Basics of Fluid mechanics

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Introduction to fluidmechanics

Basics of Fluid mechanics

© All Rights Reserved

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applications

Assistant Professor

1

INTRODUCTION

Teaching Experiences:

Specialization: Asst. Prof (9/2013~): UOS

Coastal Engineering, Hydraulic Asst. Prof (8/2012~9/2013): FAST NU

Engineering, Sediment transport, Asst. Prof (1/2012-8/2012): UET Lahore

hydrodynamics, Numerical modeling, Lecturer (12/2004~12/2011); UET

Water resources

Lahore

Education:

Ph.D. (2008-2011):

• Contact Detail:

The University of Tokyo

• Email:

M.Sc. (2005-2007):

The University of Tokyo

B.Sc. (2000-2004):

UET Lahore

2

About Fluid Mechanics Course

Catalog Data

Course: 0401343, Fluid Mechanics

Credit Hours: (3 – 0) – 3 credits

Course Schedule: Sunday/Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday

statics and dynamic concepts of fluid flows.

Course Description:

The course provide students with basic information

on statics, kinematics, and dynamics of fluids.These

include the study of Properties of fluids; Fluid

statics;Translation and rotation of fluid masses;

Dimensional analysis and similitude; Fundamentals

of fluid flow; Fluid resistance; Compressible flow;

3Ideal fluid flow; Fluid measurements.

FLUID MECHANICS (3)

Recommended Books:

1. F. M. White, Fluid mechanics, Mcgraw-Hill (0-07-

128646-2)

Additional resources.

1. J. B. Franzini and Finnemore, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering

Application, McGraw-Hill New York (Latest Edition)

2. Monson Young, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, (Latest Edition)

3. Douglus, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.

4. Jack P. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.

5. Merle Potter, Mechanics of Fluid, CL- Engineering (2011)

4

Course Topics

1. Fluid Properties

2. Fluid statics

3. Fluid Dynamics (control volume approach)

4. Fluid Flow Measurements

5. Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude

6. Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe

7. Dynamics of Fluid Flow in Open Channel Flow

5

Program

Course Learning Outcomes Outcomes

After successfully completing this course, the ABET**

students will be able to: a-k & 9e

1. Define physical properties of fluids and appropriately

a, e

classify fluid problems;

2. Use fluid hydrostatics theory to evaluate hydrostatic forces

and assess the stability of simple hydraulic structures and a, e

communicate on existing related projects;

conservation of mass, momentum and energy in fluid a, e

engineering problems;

4. Perform dimensional analysis and similitude to present and

interpret experimental data and models in fluid engineering a, e

problems.

6

**Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

FLUID MECHANICS (3+0)

Course Outline:

0. Introduction: Importance of course in engineering, course syllabus,

grading policy, learning outcome, advices

1. Fluid Properties: Solids and fluids (liquids and gases). Units and

dimensions. Physical properties of fluids; density, specific weight, specific

volume, specific gravity, surface tension, compressibility.Viscosity,

measurement of viscosity, Newton's equation of viscosity. Hydrostatics,

kinematics, hydrodynamics, hydraulics.

2. Fluid Statics: Pressure intensity and pressure head: pressure and

specific weight relationship, absolute and gauge pressure, measurement of

pressure, Piezo-meter, manometer. Differential manometer and Borden

gauge. Forces on Immersed Bodies: Forces on submerged planes &

curved surfaces and their applications, Drag and Lift forces, buoyancy and

floatation. Equilibrium of floating and submerged bodies.

7

7

FLUID MECHANICS (3+1)

3. Fluid Dynamics:

Fluid Kinematics: Steady and unsteady flow, laminar and turbulent

flow, uniform and non-uniform flow. Path-line, streamlines and

stream tubes. Velocity and discharge. Control volume, Equation of

continuity for compressible and incompressible fluids.

Hydrodynamics: Different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, head,

Bernoulli's equation and its application, Energy line and Hydraulic

Gradient Line,

Forces on pressure conduits, reducers and bends, stationary and

moving blades, torques in rotating machines. Introduction to free

and forced vortex,

8

FLUID MECHANICS (3+1)

4. Flow Measurement: Orifices and mouthpieces, sharp-crested

weirs and notches, pitot tube and pitot static tube, venturimeter

analysis, method of dimensional analysis, similitude, concept of

dimensional similarity, dimensional numbers, model analysis

Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Major and minor losses in pipe

lines.

open channel, Chezy’s and Manning’s equations for open channel and

their application.

9

Course Assessment Method

1. Assignments/Projects 10 %

10

MY GLODEN ADVISES

Office Hours: A golden time to build up your skills and excel in the

course with my golden advices on the course topics and strengthen

your engineering skills in the subject.

Homework Assignments: Homework assignments are bonus points it

will only benefit you if you spend the necessary time to understand the

basics and solve the problems yourself. Keep up with the homework

assignments, as the topics in this course build upon each other.

Quizzes: Focused assessment by chapter to monitor your progress and

discover your weakness in the chapter. If you do bad in quizzes you

must rethink: (1) the way you solved your homework ,and (2)

reconsider to efficiently use the office hours.

Be Professional and watch the deadlines: In your professional life

dedication and keeping deadlines are your keys for success, No One

(neither your boss nor you client) will respect your excuses for a

delayed work. Start here and teach your self the wisdom of an

organized professional learning.

11

Important Note:

Examination Policy

Examinations will deal with your class work, textbook problems. Nevertheless,

due to the difficulties associated with course your textbook will be never

enough to get an A in this course. Use the additional references to be

better prepared.

Examinations are closed book and only complex Formulas will be provided.

Attendance Policy

The University of Sharjah Attendance Policy applies to this course

The classroom doors will be closed 10 minutes after the class start time.

1 day of delay will reduce your assignment grade by 1.

2 days delay mean -2 and so on… if assignment is delayed by one week,

there will be not grade.

12

Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Applications:

Spillways, Hydraulic and gas pipeline and Coastal Engineering Water and Air

Jumps Networks Pollution

To design slabs

that resist to water

and groundwater To Design bridges To Design inshore Civil

pressures across rivers infrastructure

13

FLUID MECHANICS

Fluid: Fluids are substance which area capable of flowing and

conforming the shapes of container.

Fluids can be in gas or liquid states.

the state of rest or motion of body under the action of forces.

response or behavior of fluid either at rest or in motion.

14

Branches of Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Statics: It is the branch of fluid mechanics which deals

with the response/behavior of fluid when they are at rest.

Fluid kinematics: It deals with the response of fluid when

they are in motion without considering the energies and

forces in them.

Hydrodynamics: It deals with the behavior of fluids when

they are in motion considering energies and forces in them.

Hydraulics: It is the most important and

practical/experimental branch of fluid mechanics which

deals with the behavior of water and other fluid either at rest

or in motion.

15

Significance of Fluid Mechanics

Fluid is the most abundant available substance e.g., air,

gases, ocean, river and canal etc.

Public health/environmental engineering

Hydraulic Engineering

Irrigation Engineering

Coastal engineering

etc etc

16

State of Matter

1. gas

fluid

2. Liquid

3. Solid

17

Comparison Between Liquids and Gases

Liquids have definite volume at Gases do not have any definite

any particular temperature volume

Liquids have free level surface Gases do not have free level

surface

Molecules of liquid are close to Molecules of gases are far apart

each other

Liquids have relatively more Gases have less molecular

molecular attraction attraction

Liquids are slightly compressible Gases are highly compressible

diffusion

18

Comparison Between Liquids and Solids

Liquid conform the shape of any Do not conform the shape of

container container

Liquid can flow Solids cannot flow

Molecules of liquid are distinctly Molecules of solids are very

apart close to each other

molecular attraction attraction

forces

19

Dimension and Units

System of Units

System International (SI)

Fundamental dimensions: length, mass and time

Units: (meter, kilogram and second)

British Gravitation System (BG)

Fundamental dimension: length, force and time

Units: (ft, slug and second)

CGS System

Fundamental dimensions: length, mass and time

Units: (centimeter, gram and second)

20

Dimension and Units

Dimension

Fundamental/Primary Dimension

Fundamental/Primary

Dimension

length(L), mass (M) and

time (T)

Derived/Secondary

Dimensions

e.g., force, velocity,

acceleration etc

21

Units of Some Dimensions in Different Systems

Fundamental Units

length(L), mass (M) and time (T)

Derived Units

e.g., force(F), velocity(L/T), acceleration (L/T/T) etc

m ration y rature

cm cm/s

22

Important Prefixes

e.g.,

Force=1000000N

=1000KN

=1MN

Diameter=0.000001m

=1µm

23

Conversions

Length

Time

1m=1000mm=100cm

1day=24hours

1ft=12inch

1 hour=60min

1m=3.281ft

1 min=60s

1Mile=5280ft=_______km

Mass

Volume

1kg=1000g

1m3=1000liters=_______cm3

1kg=2.204lb

1m3=35.32ft3

1kg=9.81N

1N=_____lb ?

24

Unit Conversion

It is the process of relating dimensions of a quantity from one system to

another. e.g.,

(i) 1m = 3.281 ft

(ii) 1kg= 2.204 lb

60 miles/hour=_________ ft/s=___________m/s=____________km/hr

10m3/s=________liter/min=__________ft3/s=____________ in3/s

15N/m2=___________=___________N/cm2=______________lb/ft2

25

Unit Conversion

-3 2 2 2

10 N-s/m =____________Lb-s/ft =________N-s/cm

-6 2 2 2

10 m /s=_________ft /s=___________cm /s

3 3 3

1000kg/m =__________N/m =__________kN/m

26

Sample MCQs

(i). Fluids do not conform the shape of container they are placed in.

(True/False)

(ii). Unit of force in SI is ____________.

(a). Newton (b). Pound (c). Kg (d). dyne

(iii). Convert 2 kg/m3 to _____lb/ft3.

(iv). Branch of fluid mechanics that deals response of fluid at rest is called

(a) Fluid Dynamic (b). Fluid kinematics (c). Fluid statics (d).

Hydraulics

(v). Fluid are absolutely not compressible.

(True/False)

(vi). Write name of any text book on fluid mechanics along with author

name. Answer:___________________________________

27

Thank you

Let’s discuss if you have any question….

28

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