You are on page 1of 5

International Journal of Trend in Scientific

Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal
ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | | Volume - 2 | Issue – 3

A Review: Biogas Production from Bakery Waste

Vaibhav Kodag Dr. G. S. Kulkarni
P.G Student, Department of Technology, Professor, Department of Technology,
Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India


The Anaerobic Digestion process is one of the non non- complex organic compounds (i.e. carbohydrates,
thermal technologies of energy recovery from waste. proteins, fats) are degraded ed into simple soluble
Bakery waste is seen to be a very vital source of substances (i.e. sugars, short chain peptides, amino
nutrient been unused. Bakery waste contains sugars acids, long chain fatty acids) by hydrolytic bacteria.
which are easy to degrade along with other nutrients. Secondly, acidogenic bacteria transform these
There is an immense potential of extracting energy soluble substances into organic acids (i.e. formate,
from bakery
akery waste in form of biogas. The present acetate, propionate, and butyrate)
utyrate) including alcohols,
paper states that an option of feedstock is available in ketones, aldehydes, carbon dioxide, hydrogen,
form of bakery wastes like different varieties of ammonia, hydrogen, and water. Thirdly, acetogenic
bread, biscuits, rolls, donuts, pizza dough waste etc. bacteria convert these soluble organic matters into
underwent experimentations. Bread and biscuit waste volatile fatty acids (VFAs) comprising mainly acetic
for a retention time of 22 to 42 days produced acid ( CH3COOH) as well as CO2, H2 and so on
methane 45% and above. The pH was found to be in [3].Thermal technologies like incineration, pyrolysis,
a range of 5.3 to 7.4 for overall bakery waste. The gasification etc. provide energy from waste but at the
temperature for digestion of these wastes was cost of air pollution. In India, because of
between 20 ᵒC to 40ᵒC. unavailability of sufficient crude oil and to fulfill the
need to energy at domesticc as well as an industrial
Keywords: Biogas, methane, bakery was
waste, sector, there is an urgent need to find the alternative,
Anaerobic digestion eco-friendly
friendly source of energy [6]. Anaerobic
digestion has been found to be a better option than
I. INTRODUCTION those thermal technologies for all type of waste
including bakery waste. Each Ea bakery producing
Modern Civilization is based on high energy
bread and cakes is a manufacturer of wastes. As a
consumption. On an average, each citizen living on
result of the production activity in bakeries, waste are
the earth consumes 2 t of carbon in a year for energy
produced such as raw materials and products
needs [1].Looking on to these problems of energy
unsuitable for consumption or processing and unfit
crisis solid waste must be processed for energy
for use fats [7]. In evaluating national
na development
recovery. Solid waste generated during bakery
and the standard of living of any nation, the supply
materials production if treated by anaerobic digestion
and consumption of energy are very important.
provides good results. Anaerobic digestion is a
Sustainable resource management of waste and
degradation of organic substances by micro micro-
development of alternative energy source are the
organisms in the absence of oxygen. It is considered
present challenges due to economic growth [10]. [1
to be one of the most environmentally friendly, cost
Hence considering one of the sectors for energy
effective and commercially viable technology for
recovery in the food industry like bakery which is a
alternating fossil fuel. There are four steps in
source of nutrients and could be utilized for
anaerobic digestion of organic matters. Firstly,

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr

Apr 2018 Page: 2333
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

digestion. Much solid waste is generated during the of VFAs in the second-stage digester. The
production of confectioneries like biscuits and approximate pH values in the first stage and the
chocolate. The solid waste collected from mixing and second stage digesters were 6.13 and 7.25,
packing units are rich in carbohydrates and fats respectively. The average biogas yield of 0.481 l/ g
which are easily biodegradable and thus should be a VS removed and 0.609 l/ g sCOD removed was
good substrate for biogas production [14]. observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10
days. Biogas contained 46.4%-60.8% methane.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW Removal efficiencies of SS, VS, COD, and sCOD in
this system were 85.58%, 93.35%, 87.91% and 75%,
VilisDubrovskis (2017) [1] stated the results of respectively. The amounts of total nitrogen and total
investigated biogas potential from five different phosphorus after digestion increased whereas that of
damaged bread. About sixteen 0.75 liter bioreactors sulfate decreased.
were pervaded with inoculums or with inoculums
combined together with various bread mass. J K Evicks (2016) [4] stated that this research
Anaerobic digestion was subjected to a batch mode intends to supplement small data available for using
at a temperature of 38ᵒC. The results were obtained bakery waste in the AD process. The pizza dough
after a time of 30 days, methane generated was was used as a primary feedstock in this study to
represented in percentage The following specific gas evaluate the potential through Food to Mass (F/M)
volumes (methane percentage in biogas) were ratios. The best F/M ratio for this process considering
obtained after 30 days anaerobic digestion process: feed rate, COD removal, and gas production were
French bread gave about 0.723 l.g-1DOM (50.6%); determined to be 0.5 g COD/g VS. Although this
whereas Rye flour bread produced 0.634 l.g-1DOM product does perform well in the AD process, current
(49.9%); while Wheat flour(coarse) bread 0.731 l.g- market rates for waste disposal in Oklahoma would
1DOM (50.9%); and Toaster bread 0.694 l.g-1DOM not support the construction of an industrial scale
(44.9%); White bread (with the addition of egg and digester. This work could be expanded in the future
milk additives) 0.943 l.g-1DOM (45.4%). The results by further evaluation of bakery feedstock, a potential
showed that damaged bread can be used for biogas for beneficial co-digestion, methane analysis or
production successfully. further specific financial analysis.

Rebecca Hamilton (2017) [2]stated found that KaterinaChamradova (2015) [5] stated by A
biogas digester has reduced the energy costs by laboratory experiment of two-stage mesophilic, low-
producing biogas and found that a bakery could be dry mass, anaerobic digestion was carried out,
feasible, but an in-depth market analysis should be focused on verifying the benefit of processing the
conducted. This analysis was done by constructing biscuit meal EKPO-EB instead of triticale silage
biodigester system. Agostino (GPS) and corn silage LG3266 in a regular
batch for the agricultural biogas station in Pustějov.
KanchaiSingharat (2017) [3] has explained While anaerobic digestion of ensilages is largely
that Biogas production from bakery wastewater was difficult due to the content of lignocellulose, biscuit
studied using a semi-continuous, two-stage anaerobic meal provides a high yield of biogas or methane,
digestion system, consisting of 2 l-first-stage digester respectively, thanks to its high content of simple
and 5 l-second-stage digester under the temperature saccharides and lipids. At the initial stage the GPS
of 35 °C. Substrate feed rates were examined in a showed 0.81 % weight of every days input
batch experiment by varying in the range of 50 to blends/mix amount. Better acceptable results were
200 ml/l/d. Characteristics of substrate and effluent seen in first stage which shown an increase in
of the digester (i.e. pH, SS, TS, VS, VFAs, COD, volume of methane of about 20%. The feedstock
sCOD, TN, TP, total sulfate), biogas yields and (Biscuit meal EKPO-EB) was fully decomposed by
compositions were investigated. The experimental micro organisms at 1 st stage and an increment of
results showed that substrate feed rate of 100 ml/l/d volume of methane was seen upto 54% in
produced the maximum yield of biogas. The biogas initial(first) stage and 16% in later(second) stage for
yield was directly proportional to the concentration

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 2334
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

a rise 1.63% weight of the feed dose provided on actual BW addition percentages in order to
every day basis. authenticate the model. Stability of the digestion
process was achieved until the ratio range of 37-40%
ChandratreSangitaJ (2015) [6] has carried an BW: 60-63% MS, and the digestion processes were
experiment by designing a small laboratory scale inhibited at higher ratios of BW. This research gives
digester unit and using agricultural waste like black an alternative to BW management through utilizing
gram stalk, Groundnut shells, Soybean straw, Wheat the BW to increase methane production.
stalk, Red grams straw as feedstock. The current
work is an endeavor to study on the chemical Ukpai, P.A (2012) [10] has studied by
analysis of agricultural waste with respect to its constructing a 45 liters metallic prototype biogas
different parameters for biogas generation to make an plant at NCERD, University of Nigeria that the
active feedstock. The paper also highlights the anaerobic digestion in generating biogas from three
general presentation for design a small scale biogas types of wastes: Cow dung, Cowpea, and cassava
unit intended to be used for further analysis of peeling. The research experiment was batch operated
screened materials for biogas production. and daily gas output from the plant was supervised
for 30 days. The waste to water ratio of following
Wioleta KOT (2015) [7] stated in their article proportions were feed into the digester, 1:2, 1:5, and
that the results of laboratory tests of the suitability of 1:5 respectively. The mesophilic ambient
the baking industry waste such as wheat roll, wheat temperatures range attained within the testing period
bread, and a donut, as a substrate for biogas were 20ᵒC-32ᵒC and slurry temperature range 22ᵒC-
production. The study used the eudiometric stand, 36ᵒC. The results obtained showed that cowpea
located at Chemical Analysis Laboratory of the produced the highest methane content of 76.2%
Institute of Engineering Biosystems UP in Poznan. followed by cow dung with 67.9% content and
The experiment was conducted in accordance with cassava peeling with lowest of 51.4% of methane.
DIN 38 414 S8. It was found that the wastes The highest cumulative biogas output of 124.3
containing bread waste showed good performance in L/Total mass of slurry (TMS) was observed from
case of periodic mixing and reduced process cow dung whereas cowpea generated 87.5 L/TMS
temperature. Waste-based on stale bread can be and cassava peeling with 87.1 L/TMS for 30 days
successfully used for methane fermentation process. retention time.

LetaDeressa (2015) [8] revealed from their S. Potivichayanon (2011) [11] stated that
research that the anaerobic digestion of fruit and Production of biogas from bakery waste was
vegetable waste mixed with different waste took 55 enhanced by an additional bacterial cell. This study
days to produce biogas (for complete digestion). It is was divided into 2 steps. A first step, grease waste
important to maintain pH of 6.7-7.4 for a healthy from bakery industry's grease trap was initially
system. Fruit,vegetable waste and cow manure gives degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The
optimum yield of biogas and it is found that addition byproduct concentration, especially glycerol, was
of extra nutrients is not essential if all the parameters determined and found that glycerol concentration
are under limits. enhanced from 12.83% to 48.10%. Secondary step, 3
bio-digesters were set up in 3 different substrates:
Morris E Demitry (2015) [9] stated that BW is non-degraded waste as the substrate in the first bio-
an easily biodegradable substrate for creating a digester, degraded waste as a substrate in the
favorable microorganism growth environment, which secondary bio-digester, and decomposed waste
enhances the biogas production needed for mixed with swine manure in ratio 1:1 as a substrate
wastewater facilities. It is found that newly created in the third bio-digester. The highest concentration of
ADM1 model performed well and deviations in biogas was found in third bio digester that was
parameters like pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), 44.33% of methane and 63.71% of carbon dioxide.
propionic acid and methane gas production were During anaerobic digestion of stage 2 digester it was
checked. The output results of the model were found that methane and carbondioxide was about
compared with experimental batch reactor results of 24.9% and 18.98% respectively..Whereas the least

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 2335
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

was found in the non-degraded waste bio-digester. It digestion at lower HRT, viz 20 and 30 days, resulted
was demonstrated that the biogas production was in high VFA concentration and low PH of the
greatly increased with the initial grease waste fermenting slurry.
degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
J.B. Holm-Nielsen (2009) [12]found in their From the study of all above literature, it is
analysis that large magnitude of solid waste always understood that anaerobic digestion of bakery waste
coexists with the production of a excess of animal occurs at a temperature ranging from 20 ᵒC to 40ᵒC
manure, representing a rise in pollution dangers to i.e. in mesophilic conditions. The retention time for
the ecology in the vicinity areas . Avoiding over- decomposition of Bakery waste (BW) is found to be
fertilization is not only important for environmental ranging from 12 to 55 days. PH is found to be
protection reasons but also for economic reasons. varying from 5.3 to 7.4 and methane content in the
The waste generated from animals is highly organic biogas was about 45 % and above depending upon
and huge quantities of waste requires a proper the quantity of feedstock. BW contains sugars,
utilization of waste as a resources for recovery of carbohydrates as a major constituent and others
energy and economy. Anaerobic digestion of animal nutrients with minor proportions since sugars are
manure and slurries offers several benefits by very easily degraded by microorganisms and also
improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors bakery waste is a source of rich nutrient it could be
and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel – the used for biogas production. Co-digestion of BW with
biogas. The EU policies regarding renewable energy other organic materials like Municipal sludge(MS),
systems (RES) have set a firm baseline goal of Fruit and vegetable waste, agricultural waste etc.
supplying 20% of the European energy demands could be a better option for biogas generation as an
from RES by the year 2020. A major part of the increase in methane production was observed with
renewable energy will originate from European the addition of BW. The bakery waste materials like
farming and forestry. In further coming years Biogas/ bread (wheat, French, rye flour, toaster, milk etc.),
Bioenergy can provide about 25% of energy from biscuits, a donut with jam, pizza dough etc. produced
overall organic materials like animal manure, whole biogas with positive results. Bakery wastewater also
crop silages, food waste etc. gave biogas production as that of solid waste bakery
materials since it contains nutrients and organic
J. Paul Chen (2006) [13] has discussed matter in dissolved/ suspended state. Also, a study
various bakery waste and water sources, their came across which stated that Sulphur free hydrogen
characteristics, different types of treatment systems and methane from bread waste are also generated in
available and suitable for bakery waste and cater the Japan by controlling fermentation process [15].
preventive measures to be followed for reducing Recently a Company named Enki Energy has
waste and increasing cost-saving benefits. developed a small-scale anaerobic digester which
operates on waste bread and produces biogas. Their
D.R.Ranade (1989) [14] found that Chocolate plant is operational at Amsterdam [16].
and biscuit waste contains sugars as a common and
in great proportions and its degradation by anaerobes CONCLUSION
provides better results hence a 180-liter capacity
The study has concluded that anaerobic digestion has
biogas plant of floating dome type was designed.
proved to be a suitable option for energy recovery
Three different hydraulic retention times (HRT)
from bakery waste as it is a clean method and
viz.20, 30 and 40 days were studied with 10% total
produces more than 45 % of methane in biogas.
solids in the influent slurry. The data collected
Bakery waste is a food waste containing rich
showed that waste is amenable to anaerobic
nutrients and as that of the various bakery waste
digestion. After the Anaerobic digestion process, the
mentioned in the paper, it has proved to be useful in
results obtained stated that biogas produced was
biogas production. Further many other types of
more at 40 days HRT, viz.466 liters kg-1 waste
bakery waste items should be analyzed and must
added per day with 57% methane and 65%
demarcate the way for heavy, medium and small
degradation in volatile solids. The anaerobic

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 2336
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

bakery industries to utilize the waste and thus save 8. LetaDeressa, Solomon Libsu, R B Chavan ,
cost and energy. Similarly one can run a small biogas Daniel Manaye, AnbessaDabassa, " Production of
at a household level and as the paper suggests using Biogas from Fruit and Vegetable Waste Mixed
bakery waste along with kitchen waste or house with Different Wastes", " Environment and
backyard waste as a feedstock for biogas extraction Ecology Research 3(3)",2015, pp. 65-71.
is possible.
9. Morris E. Demitry, JianmingZhong, Conly
Hansen, Michael McFarland, "Modifying the
REFERENCES ADM1 Model to Predict the Operation of an
1. VilisDubrovskis, Imants Plume, "Biogas Anaerobic digester Co-digesting of Municipal
Potential from Damaged Bread", Engineering for Sludge with Bakery Waste", "Environment and
Rural Development, 2017, pp.437-442. Pollution", Vol. 4, No. 4; 2015, pp. 38-57.
2. Rebecca Hamilton, Zachary Ligham, Connor 10. Ukpai P.A and Nnabuchi M.N, " Comparative
Willgress, Jingyi Wu, " Bakery and Biodigester study of biogas production from cow dung, cow
in Paraguay", Increasing sustainability of the La pea and cassava peeling using 45 liters biogas
Escuela Agricola San Fransisco, Worcester digester", "Advances in Applied Science
Polytechnic Institute 2017, pp.1-37. Research" 2012, 3(3), pp. 1864-1869.
3. KanchaiSingharat, SiriratSangkarak, 11. S. Potivichayanon, T. Sungmon, W.
OnumaPongsuk and Suwannee Junyapoon, Chaikongmao, and S. Kamvanin, "Enhancement
"Biogas Production from Bakery wastewater in of Biogas Production from Bakery Waste by
Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System", Pseudomonas aeruginosa", "International Journal
"KMITL Sci. Tech. Journal", Vol.17 No.1 Jan- of Chemical, Molecular, Nuclear, Materials and
Jun.2017, pp.103-112. Metallurgical Engineering Vol:5, No:8, 2011, pp.
4. J K Evicks, "Bakery Waste as a Feedstock to
Anaerobic Digestion", Report for the degree of 12. J.B. Holm-Nielsen, T. Al Seadi, P. Oleskowicz-
Master of Science, Oklahoma State University, Popiel, "The future of anaerobic digestion and
2016, pp. 1-67. biogas utilization", "Bio resource Technology
"100 (2009), pp. 5478–5484.
5. KaterinaChamradova, Jiri Rusin, "Use of biogas
biscuit meal EKPO-EB for agricultural biogas 13. J. Paul Chen, Lei Yang, and RenbiBai, Yung-Tse
plant for substitution of energy crops utilization Hung, "Bakery Waste Treatment", ©Taylor &
with organic wastes", "Polish Journal of Francis Group, LLC ,2006, pp. 271-289.
Chemical Technology", Vol. 17, No. 3, 2015, pp. 14. D.R. Ranade, T.Y. Yeole, K.K. Meher, R.V.
40-46. Gadre, S.H. Godbole, "Biogas from Solid Waste
6. ChandratreSangita J, Chaudhari Vishal, Originated during Biscuit and Chocolate
KulkarniBhushan, MahajanBhushan and Production: A preliminary Study", "Biological
BavaskarKaustubh P, " Biogas production from Wastes 28", 1989, pp. 157-161.
Local Agricultural waste by using Laboratory 15.
Scale Digester", "Research Journal of Recent koken-buurtkeuken/
Sciences", Vol.4(IYSC-2015), pp. 157-165.
7. Wioleta KOT, Mariusz ADAMSKI, Karol 305/methane-hydrogen-generated- from-
PRODUCTION", "Journal of Research and
Applications in Agricultural Engineering" 2015,
Vol. 60(2), pp. 43-45.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018 Page: 2337