) State the species name of the pea aphid.
the US that supply ‘custom DNA’ or DNA sequences to (b) Identify how many base pairs were found in the
order. These guidelines have been introduced to make genome of the pea aphid.
it harder for bioterrorists to build dangerous viruses (c) Suggest what is meant by telescoping generations.
as potential bioweapons. There is concern, however, (d) Suggest why the relationship between the bacteria
that as these rules are voluntary and most custom mentioned may be described as symbiotic.
DNA is made outside the US, they may have limited (e) Describe a link between the bacterial genes and the
value. Find out more about custom DNA, bioterrorism aphid’s genome.
and bioweapons, and how these relate to gene (f ) Suggest how the information
sequencing. about the aphid’s genome may
be used to reduce its significance
as an agricultural pest.
12 Personal genome scans can provide
a lot of information about your
genetic disposition for particular
diseases and disorders. They do
not, however, always guarantee
that you will show the disease. Find
out more about the relationship
between genotype, phenotype and
environmental factors and how
these relate to the use, accuracy and
effectiveness of personal genome
13 If you had a personal genome scan
that suggested that you have a
25 per cent chance of developing
a disease, and if you were told that
environmental factors such as diet
and exercise were more important
that possession of the genes, how
would this affect your future lifestyle?
The Human Genome Project is both an exciting and a dangerous Explain why.
scientific journey. 14 Is bio the buzzword of the twenty-first century?
Research and report on at least two of the following.
(a) Biotechnology
11 In 2010, the genome of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon (b) Biomedicine
pisum) was published. It was found to have 464 million (c) Biomolecular scientist
base pairs. While pea aphids have economic (d) Biochemist
significance as an agricultural pest, their ability to use (e) Biophysicist
both sexual and asexual reproduction and evidence 15 Re-read the article headlines in this section and select
of ‘jumping genes’ makes this new information even two of them. Research the topics and share your
more exciting. When these aphids are reproducing findings with the class.
asexually, a female contains its children and, within 16 Research and report on phylogenomics.
them, its grandchildren! This multi-generational
state is called ‘telescoping generations’. Information INVESTIGATE AND CREATE
in the sequencing also revealed that some genes 17 Find out more about careers in genomics and genetic
from bacteria that live within them (and aid them by engineering, and research science fiction stories that
producing essential amino acids) have ‘jumped’ from include inheritance of interesting traits or genetic
the bacteria to the aphid’s genome. The finding that it engineering. Based on your research, construct your
lacked a number of immune system genes that other own story about how knowledge of genetics may
sequenced animals have shown may provide clues change our lives in the future. Create your own piece
to strategies that can be developed to reduce their of science fiction, incorporating these ideas. Share your
numbers in agricultural areas. work as a novel, animation or multimedia movie.



Dividing to multiply
All cells arise from pre-existing cells. That’s MITOSIS
pretty amazing when you really think What happens when skin wears away and damaged
about it! This means that all organisms tissues need repairing? How do seedlings grow into
living today originated from cells from the giant trees? How did you get to be so big? Throughout
past. The cells you are made up of come the life of multicellular organisms, mitosis is the type
from an unbroken line of cells. Where, of cell division that is used for growth, development,
repair and asexual reproduction.
when and who did your original cell come The cells produced by mitosis are genetically
from? identical to each other and to the original cell.
They have the same number of chromosomes and
DNA instructions. As they have identical genetic
Cell division in eukaryotes information, they are described as being clones of
Scientists are still grappling with many questions each other.
about the origin of life. Maybe you will be the one
to shed new light on some possible answers in the CYTOKINESIS
future? What we do know, however, is about two Mitosis is a process that involves division of the
key types of cell division. Mitosis is the type of cell nucleus. Once a cell has undergone this process the cell
division that is involved in growth, development and membrane pinches inwards so that a new membrane
repair of tissues. Some eukaryotic organisms also is formed, dividing the cell in two. This process of the
use mitosis for asexual reproduction. Organisms division of the cytoplasm is called cytokinesis.
involved in sexual reproduction also use another
type of cell division in their reproductive process COUNTING CHROMOSOMES
called meiosis.
Within the somatic cells (or body cells) of an
organism, there is usually a particular number of
NUCLEUS, CHROMOSOMES AND DNA chromosomes that is characteristic for their species.
All eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, which contains In humans, the total number of chromosomes in a
genetic information with instructions that are somatic cell is 46. These chromosomes appear as
necessary to keep the cell (and organism) alive. 23 pairs in each body cell. The term used to describe
This information is contained in structures called chromosomes in pairs is diploid, because there are
chromosomes, which are made up of a chemical two sets of chromosomes.
called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Our gametes (or sex cells), however, contain only
one set of chromosomes. They are referred to as
being haploid in number. You may see the
Cell Nucleus Chromosomes DNA symbol n used to identify the haploid number.
contains contains contain
The diploid number would be identified as
2n. How many sets of chromosomes do
Chromosome you think an organism would have

if it was identified as 4n

and tetraploid in










DNA is contained in the chromosomes, which are located in the nuclei of cells.

MEIOSIS The process of meiosis provides sexually
reproducing organisms with a source of variation.
Why do gametes only have one set of chromosomes?
One way in which it increases variation is in terms
If they didn’t, then each time the egg and sperm
of the number of combinations in which the
nuclei combined during fertilisation, the number
chromosomes could be divided up into the gametes.
of chromosomes in the next generation of cells
For example, given that humans have 23 pairs of
would double! For example, if each gamete had
chromosomes, there are around 8 388 608 (223)
46 chromosomes, the resulting cell after fertilisation
different possible ways to divide up these
would have 92 chromosomes.
chromosomes into each type of gamete.
Meiosis is the kind of nuclear division that
Another source of variation in meiosis is that
prevents the doubling of chromosomes at
of crossing over between chromosomes of each
fertilisation. It is a process in which the chromosome
pair. This results in a section of one chromosome
number is halved. In humans, that means the parent
swapping its genetic information with another.
cell that is to undergo meiosis would initially be
For example, genes that were once on a paternal
diploid (2n) and the resulting daughter cells or
chromosome can be transferred or crossed over onto
gametes produced by meiosis would be haploid.
a maternal chromosome and vice versa.

A key source of variation

w within a species can provide some
individuals with an increased chance (a)
of surviving over others. Depending on
the environment and selection pressures
at a particular time, different variations
may be advantageous. Lots of different
variations among individuals will mean
that there is more chance that some will
Nucleus divides Cytoplasm starts Two daughter
survive to reproduce. This improves the
by mitosis to divide cells formed
chances of the species surviving.


Each parent produces gametes by the
process of meiosis. Within each gamete
are chromosomes from each parent.
Chromosomes carried in the sperm are
referred to as paternal chromosomes,
and chromosomes from the ovum are Eukaryotic unicellular organisms
referred to as maternal chromosomes. such as (a) Amoeba and (b) Euglena
divide by binary fission involving
mitosis. Unlike meiosis, mitosis
Growth repair, Production produces identical cells.
replacement, of gametes
asexual reproduction (sex cells)

use use
Somatic (body) cells Reproductive organs
throughout Mitosis Cell division Meiosis e.g. gonads (ovaries,
organism occurs in type type occurs in testes), anthers
cells cells
produced produced

Identical to Different from

Mitosis and meiosis are two original cell and original cell and
types of cell division. to each other from each other


In humans, fertilisation occurs when a haploid gamete from
Parent cell each parent fuse together to form a diploid zygote. But
which sperm will fertilise the ovum? The identity of the lucky
sperm that will contribute its genetic information to the next
generation depends largely on chance. Depending on which
2 chromatids = sperm fertilises the egg, there are many different genetic
1 chromosome
combinations possible. This is another source of genetic
Chromosomes variation that can give sexually reproducing organisms an
have replicated increased chance of survival.
The zygote contains 23 paternal chromosomes from its
Chromatid father and 23 maternal chromosomes from its mother. Each
pair of chromosomes will consist of a chromosome from
each parent. The zygote divides rapidly by mitosis to form an
embryo that will also use this type of cell division to develop
Chromosomes align and grow. Each time this process occurs, cells with this
at the equatorial plate
complete new set of chromosomes will be produced.


Two daughter

Each daughter cell contains

the diploid (2n = 4)
number of chromosomes

Mitosis You are a product

of both meiosis and

1st Division 2nd Division

Parent cell Chromosomes Chromosomes align at Chromosomes Start of 2nd division 2 daughter cells
have replicated the equatorial plate. Some separate
chromosomes may swap
pieces (crossing over).

Meiosis: crossing over of genetic information between each pair of chromosomes is a source of variation in a species.

Boy or girl? X chromosome), the resulting Twins — or more!
When a friend or family member zygote will be male (XY). Likewise, Sometimes in the very early stages
is expecting a baby, one of the if the ovum is fertilised by an of division following fertilisation,
first questions people wonder X-carrying gamete, then a female clusters of a few cells develop into
or ask is whether it will be a boy (XX) will result. two separate individuals. If this
or a girl. Probability suggests happens, identical twins result as
that the answer is that there each cluster has the same genetic
is a 50 per cent chance either
HOW ABOUT THAT! makeup as the other.
way. This can be predicted The gender-determining Usually, only one ovum is
because it is determined by the factors of other animals can be released at a time. However, if
sex chromosome combination quite different from those of several are released, twins can
that the child receives when the humans. In birds, for example, it result from fertilisation by different
gametes from each parent fuse is the female that has different sperm. In this case, the babies are
together at fertilisation. sex chromosomes, Z and not identical because they have
Human somatic cells contain W, and the male has two Z different genetic makeups.
22 pairs of autosomes and a chromosomes. In some reptiles,
pair of sex chromosomes. The gender is determined by the
sex chromosomes in the body
temperature at which the egg is
cells of males and females differ.
kept rather than chromosomes.
While females contain a pair
The temperature of the sand
of X sex chromosomes, males
in which some crocodiles
contain one X and one Y sex Different (fraternal)
and turtles bury their eggs Identical twins
chromosome. Often this gender twins
can determine whether the
sex chromosome difference is
abbreviated, so that females are offspring will be male or female. Identical or fraternal twins — one sperm or more?
described as being XX and males
as being XY.
As a result of meiosis, gametes
Mother’s body cells Father’s body cells
will contain only one sex
chromosome. Human females 22 pairs of 22 pairs of
(XX) can only produce gametes autosomes autosomes
that contain an X chromosome. and 1 pair of and 1 pair of
Human males (XY), however, sex chromosomes sex chromosomes
will produce half of their gametes (XX) (XY)
with an X chromosome and the
other half with a Y chromosome. Meiosis Meiosis
So, if a gamete containing a
Y chromosome fuses with
the ovum (which contains an
Ova Sperm

Fertilisation Fertilisation

Chromatids 4 daughter cells

separate X X X Y
22 pairs of autosomes and
1 pair of sex chromosomes

Is the mother or father the key determiner of the gender of the child?


2 Analyse your data.
(a) Was your prediction supported or not?
What’s the chance? (b) Were the percentage results obtained for 50 tosses
KEY INQUIRY SKILLS: the same as or different from the total class results?
Suggest reasons for the similarities or differences.
• planning and conducting
3 If you tossed a coin a thousand times, would you obtain
• processing and analysing data and information
similar results?
Equipment: 4 What is the chance of obtaining heads each time you
20-cent coin toss the coin?
5 If heads represented a sperm carrying an X chromosome
• After reading the instructions and before you carry out and tails represented a sperm carrying a Y chromosome,
the experiment, predict the number of times you will suggest how this activity could link to the chances of a
toss heads and the number of times you will toss tails. male or female baby being conceived.
Give a reason for your prediction. 6 Suggest a strength of, a limitation of and an
• Toss a coin 50 times. Count the number of heads and improvement to this investigation.
tails and record the data in a table like the one at right.
• Calculate the percentage chance of obtaining heads Number Percentage Number Percentage
and the percentage chance of obtaining tails. of heads of heads of tails of tails
• Combine the results of the whole class and calculate Individual
the percentage chance of obtaining heads and tails. tosses
1 Draw a graph of your results. class result


(b) I reduce the number of chromosomes in the
daughter cells by half that of the parent cell.
REMEMBER (c) I describe the number of chromosomes in normal
1 Where does the cell theory suggest that cells come from? human somatic cells.
2 State the names of the two main types of cell division. (d) I describe the fusion of gametes.
3 List three functions of mitosis. (e) I describe the number of chromosomes in human
4 What is DNA an abbreviation of?
(f ) I am a type of cell division important for growth,
5 Use a flowchart to show the link between the terms repair and replacement.
DNA, cell, nucleus and chromosome.
9 Copy and complete the table below.
6 Describe the features of the offspring cells produced by
mitosis. Features
7 Distinguish between the following pairs of terms. Type of Where does of cells
(a) Cytokinesis and mitosis cell division Why use it? it occur? produced
(b) Mitosis and meiosis Mitosis
(c) Diploid and haploid Meiosis
(d) Ovum and sperm
(e) Maternal chromosomes and paternal chromosomes 10 With the use of a diagram, explain how the sex of a
(f ) Gamete and zygote human baby is determined.
(g) Fertilisation and meiosis 11 If a woman has already given birth to three boys, what
(h) Autosomes and sex chromosomes are her chances of having a girl?
(i) XY and XX 12 In many cultures throughout history, a woman has been
(j) Somatic cells and gametes blamed for not producing sons and has been divorced.
(k) Identical twins and fraternal twins From a biological point of view, could this be justified?
Explain your answer.
THINK AND DISCUSS 13 A few genetic traits, such as hairiness in ears, are due to
8 Who am I? genes carried on the Y chromosome. Would males and
(a) My other name is sex cell. females have the same chance of having the trait?

14 Copy and complete the Venn diagram, choosing INVESTIGATE
from the following terms: somatic, only, body, gonads, 18 In Science Quest 8 you were introduced to Bruno
gametes, anywhere, different, identical, chromosomes, Annetta, a scientist who communicates scientific
cell division, eukaryotes. concepts using animated cartoons. His cartoon
The Meiosis Square Dance provides a creative way of
helping you to learn about the stages of meiosis. Find
Production of Production of out more about this or other cell division animations
cells and then create your own cartoon to illustrate the
occurs occurs differences between mitosis and meiosis.
in . in . 19 How does the nucleus of a pollen grain of a flowering
plant reach the nucleus of the female ovum? Draw a
Offspring are Offspring are
clearly labelled diagram to show your findings. Research
to each from each
an example of a plant which can both self- and cross-
other and to other and from
pollinate. What is the advantage of this?
parent cell. parent cell.
20 Some kinds of plants — such as mosses and ferns —
and animals — such as water fleas and aphids — have
Mitosis Meiosis two stages in their life cycle. One is a sexual stage and
the other an asexual stage. Make a simple, labelled
15 The Y chromosomes of human males are shorter series of illustrations to describe one example.
than the X chromosomes. Would the same number of 21 (a) Use the internet to find out if there are similar
genes be carried by both chromosomes? Discuss your numbers or considerably more of one gender (boy
response. or girl) born in:
(i) Australia over recent years
THINK, ANALYSE AND DISCUSS (ii) China over recent years.
16 Figures (a)–(d) below show bluebell cells in various (b) Suggest reasons for any similarities or differences.
stages of mitosis. Suggest which order they should be
placed in.
22 The kind of job a man does can affect whether he produces
more or less Y sperm or any sperm at all. Chemicals and
(c) hormones washed into waterways or used in producing
(a) food can affect fertility. Research an example of an
environmental impact on fertility and report your findings.
Make sure you quote the sources of your information.
23 Work with a partner to design and construct a game
to help students learn the stages of mitosis or meiosis.
Play your game with other students to refine it. Suggest
(b) (d) how the games could be assessed and then have a class
competition for the most effective learning game.
24 There are many ‘old wives tales’ about increasing the
chances of having a boy or a girl. Try to find out about
some by asking older people in your family and by
other research. Present your findings in a PowerPoint
presentation, poster, newspaper article, visual thinking
17 Using the table below, suggest the possible effect of tool or poem.
increasing global temperatures on turtles, crocodiles 25 Complete the Mitosis and meiosis eBook plus
and lizards. interactivity in your eBookPLUS to
test your knowledge of the different processes of
Temperature control of sex in some reptiles
cell division, and challenge yourself to see if you can
Reptile Cold 20–27 èC Warm 28–29 èC Hot > 30 èC differentiate between mitosis and meiosis. int-0680

Turtle Male Male or female Female

26 To find out more about the different
eBook plus
types of cell division use the Mitosis
Crocodile Female Male Female and Meiosis weblinks in your
eBookPLUS. work
Lizard Female Male or female Male sheets 2.3 Mitosis
2.4 Meiosis



The next generation

Have you ever browsed through the INQUIRY: INVESTIGATION 2.3
family photo album and looked at family
members at different ages? Did any look How does the environment
like you? Which features do you share with affect phenotype?
them? Do certain characteristics seem to
appear and disappear from one generation KEY INQUIRY SKILLS:
to the next? How could this happen? • planning and conducting
• processing and analysing data and information

10 seedlings grown from cuttings of the same plant
potting mix in two small pots

• Plant five of the seedlings in pot A and five in pot B.

• Place pot A in a dark cupboard and pot B near a
• Leave the plants undisturbed for two weeks. Water
both pots with water when necessary. Ensure you use
the same amount of water for both plants. After two
weeks compare the plants in both pots.
Some characteristics are passed from generation to generation.
1 Write an aim for this experiment.
From one generation to 2 Copy and complete the following table:

the next Pot A Pot B

Number of seedlings that are
The passing on of characteristics from one still alive
generation to the next is called inheritance. The
Colour of leaves
study of inheritance involves a branch of science
called genetics. These characteristics or features Average height of seedlings
are examples of your phenotype. Your phenotype Average number of leaves per
is determined by both your genotype and your seedling
environment. Your genotype is determined by genetic 3 Explain how you calculated the average number of
information in the chromosomes that you received in leaves and the average height of the seedlings.
the gametes of your parents. 4 In this experiment:
(a) what is the independent variable
IT’S NOT ALL ABOUT YOUR GENES! (b) what is the dependent variable
(c) which environmental factors were controlled?
Environmental factors contribute to characteristics
that make up your phenotype. Your weight, for 5 Why is it important to use seedlings grown from
example, although influenced by genetic factors, cuttings of the same plant for this experiment?
is also influenced by what you eat and how active 6 Why were five seedlings planted in each pot?
you are. Exposure to and use of chemicals in your 7 Construct graphs of your data.
environment (such as pollution, hair dyes, tanning 8 Comment on observed patterns in your data.
lotions and make-up), stress, intensity of sunlight 9 Explain why this experiment demonstrates that
and temperature ranges are other examples of environmental factors play a part in determining the
environmental factors that can contribute to your phenotype of an organism.

diagram, the expression of the gene for eye colour
A product of chance is shown. The allele for brown eyes is denoted as a
The similarities and differences in how you look capital letter B, because it is the dominant trait. The
compared to your relatives are partly due to chance. allele for blue eyes has been denoted by a lower case
Chance was involved in which of the many sperm letter b, because this trait is recessive to the brown
produced by your father fertilised your mother’s eye trait. If the allele for a dominant trait is present,
ovum. it will always be expressed. The recessive trait is
When fertilisation takes place, the zygote receives hidden in the presence of the dominant trait and can
a pair of each set of chromosomes, the maternal be expressed only if the allele for the dominant trait
and paternal chromosomes. Located within is not present.
these chromosomes are the genes for particular
characteristics. In the family generations diagram
below, the inheritance of the gene for eye colour
Mix and match
is illustrated. There are two different eye colours The combination of the alleles that you have for
shown. These alternative forms or expressions of a a particular gene is called your genotype. If your
gene are called alleles. alleles for that gene are the same (e.g. BB or bb),
then you are described as homozygous (or pure
breeding) and if they are different (e.g. Bb) then
Hide and seek you are heterozygous (or hybrid) for that trait.
The mixing of your parents’ chromosomes at A genotype of BB can be described as homozygous
fertilisation resulted in two alleles for each gene dominant while a genotype of bb can be described
coming together. Each of these alleles can be as homozygous recessive. So the genotype has
described using a letter. In the family generations to do with the combination of alleles present; the
term phenotype describes the expression of the trait
(e.g. brown or blue eyes).
Davis family Swift family
BB bb bb bb

Homozygous Homozygous
Ken Margaret Kevin Gwenda dominant recessive

BB Bb bb
Bb Bb Bb Bb bb bb bb bb

You have a particular combination of alleles in your genotype.

Merrin Stuart Sharon Geoff Linda Ben Martin Michael

Are you a carrier?
The term carrier refers to someone who is
bb Bb bb bb heterozygous for a particular trait and carries the
allele for the recessive trait (such as the alleles for
blue eyes or red hair). Generally people are not
aware of being a carrier because it is not shown
in their phenotype. They may, however, have
Sarah Genevieve Bree Cameron children that show the recessive trait. Can you
suggest how two brown-eyed parents (dominant
The letters B and b can be used to represent the genetic code for eye colour trait) could have a child that has blue eyes
in the Davis and Swift families.
(recessive trait)?


• Use the instructions provided in your eBook plus
Genetics database eBookPLUS to create an Access
database where you will enter the data
KEY INQUIRY SKILLS: you collected and run a query on the database.
• planning and conducting
• processing and analysing data and information
1 The database you created contains only a small amount
• Copy and complete the table below. Enter data for of data so using a query to search for particular data did
10 students in the table. You may need to refer to the not save time (it probably took you more time to set up
pictures below to work out what each characteristic the query than it would have taken to look through the
means. data manually!). Can you think of examples of databases
that contain so much information that it would take days
Name of student to search the data manually?
Widow’s peak? 2 Does your school keep a computerised database of student
details? What type of information is kept in the database?
Can roll tongue?
Right thumb over left
when clasping hands?
Cleft chin?
Right handed?
Ear lobes attached?
When you clasp your hands, is Do you have a smooth or cleft
Gap between front your right or left thumb on top? chin (shown above)?
Hair naturally
Colour blind?

Are your ear lobes detached (left) or attached (right)?

Do you have a widow’s peak (left) or a straight hairline (right)?

If you cannot see the number

47 in the picture above, you
Do you have a gap between your front teeth? Can you roll your tongue? could be colour blind.

Genes for You will find that there may be variations in the
eye colour definitions of the terms recessive, dominant,
Cell- Cell-
codominance and incomplete dominance in various
producing producing
gametes gametes
texts and resources. New technologies and new
knowledge can modify how we see, understand and
communicate our knowledge. This eventually results in
Male Female the creation, modification or replacement of terminology
( ) ( ) and theories that are used by a majority or enforced by
gametes gametes those with the highest authority or persuasion.
Paternal Maternal
chromosome chromosome Heterozygotes and
types of inheritance
Alleles on chromosomes inherited from each of your parents contribute to
your genotype. type of inheritance

Degrees of dominance Complete dominance

In complete dominance, the expression of one trait R = red flower
is dominant over the other. This results in both the r = white flower
homozygous dominant and heterozygous genotypes
being expressed as the same phenotype. There are Codominance Incomplete dominance
two other types of inheritance, in which neither genotype of
IA = blood group A R or CR = red flower
allele is dominant over the other. In codominance, IB = blood group B W or CW = white flower
the heterozygote has the characteristics of both
parents. An example of this type of inheritance is genotype of
seen in the human blood groups. In incomplete heterozygote
dominance, the heterozygotes show a phenotype
that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the Rr IA IB RW or CRCW
homozygotes. An example of this type of inheritance
is seen in the flower colour of snapdragons. phenotype of phenotype of
heterozygote heterozygote
Donor’s blood
O A B AB Red flower Blood group AB Pink flower

The phenotype of the heterozygote can indicate the type of inheritance.


Patient’s blood


The inheritance of the human ABO blood groups is by codominance. The type of blood group you have determines who you can
donate or receive blood from. Which blood type are you? Are you the same blood type as either of your parents?


Both codominance and incomplete dominance can
be considered examples of partial dominance. The
Dominant trait Recessive trait
common feature of these types of inheritance is that
the heterozygote will show or express a phenotype
that is different from the phenotype of an individual
with either homozygous genotype.
Stem length
Parent flower Parent flower tall short
R R W W colour
yellow green
round wrinkled
Gametes Gametes
(pollen R R W W (pollen Seed
or ova) or ova) coat colour
grey white
R W R W R W R W inflated constricted

Offspring (flowers which have alleles for red and white are pink) Pod
Incomplete dominance can result in offspring that express a phenotype green yellow
not observed in either parent.

Another area of confusion is to do with the position
terms recessive and dominance. Some texts and
resources will abbreviate ‘the allele for the recessive flowers along length of stem flowers at top of stem
and dominant trait or phenotype’ as ‘recessive
allele and dominant allele’. In terms of biology,
Pea plants showing the characteristics Mendel used in his experiments
it is increasingly accepted that the expression of
the genotype as a particular phenotype is what is
dominant or recessive, rather than the allele itself. If you continue on with senior
Biology, it is important for you to
check which of these definitions
Make meticulous Parents (pure-breeding)
fertilisation your authorities assess by.
observations and records First generation — hybrids

Mendel’s memos
Parents from
Second generation
able to (F2)
ratio = 3 : 1

Gregor Mendel (1822–1884),

an Austrian monk, carried out
Large sample used Mendel’s used Peas: fast growing and experiments on pea plants in a
size experiments short generation time monastery garden for 17 years.
His work was unknown for
about 35 years. When it was
able to discovered in 1900, he became
known as the ‘father of genetics’.
Mendel’s experiments Control and monitor From his experiments, Mendel
were well designed was able to explain patterns
which plants were crossed Transfer of pollen
and his record-keeping with a brush
was meticulous.
of inheritance of certain

Why did Mendel use pea plants and not He worked out that if many pure-breeding tall
cabbages? Pea plants are easily grown in large and short plants were crossed and then the first
numbers and they have easily identifiable generation (F1 generation) was also crossed, the
characteristics that have either/or alternatives. ratio of tall to short plants would be about 3 : 1. He
Mendel could control their breeding by taking repeated these experiments many times using the
pollen from a particular pea plant and putting it on other characteristics of the pea plants and came up
the stigma of another. Pea plants can also be self- with similar ratios. This is called the monohybrid
pollinated. ratio.
Mendel crossed a pure-breeding tall plant with a
pure-breeding short plant. A plant is pure breeding RR WW
for a characteristic if it has not shown the alternative
characteristic for many generations.
Mendel showed the factor for shortness had
not disappeared because when he crossed the
tall offspring (called the F1 generation) with each
other, about a quarter of those offspring (called
the F2 generation) were short. He called shortness
a recessive factor
because it was
hidden or masked in
the F1 generation.
A plant is a hybrid
if it has parents with
both alternatives, RW RW RW RW RW RW
such as tallness
and shortness, for
a characteristic.
We now know that
Mendel’s ‘factors’ are
genes. The alternative
forms of the factors
are alleles.
Mendel bred RR RR RW RW WW WW
plants for single
characteristics Suggest how red-, white- and pink-flowered offspring can result from
Gregor Mendel
such as height. pink-flowered parents.


REMEMBER (i) Carrier and recessive trait

1 Distinguish between the following pairs of terms. (j) Dominance and codominance
You may wish to use symbols, visual thinking tools or (k) Maternal and paternal chromosomes
diagrams in your responses. (l) Pure breeding and hybrid
(a) Inheritance and genetics 2 Describe the difference between the phenotypes of a
(b) Genotype and phenotype heterozygous individual for a trait that shows complete
(c) Chromosomes and gametes dominance and for a trait that shows codominance.
(d) Fertilisation and zygote 3 State how many alleles there are on a homologous pair
(e) Genes and alleles of chromosomes for a particular trait. Provide a reason
(f ) Dominant trait and recessive trait for your response.
(g) Homozygous and heterozygous 4 Suggest four strengths in the design of Mendel’s
(h) Homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive experiments.


THINK AND DISCUSS 10 Copy and complete the Venn diagram below using the
5 Suggest why the ability to self-pollinate and cross- following terms: dominant phenotype, brown eyes, both
pollinate was an advantage for the pea plants in phenotypes, blood type A, blood type B, blue eyes.
Mendel’s experiments.
6 (a) Suggest the phenotype of a pea plant that showed:
(i) dominant traits for seed colour, shape and coat Type of
colour expressed in expressed in
(ii) recessive traits for stem length and flower heterozygote heterozygote
position If B = phenotypes If IA =
(iii) dominant trait for pod texture, but recessive b= IB =
trait for pod colour. then alleles then
(b) Devise a simple table to include the phenotype Bb = brown eyes IAIB = blood type AB
and genotype for the trait of each plant. Use
an appropriate letter to match each of the
characteristics Mendel studied. Complete
7 Mendel obtained a ratio of 3 tall : 1 short plants in the Codominance
offspring when he crossed pure-breeding tall and short
plants. Convert this monohybrid ratio of 3 : 1 into a: 11 Construct a Venn diagram with the headings
(a) fraction ‘Determined by genetics’ and ‘Determined by
(b) percentage. environmental factors’, and then place the following
8 Suggest the colour(s) of snapdragon flowers that you terms in the most appropriate category: eye colour,
would expect in the offspring of a red-flowered plant tattoo, skin colour, cleft chin, freckles, colour blind, hair
and a pink-flowered plant. colour, scar, widow’s peak.
9 Refer to the Davis family tree diagram below to answer
the following questions. THINK, DISCUSS AND CREATE
(a) Could the parents of the Davis family, Ken and 12 On your own, in pairs or in teams, create a rhyme, song
Margaret, ever have offspring with blue eyes? or poem that effectively uses as many of the key terms
Explain your answer. in this section as possible. An example is shown below.
(b) Suggest why all of Geoff and Linda’s children do not Add movements or actions for each line and share it
have blue eyes. with your class.
BB bb
Alleles are alternative forms of genes
Sometimes showing, sometimes behind the scenes
Genotypes are made up of two of them
Ken Margaret Homozygotes have two the same
Heterozygotes have one of each kind
From each parent, alleles you will find.
Bb Bb Bb Bb
13 Investigate one of these genetic conditions:
Huntington’s disease, Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis,
fragile X syndrome, PKU. Briefly describe the disease.
Merrin Stuart Sharon Geoff Linda
Is it dominant or recessive?
14 Complete the Making families eBook plus
interactivity in your eBookPLUS.
Challenge yourself to complete the
bb Bb bb bb family — mother, father and offspring — that
demonstrates each dominance type as it appears
on-screen. int-0681
sheets 2.5 Dominant and recessive
Sarah Genevieve Bree Cameron 2.6 Mendel’s experiments


What are the chances?

Selecting a mate can be one of the most recessive trait (e.g. b). If the type of inheritance is
crucial decisions in your life. This selection incomplete or codominant, then different letters
are used to represent them (e.g. R and W or IA
process involves both conscious and
and IB ). The sex chromosomes are included when
unconscious choices. Next time you look at an X-linked trait is involved (e.g. XB Xb and XB Y).
that special person, take a really good look.
One day you might be mixing your genes
together! What might the result be?
What is the chance?
The chances of having offspring that show particular
traits will depend on their type of inheritance; that is,
Predicting possibilities whether they are inherited by complete dominance,
codominance, incomplete dominance or sex-linked
Reginald Punnett (1875–1967) was a geneticist who
supported Mendel’s ideas. He repeated Mendel’s
experiments with peas and also did his own genetic
experiments on poultry. Punnett is responsible for
designing a special type of diagram, which is named Remember Linda Swift and Geoff Davis from
after him. A Punnett square is a diagram that is section 2.5? The inheritance
used to predict the outcome of a genetic cross. of eye colour was
A Punnett square shows which alleles for a shown in their family.
particular trait are present in the gametes of each Inheritance of brown
Geoff Linda
parent. It then shows possible ways in which these eyes was dominant to
can be combined. The alleles in each of the parent’s the inheritance of blue
genotypes for that trait are put in the outside squares eyes. The diagrams
and then multiplied together to show the possible below show that Geoff bb Bb bb bb
genotypes of the offspring. has brown eyes (Bb),
Linda has blue eyes (bb)
PUNNETT RULES and their children have
either brown or blue
When using a Punnett square for a dominant/ Sarah Genevieve Bree Cameron
recessive inheritance, you use a capital letter for the
allele of the dominant trait (e.g. B ) and a lower-case
version of the same letter for the allele for the

Punnett square for Bb × Bb Linda Geoff Genevieve Cameron

B = allele for brown eyes
b =allele for blue eyes Chromosomes
and genes for
Father In a Punnett eye colour
Possible square, alleles
gametes B b
from each
B BB Bb parent’s

b Bb bb are used to Genotype bb Bb Bb bb
Offspring probabilities the possible Phenotype Blue eyes Brown eyes Brown eyes Blue eyes
genotypes and
Genotype: 1_4 BB: 1_2 Bb: 1_4 bb
phenotypes of
Phenotype: 3_4 brown eyes: 1_4 blue eyes the offspring. The inheritance of blue eyes is recessive to the inheritance of brown eyes.


But how were the alleles from each parent
inherited? The mix of alleles that Linda and Geoff
contributed to Genevieve and Cameron’s genetic
make-up can also be shown in the format below.
There is an
Linda’s eggs element
of chance
in why you
are you!
1 1
– b – b
2 2
edigrchats PPedigree charts
A diagram that shows a family’s relationships
and how characteristics are passed on from one
Geoff ‘s sperm

1 1 1 generation to the next is a pedigree chart. A

– B – Bb brown – Bb brown pedigree chart for Linda and Geoff’s family is shown
2 4 4
below. Instructions on how to draw your own
pedigree chart are on the next page.

Linda Geoff
1 1 1
– b – bb blue – bb blue
2 4 4

Each parent contributes alleles to the genotype of their offspring.

Genevieve Cameron
This can be more simply written as a Punnett
square. Key

Punnett square Bb × bb = Female with blue eyes = Female without trait

B = allele for brown eyes
b = allele for blue eyes = Male with blue eyes = Male without trait
gametes B b
Each child has an independent chance of inheriting a particular trait.
b Bb bb

b Bb bb Punnett squares
show us the What is your blood type?
Offspring probabilities chance of offspring
Do you know which type of blood you have flowing
Genotype: 1_2 Bb: 1_2 bb particular through your capillaries? The inheritance of blood
Phenotype: 1_2 brown eyes: 1_2 blue eyes combinations. types A, B, AB and O are determined by the ABO gene.

This tells us that the chance of producing a child MULTIPLE ALLELES

with the combination Bb (heterozygote) is 2 out of There are three different alleles for the ABO gene.
4 or 2 , and the chance of producing the combination Two of these carry instructions to make a particular
bb (homozygous recessive) is 2 out of 4 or 2 . Hence, type of protein called an antigen; the other does
each of Linda and Geoff’s children have a 50 per cent not. The types of antigens coded for by the alleles
chance of having blue eyes and a 50 per cent chance are different. One allele codes for antigen A and
of having brown eyes. All of their children could the other codes for antigen B. If you possess both
have had blue eyes or all brown eyes. It is important of these alleles, then you have the instructions to
to note that the chance of inheritance calculated for produce both antigen A and antigen B. This is an
one child is not dependent on the inheritance of example of codominant inheritance because both
another. blood types are expressed in the heterozygote.

If you refer to the ABO gene as I, then the allele
• antigen A could be referred to as IA
1. To show the gender of an individual: • antigen B could be referred to as IB
• neither antigen could be referred to as i.
a square is used to represent a male The ability to make antigen A or B is shown as a
capital letter because it is dominant to the inability to
a circle is used to represent a female. make either antigen (which is recessive and shown as
a lowercase letter).
Genotype and phenotype of blood groups
2. To show the marriage or breeding relationship between
individuals: Genotype Phenotype
a line connecting the male and female is used I AI A Blood type A
to represent a breeding couple or marriage. Ai
I Blood type A
IBI B Blood type B

3. To show the offspring relationships: I Bi Blood type B

I Blood type AB
a line from the breeding couple/marriage line
indicates children. ii Blood type O

For example,
Can you have a blood type different from both
an only child (in this case, of your parents? The answer is yes! The pedigree
a daughter) chart below shows Tom (blood type O) and his
wife Mallory (blood type AB) and their four
children. A Punnett square can be used to predict
the blood types that are possible for their children.
or two children (in this case, This calculates that each child has a 50 per cent
a daughter and son). chance of inheriting blood type A or blood type
B — blood types that neither parent possess.
What blood types do their children show in the
pedigree chart below? Can you suggest why 34 of
the children have blood type A, when their chance
of inheriting it was 12 ?
4. To show carriers of traits, the symbol may have a dot. Punnett square for IAIB × ii
IA = allele for blood type A
Female carrier Male carrier IB = allele for blood type B
i = allele for blood type O
It is important to note, however, that carriers’ symbols are not Mallory Tom
I AI B ii gametes IA IB
always dotted and may appear blank.
i I Ai I Bi

i I Ai I Bi
5. To show which individuals show a particular trait, an individual’s
symbol is shaded and this information is shown in a key next to
Offspring probabilities
the pedigree chart.
Genotype: 1_2 IAi: 1_2 IBi:
George Skye Haziq Andrew
Female with trait Male with trait Phenotype: 1_2 blood type A: 1_2 blood type B
I Ai I Ai I Ai I Bi

Female without trait Male without trait Depending on their inheritance of particular alleles, children can have
different blood types from their parents.


trait. The Punnett square shows the probabilities of
Sex-linked inheritance their children inheriting colour blindness. Which
The genes that have been considered so far children are colour blind? What were their chances
have been those on autosomes. The examples of inheriting colour blindness?
considered have shown autosomal inheritance. Heather Chris
The genes for some traits, however, are located XB Xb XB Y
on sex chromosomes. These traits are referred to
as being sex-linked and the type of inheritance
is called X-linked if they are located on the
X chromosome and Y-linked if they are located on
the Y chromosome. Because of the small size of the
Y chromosome it does not contain many genes, and
most examples of sex-linkage that you will come Graeme Angela Peter
across will be those of X-linkage.
= Colour blind female = Colour blind male
Haemophilia and some forms of colour blindness
are examples of X-linked recessive traits. This means
that females need to receive two alleles for the Being colour blind is an X-linked recessive trait.
recessive trait, whereas males need to receive only
one. This is why there is a greater chance of males
showing these traits than females. Punnett square XBXb × XbY
The genotype for X-linked traits includes the XB = allele for normal vision
sex chromosomes in its description. For example, b
X = allele for colour blindness
females may be heterozygous, XBXb, or homozygous,
XbXb or XBXB. Males, who possess only one gametes XB Xb
X chromosome, are hemizygous and would have the
Xb XB Xb Xb Xb
genotypes XBY or XbY. When stating the phenotypes
for X-linked traits it is important to also specify the Y XB Y Xb Y
person’s gender (e.g. colour blind male).
Offspring probabilities
COLOUR BLINDNESS Genotype: 1_4 XB Xb: 1_4 Xb Xb: 1_4 XB Y: 1_4 Xb Y
In the pedigree chart above right, Chris is colour Phenotype: 1_4 normal vision female: 1_4 colour blind female:
blind and, although Heather carries the colour 1_ normal vision male: _1 colour blind male
4 4
blindness allele, she also has the allele for normal
vision and so does not show this X-linked recessive
When writing out the phenotype of an X-linked trait, it is important to
also show the gender of the individual.

REMEMBER (c) three possible alleles

1 Describe the function of a Punnett square. (d) the type of inheritance
(e) the genotype of an individual with blood type O
2 Provide an example of a Punnett square. (f ) the genotype of an individual with blood type AB
3 Outline the differences between the symbols used to (g) the phenotype of an individual with genotype IAIA
identify the alleles in dominant/recessive inheritance, (h) the phenotype of an individual with genotype IBi.
codominance and sex-linked inheritance.
7 Distinguish between:
4 Describe the function of a pedigree chart. (a) autosomal inheritance and sex-linked inheritance
5 In a pedigree chart, what do the circles and squares (b) X-linked and Y-linked inheritance
represent? (c) X-linked recessive and X-linked dominant traits.
6 With regard to human blood type inheritance, identify: 8 Suggest why males have a greater chance of showing
(a) the gene involved an X-linked recessive trait than females.
(b) four possible blood types

ANALYSE, THINK AND DISCUSS 15 Can a father with blood type A and a mother with blood
9 Predict the probabilities of the phenotypes and type B have a child with blood type O? Explain.
genotypes of the offspring of: 16 What is the chance of Linda and Geoff, described in
(a) a homozygous brown-eyed parent and a blue-eyed this section, producing a child with the homozygous
parent dominant combination (BB )?
(b) two parents heterozygous for brown eyes. 17 Refer to the pedigree of the Jones
family in the diagram below. The
Punnett square for BB × bb Punnett square for Bb × Bb inheritance of broad lips (B; unshaded
B = allele for brown eyes B = allele for brown eyes individuals) is dominant to the
b =allele for blue eyes b = allele for blue eyes inheritance of thin lips (b; shaded
B B B b (a) How many females are shown in
the pedigree chart?
b B (b) How many males are shown in
the pedigree chart?
b b
(c) How many females have the thin
lips trait?
Offspring probabilities Offspring probabilities (d) Suggest the genotype of Maggy’s
Genotype: Genotype: parents.
Phenotype: Phenotype: (e) Suggest how Maggy inherited thin
lips, when her parents did not.
(f ) Suggest the genotypes of (i) Peter,
(ii) Kurt, (iii) George and (iv) Rebecca.
10 Refer to Chris and Heather’s family pedigree chart and
information on their inheritance of colour blindness
towards the end of this section.
(a) State the genotype for:
(i) Chris (ii) Heather.
(b) State the phenotype for:
(i) Chris (ii) Heather.
Maggy George Kurt Peter
(c) What is the chance of:
(i) Graeme having colour blindness
(ii) Peter having colour blindness
(iii) Angela having colour blindness?
(d) Is it possible for Peter to have a child who is colour Rebecca
blind? Explain.
18 The pedigree below traces the recessive trait of albinism
11 State the genotype of the following individuals. in a family. The shaded individuals lack pigmentation
(a) Heterozygous for blood type A
and are described as being albinos.
(b) Homozygous for blood type B
(c) Blood type O
(d) Blood type AB
12 If a man who was homozygous for blood type A (IA IA) Fred Wilma Barney Betty
had a child with a woman who had blood type O (ii ),
what would be the chance that the child would have:
(a) blood type A
(b) blood type B Joey Phoebe Lisa Rachel Ross Chandler
(c) blood type O?
13 If a child had blood type AB, suggest the possible
combinations of genotypes of the parents.
14 Determine the chance of a couple with blood types AB Monica Brad Amanda
and A having a child with:
(a) blood type A (c) blood type AB (a) List any observations from the pedigree that
(b) blood type B (d) blood type O. support albinism being a recessive trait.


(b) If the albinism allele was represented as n and (a) Find the probability (chance) of Sally (who is
normal skin pigmentation as N, state the possible homozygous for dwarf stature) and Tom (who has
genotypes for each of the individuals in the average stature) having a child with dwarf stature.
pedigree. (b) Find the probability of Fred (who is heterozygous
19 The pedigree below traces the dominant trait, a widow’s for dwarf stature) and Susy (who has average
peak, in a family. stature) having a child with dwarf stature.
(c) What is the chance of two parents who are both
ww Ww Ww ww heterozygous for free ear lobes having a child with
attached ear lobes?
Roger Liz Norm Rona (d) Michael is heterozygous for mid-digital hair,
whereas Debbie does not have mid-digital hair.
What is the chance of their children having
mid-digital hair?
Nick Sarah Rachael Jo Mark Gareth
21 What are some physical attributes of males that suggest
sexual potency and good genes?

Suzy Alex Ronnie

22 Suggest what the major histocompatibility complex has
to do with mate selection.
(a) List any observations from the pedigree that 23 (a) What is sexual selection? Give two examples.
support the widow’s peak being a dominant trait. (b) How is sexual selection different from natural
(b) If the widow’s peak allele was represented as W selection?
and the straight hairline as w, state the possible (c) Suggest implications of sexual selection for our
genotypes for each of the individuals in the species.
pedigree. (d) Suggest the possible impact of sexual selection on
(c) If Jo and Mark were to have another child, what your future reproductive life.
would be the chance of it having a widow’s peak?
(d) If Ronnie were to have a child with a man
24 While the science of love is still in its infancy, advances
in molecular biology and technology have increasingly
who did not have a widow’s peak, what is the
allowed us to peer through its window.
probability that their child would have a widow’s
(a) Find out examples of research on the chemistry of
love or love potions.
(e) If Norm and Rona were to have another child, what
(b) Do you believe that this research should be
is the probability that they would have a child
continued? Give reasons.
without a widow’s peak?
(c) Suggest possible issues that may arise with the
20 Use the dominant and recessive table below and knowledge obtained and its possible applications.
Punnett squares to assist you in answering the (d) Discuss if, how and who should regulate or control
following questions. this type of research.

Dominant trait Recessive trait 25 Increasing numbers of people are finding love and their
partners on the internet.
Free ear lobes Attached ear lobes (a) What is your opinion on this?
(b) Discuss your opinion with others in your team.
Mid-digital hair present Mid-digital hair absent (c) Discuss the use of internet dating from biological,
Normal skin pigmentation Pigmentation lacking cultural, social and ethical viewpoints and construct
(albinism) a PMI chart to summarise your discussion.
26 Use the Careers weblink in your
Non-red hair Red hair eBookPLUS and choose one of the eBook plus
Rhesus-positive (Rh +ve) Rhesus-negative (Rh –ve) scientists profiled. Assess whether
blood blood you would like to do this person’s job when you
are older. In your answer you should include a brief
Dwarf stature Average stature description of the type of work involved and some
(achondroplasia) reasons why you may or may
not want to do this job. work 2.7 Pedigrees
Widow’s peak Straight hairline sheet


Changing the code


Errors or changes in DNA, genes or chromosomes can
have a variety of consequences. These genetic mistakes A T
are called mutations. G T
of the paired strands. A new T Old A
complementary DNA strand AT Old TA
is made for each original DNA GC CG
strand. This results in the GC
formation of two new double- CG
stranded DNA molecules, each TA AT
New CG
containing one new DNA strand TA
TA New
and one original DNA strand. AT
This model of DNA replication GC
is called the semi-conservative
model because it has conserved
one of the old DNA strands in Arrows denote direction of synthesis.
each new double-stranded DNA
DNA replication is semi-conservative. In the new
molecule. DNA there is one old and one new DNA strand.
The process of DNA replication
has a number of check points
As a result of the thinning of
to check for any mistakes that
the ozone layer in the atmosphere,
may be made, so that they can
we are exposed to increasing
be corrected or destroyed.
amounts of UVB radiation that
Sometimes, however, the mistakes
can damage (or mutate) our DNA.
get through this screening
This can lead to the development
process. When this happens, we
of skin cancers. Protective
say that a mutation has occurred.
clothing and sunscreens can
help reduce our exposure to this
Mutagenic agents dangerous, potentially mutagenic
environmental radiation.
Mutations can happen by chance
or have a particular cause.
When the cause of the mutation
cannot be identified it is called
Polydactyly (having more than 10 fingers and
toes) is usually due to a DNA mutation. a spontaneous mutation,
and when it can be identified
it is referred to as an induced
DNA replication mutation.
A factor that triggers mutations
DNA is very stable and can in cells is called a mutagen or
be replicated into exact copies mutagenic agent. Examples
of itself. This process is called of mutagenic agents include
DNA replication and enables radiation (e.g. ultraviolet radiation,
genetic material to be passed on nuclear radiation and X-rays) and Chemicals such as benzene can bind to DNA
and cause mutations. Some mutations can
unchanged from one generation some chemical substances such as
result in uncontrolled cell division, which can
to the next. DNA replication formalin and benzene (which used result in cancerous tumours.
begins with the ‘unzipping’ to be common in pesticides).


Deletion: DNA is being copied. This
I will send a f r iend to collect the jewellery. means that the instructions
carried by the code are not
followed exactly. This may be
the result of an incorrect pairing
Insertion: of bases; the substitution
She said, ‘Talk, stalk, that’s all you do’. of a different nucleotide; or
the deletion, inversion or
insertion of a nucleotide.
The consequence of such a
Inversion: point mutation is that it can
The guerrillas are sending change the genetic message.
ar ms to the rioters. This may result in a different
amino acid being coded, leading
Just like changing letters in a word can change its meaning, changes in the DNA sequence can change to the production of a different
the meaning of the genetic code. or non-functional protein. This
can have consequences to the
phenotype of the organism.
serious effect on health. In
Errors in the code other cases, the production of
Many important hormones an essential enzyme may be
and enzymes are made up impaired, disrupting chemical Sickle-cell anaemia is a disease
of protein. Changes in the reactions and resulting in the that is usually associated with a
genetic code due to mutations deficiencies or accumulation mutation in the gene that codes
may result in a particular of other substances. This may for one of the polypeptides that
protein not being made or a cause the death of the cell and, make up haemoglobin in red
faulty version being produced. eventually, the organism. blood cells. In this mutation, an
In one type of diabetes, the adenine base is substituted by
gene to make the hormone
insulin is defective. This can
Point mutations a thymine base. The result is a
phenotype of misshapen red blood
affect the regulation of blood Occasionally, errors can occur cells that can clump together and
glucose levels and have a during DNA replication as block blood vessels.

Normal red blood cell Sickle-cell red blood cell



RNA sequence

Amino acid sequence leu — thr — pro — glu leu — thr — pro — val

Phenotype of red blood cell Normal doughnut-shaped blood cell Sickle-shaped

blood cell

Examples of human chromosome abnormalities (mutations)
Chromosome abnormality Resulting disorder Incidence (per live births)
Extra chromosome number 21 Down syndrome 1 in 700; risk rises with increase in maternal age
Missing sex chromosome (XO) Turner’s syndrome 1 in 5000 (90% of these conceptions are aborted)
Extra sex chromosome (XXY) Klinefelter’s syndrome 1 in 1000; risk rises with increase in maternal age

by a parasite that uses a species of mosquito as a

Chromosome mutations vector and grows in red blood cells of its human
Point mutations relate to changes in the genetic host. This disease is one of the main global causes of
information in genes; however, mutations can human disease-related deaths.
also involve chromosomes. These may involve the The mutation that results in sickle-cell anaemia
addition or deletion of entire chromosomes or the can increase your resistance to malaria. If you are
deletion, addition or mixing of genetic information heterozygous for this trait (you have one copy of
from segments of chromosomes. Some examples the sickle-cell allele), the parasite cannot grow as
of disorders that have resulted from chromosome effectively in your red blood cells; hence you are
mutations are shown in the table above. less likely to die from malaria than people in the
population without the allele. This is an example of
what is known as heterozygote advantage.
Mutants unite!
Not all mutations are harmful. Some mutations can
increase the survival chances of individuals within a
Not all mutations are inherited
population, and hence the survival of their species. Only mutations that have occurred in the germline
cells such as the sex cells or gametes (sperm and ova)
SPRAY RESISTANCE are inherited. In sexually reproducing organisms,
mutations that occur in somatic cells are not passed
Pesticides kill the majority of insects sprayed. Some
on to the next generation.
insects within the population, however, may survive
because of the possession of slight variations or
mutations in their genes that give them resistance
to the pesticide. The mutated gene in the surviving
insects will be passed on to their offspring, who will
gain that resistance too. While the insects without
the resistance will die out, those with resistance will
increase in numbers.


When we look at natural selection as a mechanism
for evolution in chapter 3, we see how mutations can
be a very important source of new genetic material.
While such mutations can be beneficial for the Changes in the genetic information of a chromosome can result in a variety
survival of the species under threat, they are not of disorders.
necessarily beneficial to humans. The resistance of
bacteria to antibiotics, for example, has resulted in
selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This has HOW ABOUT THAT!
resulted in our inability to use these antibiotics to A mutation of a gene on chromosome number 8 can result
treat diseases caused by these resistant bacteria, as
in alopecia universalis, a rare form of baldness.Two copies
the drugs are no longer effective.
of the mutated gene cause an individual to have no body
hair, eyelashes or eyebrows. Knowledge of the location of
MALARIA AND SICKLE-CELL MUTATION this gene provides scientists with information that may
Malaria is a disease that is very common in many result in future therapies for other forms of hair loss.
parts of Africa, Asia and South America. It is caused


Mutations can be caused by chemicals in your environment and may result in cancerous growths
(tumours) within your body.


Sex-linked mutations (rate per 104 gametes)

1 Name the process by which DNA makes copies of itself. 1500 •

2 Explain why the model used to describe the process •
identified in question 1 is called semi-conservative.
Include a diagram in your response. 1000 •
3 Describe what is meant by the term mutagenic agent. •
Provide an example. •
4 Distinguish between the terms spontaneous mutation 500
and induced mutation. ••
5 Suggest the relationship between the thinning of the •
ozone layer and the increased incidence of skin cancer. 0
6 Outline the relationship between sickle-cell anaemia 0 2000 4000 6000
and mutated DNA. Radiation (Roentgen units)
7 Identify two disorders associated with chromosome
12 Use the Down syndrome weblink in eBook plus
8 Are mutations always detrimental? Provide an example your eBookPLUS to read an article
to justify your response. about Down syndrome research. Use your own
INVESTIGATE, THINK AND DISCUSS knowledge and information in the article to answer the
following questions.
9 Suggest why radiographers wear special protective
(a) How many chromosome 21 copies are in the
clothing and use remote controls for taking X-rays.
somatic cells of a person with Down syndrome?
10 Suggest examples of mutations that increase chances (b) Is this the same number of chromosome 21 copies
of survival. that are in the somatic cells of a person who doesn’t
11 Examine the graph above right. have Down syndrome? Explain.
(a) Describe the pattern or trend. Incorporate the axis (c) Suggest why the DSCR1 gene is of importance.
labels in your description. (d) On which chromosome is the DSCR1 gene located?
(b) Suggest an interpretation that could be made from (e) Outline the advantage suggested by the research of
the data in the graph. possessing an extra copy of the DSCR1 gene.


Predicting with pedigree charts

You are the combined result of your
parents’ gametes and your environment. If
Who’s who in a pedigree
someone’s sperm or ovum carries a DNA chart?
abnormality, there is a chance that their Pedigree charts can be used to observe patterns and
child will be affected. Inherited gene and to predict the inheritance of traits within families.
chromosome abnormalities may result in Patterns in the inheritance of these traits can also show
genetic disorders. These can be slight, such whether the trait is dominant or recessive and whether
as red–green colour blindness, or more is it carried on an autosome or sex chromosome.
severe, such as haemophilia, a disorder in The pedigree chart below shows how individuals
and generations can be identified, so that
which the blood does not clot. interpretation of patterns can be more effectively
The photograph below is of a boy with communicated. The shaded individual at the top
hypertrichosis (often referred to as werewolf of the chart is identified as I-1 (individual 1 in the
syndrome). This rare genetic disorder, characterised first generation) and the shaded individual in the
by excessive hair growth, is inherited by X-linked bottom row is identified as III-3 (individual 3 in the
dominance inheritance. That means that if a father third generation). The daughters of individual I-1 are
has the disorder, all of his daughters will have it. identified as II-3 and II-4.
1 2

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

Pedigree charts can show patterns of inheritance in families and enable

identification of individuals within the family. Which individual do you
think could be described as II-3?

Naming inheritance
Within the nucleus of each human somatic (body)
cell are 46 chromosomes. There are two sex
chromosomes (either XX or XY) and 22 pairs of
autosomes. The autosomes are numbered, based on
their size and shape, from 1 to 22.
The inheritance of various traits can be described
in terms of the location of the gene responsible and
Hypertrichosis is an X-linked dominant trait.
whether the inheritance is dominant or recessive.


For traits located on the sex chromosomes, the trait is is described as autosomal recessive. Likewise, a
considered to be sex-linked. For traits located on the trait located on the X chromosome and inherited
autosomes, the trait is considered to be autosomal. recessively is described as X-linked recessive. The
A trait that is inherited recessively and caused table below provides examples of some inherited
by a gene on an autosome (e.g. chromosome 21) diseases and how they can be inherited.

Can you see the trait in each

generation of the family in
which it occurs?
No Yes

1. Do males mainly 1. Do only males

show the trait? show the trait?
Sex-linked Yes e.g. e.g. Yes Located on
recessive the Y sex
2. Do daughters who 2. Does the trait chromosome
show the trait have pass only from (Y-linkage)
fathers with it also? father to son?
e.g. e.g.

No No

Autosomal Do all of the females and none of

recessive the sons show the trait when
the father shows the trait and the
mother does not?
e.g. Yes Sex-linked

How do you read a pedigree chart?



Some diseases that can be inherited

Inherited disorder Type of inheritance Symptoms of disorder
Fragile X syndrome (FRAX) Sex-linked Leading cause of inherited mental retardation
Haemophilia A and B (HEMA, HEMB) Sex-linked recessive Bleeding disorders
Huntington’s disease (HD) Autosomal dominant Usually mid-life onset; progressive, lethal
degenerative neurological disease
Intestinal polyposis Autosomal dominant Many small bulges in the colon form; may lead to
colon cancer
Dwarfism Autosomal dominant Inhibited growth
Sickle cell disease Autosomal recessive Red blood cells become deformed into a sickle
shape when oxygen levels are low, which can lead to
impaired mental function, paralysis and organ damage
Thalassaemia (THAL) Autosomal recessive Reduced red blood cell levels

genetic tests can be used to determine the genotype
Cystic fibrosis of the embryo. If two parents are heterozygous for
About 1 in 2500 people suffer from an autosomal cystic fibrosis, each child they have has a 25 per cent
recessive genetic disorder called cystic fibrosis (CF). chance of having cystic fibrosis and a 75 per cent
The CF allele is located on chromosome number 7. chance of not having the disease. It is important to
One amino acid in a chain of 1480 amino acids is not note that the chance is independent for each child. If
produced, causing a faulty protein to be synthesised. the parents already had one child with cystic fibrosis,
This results in the production of large amounts of the next child would still have a 25 per cent chance
thick mucus by cells linking the lungs and in the of also having it. There is a 75 per cent chance that
pancreas where digestive juices are secreted. The the child will not have the disorder, but only a third
mucus interferes with the working of the respiratory of these children will not have the CF allele. There is
and digestive systems. Infection readily occurs and a 50 per cent chance that the child will not have the
sufferers tend to have a shortened life span. Pedigree disorder but will be a carrier with one CF allele. There
analysis can show the likelihood of whether a child is also a 25 per cent chance that the child will have two
will suffer from cystic fibrosis. CF alleles and hence have cystic fibrosis.
If the genetic test shows that the child will have
CHECKING TO SEE IF YOU ARE A CF CARRIER cystic fibrosis, the parents then need to make an
important decision — will they keep the baby?
Since the identification of the defective allele in 1989,
Genetic counselling may also help them with this
the DNA of parents-to-be can be analysed to find
very difficult decision. What would you do? If it was
out if they are one of the 1 in 25 people that carry the
a more severe genetic disease, would that change
allele. This is useful information because, although
your response?
they may not have cystic fibrosis themselves, they
may be a carrier. This means that there is a chance Punnett square for Nn × Nn
they will have a child with cystic fibrosis. For N = normal allele
example, if both parents are carriers, there is a 1 in 4 n = cystic fibrosis allele
chance that they may have a child with cystic fibrosis.
N n
Genetic counselling can help parents-to-be who are
both carriers of the CF allele with their decision about n Nn nn
whether to have a child. If they decide to go ahead,
Offspring probabilities
Mother Father Genotype: 1_4 NN: 1_2 Nn: 1_4 nn
Phenotype: 3_4 normal: 1_4 cystic fibrosis
N n N n

If these two heterozygous parents had five children, would it be possible

for none of them to have the disease?

OOva p Sperm
S m
Gametes N n N n
Many genes, such as those controlling the production
of enzymes necessary for respiration, are active
Possible throughout the life span of a person. Some are switched
fertilisation on only at particular times and in specific tissues. This
regulates development. Late onset genetic disorders,
such as Huntington’s disease and a form of Alzheimer’s
N N N n n N n n disease, result from particular defective genes
becoming activated later in life. Duchenne muscular
dystrophy or muscle deterioration is another disease
Normal Carrier Affected that gradually develops from late childhood.
(chance = 1 in 4) (chance = 2 in 4) (chance = 1 in 4)



1 State the type of inheritance by which hypertrichosis is
passed between generations.
2 Outline two uses of pedigree charts.
3 Outline how you could describe the identity of individuals Xh XH Xh Xh Xh
with the following notation in a pedigree chart.
(a) I-1 (b) III-3 (c) II-4
4 State the key difference between autosomal inheritance Y XH Y Xh Y
and sex-linked inheritance.
5 Identify an inherited disorder that is: (b) If Jacob mated with Bella (who does not have
(a) X-linked recessive hypertrichosis), use a Punnett square to determine
(b) X-linked dominant the chances of their child being:
(c) autosomal dominant (i) a daughter who has hypertrichosis
(d) autosomal recessive. (ii) a son who has hypertrichosis
6 On which chromosome is the cystic fibrosis allele (iii) a daughter who does not have hypertrichosis
located? (iv) a son who does not have hypertrichosis.
(c) Since Jacob is affected with hypertrichosis, do
7 What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis and what
his sons and daughters have the same chance
causes these symptoms?
of inheriting the condition? Explain.
8 Suggest why people may be tested for the cystic (d) How does this compare to a father who has an
fibrosis allele. autosomal recessive trait? If he shows the trait
9 Suggest how genetic counselling can be helpful in and his wife does not, what are the chances that
decision making. his daughters will show the trait? Explain.
10 What are the chances of two CF carrier parents having a (e) How does this compare to a father who has an
child: autosomal dominant trait? If he shows the trait
(a) who has cystic fibrosis and his wife does not, what are the chances that
(b) who does not have cystic fibrosis his daughters will show the trait? Explain.
(c) who is a carrier for cystic fibrosis 12 Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant
(d) who does not have cystic fibrosis and is not a carrier? condition. Refer to the diagram below to answer
the following.
ANALYSE, INTERPRET AND THINK (a) If H = Huntington’s disease and h = normal, state the
11 Jacob has hypertrichosis or werewolf syndrome, as does genotype(s) and phenotypes of:
his mother. His father, however, does not. Hypertrichosis (i) I-1
is an X-linked dominant trait that is characterised (ii) I-2
by increased hair growth on the face and upper (iii) II-1
body. Jacob is shown in the pedigree chart below as (iv) II-4
individual II-4. (v) II-5.
(b) Use a punnett square to predict the chances of:
(i) I-1 and I-2 having a child with Huntington’s
I 1 2 disease
(ii) II-4 and I-5 having a child with Huntington’s
II 1 2 3 4
For the following questions, assume that XH = hypertrichosis I 1 2
and Xh = normal hair growth.
(a) Use the Punnett square above right to determine
the chances of Jacob’s parents having children with II 1 2 3 4 5
the syndrome and state the chance of their having a:
(i) daughter with hypertrichosis
(ii) son with hypertrichosis
(iii) child with hypertrichosis.

13 Queen Victoria was a carrier of the X-linked recessive THINK, INVESTIGATE AND DISCUSS
trait haemophilia. This trait affects blood clotting. Use 14 (a) Find out what types of genetic testing occur in
the figures below to answer the following. Australia.
(a) If XH = normal trait and Xh = haemophilia, state the (b) Are there any laws, rules or regulations associated
genotype of: with genetic testing? If so, what are they?
(i) Queen Victoria (c) List examples of different views and perspectives on
(ii) her husband genetic testing.
(iii) her daughter Beatrice (d) Suggest why there are differing views.
(iv) her son Leopold (Duke of Albany) (e) Construct a PMI chart on genetic testing.
(v) her granddaughter Alexandra (f ) What is your opinion on genetic testing?
(vi) her great grandson Alexis.
15 In a group, make a list of examples of human genetic
(b) If Queen Victoria and her husband had had another
disorders. Each person is to write a report on one. Your
child, what was the chance that their child would have:
report could take the form of a poster or information
(i) had haemophilia
(ii) been a carrier for haemophilia?
(a) Include which gene or chromosomal abnormality
(c) If Alexandra and her husband, Tsar Nikolas II of
is responsible for the disorder and some of the
Russia, had had another child, would they have had
characteristics the affected person would show.
the same chance of having a haemophilic son as her
(b) Find out whether there are organisations available
mother and father? Explain.
to support people who have the disorder and their
(d) Suggest why our current Queen Elizabeth doesn’t
have haemophilia and why none of her children are
haemophiliacs. CREATE
16 Create a rhyme, song or poem about pedigree analysis
or the types of inheritances that effectively uses as
many of the key terms in this section as possible. An
example is given below.

Dominant traits always with an affected parent

While in recessive sometimes there aren’t
X-linked dominant — dad to his daughters
No skipping seen, always loiters
Queen Victoria carried the allele for haemophilia on one of her X-linked recessive — mum to her sons
X chromosomes. This germline mutation was passed on to other Can skip generations and hide in carrier ones.
members in her family.

Queen Victoria

Edward VII Alice of Hesse Duke of Albany Beatrice

Kaiser Wilhelm II George V Irene Frederick Tsar Nikolas II Alice of Victoria Alfonso Leopold Maurice
of Germany William of Russia Athlone Eugenie XIII of Spain

Edward George Waldemar Henry Alexis Rupert Alfonso Gonzalo

VIII VI Nikolas II
of Russia

Elizabeth II Philip Juan

Key Carlos
Normal male Haemophiliac male
Charles Andrew Normal female, unknown Normal female, known
Anne Edward genetic status heterozygous carrier



Exposing your genes

Do you think that you can hide your are gene tests and DNA-based tests that involve
identity? Maybe today you can, but that the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself.
Other tests include biochemical tests for various
definitely won’t be the case in the future.
gene products (for example, enzymes and other
DNA technology is rapidly providing proteins) or the microscopic examination of stained
techniques that will bring out into the or fluorescent chromosomes.
open your deepest secrets. There are over 6000 single gene disorders that
have been identified. Many other inherited diseases
How much do you want to know about your genes? are considered multifactorial. This is because
How much do you need to know about the genes of they may be caused by a combined effect of the
a potential partner or members of your own family? interaction of a number of different genes with each
Who should have access to your genetic information, other and the environment (for example, Alzheimer’s
and what should they be allowed to do with it? Who disease, diabetes and asthma).
owns your genes?

Why use genetic tests?

Genetic tests can provide information that can be
used in gender determination; carrier screening for
genetic mutations; or in the diagnosis, prediction
or predisposition to particular genetic diseases or
other inherited traits. These tests may be performed
prenatally or on newborns, children or adults. Trying
to control the characteristics of human populations
by selective breeding or by genetic engineering is
called eugenics.

Australian state screening laboratories carry out a
series of tests on a newborn baby’s blood (see the
table below). Early testing allows doctors to start any
necessary treatment.

Screening tests
Genetic disorder Symptoms Incidence
Cystic fibrosis Respiratory and 1 in 2500
digestive problems;
early death

Already companies around the world are offering DNA profiling. Will you Phenylketonuria Brain damage due to 1 in 12 000
soon be required to carry your DNA profile around with you — and show (PKU) excessive levels of an
it on request? amino acid in the blood
Hypothyroidism Slowed growth and 1 in 3400
mental development
Genetic tests owing to a poorly
developed thyroid
There are various tests that can be used to find
out about your genetic information. Among these

The presence of chromosomal abnormalities such as Patterns of variations in these repeated base
Down syndrome can be determined by analysing cells sequences form a basis for DNA fingerprinting.
of the developing foetus. These cells can be obtained This technique produces a kind of barcode of the
by a technique called chorionic villus sampling (CVS), natural variations found in every person’s DNA. It
which involves the collection of actual cells of a foetus is this barcode or DNA fingerprint that enables the
that is 10–12 weeks old. Another technique called identification of an individual to be made.
amniocentesis can be used to collect samples of fluid
from the uterus that contains cells shed by a foetus
that is 14–16 weeks old.
These techniques can also be used to obtain cells
that can be analysed for the presence of particular DNA fingerprinting is
based on variations
alleles. However, both of these techniques of cell
in the patterns of
sample collection are accompanied by some risk of repeating base
miscarriage or damage to the foetus. sequences in DNA
between individuals.
(a) Amniocentesis
Amniocentesis and
Needle chorionic villus
scanner DNA fingerprinting involves analysing DNA
sampling can be used
in the identification fragments. After the extraction of these DNA
of chromosomal fragments from biological material, restriction
Fluid surrounding
the foetus
abnormalities. enzymes are used to cut the DNA into specific
fragment lengths. The technique of electrophoresis
Uterus is used the separate the fragments on the basis of
their size and charge. DNA probes are then used so
that the DNA patterns can be observed.

What’s the use of DNA fingerprints?

DNA fingerprints can be useful in forensic
investigations, paternity tests and evolutionary
studies (to determine the relatedness of different
organisms), and to search for the presence of a
particular gene.
(b) Chorionic villus
Embryo scanner

Thin tube



Did you know that the function of a large percentage
of your DNA is still unknown? These supposedly 1 2 3 4 5
non-functional or non-coding parts vary in length
and can consist of patterns of repetitive base Who are the parents of individual 4? Are persons 1 and 2 related?
sequences called microsatellites.


Collect the sample.
Extract the DNA from the

Cut the DNA into fragments using

Separate the DNA fragments on restriction enzymes, which cut
the basis of their length, using at certain base sequences they
electrophoresis. recognise.

Immerse nylon sheet in bath with

DNA radioactive probes. Probes
bond to the core sequences of the
sample DNA fragments.

Split the DNA into single strands

and transfer them onto a nylon
sheet. Expose nylon sheet to X-ray film. The
radioactive probes attached to DNA
DNA fingerprinting uses a variety of different genetic engineering fragments show up as dark bands.
tools and techniques.

Fast computers and statistical enabled amplification of small amounts of DNA,

genetics increasing the amount and hence the depth to

which it could be studied. During this time, new
Statistical methods have been used to establish types of genetic markers (such as RAPD, STRP and
linkage and estimate recombination fractions (due SSCP) were developed using PCR. The increase in
to crossing over in meiosis) since the 1930s. British the number of markers available enabled genome-
scientists Bell and Haldane were the first to establish wide scans to be performed. These scans could
linkage between haemophilia and colour blindness search the entire genome for linkage beween a
with X-linked genes in 1937, and Mohr found linkage trait and markers, enabling the location of genes
between blood group types on an autosome in 1954. that contributed to a wide range of phenotypes —
It was not until around 1980 that DNA sequence including those associated with inherited diseases.
differences were used as molecular markers. The More recent research has focused on single
combination of these new markers with the use nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human
of restriction fragment length polymorphisms genome. A current map of these in our genome
(RFLPs), new multilocus mapping methods, suitable contains more than 10 million SNPs. These SNP
algorithms, and the affordability and availability markers can be used in genotyping — a process that
of fast computers revolutionised human genetic determines the alleles at various SNP markers within
mapping. In the late 1980s, the polymerase chain the human genome. Current technologies have
reaction (PCR) technique was also beginning to enabled the genotyping of around 1 million SNPs per
revolutionise molecular genetics. This technique person within 24 hours for a cost of around $1000!

A team of scientists at the Walter and Eliza Hall DNA chips can be considered critical for making
Institute in Melbourne are using statistical models some sense of the enormous amount of information
and fast computers to identify possible locations that research has supplied us with about the
of particular genes within genomes. Information human genome. Although the most obvious use
from families in the investigation is collected so that of these chips (and similar future technologies)
pedigrees can be constructed. They then use markers is for diagnosis, there are important implications
to scan the genome and perform a linkage analysis related to the ease with which genetic information
in their attempt to map the gene. can be accessed. With increasing knowledge about
the human genome and inheritance, probes for
genes associated with particular phenotypes (both
favourable and unfavourable) may be incorporated
into these DNA chips. Which gene probes should be
used? Could they be used without your permission
(or awareness)?
The construction of DNA databases, applications
of bioinformatics and increased availablity to other
types of DNA profiling techniques will open up a
database of new questions, problems and issues.
Who owns the resulting genetic information and
decides what is done with it? Who should make
these decisions?

Australian scientists are involved in increasing our knowledge about our

genes and inheritance.
No room for error
The beady eye of DNA regulators needs
to fall on paternity testing. The genetics
The team analyse the pedigree, trait and genotyping revolution has progressed at breakneck
information using probability models that measure speed since the discovery of the structure
the significance of the linkage. Linkage analysis has of DNA, and regulators have often
already proved successful in mapping the genes for struggled to keep up. It has been a few
Huntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy, and years since the ‘personal genomics’
the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. industry took off, and the US Food and
Drug Administration is only now warning
firms that genome scans are ‘medical
Bioinformatics devices’ that require approval.
New Scientist, 4 December 2010
Bioinformatics involves the use of computer
technology to manage and analyse biological data. It
has implications for a variety of fields, one of these
p o f b lo o d re veals age of
being biotechnology. Dro
perpetrator e could be us
ed to
crime scen
DNA chips Blood left at a
estimat e th e ag e of a perpetrator,
thanks to a ne
narrow dow n the ra
ng e of
te st co ul
DNA chips are made up of probes consisting of DNA test. The
ects. November 20
short fragments of selected genes attached to a wafer. possible susp w Scientist, 27
Addition of a sample of an individual’s DNA to a
particular type of DNA chip will result in a ‘light up’
response in the presence of one of the searched for Genetic rights
genes on the chip. This positive response is caused After more than a decade, the US Senate has finally
by the matching DNA locking onto the relevant passed the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
probe on the chip. For example, a chip that carries (GINA).
probes for cystic fibrosis will search for the cystic New Scientist, 20 March 2010
fibrosis gene (allele), ignoring all other genes.



REMEMBER (d) Is the father, I-3, a carrier of the DMD gene? Explain.
1 Suggest six reasons for using genetic tests. (e) Find out more about DMD and current related
2 State three genetic disorder screening tests performed
on newborn babies.
I 1 2 3
3 Outline similarities and differences between chorionic
villus sampling and amniocentesis.
4 Identify the function of:
II 1 2 3
(a) restriction enzymes
(b) electrophoresis
(c) DNA probes
(d) PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
5 List four reasons for using DNA fingerprinting.
6 Describe how the use of computers and technology has I -1 I -2 II -1 II -2 II -3 I -3
increased our knowledge about genetics.
9 The diagram below shows the DNA fingerprint of a
THINK, ANALYSE AND INVESTIGATE victim, the DNA fingerprint from evidence taken from
her body after an attack, and the DNA fingerprints of
7 The symptoms of the autosomal dominant inherited
three suspects.
disorder Huntington’s disease (HD) don’t usually
appear until the affected person is over 30 years old. Forensic Gel: 00428
Date: 22 February 2005
Predictive testing can be carried out to detemine the

Suspect 1

Suspect 2

Suspect 3
genetic status. In the figure below, H represents the


faulty HD allele and h the normal allele. The mother, I-1,
is currently showing the symptoms of HD and has the
genotype Hh.
I 1 2

II 1 2 3 Control
I-1 I-2 II-1 II-2 II-3 markers
48 repeats
H allele (a) Using the information in the DNA fingerprints,
which of the three suspects is most likely to be
guilty of the crime against the victim?
18 repeats
(b) Give reasons for your response to part (a).
h allele
(c) Suggest why a sample was taken from the victim
(a) Suggest the genotype of: as well as the foreign DNA sample being collected
(i) individual II-3 from her body.
(ii) individual I-2. (d) (i) State some other forensic diagnostic tools that
(b) Suggest whether the children are likely to develop exist to identify those guilty of crimes.
HD. Justify your response. (ii) How do these compare with DNA fingerprinting?
(c) Find out more about HD and current related 10 (a) Consider and answer each of the following
research and issues. questions, justifying your responses.
8 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited • Should the creation of a child from two different
X-linked recessive disorder. The figure above right shows genetic mothers be encouraged?
a pedigree and RFLP patterns that were obtained using a • Should a killer’s jail sentence be reduced because
direct gene probe. Those individuals affected are shaded. they have a genetic disposition towards violence?
(a) State the individuals with DMD. • Can your genes absolve you of responsibility for a
(b) Describe the RFLP pattern of those individuals with particular crime?
DMD. • If you could ‘engineer’ your own child, would you?
(c) If the mother, I-2, is a carrier of the DMD gene, which (b) Propose three of your own genetic issue questions
of her daughters is also a carrier? for class discussion.

INVESTIGATE, THINK AND DISCUSS 18 Suggest implications of patenting any of the following.
11 Select two of the article headlines in this section (a) Genes
and find out more about the topics. Write your own (b) Gene products
article on one of the topics for your class science (c) Specific drugs that target a gene or gene products
magazine. 19 Various countries and organisations are already
12 Find out more about the Australian Genome Research developing DNA databases.
Facility (AGRF) and its involvement in genotyping many (a) What is a DNA database?
markers for many individuals in a single day. (b) Use a PMI chart to categorise possible applications
of DNA databases.
eBook plus (c) Provide your own personal opinion on DNA
databases. Include reasons for your opinion.
13 What does a museum have to do with genetics? Use the 20 Research one of the following genetic careers:
Bioinformatics weblink in your eBookPLUS to find out genetic statistician, genetic engineer, bioethicist,
about bioinformatics at a museum. genetics counsellor, genetic researcher, genetic
14 In 1993, American scientist Kary Mullis won the Nobel pathologist, molecular biologist, forensic scientist,
Prize in Chemistry for investigating PCR. Find out more sequencing specialist, bioinformatics/functional
about the discovery and applications of PCR. genomics officer.
15 What are bioethics and how do they relate to genetic 21 Research one of the following Australian research
testing? Research the use of a particular type of genetic institutes and find out more about their genetic
testing (such as embryo selection, personal genomes, research.
carrier status, predictive testing) and consider relevant • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
bioethics issues. • Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Physiology
and Medicine
• Walter and Eliza Hall Institute
22 What is Thalassaemia? Find out more about screening
and diagnostic tests for this genetic disorder. Find
1 What is the issue?
out more about the Thalassaemia Society and its
2 Who will be affected by the issue?
involvement in genetic counselling.
3 What are the positive points of view?
(Who or what benefits and why and how?) eBook plus
4 What are the negative points of view?
(Who or what is disadvantaged and why 23 Find out more about:
and how?) (a) the Genetic Support Network in your state
5 What are some of the possible (b) companies that provide gene testing and screening.
alternatives? Use the GeneScreen weblink in your eBookPLUS to
6 How may these alternatives affect read about one example.
those involved?
7 What is a possible solution that may be CREATE
acceptable to those involved?
8 What is your opinion on the issue? eBook plus

24 Click on the PCR weblink in your eBookPLUS to listen

to and read the lyrics of the PCR song about how to
amplify DNA.
(a) Do you consider this effective advertising? Justify
involedabthcsuyr Whenn involved in a bioethical discussion, you need to consider these
your response.
(b) Design your own advertisement to promote
scientific equipment, products or services.
16 Find out any implications of having a genetic
disease for obtaining life and health insurance in eBook plus
17 Suggest ways in which information from genetic 25 Find out about jobs in the the field of genetics by
tests may be used by organisations such as insurance clicking on the Genetic careers weblink in your
companies, medical facilities and workplaces. eBookPLUS.



Domesticating biotechnology
Human genes in bacteria? Insect genes in plants? Cotton plants producing granules of
plastic for ultra-warm fibre? These sound bizarre but are not in the realms of fantasy —
they are happening now! What new creations will tomorrow bring?

Tomorrow, today? Tools of the trade

You are living in the midst of a biological and technological revolution. Genetic engineering is one type
Advances in biotechnology are gathering momentum so fast that your of biotechnology that involves
life will never be the same. We are speeding towards a future in which working with DNA, the genetic
domesticated biotechnology may be a way of life. material located within cells.
Restriction enzymes to cut DNA Electrophoresis to separate these DNA probes to find Genetic engineers use special
into fragments at precise locations fragments by their size and charge particular DNA fragments tools to cut, join, copy and
separate DNA. Examples of some
of these tools are described in the
figure at left.

Transferring the
Ligase enzymes to Vectors to transport DNA Gene cloning to Genes from Arctic fish can be
join DNA fragments into cells obtain multiple copies added to the genome of tomato
together of genes plants so that they become frost
resistant. This is an example of
recombinant DNA technology.
This technology uses specific
enzymes called restriction
enzymes to cut the DNA at
specific points, so that a particular
gene is removed. This DNA can
Genetic engineering tools

1859 1866 1882 1902 1905 1926 1944 1951 1953

Charles Darwin Gregor Mendel’s Chromosomes Chromosomes Discovery of sex Studies show Geneticists prove X-ray diffraction James Watson
publishes his work on pea are discovered in are found to chromosomes that X-rays can that DNA is images of DNA are and Francis Crick
explanation of plants marks the animals. carry hereditary induce hereditary in captured for the deduce the
evolution by birth of modern information. mutations in bacteria. first time by double-helix
natural selection. genetics. genetic material. Rosalind Franklin. structure of DNA.


then be inserted into another organism, using DNA Bacterium Human cell
ligase to paste it into their DNA. If the organism
belongs to another species, it is described as being
transgenic. The feature coded for by the foreign
gene is then expressed by its new host. Plasmid DNA Gene DNA
2. Restriction 1.
Cloning enzyme

If you saw the movie Jurassic Park, you may recall Restriction
the scene in which scientists extract dinosaur DNA Plasmid enzyme
from mosquitoes that had been trapped in amber.
They placed this prehistoric DNA (with a mix from
some other living organisms to fill the gaps) into
surrogate eggs. While the science in Jurassic Park
has more than a few holes in it, we do have (and
are still developing) technologies to clone single
genes, some types of tissues and organs, and entire
organisms. 4.
Gene cloning involves the insertion of a
specific gene into bacteria, so that the bacteria will
act as microfactories and produce considerable Bacteria with the human gene inserted into their DNA make human insulin.
quantities of desired proteins. This type of cloning
has been used for the production of insulin for Therapeutic cloning and nuclear transfer cloning
diabetics and missing clotting factors required by both involve the insertion of a nucleus from a
haemophiliacs. somatic cell into a fertilised egg cell (which has had
its own nucleus removed or destroyed) to create
totipotent stem cells. The cells in therapeutic
eBook plus
eLesson cloning are treated so that they will grow and
divide into cells of a particular type or produce a
Ancient resurrection
specific type of tissue or organ. The cells in nuclear
Do we have the right to resurrect ancient species? Watch an ABC
Catalyst video to find out more. transfer cloning are transplanted into a surrogate
eles-1070 host animal and result in the production of
identical copies of the organism that supplied the
donor DNA.

Are we in the midst of a molecular biology and biotechnology revolution? What new discoveries will the future bring
and what implications will they have on our lives?

1973 1978 1986 1990 1994 2000 2003 Future

DNA splicing Genetically Researchers Human genome Genetically Completion of First genetically Gardeners and pet
heralds dawn of modified produce millions project begins. modified draft human modified pet fish breeders use genetic
genetic bacteria produce of copies of DNA Gene therapy tomatoes go on genome goes on sale. engineering kits to
engineering. the hormone in a few hours. successful for the sale in the US. Human genome create new varieties.
insulin. first time. project Biotechnology games for
completed. kids launched.
New plants and animals
bred to live on Mars.


A donor cell is taken HOW ABOUT THAT!
from a sheep’s udder. Donor
nucleus The story of Dolly the sheep began at the Roslin
1 Institute in Scotland or, more specifically, as a single
A These two cells are cell from the udder of a ewe. Follow her story in the
fused using an diagram at left.
electric shock.
Dolly made history as the first mammal to be cloned
from a single adult cell. Until then, biologists did not
Egg cell believe that once a cell had developed and become
2 The nucleus specialised, it could be reprogrammed to become
B of the egg cell different.
An egg cell is removed.
is taken from A group of cells that come from a single cell by
an adult sheep. The fused repeated mitosis will have the same genetic coding as
cell begins each other. They are clones of each other. All of Dolly’s
Cloned lamb dividing cells came from the original fusion of an unfertilised
normally. egg and DNA from an udder cell. As there was no
3 genetic input from another sheep, Dolly was a clone of
the parent ewe from which the udder cell came.
The embryo is
The embryo placed in the uterus
develops normally of a foster mother.
involved in cutting-edge investigations in genetics
into a lamb – Dolly
and molecular biology.
How Dolly the sheep was created We made headlines in December 2006 when an
Australian ban on research on therapeutic cloning
or somatic cell nuclear transfer was lifted in a
Reproductive cloning involves separating the cells national parliament vote, and Australia issued the
of the developing embryo and implanting them into first licence to clone human embryos.
different surrogate mothers. The offspring from these
surrogates will be identical to each other. Blastocyst



1 Mating 3
Embryo Harvested stem cells
2 Developing egg removed
3 Egg splits into single cells 4 5
Therapeutic cloning
4 Eggs implanted in surrogate mothers
can be used to
5 Cloned calves
produce stem cells.
Suggest why these surrogate mothers produce offspring that are identical
to one another.

Human cloning Bone tissues Nerve tissues

It can be argued that Australian scientists are leaders
in the field of molecular biology and genetics.
Around Australia there are science researchers Muscle tissues


The plant invader
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soil bacterium. It is
able to get inside and infect many plants such as
vines and fruit trees. In doing so, it transfers a tiny
piece of its DNA into the host cell. This programs
the host cell to make chemical compounds for the
sneaky bacterium to feed on. Genetic engineers saw
the possibility of using this bacterium as a vector
to carry the genes they wanted from one plant into
Other kinds of bacteria and viruses act as vectors
and carry genetic information from one organism
(or synthesised to be like that organism) to another
organism. Vectors can be used to carry genes for
producing protein in soybean and sunflower plants,
producing enzymes to control chemical processes, Gene guns can be used to insert DNA into cells.
and producing compounds that keep insects or
pathogenic viruses at bay.
genetically engineer bananas to produce a vaccine
against the hepatitis B virus. Will genetically
Take aim . . . fire! engineered vaccines eventually prevent diseases
Recent developments have enabled foreign genes such as AIDS?
to be inserted into plant tissues by shooting them
in with gas guns. Fine particles of gold are coated
with the DNA and shot into the cells. Some cells
Do-it-yourself creation kits
are killed in the process but some survive, carry out Imagine if everyone was able to access genetic
mitosis and develop into complete plants with an engineering tools to create and develop new forms of
altered genotype. Many plant crops such as maize life. Imagine being able to create new plants for your
and soybean have had favourable genes added to garden, and pets that you could only dream about.
them in this way. Will designing genomes become a personal thing —
Biotechnology involving gene technology is a a type of art form or expression of creativity?
rapidly expanding branch of science. Already there What sorts of biotechnology games will be
have been trials of viral-vector nasal sprays to help designed and produced? What sorts of lessons
treat people affected by cystic fibrosis. Some of and learning may kindergarten children get from
the viruses carried by these vectors penetrate cells creating their own organisms to watch grow and
lining the respiratory tract and insert the normal interact with? Should there be rules and regulations
gene into those cells. Vaccines against a number for this new biotechnology? What sort of rules and
of diseases in humans and other animals are regulations should there be? Who should make
being investigated. Biotechnologists are trying to them? How can they be enforced?

T-DNA Chromosome
Ti plasmid DNA
gall The bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens has
(a) (b) (d) the ability to infect plants by inserting some
(c) of its DNA into the DNA of the plant. It has
been used by geneticists to insert specific
Agrobacterium Transformed
genes into plant DNA.
tumefaciens plant cell


Should we or shouldn’t we? A DELIVERY PROBLEM
There has been considerable research on the use of
Is transferring genes a wise use of gene technology? this technology to treat or cure a variety of inherited
Some people argue that not enough is known diseases. If this is to be considered as a viable
about the way genes can jump the species barrier. alternative, the gene that causes the disease and the
Maybe they will end up where they shouldn’t, such location of the affected cells need to be located. It
as in food chains. What could be the effect on other also requires the availability of a healthy version of
species in the environment? Could foreign genes the gene and a way for it to be delivered to the cell.
interact with host genes and cause problems? The delivery of the new genetic material has been
Could viral vectors and genes mutate so that they one of the major stumbling blocks so far.
would infect not only the target species but others
Early trials used a type of adenovirus with a healthy
Gene therapy version of the cystic fibrosis gene inserted into its
Gene therapy is currently an experimental discipline DNA. It was anticipated that this altered adenovirus
and there is still considerable research required would infect cells in the respiratory system, take over
before it reaches its full potential. This type of the cell’s genetic machinery and make viruses that
therapy has a specific goal. It targets the gene that would make the required protein. While there was
is responsible for the genetic disease. This type of some success, there were also complications that led
therapy can be used to replace a faulty gene with a to the development of different types of vectors that
healthy version or insert a new gene that may cure or were less likely to mutate or cause adverse reactions
reduce the effects of the genetic fault. within the hosts of these genetically engineered
delivery vehicles.

Although cloning produces identical offspring, there Cloning

are a variety of ways of achieving it.

types of

Reproductive Nuclear transfer Therapeutic Gene

cloning cloning type of cloning cloning

Nucleus extracted from somatic Specific gene cut

cell of (adult) organism (DNA donor) out of donor cell
Separation of cells
from developing inserted into inserted into
Fertilised egg cell that has its own DNA of bacterial host cell by
implanted into nucleus removed or destroyed vector (e.g. plasmid or virus)

implanted into treated with cell division produces

Surrogate mothers
Chemicals to control cell Many bacterial cells
Surrogate mother
growth and differentiation with inserted gene
produce produce produce

Offspring identical Particular types of Desired protein

Identical offspring
to DNA donor tissues and organs product


While there are considerable potential benefits from If and when these stumbling blocks in the delivery
the use of gene therapy, there are also risks. Some of the new genetic information are overcome, some
of these include the host’s immune response to the new ethical and moral issues may arise in their place.
foreign genetic material, the incorrect insertion of Will gene therapy have the potential to create a more
the new genes into the DNA or into an unintended elite human being? Will there be attempts to alter
cell, and the production of too much of the missing characteristics such as height, intelligence or whatever
enzyme or protein. If viruses are used as vectors, the the fashionable traits are at the time? Who will have
deactivated virus may target unintended cells or may access to this technology? Will gene therapy only be
be contagious, spreading it to other organisms. available to the rich and those in power?


(a) the reasons for cloning that particular animal
(b) how the animal was cloned
REMEMBER (c) the advantages and disadvantages associated with
1 What are clones? the cloning of the animal.
2 Why is Dolly famous? 15 Use the timeline in this