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Ghana Oil Services

Terminal
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
(ESIA)

Final ESIA Report and


Environmental Impact Statement

Volume I

April 2014
www.erm.com

Delivering sustainable solutions in a more competitive world


Lonrho plc

Ghana Oil Services Terminal:


Environmental and Social Impact
Assessment
Final ESIA Report and Environmental Impact
Statement
April 2014

For and on behalf of


Environmental Resources Management

Approved by: Henry Camp

Signed:

Position: Partner

Date: 03 April 2014

This report has been prepared by Environmental Resources


Management the trading name of Environmental Resources
Management Limited, with all reasonable skill, care and diligence
within the terms of the Contract with the client, incorporating our
General Terms and Conditions of Business and taking account of the
resources devoted to it by agreement with the client.

We disclaim any responsibility to the client and others in respect of


any matters outside the scope of the above.

This report is confidential to the client and we accept no responsibility


of whatsoever nature to third parties to whom this report, or any part
thereof, is made known. Any such party relies on the report at their
own risk.
CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY XVII

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LX

1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF REPORT 1-1

1.1 OVERVIEW 1-1


1.2 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION 1-1
1.3 PURPOSE OF ESIA 1-2
1.4 ESIA PROCESS 1-3
1.4.1 Project Registration 1-3
1.4.2 Project Screening 1-4
1.4.3 Scoping Phase 1-4
1.4.4 Baseline Data Collection 1-5
1.4.5 Stakeholder Consultation 1-6
1.4.6 Impact Assessment 1-7
1.4.7 Mitigation and Management Planning 1-8
1.4.8 Reporting and Disclosure 1-8
1.5 SUMMARY OF STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION 1-9
1.5.1 Background and Objectives 1-9
1.5.2 Stakeholder Engagement within the ESIA Process 1-10
1.5.3 Reporting of Stakeholder Engagement Activities 1-10
1.5.4 Stakeholder Identification 1-10
1.5.5 Stakeholder Engagement Process 1-14
1.5.6 Key Issues Raised 1-19
1.5.7 Project Grievance Mechanism 1-21
1.6 ESIA TEAM 1-22
1.7 STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT 1-23

2 LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK 2-1

2.1 INTRODUCTION 2-1


2.2 GHANAIAN GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION FRAMEWORK 2-1
2.2.1 Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2-2
2.2.2 Ghana Maritime Authority and Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority 2-2
2.2.3 Ministry of Agriculture (Fisheries Commission) 2-3
2.2.4 Ministry of Energy 2-4
2.2.5 Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning 2-4
2.2.6 Ministry of Trade and Industry 2-5
2.2.7 Free Zones Board 2-5
2.2.8 Ministry of Roads and Highways 2-5
2.2.9 Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources 2-6
2.2.10 Ministry of Transport 2-6
2.2.11 Civil Aviation Authority 2-7
2.2.12 Western Region Administration 2-7

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2.2.13 Ellembelle District Authority 2-7
2.3 RELEVANT DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND PLANS 2-8
2.3.1 Relevant National Policies 2-8
2.3.2 The Coordinated Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies, 2010
– 2016 2-12
2.3.3 Land Commission Guidelines for Considering Large-Scale Land Transactions for
Agricultural and other Purposes 2-13
2.3.4 Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) 2-13
2.3.5 Western Region Spatial Development Framework (WRSDF) 2-14
2.3.6 Ellembelle District Assembly Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2013 2-15
2.4 GHANAIAN LAWS AND REGULATIONS 2-17
2.4.1 The Ghanaian Constitution 2-17
2.4.2 Ghana Environmental Legislation 2-17
2.4.3 Ghanaian Social Legislation 2-27
2.4.4 National Environmental and Social Legislation under Preparation 2-29
2.4.5 Marine State, Conventions and Classification Requirements 2-30
2.5 INTERNATIONAL LAWS AND AGREEMENTS 2-30
2.5.1 International Conventions and Agreements 2-30
2.6 INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION (IFI) ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS 2-36
2.6.1 Equator Principles 2-37
2.6.2 IFC Performance Sustainability Framework and Performance Standards 2-38
2.6.3 World Bank Group Guidelines 2-39
2.6.4 African Development Bank Policies and Guidelines 2-41
2.7 LONRHO HSE POLICIES AND STANDARDS 2-42
2.7.1 Introduction 2-42
2.7.2 Lonrho’s Engineering Standards 2-42
2.7.3 Lonrho HSE Policy 2-43
2.7.4 Lonrho’s International Commitments 2-43
2.7.5 Project Environmental and Social Regulations and Controls 2-45

3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION 3-1

3.1 INTRODUCTION 3-1


3.1.1 Overview of the Project 3-1
3.1.2 Project Components 3-1
3.1.3 Project Site 3-2
3.2 FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS 3-4
3.2.1 Marine Facilities 3-4
3.2.2 Service Facilities 3-5
3.2.3 Airstrip and Helipad 3-10
3.2.4 Infrastructure 3-10
3.3 SITE PREPARATION 3-18
3.3.1 Activities 3-18
3.3.2 Facilities 3-20
3.4 CONSTRUCTION 3-25
3.4.1 Construction of Breakwater and Groyne 3-26
3.4.2 Construction of Quay Walls 3-33
3.4.3 Construction of Onshore Facilities 3-34
3.4.4 Construction Schedule 3-35

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3.4.5 Decommissioning 3-35
3.5 TRAFFIC 3-38
3.5.1 Marine Traffic 3-38
3.6 EMISSIONS, DISCHARGES AND WASTES 3-39
3.6.1 Air Emissions 3-39
3.6.2 Noise Emissions 3-40
3.6.3 Liquid Effluents 3-42
3.6.4 Solid Waste 3-43
3.7 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS 3-44
3.8 HEALTH AND SAFETY (H&S) AND SECURITY 3-45
3.9 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES 3-46
3.9.1 Consideration of Alternatives During Project Design 3-46
3.9.2 No Project Alternative 3-47
3.9.3 Alternative Projects 3-47
3.9.4 Location Alternatives 3-48
3.9.5 Layout Alternatives 3-50

4 BIOPHYSICAL BASELINE 4-1

4.1 INTRODUCTION 4-1


4.2 CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY 4-1
4.2.1 Rainfall 4-2
4.2.2 Temperature 4-3
4.2.3 Relative Humidity 4-4
4.2.4 Wind 4-5
4.2.5 Oceanography 4-6
4.3 BATHYMETRY AND SEABED TOPOGRAPHY 4-12
4.4 GEOLOGY, SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY 4-12
4.4.1 Geology 4-12
4.4.2 Soils 4-15
4.4.3 Terrestrial Topography 4-21
4.5 HYDROLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY 4-24
4.5.1 Regional Hydrogeology 4-24
4.5.2 Groundwater Quality 4-25
4.5.3 Surface Water 4-34
4.5.4 Trace/ Heavy Metal Analysis 4-42
4.6 MARINE WATER QUALITY 4-43
4.6.1 Water Temperature and pH 4-43
4.6.2 Total Dissolved Solids, Conductivity and Resistivity 4-44
4.6.3 Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids 4-45
4.6.4 Nutrient (nitrates, phosphate and silicate) 4-45
4.6.5 Elemental Analysis (Heavy/Trace metals) 4-47
4.6.6 Bacteriology 4-48
4.6.7 Productivity (Chlorophyll concentration) 4-48
4.7 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY 4-49
4.7.1 Dust and Particulate Matter (TSP, PM1, PM2.5, PM10) 4-49
4.7.2 Toxic Gas Pollutant (NOx, SO2, CO, H2S, VOC,) 4-53
4.8 NOISE AND VIBRATION 4-55
4.9 ROAD TRAFFIC 4-57
4.10 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY 4-58

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4.10.1 Flora 4-58
4.10.2 Fauna 4-65
4.10.3 Avian Fauna 4-66
4.11 MARINE AND INTERTIDAL ECOLOGY 4-67
4.11.1 Plankton 4-67
4.11.2 Sandy Beach Ecology (Intertidal Flora and Fauna) 4-69
4.11.3 Fish Ecology 4-70
4.11.4 Marine Mammals 4-73
4.11.5 Turtles 4-74
4.12 LOCAL FISHERIES 4-77
4.12.1 Marine Beach Seine Fishery 4-77
4.12.2 Marine Fish Catch 4-77
4.12.3 Freshwater Fishery (Asemdasuazo) 4-79
4.13 PROTECTED AREAS 4-79
4.13.1 Objectives of Protected Areas 4-79
4.13.2 Designated and Protected Areas 4-80
4.13.3 Ankasa Conservation Area 4-80
4.13.4 Amansuri Wetlands 4-81

5 SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE 5-1

5.1 DEFINING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY AREA 5-2


5.2 INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT 5-4
5.2.1 Formal and Traditional Administrative Structures 5-4
5.2.2 Traditional Authorities 5-7
5.3 Macro-Economic History Of Ghana 5-8
5.3.1 The Development Policy Context 5-9
5.4 LAND TENURE SYSTEM AND LAND USE 5-10
5.4.1 Local Land Use, Rights and Entitlements 5-13
5.5 NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND DISTRICT SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING 5-13
5.5.1 Demographic Profile 5-15
5.5.2 Migration Patterns 5-19
5.5.3 The Economy 5-19
5.5.4 Education 5-23
5.5.5 Health 5-25
5.5.6 Vulnerable Groups and Human Trafficking 5-30
5.6 NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND DISTRICT UTILITIES, INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES
5-32
5.6.1 Water 5-32
5.6.2 Sanitation 5-32
5.6.3 Waste Disposal 5-33
5.6.4 Fuel Sources 5-33
5.6.5 Transport and Road Infrastructure 5-33
5.6.6 Telecommunications 5-34
5.7 THE LOCAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL SETTING 5-34
5.7.1 History 5-35
5.7.2 Local Authority Structures 5-36
5.7.3 Demographic Characteristics 5-39
5.7.4 Settlement Patterns 5-45
5.8 LIVELIHOOD PRACTICES 5-48

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5.8.1 Agriculture and Fisheries 5-49
5.8.2 Natural Resource Use 5-71
5.8.3 Petty trading 5-73
5.8.4 Salaried and Self-Employment 5-74
5.8.5 Other Livelihood Strategies 5-75
5.9 COMMUNITY LIFESTYLE, IDENTITY AND RELATIONSHIPS 5-75
5.9.2 Sense of Place 5-76
5.9.3 Inter-Community Relationships 5-77
5.9.4 Cultural Practices and Modernisation 5-81
5.9.5 Poverty and Vulnerability 5-82
5.10 UTILITIES, INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES 5-84
5.10.1 Water 5-85
5.10.2 Electricity 5-85
5.10.3 Roads and Transport 5-85
5.10.4 Waste management 5-86
5.10.5 Sanitation 5-86
5.10.6 Telecommunications 5-86
5.10.7 Emergency Services 5-86
5.10.8 Financial Institutions 5-87
5.10.9 Education 5-87
5.10.10 Health 5-90
5.10.11 Tourism 5-93

6 IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT 6-1

6.1 INTRODUCTION 6-1


6.2 SCOPE OF THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT 6-1
6.2.1 Project and Associated Activities 6-1
6.2.2 Resources and Receptors 6-2
6.2.3 Area of Influence 6-3
6.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY 6-4
6.3.1 Overview of Process 6-4
6.3.2 Characterising Impacts 6-5
6.3.3 Determining Impact Magnitude 6-6
6.3.4 Sensitivity of Resources and Receptors 6-7
6.3.5 Assessment of Significance 6-9
6.3.6 Mitigation Measures 6-12
6.3.7 Determining Residual Impacts 6-13
6.4 UNCERTAINTY 6-13
6.4.1 Implications of Baseline Data Uncertainty 6-14
6.4.2 Implications of Uncertainty in the Response of the Environment 6-15
6.4.3 Implications for the Impact Assessment 6-15
6.5 IMPACTS ON THE BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT – TERRESTRIAL 6-15
6.5.1 Introduction 6-15
6.5.2 Impacts on Soils 6-16
6.5.3 Impacts on Groundwater 6-19
6.5.4 Impacts on Surface Water 6-23
6.5.5 Impacts on Terrestrial Flora and Habitats: Construction 6-26
6.5.6 Impacts on Terrestrial Flora and Habitats: Operation 6-29
6.5.7 Impacts on Terrestrial Fauna 6-30

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6.5.8 Impacts on Avian Fauna - Bird Strikes 6-32
6.5.9 Impacts to Freshwater Fish 6-35
6.5.10 Impacts on Air Quality: Construction 6-36
6.5.11 Impacts on Air Quality: Operation 6-40
6.5.12 Impacts on Air Quality: Construction and Operation 6-42
6.5.13 Noise and Vibration Impacts: Construction 6-44
6.5.14 Noise and Vibration Impacts: General Noise during Operations 6-46
6.5.15 Noise and Vibration Impacts: Airstrip Operations 6-49
6.5.16 Impacts on Traffic: Construction 6-54
6.5.17 Impacts on Traffic: Operation 6-57
6.5.18 Impacts on Visual Character 6-60
6.6 IMPACTS ON THE BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT – MARINE 6-65
6.6.1 Impacts on Marine Water Quality 6-66
6.6.2 Impacts on Marine Sediment Quality and Benthic and Intertidal Ecology 6-69
6.6.3 Impacts on Coastal Processes 6-72
6.6.4 Impacts on Underwater Noise 6-75
6.6.5 Impacts on Marine Mammals 6-77
6.6.6 Impacts on Sea Turtles 6-80
6.6.7 Impacts on Fish 6-82
6.7 IMPACTS ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 6-85
6.7.1 Impacts on the National and Regional Economy 6-86
6.7.2 Economic and Physical Displacement 6-99
6.7.3 Impacts on Ecosystem Services 6-109
6.7.4 Impact on Livelihoods 6-115
6.7.5 Impact on Social Infrastructure, Governance and Service Delivery 6-133
6.7.6 Socio-Cultural Impacts 6-145
6.7.7 Impacts On Health 6-166
6.8 UNPLANNED AND ACCIDENTAL EVENTS 6-175
6.8.1 Accidental Spills 6-176
6.8.2 Fires and Explosions 6-182
6.8.3 Waste 6-182
6.8.4 Vehicle Accidents 6-188
6.9 CUMULATIVE IMPACTS 6-191
6.9.1 Defining Cumulative Impacts 6-191
6.9.2 Identifying of Relevant Development(s) 6-192
6.9.3 Cumulative Impact Assessment 6-192
6.9.4 Cumulative Impacts of the Biophysical Environment - Terrestrial 6-193
6.9.5 Cumulative Impacts of the Biophysical Environment – Marine 6-195
6.9.6 Cumulative Impacts on the Socio-economic Environment 6-196

7 MITIGATION AND MANAGEMENT MEASURES 7-1

7.1 INTRODUCTION 7-1

8 DECOMMISSIONING 8-1

8.1 INTRODUCTION 8-1


8.2 REGULATIONS AND AUTHORITY 8-1
8.3 INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND GUIDELINES 8-1
8.4 DECOMMISSIONING PLAN 8-2

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8.4.1 Approval Process 8-2
8.5 DECOMMISSIONING METHODS 8-3
8.5.1 General Approach 8-3
8.5.2 Marine Infrastructure 8-4
8.5.3 Wastes 8-5
8.5.4 Contaminated Soil 8-5

9 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (ESMP) 9-1

9.1 INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE 9-1


9.1.1 Introduction 9-1
9.1.2 Objectives 9-1
9.1.3 Scope 9-2
9.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 9-3
9.2.1 Introduction 9-3
9.2.2 Ghanaian Regulatory Requirements 9-3
9.2.3 Performance Standards 9-3
9.2.4 AfDB Requirements 9-4
9.2.5 Project Standards 9-4
9.3 PLANNING 9-5
9.3.1 Impact Assessment 9-5
9.3.2 Project Commitments 9-5
9.3.3 Management Plans 9-6
9.3.4 Contractor and Tenant Environmental and Social Management Plan(s) 9-9
9.4 IMPLEMENTATION 9-10
9.4.1 Environmental and Social Management Organisation 9-10
9.4.2 Roles and Responsibilities 9-11
9.4.3 Competence, Training and Awareness 9-13
9.4.4 Communication 9-14
9.4.5 Documentation 9-15
9.4.6 Development of Procedures 9-17
9.4.7 Management of Change 9-17
9.4.8 Stakeholder Engagement 9-18
9.5 CHECKING AND CORRECTIVE ACTION 9-19
9.5.1 Inspection 9-19
9.5.2 Monitoring 9-19
9.5.3 Auditing 9-20
9.5.4 Corrective Action 9-21
9.5.5 Reporting 9-21
9.6 GRIEVANCE MECHANISM 9-22

10 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 10-1

10.1 THE ESIA PROCESS 10-1


10.2 SUMMARY OF IMPACTS AND MITIGATION 10-1

11 REFERENCES 11-1

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Overview of ESIA Process, Indicating Stakeholder Consultation Activities 1-5
Figure 1.2 Community Meetings and Introduction to Project 1-18

Figure 2.1 Relationship between Lender Requirements 2-37

Figure 3.1 Layout of the proposed Project 3-3


Figure 3.2 Semi-submersible Rig 3-6
Figure 3.3 Jack-up Rig 3-6
Figure 3.4 Drill Ship 3-7
Figure 3.5 Indicative Representation of Warehousing and Waste Management Activities
(Luba Freeport, Equatorial Guinea) 3-8
Figure 3.6 Drill Cuttings Desorption Plant 3-9
Figure 3.7 Bulk Storage Facility 3-13
Figure 3.8 Proposed Sewage Treatment and Outfall Facilities 3-17
Figure 3.9 Temporary Construction Facilities 3-21
Figure 3.10 Layout of Laydown Areas 3-22
Figure 3.11 Photograph of Similar Temporary Fabrication Yard 3-23
Figure 3.12 Trucks Delivering Rock during a Rock Placement 3-25
Figure 3.13 Cross-section of Breakwater Design 3-25
Figure 3.14 Long-boom Excavator Shaping the Breakwater Slope 3-26
Figure 3.15 Portal Cranes Working on a Breakwater. 3-27
Figure 3.16 Installation of X-Block Armour by Crane 3-28
Figure 3.17 Installation of Armour by Excavator 3-28
Figure 3.18 Map Showing the Proposed Transportation Routes for Breakwater Rock
Material 3-30
Figure 3.19 Existing Road Conditions along the Transport Route (gravel conditions for the
last 20 km to the Project site) 3-31
Figure 3.20 Existing bridge along the Transport Route (may require upgrading) 3-32
Figure 3.21 Proposed Drainage System for the Project site 3-35
Figure 3.22 Planned Construction Schedule (including Dredging Activities during Site
Preparation) 3-36
Figure 3.23 Modelled Aircraft Noise Contours (55, 65 and 75 dB) 3-40
Figure 3.24 Different Layout Options for the Proposed Project facilities 3-49

Figure 4.1 Average Monthly Rainfall for Half Assini and Axim from 2002 to 2011 3
Figure 4.2 Monthly Average Temperature for Axim and Half Assini from 2002 to 2011 4
Figure 4.3 Average Monthly Relative Humidity for Axim and Half Assini from 2002
to 2011 5
Figure 4.4 Average Monthly Wind Speed for Axim from 2002 to 2011. 6
Figure 4.5 Major Current Systems Influencing the Gulf of Guinea 7
Figure 4.6 The Guinea Current 8
Figure 4.7 Primary Productivity (mg C m-2 d-1) Offshore Ghana during August
and April. 10
Figure 4.8 Coastline of Ghana showing the Net Direction of Longshore Drift 11
Figure 4.9 Geological map of south western Ghana 14
Figure 4.10 Location of Soil, Air, Noise and Water Sampling Study Sites in the Vicinity of
the Project area 16

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Figure 4.11 Distribution of pH Levels across the Soil Profile Pits 17
Figure 4.12 Distribution of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Levels across the Soil Profile
Pits 18
Figure 4.13 Locations of Beach Profile, Intertidal and Fisheries Sampling 23
Figure 4.14 Diagram Showing the Two Upper Aquifers along the Coast 25
Figure 4.15 Distribution of Water Temperature and pH for Groundwater Samples
(community hand dug wells) 27
Figure 4.16 Conductivity and Dissolved Solids Concentrations of Groundwater
Samples 28
Figure 4.17 Distribution of Turbidity and Suspended Solids Concentrations across
Groundwater Sample Stations. 29
Figure 4.18 Nutrient Levels across Groundwater Sampling Stations. 30
Figure 4.19 Microbial Load in Groundwater, Surface Water Resources and Sea Water
(Atuabo) 34
Figure 4.20 Estimated Amansuri wetland areas and Amansuri Lake as well as the
assumed drainage basin of the Amansuri Wetland area 35
Figure 4.21 Fresh water Stream/ pond close (south east) to Asemdasuazo 37
Figure 4.22 Freshwater Ponds within the Project Site south east of Asemdasuazo 37
Figure 4.23 Water Temperature and pH Distribution of Surface Streams of
Atuabo Area 38
Figure 4.24 Conductivity and Dissolved Solids Concentrations in Surface Streams 39
Figure 4.25 Distribution of Turbidity and Suspended Solids in Surface Streams at
Atuabo Area 40
Figure 4.26 Nutrient Levels across Surface Water Sampling Stations 41
Figure 4.27 Water Temperature and pH Distribution of Seawater Samples at Low
and High Tides 43
Figure 4.28 Conductivity and Dissolved Solids Concentrations in Seawater Samples
during Low and High Tides 44
Figure 4.29 Distribution of Turbidity and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Seawater
Samples 45
Figure 4.30 Nutrient Levels of Seawater Samples 45
Figure 4.31 Chlorophyll Concentration in Seawater Samples at Atuabo 48
Figure 4.32 Time Series of Particulate Matter Concentration at Atuabo (error bars
indicating standard deviation) 51
Figure 4.33 Time Series of Particulate Matter Concentration at Anokyi (error bars
indicating standard deviation) 51
Figure 4.34 Time Series of Particulate Matter Concentration at Asemdasuazo
(error bars indicating standard deviation) 52
Figure 4.35 Mean Concentrations of Air Pollutants in the Three Communities 53
Figure 4.36 Time Series of Noise Levels in Atuabo
(error bars indicate standard deviation) 55
Figure 4.37 Time Series of Noise Levels in Anokyi
(error bars indicate standard deviation) 55
Figure 4.38 Time Series of Noise Levels in Asemdasuazo (error bars indicate standard
deviation) 56
Figure 4.39 Location of terrestrial flora sampling sites in the vicinity of the
Project area 59
Figure 4.40 Coconut Plantations on sand dunes, in the vicinity of the Project site. 60
Figure 4.41 Grassland vegetation interspersed with thicket clumps 61

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Figure 4.42 Freshwater Swamp Forest with Cyrtosperma senegalense (foreground) and
Raphia hookeri (background). 61
Figure 4.43 Percentage Composition of species by Life Form 62
Figure 4.44 Percentage Composition of Species by Ecological Guild 63
Figure 4.45 Percentage Composition of species by Star Rating 63
Figure 4.46 Dendogram for hierarchical clustering (using group average linking)
of Stations within the project area based on Bray-Curtis similarity. 69
Figure 4.47 Location of interviews conducted as part of the turtle study 75
Figure 4.48 The Graphical Relationship of the Species Range and the Indices
of Abundance 77

Figure 5.1 Contextual Map: Region, District and Study Area 5-2
Figure 5.2 Study Area Communities: Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo 5-3
Figure 5.3 Project Spheres of Influence 5-3
Figure 5.4 Ellembelle District Organogram 5-6
Figure 5.5 Ellembelle District Traditional Leadership Organogram 5-8
Figure 5.6 Health Care System in Ghana 5-26
Figure 5.7 Atuabo Elderly Focus Group Meeting 5-40
Figure 5.8 Role of Elderly Women in the Family 5-41
Figure 5.9 Gender Representation at Mixed Interest Focus Groups 5-43
Figure 5.10 Town Layouts in the Study Area 5-45
Figure 5.11 Settlement Patterns and Trading Structures 5-47
Figure 5.12 Housing in the Study Area 5-48
Figure 5.13 Slash and Burn Agricultural Practice 5-52
Figure 5.14 Crops 5-52
Figure 5.15 Transportation of crops from the Fields 5-53
Figure 5.16 Coconut Trade 5-55
Figure 5.17 Trade in un-processed coconuts with buyers from Nigeria 5-56
Figure 5.18 Coconut Processing Steps 5-57
Figure 5.19 Coconut Processing Steps cont 5-58
Figure 5.20 Fish mongering 5-60
Figure 5.21 Atuabo Fishermen Mapping Net Casting and Tie-off Areas 5-61
Figure 5.22 Atuabo Net Casting and Tie-off Areas 5-61
Figure 5.23 Atuabo Fishers 5-62
Figure 5.24 Anokyi Net Casting and Tie-off Areas 5-63
Figure 5.25 Anokyi Casting and Tie-off sites 5-64
Figure 5.26 Fish catches (low season) 5-65
Figure 5.27 Asemdasuazo Community Mapping of Freshwater Fishing Sites 5-66
Figure 5.28 Asemdasuazo Translated Freshwater Fishing Map (areas only indicative) 5-67
Figure 5.29 Asemdasuazo Freshwater Fishing Gear 5-68
Figure 5.30 Crab Traps laid by Children 5-70
Figure 5.31 Use of Natural Resources 5-73
Figure 5.32 Petty Trading 5-73
Figure 5.33 Sense of Place in the Study Area 5-76
Figure 5.34 Inter-Community Footpaths 5-79
Figure 5.35 Inter-Community Relationships 5-80
Figure 5.36 School Infrastructure and Educational Planning 5-88
Figure 5.37 Locally Gathered Herbal Medicine for Measles 5-92

Figure 6.1 Prediction, Evaluation and Mitigation of Impacts 6-5

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Figure 6.2 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Soils 6-17
Figure 6.3 Impact Diagram - Impacts to Groundwater 6-21
Figure 6.4 Impact Diagram – Impact on Surface Water 6-24
Figure 6.5 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Terrestrial Flora and Habitats (Construction)6-27
Figure 6.6 Impact Diagram - Impacts on Terrestrial Flora and Habitats (Operation) 6-29
Figure 6.7 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Terrestrial Fauna 6-31
Figure 6.8 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Avian Fauna (Bird Strikes) 6-33
Figure 6.9 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Freshwater Fish 6-35
Figure 6.10 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Air Quality (Construction) 6-39
Figure 6.11 Impact Diagram – Impacts to Air Quality (Operation) 6-41
Figure 6.12 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Air Quality (Construction and Operation) 6-43
Figure 6.13 Impact Diagram – Noise and Vibration Impacts (Construction) 6-45
Figure 6.14 Impact Diagram – Noise and Vibration Impacts (Operation) 6-47
Figure 6.15 Impact Diagram – Noise and Vibration Impacts (Airstrip Operations) 6-50
Figure 6.16 Aircraft Noise 6-53
Figure 6.17 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Traffic (Construction) 6-56
Figure 6.18 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Traffic (Operation) 6-58
Figure 6.19 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Visual Character 6-62
Figure 6.20 Computer-Generated Depiction of the Project 63
Figure 6.21 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Marine Water Quality 6-68
Figure 6.22 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Marine Sediment Quality and Benthic and
Intertidal Ecology 6-71
Figure 6.23 Diagram of Effects on Coastal Processes 6-74
Figure 6.24 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Coastal Processes 6-74
Figure 6.25 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Underwater Noise 6-76
Figure 6.26 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Marine Mammals 6-78
Figure 6.27 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Turtles 6-81
Figure 6.28 Cause-Effect Diagram of Impacts on the Fish 6-83
Figure 6.29 Impact Diagram – Increased Government Revenue (Construction) 6-87
Figure 6.30 Impact Diagram – Increased Government Revenue (Operation) 6-89
Figure 6.31 Impact Diagram – Economic Development and Diversification of the Economy
6-93
Figure 6.32 Impact Diagram – Increased Business Experience, Training and Skills 6-97
Figure 6.33 Impact Diagram – Loss of Farming, Agro-processing and Grazing Land 6-101
Figure 6.34 Impact Diagram – Loss of Access to Fishing Areas and Related Resources6-104
Figure 6.35 Anokyi Net Casting and Tie-off Areas 105
Figure 6.36 Asemdasuazo Freshwater Fishing Areas 106
Figure 6.37 Impact Diagram – Decreased Availability of Land for Settlement 6-110
Figure 6.38 Impact Diagram – Access to/ Increased Competition for Flora and Fauna 6-113
Figure 6.39 Impact Diagram – Employment Creation 6-118
Figure 6.40 Impact Diagram – Impact on Prices and Exacerbation of Economic Vulnerability
6-121
Figure 6.41 Inter-community Relationships 6-125
Figure 6.42 Impact Diagram - Change in Livelihoods 6-129
Figure 6.43 Impact Diagram – Increased Potential for Income Stability 6-132
Figure 6.44 Impact Diagram – Transfer of Skilled and Semi-skilled Perconnel from Public
Sector Institutions to the Project 6-135
Figure 6.45 Impact Diagram – Pressure on Basic Infrastructure, Services and Local
Government Capacity 6-139
Figure 6.46 Impact Diagram – Growth in Informal Settlements 6-143

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Figure 6.47 Impact Diagram – Change in Sense of Place 6-147
Figure 6.48 Impact Diagram – Changes to Social and Cultural Norms 6-152
Figure 6.49 Impact Diagram - Increase in Social Pathologies 6-158
Figure 6.50 Impact Diagram – Tension and Conflict between Towns (and possibly Districts)
6-161
Figure 6.51 Impact Diagram - Unmet Expectations Resulting in Community Anger and
Resentment towards the Project 6-164
Figure 6.52 Impact Diagram – Increased Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections,
HIV/ AIDS and other Communicable Diseases 6-169
Figure 6.53 Impact Diagram – Nuisance and Irritants related to Air Emissions 6-172
Figure 6.54 Impact Diagram – Impacts on Tourism 6-174
Figure 6.55 Impact Diagram – Unplanned and Accidental Events 6-176
Figure 6.56 Impact Diagram – Traffic Accidents 6-189

Figure 9.1 HSE Organisational Structure (Construction and Operation) 9-11


Figure 9.2 Draft Environmental Incident Report Form 9-16
Figure 9.3 Draft Monthly Environmental Audit Summary Sheet 9-16

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Primary and Secondary Stakeholder Groups 1-11


Table 1.2 Summary of Scoping consultation meetings (February and March 2012) 1-15
Table 1.3 Summary of Engagements with Affected Communities 1-16
Table 1.4 Summary of Issues 1-19
Table 1.5 The ESIA team 1-22
Table 1.6 ESIA Report Structure 1-23

Table 2.1 List of Relevant National Environmental Legislation 2-17


Table 2.2 Ambient Air Quality Guidelines 2-20
Table 2.3 Sector specific effluent quality guidelines for discharges into natural water
bodies (maximum permissible levels) as stipulated by the EPA 2-20
Table 2.4 Ambient Noise Level Standards in Ghana 2-21
Table 2.5 Summary of Relevant Social Legislation 2-27
Table 2.6 International Conventions Relating to the Project 2-31
Table 2.7 Relevant MARPOL 1973/1978 Provisions 2-35

Table 3.1 Facilities and Dimensions of the Rig Repair Yard 3-5
Table 3.2 Overview of requirements for the facilities to be included in the MOSB 3-8
Table 3.3 Overview of Other Port-related Facilities 3-10
Table 3.4 Product Storage and Delivery Specifications for each Product Type 3-12
Table 3.5 Spatial requirements of the associated waste management facilities 3-14
Table 3.6 Dredging Equipment 3-20
Table 3.7 Expected Vessel Types and Sizes 3-37
Table 3.8 Number of Vehicle Registrations During Operations 3-37
Table 3.9 Air Emissions Inventory for the Project during Construction and Operation3-39
Table 3.10 Employment requirements for the Project 3-42
Table 3.11 Site Evaluation 3-46

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Table 4.1 Concentrations of Oil & Grease and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in soil
samples 4-18
Table 4.2 Concentration of Heavy Metals in Soils of the Proposed Atuabo Project Area18
Table 4.3 Description of surface and ground water sampling locations 4-25
Table 4.5 Microbial Concentrations of Groundwater and Surface Water Resources
(Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo) 4-31
Table 4.4 Trace/ Heavy Metal Concentrations of Groundwater and Surface Water
Resources 4-32
Table 4.6 Trace/Heavy Metal Concentrations of Seawater of Atuabo Area 4-44
Table 4.7 Microbial Concentrations of Seawater at Atuabo and Anokyi 4-45
Table 4.8 Threatened Fish Species in Ghanaian Waters (IUCN, 2011) 4-70
Table 4.9 Dolphins and Whales of Ghana and IUCN Conservation Status 4-71
Table 4.10 Turtles in the Gulf of Guinea, IUCN Conservation Status 4-71
Table 4.11 Population of Sea Turtle Species that Nest on Beaches of Ghana 4-72
Table 4.12 List of Species Caught and Weights 4-74

Table 5.1 List of Area Councils and Population within Ellembelle District 5-5
Table 5.2 Development Policies Relevant to the Project 5-9
Table 5.3 Ghana Socio-Economic Indicators 5-13
Table 5.4 Population Distribution in Ellembelle District and Communities of the Study
Area 5-15
Table 5.5 Population Growth by Region, 2000 – 2010 5-15
Table 5.6 Urban/ Rural Population Trend 5-16
Table 5.7 National to District Age Cohorts as a Percentage of the Population 5-16
Table 5.8 Population by Region and Sex, 2010 5-17
Table 5.9 Educational Facilities in Ellembelle District 5-23
Table 5.10 Ellembelle School Enrolment by Gender 5-23
Table 5.11 Top ten causes of Outpatient Morbidity in Ellembelle District, 2011 5-27
Table 5.12 HIV Cases by Age Group, Ellembelle District 5-29
Table 5.13 Ellembelle District - 2010 Water and Sanitation Facilities and 2013 projections
5-33
Table 5.14 Population of Affected Communities 5-39
Table.5.15 Seasonal Calendar for Agricultural Activities 5-50
Table 5.16 Prices of Popular Goods 5-74

Table 6.1 Biophysical and Species Value / Sensitivity Criteria 6-8


Table 6.2 Socio-economic and Health Sensitivity Criteria 6-8
Table 6.3 Overall Significance Criteria for Environmental Impacts in the ESIA 6-11
Table 6.4 Impact Summary: Impacts on Soil Resources 6-19
Table 6.5 Impact Summary: Impacts on Groundwater 6-23
Table 6.6 Impact Summary: Impacts on Surface Water 6-26
Table 6.7 Impact Summary: Impacts on Flora and Habitats (Construction) 6-28
Table 6.8 Impact Summary: Impacts on Flora and Habitats (Operation) 6-30
Table 6.9 Impact Summary: Impacts on Terrestrial Fauna (during Construction and
Operation) 6-32
Table 6.10 Impact Summary: Impacts on Avian Fauna – Bird Strikes 6-35
Table 6.11 Impact Summary: Impacts on Freshwater Fish 6-36
Table 6.12 Mean Hourly Levels of Gas Pollutants 6-37
Table 6.13 Impact Summary: Impacts on Air Quality (Construction) 6-40
Table 6.14 Impact Summary: Impacts on Air Quality (Operation) 6-42

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Table 6.15 Impact Summary: Impacts on Air Quality (Construction and Operation) 6-43
Table 6.16 Impact Summary: Impacts on ambient Noise and Vibration During Construction
6-46
Table 6.17 Noise Level Guidelines 6-47
Table 6.18 Impact Summary: Impacts on ambient Noise and Vibration: General Noise
during Operations 6-49
Table 6.19 Impact Summary: Impacts on Ambient Noise and Vibration: Operation of the
Airstrip 6-54
Table 6.20 Impact Summary: Impacts on Traffic (Construction) 6-57
Table 6.21 Impact Summary: Impacts on Traffic (Operation) 6-60
Table 6.22 Impact Summary: Impacts on Visual Character 6-65
Table 6.23 Impact Summary: Impacts on Marine Water Quality 6-69
Table 6.24 Impact Summary: Impacts on Marine Water Quality (Construction and
Operations) 6-72
Table 6.25 Impact Summary: Impacts on Coastal Processes 6-75
Table 6.26 Impact Summary: Impacts on Underwater Noise 6-77
Table 6.27 Impact Summary: Impacts on Marine Mammals 6-79
Table 6.28 Impact Summary: Impacts on Turtles 6-82
Table 6.29 Impact Summary: Impacts on Fish 6-85
Table 6.30 Impact Summary: Increased Government Revenue (Construction) 6-88
Table 6.31 Impact Summary: Increased Government Revenue (Operation) 6-90
Table 6.32 Impact Summary: Economic Development and Diversification of the Economy6-
95
Table 6.33 Impact Summary: Procurement of Local Goods and Services and Associated
Increased Business Experience, Training and Skills 6-98
Table 6.34 Impact Summary: Loss of Farming, Agro-processing and Grazing Land 6-102
Table 6.35 Impact Summary: Loss of Access to Fishing Areas and Related Resources6-108
Table 6.36 Impact Summary: Decreased Availability of Land for Settlement 6-112
Table 6.37 Impact Summary: Reduced Access to/Increased Competition for Flora and Fauna
6-115
Table 6.38 Employment requirements for the Project 6-115
Table 6.39 Impact Summary: Employment Creation 6-120
Table 6.40 Impact Summary: Impact on Prices and Exacerbation of Economic Vulnerability
6-123
Table 6.41 Impact Summary: Changes to Livelihood Strategies 6-131
Table 6.42 Impact Summary: Increased Potential for Income Stability 6-133
Table 6.43 Impact Summary: Transfer of Skilled and Semi-Skilled Personnel from Public
Sector Institutions to the Project 6-136
Table 6.44 Impact Summary: Pressure on Basic Infrastructure, Services and Local
Government Capacity 6-141
Table 6.45 Impact Summary: Growth of Informal Settlements 6-145
Table 6.46 Impact Summary: Changed Sense of Place 6-149
Table 6.47 Impact Summary: Changes to Cultural and Social Norms 6-154
Table 6.48 Impact Summary: Increase in Social Pathologies 6-160
Table 6.49 Impact Summary: Tension and Conflict between Towns (and possibly Districts)
6-163
Table 6.50 Impact Summary: Community Anger and Resentment over Not Sharing in
Project Benefits 6-166
Table 6.51 Impact Summary: Increased Prevalence of STIs, HIV/AIDS and other
Communicable Diseases 6-171

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Table 6.52 Impact Summary: Irritated and Allergic Eye Conditions and Respiratory
Problems 6-173
Table 6.53 Impact Summary: Impact on Tourism 6-175
Table 6.54 Impact Summary: Potential Impacts from Accidental Spills 6-181
Table 6.55 Events and Potential Consequences at Fuel Storage Facility 6-182
Table 6.56 Impact Summary: Potential Impacts from Fire and Explosions 6-184
Table 6.57 Impact Summary: Impacts due to Waste Management Activities 6-188
Table 6.58 Impact Summary: Vehicle Accidents 6-190

Table 7.1 Design Phase: Environmental and Social Management Measures 7-2
Table 7.2 Site Preparation and Construction: Environmental and Social Management
Measures 7-8
Table 7.4 Operational Phase: Environmental and Social Management Measures 7-23

Table 9.1 Summary and Hierarchy of ESMP Document and Specific Management Plans9-7
Table 9.2 Environmental and Social Management Organisation Roles and
Responsibilities 9-12

LIST OF BOXES

Box 1.1 Key Components of an Effective Grievance Mechanism 1-22

Box 2.1 “Better Ghana Agenda” priority interventions 2-12


Box 2.2 Ellembelle Supplementary Programme and Policy Areas 2-16
Box 2.3 Equator Principles 2-37
Box 2.4 Lonrho Environmental Policy 2-43
Box 2.5 Global Compact Principles 2-43

Box 5.1 Key Aspects of the National Economy 5-19


Box 5.2 Summary of Ghana’s Economic Outlook 5-21
Box 5.3 Educational Initiatives in Ghana 5-25
Box 5.4 The PROMISE Programme 5-28
Box 5.5 Definition of Human Trafficking 5-31
Box 5.6 Key Socio-economic and Cultural Characteristics of Study Area 5-35
Box 5.7 Key Aspects of the Livelihood Characteristics of the Study Area 5-49
Box 5.8 Key Aspects of Lifestyle, Identity and Relationships 5-75
Box 5.9 Key Aspects of Infrastructure and Services 5-84

Box 6.1 Impact Characteristics 6-5


Box 6.2 Magnitude Criteria for Ecological Impacts 6-7
Box 6.3 Categories of Significance 6-10
Box 6.4 Mitigation Hierarchy for Planned Activities 6-13
Box 6.5 Mitigation Hierarchy for Unplanned Events 6-13
Box 6.6 Types of Cumulative Impacts Relevant to the Project 6-191

Box 9.1 Lonrho Environmental Policy 9-4


Box 9.2 ESMS Process 9-5
Box 9.3 Type of Commitments 9-6

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Box 10.1 List of Major Negative Impacts (Pre-mitigation) 10-2

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1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The proposed Project involves the development of an ‘Exclusive Deepwater


Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Logistics Base Port’ (hereafter referred to as ‘the
Project’) on the coast of Ghana’s Western region. The port, located
approximately 200 km west of the country’s capital, Accra, will provide support
services to the offshore oil and gas field developments off the coast of Ghana’s
Western Region.

According to Ghanaian Environmental legislation the proposed Project requires


a full ESIA process and submission of this ESIA Report to the Ghanaian
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for their decision on whether to issue
an environmental permit for the Project.

1.1.1 Project Overview

The development of the Project will comprise the construction of two


breakwaters, quays, an airstrip, ship berths, a naval forward operating base, a
turning circle and a variety of onshore facilities including a clinic, warehousing,
storage facilities for hydrocarbon products, offices and accommodation. Potable
water, power and telecommunications utilities and infrastructure will also be
constructed as part of the development.

1.1.2 Project Justification

The Project has been proposed in order to service the newly developed offshore
oilfields located to the south and southwest of the Project site, and also within
the Gulf of Guinea. Oilfield related support services are presently not provided
in close proximity to the site and oilfield operators have to travel great distances
to other ports, including Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire), Takoradi, Sekondi, and Tema in
order to receive rig repair and other services.

The development of the project will also provide local employment and other
economic benefits to the local communities as well as the Western Region and
Ghana in general and to assist in ensuring economic benefits from the oil and gas
industry also accrue directly to Ghana.

1.1.3 ESIA Process

The ESIA for the Project was undertaken in accordance with the Ghanaian
Environmental Assessment Regulations (1999), as well as the African
Development Bank’s Environmental and Social Safeguards and the Equator
Principles which reflect the International Finance Corporation’s Performance
Standards. An overview of the ESIA process undertaken is provided below.

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Screening and scoping

The Project was registered with the EPA on 12 February 2012 who confirmed
that a full ESIA was necessary. The Scoping Report, presenting an overview of
the project, consultation process, baseline information and the terms of reference
for the ESIA, was submitted to the EPA on 5 April 2012 and approved on 22 May
2012. This was subsequently disclosed in hardcopy and electronic forms for
stakeholder comment.

Baseline data collection

Available data on the existing environmental and social conditions was gathered
as a basis against which the impacts of the project can be assessed. In addition to
a desktop review, primary data was collected during field studies carried out by
qualified specialists ie dry season biophysical surveys undertaken by ESL
Consulting and a socio-economic field survey undertaken by ERM/ ESL
Consulting in April 2012. As per the EPA approved terms of reference for the
ESIA, the wet season baseline results (available during September 2012) will be
appended to the Final ESIA Report.

Stakeholder engagement

The objective of stakeholder engagement is to ensure that sources of existing


information and expertise are identified, legislative requirements are met and
that stakeholder concerns and expectations are addressed. The stakeholder
engagement process comprised the following activities:

identification of a preliminary list of stakeholders;


creation of background information document (BID) for use in
communicating with stakeholders;
meetings with a number of government departments and stakeholder
groups; and
various focus group meetings with local community members.

During scoping, a total of 25 meetings were held with 28 stakeholder groups.


Stakeholders consulted included national, regional and district authorities,
traditional leadership, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), international
organisations and fisher associations. Stakeholder engagement continued
through the ESIA phase with ad hoc communication with Project stakeholders
through email and telephone and meetings between Lonrho and local
community members who engaged with the process. A summary of the key
issues and further details on the stakeholder consultation process are included in
Chapter 1 and Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP) (Annex A).

Impact assessment

Using the baseline information gathered and the project description of the
proposed activities, the impact assessment process followed four steps:

1. Prediction of what will happen as a consequence of project activities.

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2. Evaluation of the importance and significance of the impact.
3. Development of mitigation measures to manage significant impacts where
practicable.
4. Evaluation of the significance of the residual impact.

The impact assessment considered both predictable and unpredictable impacts


(such as accidents). Those that were assessed as significant were further rated as
being of minor, moderate or major significance. For significant impacts,
mitigation measures were developed to reduce the residual impacts to as low as
reasonably practicable (ALARP) levels. This approach takes into account the
technical and financial feasibility of mitigation measures.

Management plans

The EIA process identified a range of mitigation measures, management actions


and monitoring plans to be implemented during the project to eliminate or
reduce adverse environmental and social impacts and enhance positive impacts.
Delivery of these will be through the Project’s Environmental and Social
Management Plan (ESMP).

Reporting and disclosure

The results of the ESIA process are drawn together into a draft ESIA report and
submitted to Ghana EPA for review. The EPA will disclose the ESIA report to
the public for review and comment and it may also be the subject of a technical
review by the EPA and appointed experts. The EPA will then base its decision to
grant or deny the Environmental Permit for the project on the outcome of this
review process. The draft ESIA report will also be disclosed to the affected
community and key stakeholders as per international lender requirements.

1.2 LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK

1.2.1 Ghanaian Administrative Framework

The EPA is the key government authority responsible for ensuring compliance
with Ghanaian EIA procedures and is the lead EIA decision-maker. The EPA is
responsible for issuing environmental permits for relevant projects and ensuring
that Project;s control waste discharges, emissions, deposits or other sources of
pollutants.

The Government of Ghana has established a number of development policies


and plans that are relevant to the Project and will be taken into account by the
Project. These include the National Environmental Policy (NEP), National
Wetlands Conservation Strategy the National Energy Policy (SNEP), the Local
Content Policy. The Project will also take the Land Commission Guidelines for
Considering Large-Scale Land Transactions for Agricultural and other Purposes
and the Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) into account. In terms of local
planning for the Project, Western Region Spatial Development Framework

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(WRSDF) and the Ellembelle District Assembly Medium-Term Development
Plan 2010-2013 are important documents to take into account.

1.2.2 National Laws and Regulations

The Constitution of Ghana (Article 41(k) in Chapter 6) requires that all citizens
(employees and employers) protect and safeguard the natural environment of
the Republic of Ghana and its territorial waters. The Environmental Protection
Agency Act 1994 which establishes the EPA who is responsible for enforcement
of a number of environmental laws. Ghanaian legislation relating to social
aspects is also considered in terms of the described Project, and all the relevant
legislation is listed in Table 1. Further detail on each piece of legislation is
provided in Chapter 2.

Table 1 List of Relevant National Environmental and Social Legislation

Applicable Legislative Instrument Issue


Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1994 (Act 490) Environmental Protection
Environmental Assessment Regulations, 1999 (LI 1652) EIA requirements and process
Environmental Assessment (Amendment) Regulations
Wild Animals Preservation Act, Act 235 1964 Biodiversity
Wildlife Conservation Regulations 1971 (LI 685), Biodiversity
Wild Reserves Regulations 1971 (LI 740) Biodiversity
Wetland Management (RAMSAR sites) Regulation, 1999 Biodiversity
Water Resources Commission Act (Act 522 of 1996) Water Resources
Water and Sewerage Corporation Act (Act 310 of 1965). Water Resources
Oil in Navigable Waters Act (Act 235 of 1964) Pollution Control
Maritime Zones (Delimitation) Law 1986 (PNDCL 159) Seabed Infrastructure
Development
Beaches Obstructions Act, 1987 (CAP. 240) Beaches and coastal areas
Ghana Building Regulations (LI 1630) Development of physical
structures
Ghana National Petroleum Corporation Act (Act 64 of 1983) Petroleum activities
Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Law (Act 84 of 1984) Petroleum activities
National Petroleum Authority Act (Act 691 of 2005) Petroleum activities
Ghana Civil Aviation Authority (aerodrome) regulations 2011 Aerodromes
(LI 2004)
Ghana Maritime Authority Act (Act 360 of 2002) Maritime law
Petroleum Commission Act Petroleum activities
Shipping Act (Act 645 of 2003) Maritime law
Hazardous Goods Act Hazardous goods
Local Government Act (Act 462 of 1993) Local Government structure
Ghana Highways Authority (Act 540 of 1997) Transport activities
Fisheries Act 2002, Act 625 Fisheries and Access to Fishing
Fisheries Regulation, LI 1968 Fisheries and Access to Fishing
Labor Act, 2003, Act 651 Economic Activities
Industrial Relation 1965, Act, 299 Economic Activities
Labor Decree of 1967, NLCD 157 Economic Activities
Local Government Act 462 Social Responsibilities
Lands Commission Act, 1994 (Act 483) Land management
Land Planning and Soil Conservation Act , 1953 (Act 32) Land management
Stool Lands Act, 1994 (Act 481). Land management

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1.2.3 International Conventions

Ghana is signatory to a number of international conventions and agreements


relating to industry, development and environmental management. The key
conventions and protocols related to this Project are listed in Box 1.1.

Box 1.1 List of Key Conventions Ratified by Ghana

The Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and


their Disposal (Basel Convention) (2003);
Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project (GCLME) (1999);
Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Conservation Measures for Marine Turtles of
the Atlantic Coast of Africa (1999);
United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (1994);
Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary
Movement of Hazardous Wastes within Africa - Bamako Convention (1991);
Convention of Fisheries Cooperation among African States Bordering the Atlantic Ocean
(1991);
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (1989);
United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Montego Bay, Jamaica (1983);
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World
Heritage Convention), Paris (1975);
International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation
of Oil Pollution Damage (1971);
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, Especially as Waterfowl Habitats
(1971);
African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1968); and
Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) (1944).

1.2.4 Project Environmental and Social Standards

There is possibility that Lonrho Ghana Ports Limited may seek financing from
international lending institutions which have specific requirements in terms of
the environmental and social performance of the Project. In anticipation of this,
the ESIA is aligned to comply with the relevant standards and guidelines set out
or adopted by the various lending institutions, namely the Equator Principals
which refer to the IFC Performance Standards on Environmental and Social
Sustainability (2012) and the African Development Bank’s Social and
Environmental Safeguards. The ESIA also references the World Bank Group
Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) General Guidelines (2006),
Guidelines for Ports, Harbours and Terminals (2007) and Airports ((2007)

Lonrho International is also a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact


(Global Compact) and committed to aligning their operations and strategies with
ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labour,
environment and anti-corruption.

Lonrho Ghana Ports Limited and its contractors or tenants will be bound by
Lonrho’s internal HSE policies, guidelines, rules and requirements which will be
explicitly stated in all contracts, contractor systems, plans and procedures. These

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include the draft Environmental Control Rules and Requirements (ECRR), draft
Environmental / Waste management and Emergency Response Procedures; and
Port Rules and Regulations. In addition, all Project-related infrastructure will be
required to be built in accordance with the relevant international safety,
construction and design standards and a local procurement policy

1.3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1.3.1 Project Location

The Project site comprises approximately 514 ha (1270 acres) and is located at
Atuabo, in the Ellembelle District of Ghana’s Western Region approximately 100
km west of Takoradi. The proposed site is a green field development situated
between the three towns of Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo. The port will be
within a Free Zone and the service facilities, airstrip, and other onshore
infrastructure, as well as temporary facilities, will be located within the 514 ha,
while the harbour area (including the ship berths, turning circle and approach
channel) will occupy approximately 214 ha (544 acres) of the marine
environment. The total land take for the project (including Greenfield and
marine sites) is therefore 728 ha.

1.3.2 Project Components and Facilities

The main components of the proposed Project presented in Figure include:

Temporary Construction Facilities: During construction, there will be a


number of temporary facilities including structures, workshops, work areas
(eg laydown yards) and material staging areas. These will be located within
the Project footprint.

Port Infrastructure: Including a harbour protected by a rock breakwater to


the west and a rock groyne to the east, a dredged approach channel, a
turning circle, berth pockets and quays.

Service Facilities: Located in the port along the quays providing support
services to the offshore oil and gas industry including: rig repair facility;
waste treatment and management facility; fabrication facility; and supply
facility.

Airstrip and Helipad: Located in the north west section of the Project site to
facilitate aircraft and helicopter transport.

Supporting Infrastructure: Supporting facilities will include power


generation, boreholes, accommodation, offices, a naval base, hydrocarbon
fuels storage area and roads (internal to the port and the public road). Waste
management facilities for the port operations and its users include a
wastewater treatment plant, sewage treatment plant, incinerator and waste
storage and sorting areas.

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Measures and design aspects to mitigate identified impacts are presented in Table
2.

1.3.3 Project Activities

The construction of the Project is expected to commence in January 2013 and


continue through to December 2014.

Site Preparation

The landside site preparation activities will include mobilisation of equipment


and material transport, site clearance including clearing vegetation, grading and
infill (with dredged material) and construction of internal roads. The marine
works during this phase will include capital dredging of an entrance channel,
berths and a turning basin as well as limited land reclamation.

Construction Phase

Construction activities will involve construction of the breakwater and groyne by


placement of rock from a quarry site or mine overburden as well as the onshore
facilities, including buildings, workshops, warehousing, laying of hardstanding
for the airstrip and construction of the roads around the Project site. The
construction phase will require use of cranes, trucks, generators, earthworks
vehicles, piling equipment, concrete mixers and dredging equipment.

Operational Phase

Operational phase activities include providing services to the offshore oil and
gas industry, such as rig repairs and recertification, treatment of drill cuttings
and other ship wastes and will act as a supply base. Activities will include ship
and rig movements into the port as well as fixed and rotating wing flights
landing at the airstip.

Decommissioning

The proposed Project and facilities have been designed for a 50 year lifespan.
There is currently no agreement in place, which defines the plans for the facility
at the end of its lifecycle and it is expected that the facility will continue to
operate. All decommissioning activities will need to be reviewed for
environmental and social permitting and international best practice
requirements.

Consideration of Alternatives

The design of the Project is based on proven engineering techniques and design
methods, safe working conditions and consideration of environmental and social
constraints. Various site options and layout design iterations were considered
during the refinement process. Sites were considered in terms of their socio-
economic, environmental and engineering attributes and the proposed site was
considered most appropriate, most notably because physical settlement was

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avoided. The iterative design process aimed to ensure optimum re-use of
dredged material, realigning the breakwaters to minimise the effects of coastal
sediment transport, re-designing the roads and site boundary for better access by
communities and locating the airstrip to minimise noise effects. The No Project
alternative is also considered. This alternative implies no additional
employment opportunities, foreign investment or efficiency benefits to oil and
gas operators.

1.3.4 Emissions, Discharges and Wastes

Key sources of air emissions will include dust during construction, air emissions
from combustion engines associated with vessel, vehicle and air traffic as well as
diesel generators and air emissions from the operation of the incinerator. The
majority of the noise emissions during construction phase result from vegetation
clearing, piling and the movement of heavy vehicles. During the operational
phase, noise emissions will result from the operation of machinery, generators,
compressors and other equipment, vessel movements as well as during landing
and take-off of the fixed-wing and rotary aircraft.

The Project will generate a range of liquid effluents and waste water discharges
which will be treated to meet Ghanaian legislative requirements, World Bank
group EHS guidelines as well as International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution From Ships (MARPOL 73/78 (1)) requirements (whichever is more
stringent) prior to discharge. Various solid wastes will be generated by the
Project including vegetation, scrap metal, paper, packaging materials, wood,
plastic, empty containers, old machinery, excavated road material, food wastes,
glass, empty drums and hazardous waste such as oily rags, spent oil and medical
wastes. This will be disposed of at an approved facility by a contractor.

Waste Management Activities

Wastes generated onsite will be sorted and stored in the assigned areas either for
treatment (effluent, sewage and drill cuttings) or transportation for offsite
disposal (hazardous wastes) via the waste contractor (with appropriate
documentation). General solid domestic and industrial waste will be disposed of
offsite at a suitably approved waste disposal facility. Ships’ slops and oil will be
transferred from berthed ships to the shore and stored within the tank farm,
treated and disposed of in a suitable manner.

1.3.5 Personnel requirements

During construction, approximately a peak maximum of 600 workers will be


employed, primarily in unskilled and semi-skilled positions. Approximately 330
permanent port staff as well as approximately 1200 employed by tenants and
port users will be employed during operation of the port. Additionally up to 500
contract workers will be required to support the large rig repair and other ad hoc
projects.

(1) MARPOL stands for marine pollution and is commonly used to refer to the International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution From Ships

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Figure 1 Location and layout of the proposed Project site
1.3.6 Health and Safety (H&S)

Lonrho will require all employees, contractors and tenants to adhere to the
Lonrho H&S Policies for the site as well as Ghanaian H&S legislation, including
access control and security measures. All employees will need to use
appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and follow relevant
procedures for work at height, work in confined spaces and hot work. The entire
Project site will be fenced off to the general public, and access to the port will be
strictly controlled.

1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE

1.4.1 Description of the Existing Environment – Biophysical

For the purposes of this Executive Summary, the description of the baseline
environmental conditions is limited to those aspects that are directly relevant to
the proposed project and anticipated impacts.

Oceanography and Bathymetry

Three main current systems influencing the movement of water masses in the
region, the eastward flowing Guinea Current, a small westward counter current
and the westward flowing south Equatorial current. The coastal currents are
under the influence of tides and local winds but generally transport sediment in
an easterly direction at flow rates of less than 1 m/s. The swell direction is
generally from the south or south west and wave height averages between 0.9
and 1.4 m. Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) typically vary between 27 - 29°C,
although strong seasonal cooling (<25 °C) occurs related to coastal upwelling.

The continental shelf (200 m water depth) off the coast of the Western Region of
Ghana is at its narrowest (20 km wide) off Cape St Paul in the east and at its
widest (90 km) between Takoradi and Cape Coast in the west. The near shore
zone comprises various sediment types including soft sediment, sandy bottom
and hard bottom substrates.

Geology, Soils and Topography

The rocks of the project area comprises of limestone, marl, mudstone with
intercalated sandy beds and may be divided as follows from older to younger in
ascending succession:

The major soils of the area are forest and savannah ochrosols, which are usually
red and brown in colour and moderately well-drained and generally fertile. Soil
samples collected indicate acidic soils but with elevated nitrate levels in the top
soil layers (ie 0-25 cm) as expected for agricultural land use. Although oil and
grease, TPH, mercury and manganese concentrations were low/ below detection
indicating generally uncontaminated soils, nickel, copper and aluminium levels
were relatively high.

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The coastline alongside the Project site comprises regular sandy beaches with no
headlands or rocky outcrops, while the adjacent inland areas are generally low
lying and relatively flat. The beach within the Project area has a moderate profile
with intermittent sharp scarps, and appeared stable although there was evidence
of limited erosion (likely as a result of wave action) to the west of the Project site.

Hydrology and Hydrogeology

Ground Water
The Project site is situated within an area dominated by Cenozoic and Mesozoic
sediments with three aquifers, namely a shallow, sandy, unconfined aquifer (2-4
m deep) containing fresh meteoric water, and intermediate aquifer (6-120 m)
which is mostly saline and a deep limestone aquifer (120-300 m) where fresh
groundwater occurs under artesian conditions. Recharge to the freshwater
aquifer systems is mainly by direct infiltration of precipitation through fractured
highland fronts and the sandy weathered zone. Saltwater infiltration occurs
from the sea to create an interface at some depth, away from the coastline.

The local communities draw water that they consider to be potable from hand
dug wells which are fed by the upper freshwater aquifer and possibly deeper
boreholes. Turbidity and orthophosphate levels as well as microbial content of
the shallow groundwater sampled was found to be above World Health
Organisation (WHO) drinking water limits indicating contamination of the
shallow aquifer by anthpogenic sources and agricultural activities. pH levels,
conductivity levels, heavy metals and nutrient levels were, however, less than
the prescribed WHO drinking water limits. Water users close to the site were
also identified during wet season sampling and results will be included in the
Final ESIA Report.

Surface and Marine Water


The largest rivers in the west of the country are the Ankobra, Bia, Pra and Tano
rivers, while the largest lagoons in the region are the Domini Lagoon near Half
Assini and the Amansuri coastal Lagoon near Esiama. The Amansuri River is
located approximately 3 km to the north of the Project site and flows eastwards,
this river drains the Amansuri wetland system and seasonally inundated areas
(flooding up to 1 m in the wet season) are situated approximately <1 km north
and to the north west of the Project site. The Amansuri wetland system is a
proposed (but not designated) wetland site under the Convention on Wetlands
of International Importance (known as the Ramsar convention).

The low lying grasslands directly to the north of the community of Atuabo are
reportedly seasonally flooded during the wet season and there is evidence of
both ephemeral and permanent ponds within this wetland area. Only isolated
permanent ponds were present southeast of Asemdasuazo during the dry
season. These ponds host various fish species and are associated with freshwater
fishing activities.

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Surface water sampling was found to be relatively uncontaminated. Water is
mildly acidic with high levels turbidity, total suspended solids and
orthophosphate levels (stream north of Asemdasuazo). Except for copper and
aluminium, heavy metals and microbial levels were below the WHO guidelines.

Ambient Air Quality

There are no major industrial activities present in the region and most emissions
arise from the smoke of cooking fires, generators used for power supply and
bush clearing for clearing of lands for farming. Winds generally blow from the
south west.

The particulate matter concentrations recorded at Asemdasuazo were low when


compared to the concentrations recorded from Atuabo and Anokyi and the main
source is vehicles using the dusty untarred coastal road although the PM10
concentration was still very much below the Ghana EPA permissible limit. Mean
concentrations of toxic gas pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO, H2S, VOC) were low
within the three communities, and confirm the rural nature and lack of industrial
development close to the Project area. CO concentrations were higher than other
gas pollutants, possibly from vehicle emissions and SO2 (all communities) and
H2S (Atuabo and Anokyi) levels also exceeded WHO limits.

Noise and Vibration

Current noise sources are those related to vehicular movements, children


playing, voices, music/radio and sea waves breaking at the beach. At night
ambient noise includes limited vehicle traffic and noise from the wave action.
The noise levels in Asemdasuazo were recorded as lower than in Atuabo and
Anokyi corresponding with observations of less activity within this community
and distance from the coastal road.

Road Traffic

The roads surrounding, and within the Project site are gravel contain relatively
low volumes of traffic on a daily basis. Bridges on surrounding roads are in a
fair condition, although the bridge across the Amansuri River would need to be
reinforced to carry heavy vehicles traffic for construction. The Tarkwa-Esiama
road (used to transport rock to the Project site) is currently used by light and
heavy vehicles including trucks from mining operations. The Tarkwa to Axim
route has traffic volumes of between 120 and 435 vehicles per hour (Ghana
Highway Authority, 2012) and this is used by a variety of vehicles (light
passenger vehicles to heavy trucks). Many of the secondary roads in the region
are narrow, with narrow intersections. These roads, (such as the route from
Bokazo to Esiama) pass directly through village centres and are used by
passenger vehicles, minibuses and taxis.

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Terrestrial Ecology

Flora
Ghana forms part of the Upper Guinea forest ecosystem, a region once
characterised by dense forests which have shrunk in response to human
influence and the growth of cities. The coastal region also includes vegetation
comprising of palm trees and thorny shrubs.

Apart from widespread agricultural activities (coconut palm, corn, raffia palms,
cassava, plantain), the main vegetation types identified on the Project site are
Coastal Strand and coconut plantation, grassland (with seasonal flooding) and
thicket as well as isolated patches of Freshwater Swamp forest (west of
Asedasuazo) . The patches of swamp forest are seasonally inundated wetland
areas with emergent tall trees (and areas of cultivation) but are unconnected to
the permanent swamp forests to the north of the site. Project site is largely
disturbed by agricultural activities (including grazing and wood collection) as
well as the development of towns, roads. According, the floral diversity of the
Project site was considered low as six plant families with five members each
accounted for 44 percent of the species identified on the site. Green star species
(44.2 percent) which are of no conservation concern, together with species ‘Not
Evaluated’ (46.5 percent), mostly common weeds, dominated the floral
composition of the area (90.7 percent).

Fauna
Ghana has large and viable populations of wildlife but mostly found in the
protected areas which offer the only refuge against illegal hunting and habitat
degradation. The closest protected area to the project area is the Ankasa
Conservation Area which is located about 20 km north of the site, with limited
possibilities for migration to the Project area. Apart from avian species, limited
natural terrestrial faunal species occur within the Project site and the grassland
areas do not support any large mammals. Terrestrial fauna include relatively
small animals living in primary or secondary vegetation in the region.

Species that could be expected in region include frogs, toads, snakes and mice as
well as smaller antelope species such as bushbuck. Notable among the mammals
in the Western Region are forest elephant, Red River Hog, and Leopards. The
Primates species include Senegalese bush baby, Bosman’s potto, Mona monkey,
Spot-nosed monkey, and Black-and-white colobus. There are over 230 species of
birds and 600 butterfly species. Reptiles are also fairly represented in Ankasa
(approximately 20 km north of the Project site) and the surrounding areas and
there are reports of crocodiles being caught in freshwater areas around the
Project site. Over 250 bird species are known in the western coastal areas of the
Western Region and about ten of these including the hooded vulture (Necrosyrtes
monachus), green-tailed Bristlebill (Bleda eximia), grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus),
and the yellow-throated olive greenbul (Criniger olivaceous) are listed on the
IUCN Red List of Threatened species

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1.4.2 Description of the Baseline Environment - Marine and Intertidal Ecology

Sampling within the nearshore indicated that the seawater is relatively


uncontaminated. The pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity, resistivity,
turbidity, suspended solids, nutrients, bacteriology and elemental analysis of the
sea water samples proved to be within the recommended limits.

The marine and inter tidal fauna and flora vary in relation to the seasonal
upwelling of nutrients. The primary production values in the Gulf of Guinea
(4,305 to 5,956 mgC/m2/day) obtained within the near shore areas indicates a
system of relatively high productivity. Offshore zooplankton assemblages are
dominated by copepods, followed by Ostracods (1), Appendicularians (2) and
Chaetognaths (3). WAGP (2004) surveys in the nearshore area (15-65 m depth)
identified 52 zooplankton species with Penilia avirostris, Temora stylifera and Para-
Clausocalanus spp. dominating the zooplankton community.

Green algae blooms of non-toxic marine green algae (Enteromorpha flexuosa) have
been occurring along the coastline of western Ghana and the Ivory Coast since at
least the 1990s. These blooms occur seasonally first appearing between August
and October and remaining in the inshore region for anywhere from a few
months up to a whole year (Kraan, 2009). The seasonal occurrence of the blooms
are expected to be a result of over-fertilisation of soils alongside rivers draining
into the sea, as well as the outflow of untreated sewage into rivers and the sea

Sandy Beach Ecology


Species diversity was found to be relatively low across the sampled locations
(three across the beach between Atuabo and Anokyi). The species richness
(Margalef’s index) ranged from 1.1-3.1 and high densities of Donax pulchellus
recorded at two of the three stations.

Fish Ecology
The fish species found in Ghanaian waters can be divided into four main groups,
namely pelagic species, demersal species and deepwater species.

The most important pelagic fish species found in the coastal and offshore waters
of Ghana, and are expected in the Project area, are round sardinella (Sardinella
aurita), flat sardinella (S. maderensis), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)
and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and represent approximately 80 percent of
the total catch landed in the country (approximately 200,000 tonnes per annum).
Large pelagic fish stocks off the coast of Ghana include tuna and billfish, which
are highly migratory are important species as both predators and prey and for
commercial fisheries.

The demersal species that are most important commercially (in terms of catch
volumes) are cassava croaker (Pseudotolithus senegalensis), bigeye grunt
(Brachydeuterus auritus), red pandora (Pellagus bellottii), Angola dentex (Dentex

(1) Ostracoda is a class of the Crustacea, sometimes known as the seed shrimp because of their appearance.
(2) Larvaceans (Class Appendicularia) are solitary, free-swimming underwater saclike filter feeders found throughout the
world's oceans.
(3) Chaetognatha is a phylum of predatory marine worms that are a major component of plankton worldwide.

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angolensis), Congo dentex (Dentex congoensis) and West African Goatfish
(Pseudupeneus prayensis).

A number of fish species are commercially important and are subjected to heavy
exploitation, particularly Albacore tuna and swordfish.

Marine Mammals
The ecological significance of Ghana’s coastal waters for dolphins and whales
has only recently become the subject of scientific studies, which partially
explains the lack of population abundance estimates and why their natural
history in the region remains largely unknown. Specimens derived from by-
catches and strandings sho Ghana to have moderately diverse cetacean fauna,
comprising at least 18 species belonging to five families: 14 species of
Delphinidae (dolphins) and one species each of families Ziphiidae (beaked
whales), Physeteridae (sperm whales), Kogiidae (pygmy sperm whales) and
Balaenopteridae (rorquals).

Turtles
The Gulf of Guinea serves as an important migration route, feeding ground and
nesting site for sea turtles. Five species of sea turtles have been identified within
Ghanaian waters, namely the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) (endangered) the olive
ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) (vulnerable), the hawksbill (Erectmochelys imbricata)
(critically endangered), the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) (endangered), and the
leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) (critically endangered). The olive ridley is the
most abundant turtle species that occurs in Ghana, and although turtles spend
most of their lives at sea, they come ashore to their natal beaches to lay their
eggs. The beaches of Ghana from Keta to Half-Assini, including the Project site,
are important nesting areas for sea turtle species especially during July to
December.

Local Fisheries
Beach seine fishing is carried out by local community members from the three
communities at various landing sites along the coast and is a key livelihood
activity within the Project area. Eighteen species of fish are reportedly caught
(dry season sampling) within the Project area.

There appears to be an increasing decline in local stocks as reported by local


elders (H&N Mpoano, 2004), which is reflected by reports from local
communities in Ivory Coast and Nigeria. The decline has been attributed to the
improved fishing ability of the shore-based fleets through a change of fishing
gear (such as smaller mesh sizes on nets) as well as the influence of foreign
offshore fishing vessels.

Freshwater fishing also takes place in the surface water ponds within and
surrounding the Project site. During the dry season the fishing activities at these
fresh water features is low, however the fishing yield and effort increase in the
rainy season.

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Protected Areas

Ghana has 18 wildlife protected areas that include seven national parks, six
resources reserves, four wildlife sanctuaries and five coastal Ramsar sites. The
Western Region holds two of these protected areas namely, the Ankasa and Bia
Conservation Areas. There are also 40 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) designated
by Birdlife International within Ghana (Birdlife International, 2011). One of
which, the Amansuri wetland system, is located to the north and northwest of
the Project site and contains the largest stand of intact swamp-forest in Ghana.
Although not a protected area, conservation efforts exist in the area eg ACID
Project (Amansuri Conservation and Integrated Development Project), which
aim to develop eco-tourism.

1.4.3 Description of the Existing Environment - Socio-Economic

A socio-economic study was undertaken in the three communities of Atuabo,


Anokyi and Asemdasuazo and was based on a review of available secondary
information and primary data collected from key informant interviews, village-
level surveys and focus group discussions.

Macroeconomic Context

As a result of the economic challenges of the 1970s, 80s and 90s, Ghana struggled
with the huge foreign debt and until recently was regarded by the World Bank as
“poor”, with a per capita annual income of less than 1 USD per day. On 1 July
2011 the World Bank reclassified Ghana from a low-income to lower middle-
income status country, in response to the recent discovery and production of oil
in Ghana (World Bank, 2011). Ghana is reportedly positioned as the fastest
growing economy in Sub-Saharan Africa for 2012, with a forecast GDP growth of
13.4 percent (World Bank, 2012).

The Western Region is the highest contributor to the country’s GDP (55 percent)
(Ghana Government Portal, 2012), with a wide variety of mineral deposits and
the largest producer of various agricultural products. The discovery of oil off the
coast of the Western Region has already enhanced its significance within the
National economy. This Project will help to focus development in the Ellembelle
District as an industrial node.

Institutional Context

The Project site is located within the Western Region, the Ellembelle District and
the Atuabo Area Council. Since the Ellembelle District Assembly (EDA) was
inaugurated in February 2008, the strategic development planning for the
District is only in its early phase. Paramount chiefs are the local traditional
heads of the people and custodians of the land, and they carry great local
influence. Traditional councils (comprised of elders) carry out the instructions of
the chief and safeguard traditional customs and knowledge. The Ellembelle
District has one Paramountcy, the Eastern Nzema Traditional Council, which is
headed by Awulae Amehere Kpanyinle II and is situated at Atuabo. All three

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towns pay allegiance to the Awulae in Atuabo, and Anokyi and Asemdasuazo
sub-chiefs fall under the Awulae.

Land Tenure
Land tenure within Ghana is governed through a flexible combination of
customary and statutory laws. Chiefs remain the custodians of traditional lands
but do not have absolute control as land acquisition registration and revenue
collection is done through the Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands. The
Project Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) confirms that the Stool would
offer the land in return for an equity stake in the Project with the GoG providing
a guarantee on the provision of the land. In Atuabo, all the land originally
belonged to the chief but he “gives” access to the land to different families and in
return receives some form of rent. A number of residents believe that they
“own” the land and compensation for land users with no legal title would be
agreed to through the Livelihood Restoration Plan (LRP) with all affected
individuals and families and settled separately.

Demographics and Settlement Patterns

Ghana currently has a population of 24,223,431 (National Population Census,


2010), while the Western Region comprises nine percent of the total population
(2,325,597 people) and the fifth highest population density of 97 people per km2.
There are approximately 95,306 people in the Ellemebelle District. The
populations of Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo are 1,419 and 874 and 558
respectively (SRC LRP fieldwork) and are considered small towns in the district.
The Atuabo Area Council has the second lowest population (2000 census) and
this is considered to have lowered development and service delivery.
Populations in all three towns are predominantly stable, limited to seasonal
influx at present, and residents say that they know everyone in the community
and would recognise newcomers.

The Ghanaian population is relatively young and the Western Region, the age-
structure of all the districts depicts the same pattern of a high proportion of
persons between the ages of 0 and 14, and a decrease in the populations with an
increase in age (Modern Ghana, 2012). Ellembelle District and the three
communities follow the same pattern, resulting in a relatively high dependency
ratio as a result of the high proportion of youth. All three towns reported having
more women than men in their communities and focus groups emphasised the
fact that women live longer than their male counterparts. This reflects the
regional and district patterns.

Migration
There is a significant amount of internal migration within the Western Region
with people migrating to areas with employment opportunities such as Ahanta
West, Takoradi (Modern Ghana, 2012) and Cote d’Ivoire. The Ellembelle District
experiences a surge of in-/out-migration related to seasonal fishing activities and
mining and a similar migration trend exists across the Study Area. The
population figures swell during peak fishing season (July-October) when
migrants from the north of Ghana and even from Cote d’Ivoire, mainly men,

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come to work in the area. There are also two refugee camps in the Western
Region although the numbers of refugees in the District has now stabilised at
approximately 4000 people.

Settlement Patterns
All three towns are laid out in a linear pattern, alongside the main road. All
three towns have at least one school along the main road, and shops and much of
the petty trading takes place along the main road. The space behind the houses
usually extends to the beach or bushes. The majority of houses are built of local
materials such as clay, cane/ bamboo/ raffia, or sandcrete blocks (for walls).
Besides very small areas for growing subsistence crops within a household’s
property, all agricultural activities happen outside of the three communities.

Local Historical Context

All three communities have long histories of settlement in the area dating back
over 600 years. According to the Awulae in Atuabo, the history of the Study Area
dates back to the 13th Century when ancestors of the current inhabitants migrated
from the northern part of Ghana through the Ashanti area, then through the
Aowin and the Wassa areas before settling along the coast. Settlement in the
Anokyi area reportedly began with the arrival of a woman and her family about
600 years ago, and after some disputes were granted land title to continue their
salt mining activities.

Ethnicity, Language and Religion

Akan is the dominant ethnic group in the Region and represents 89 percent of
Ellembelle’s population with Twi and Fante being the dominant languages. In the
Study Area Nzema is the dominant group and the major language spoken is
Nzema; other dialects like Evalue and Gwira, Fante (particularly in Atuabo and
Anokyi) and Twi are also widely spoken. The ability to speak Nzema is also
emphasised as important for cultural continuity and older community members
felt the language could be at risk if there is an influx of outsiders.

Nationally, Christianity is the main religion practiced by the majority of the


population, and this trend is reflected in the three communities by the high
number of churches in the three communities. There are also small numbers of
Muslims in both Atuabo and Anokyi, but not in Asemdasuazo. Although
people reported that many traditional practices (and followers), are looked down
on as “uncivilised”, even those strongly following monotheistic religions
reportedly harbour some traditional beliefs.

Education

Basic education is comprised of primary school (six years) and Junior High
School (JHS) (three years), while secondary level education is comprised of
Senior High School (SHS) (three years) and tertiary education (usually four
years). Many children, particularly those from the rural areas, are unable to
access SHS due to distance and affordability.

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Each town in the Study Area has a public primary school (and Atuabo a private
lower primary school), including a kindergarten, and a Junior High School (JHS).
There are no SHS in the communities and JHS graduates are selected through a
national exam into SHS elsewhere. The Atuabo community has an Information
Communication Technology (ICT) centre, which is important as this subject is
required for access to SHS. Ellembelle District 2009/2010 overall school
enrolment was 10 - 15.7 percent and this is likely representative of the
communities in the Study Area. Dropout rates at both the primary and JHS
sections are low, with reasons including teenage pregnancy, economic
constraints, emigration as well as perceptions that it is easy for people to access
employment without an education (due to abundance of natural resources).

The primary school buildings in the communities (notably Atuabo and Anokyi)
are in a poor condition (leaks, no electricity, potable water or office space), while
the JHS structure is in a better condition, with water available via a community
well and borehole. Teachers emphasised low salaries and difficult teaching
environments as hurdles to teacher satisfaction and reported inadequate
textbooks, teaching materials, and a lack of sports facilities or equipment.

Literacy and Skills Development


The current rate of literacy is approximately 57.9 percent (nationally, Ghana
National Census 2000), 58.2 percent (Western Region) with females (47.9 percent)
recording a lower proportion compared to males (68.0 percent). No literacy
statistics for the Study Area are currently available but District statistics would
suggest that literacy amongst adults (over 35) in rural areas would be
approximately 49 percent (with males significantly higher than females),
highlighting very high attrition rates between primary and JHS levels. All focus
groups raised the need for skills development and training, particularly aimed at
younger men and women, as pre-requisites for local communities to benefit from
development in the area.

Health

Common Illnesses and Associated Issues


The most common diseases treated in the closest hospital to the Project site are
malaria, respiratory tract infections, skin infections (eg measles), diarrhoea and
acute ear infections and reproductive health care assistance is available.
Typhoid, cholera, dysentery and gastritis are also known and there are particular
health risks to women in the Western Region and Study area with respect to
pregnancy and associated complications as a result of distances to health
facilities and poor transport.

In 2010, Ghana’s HIV/AIDS infection rate was reported as the lowest rate in
West Africa (1.7 percent) but rates are reportedly increasing in the Region and
recorded as 14.8 percent in the Ellembelle District. Infection rates are higher in
women, which is attributed to multiple sexual partners and trading sex for
livelihoods as well as an influx of infected foreigners. There are no reported cases
of HIV in the local communities, although the stigma of the virus discourages
reporting.

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Health Care Facilities
Approximately 90 percent of the population in the Region is within a five km
radius of a medical facility but with a doctor patient ratio of 1:18,500 (2000).
There are no health facilities within any of the three communities, and the closest
is Ekabaku Health Centre (4 km west of Atuabo) with two clinical nurses, two
community health nurses, three casual employees and a volunteer but no doctor.
This facility offers out-patient care and emergency first aid but facilities are
dilapidated, awaiting repair and it can only cope with current levels of demand.
Emergency cases are referred to the Eikwe Hospital about 8 km away (although
there is no ambulance). Some local fishermen reported being National Health
Insurance Scheme (NHIS) members, (and therefore receive free services and
medication).

Traditional Medicine
Traditional healers generally use herbs (leaves, roots, branches, tree bark) to treat
illnesses, which are often collected locally. There are two healers and a
traditional priestess in Atuabo and a healer in Asemdasuazo. Access to these
natural remedies is an important part of people’s medical regimes, especially in
the light of poor access to formal health care facilities. Many residents also
reported collecting their own herbs and plants for basic medical treatments.

Utilities, Infrastructure and Services

Infrastructure and service delivery is extremely poor. Atuabo seems the best
serviced and Asemdasuazo, which is less accessible, has the least infrastructure
and no services.

Water. There is no piped water to the three communities. Each of the three
towns has a number of shallow hand-dug wells (3-5 m deep), a number of
private covered wells and at least one operational hand-pump operated
public borehole (and generally there is at least one other that is not working).
In Atuabo four out of five boreholes are not operational. Communities
expressed concerns about the adequate supply of water for an increased
population.

Electricity and Fuel Sources. Although all three towns are on the national
electricity grid and most households are reportedly connected, wood and
charcoal are still extensively used for cooking. Electricity and kerosene
lamps provide 99 percent of lighting source in the Western Region. Liquid
petroleum gas (LPG) and coconut husks are also used for heating.

Sanitation. Approximately 70 percent of Ellembelle households do not have


toilets and where facilities do exist, the most common types are Kumasi
Ventilated-Improved Pit (KVIP), pit latrine or bucket/pan systems. Where
no facilities exist, people make use of the beaches, outlying bushes and
gutters. Apart from private facilities, Anokyi has one public KVIP, Atuabo
two KVIPs while Asemdasuazo has no KVIPs.

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XXXVI
Waste Disposal. The most common way of disposing of household waste is
to dump it at specified dumping sites or in the absence of such sites, ad hoc
disposal on open land. Zoomlion and ZOIL (private companies) operate as a
waste disposal and beach-clearing agent in parts of Ellembelle District
(including the Study area). Atuabo and Anokyi each have specifically
allocated, informal and unlined waste sites. Community members are
expected to take their waste to the sites for disposal. Asemdasuazo has no
allocated waste dump and people dispose of their waste by burning.

Transport and Road Infrastructure. The road network in the Western Region
is limited and the conditions of the roads can be very poor. Ellembelle
District road network consists of 154 km of trunk roads (64 km are metalled)
and the rest of the trunk roads are gravel or earth-surfaced. While all roads
in the Study Area are untarred, the main east to west road is graded and the
streets within the towns are sand roads. The road linking Asemdasuazo to
the main coastal road is sand/ dirt and in poor condition. During the rainy
season the roads are reported to weather badly with erosion and potholes.
There is no public transport servicing the Study Area and only limited and
expensive small taxis.

Ports/ Harbours and Airports. The closest port to the Project Area is at
Takoradi and handles approximately 37 percent of the total national seaborne
traffic. Other ship traffic is associated with ports such as Abidjan (Côte
d’Ivoire) and Lagos (Nigeria). There are fishing harbours located at Sekondi
and Axim. The Takoradi Airport is a military airbase that allows civilian
flights and is the only one in the Region.

Telecommunications. In the Western Region there are 0.3 telephones per 100
persons, which is below the national average of 0.7 and no landlines
servicing the Study area. Most adults reported owning a cellular phone and
the Region has the second highest locality coverage by MTN.

Emergency Services. There are no emergency services in any of the Study


Area communities, including no ambulances. The police station in Anokyi
has not been rebuilt after a fire and the police station building in Atuabo is
not currently in operation. Focus group participants commented on the low
levels of crime and stated that the elders and the chiefs were involved in
solving conflicts.

Financial Institutions. There are no banking institutions in or near to the


Study Area although some local coconut oil producers have loan
arrangements with rural banks. There is reportedly insufficient economic
activity to motivate local banks to open in the area.

Livelihood Practices

Farming, fishing and fish mongering and agro-processing are the key livelihood
activities in the Study area, and most communities report consuming small

LONRHO GHANA PORTS LIMITED FINAL ESIA REPORT


XXXVII
amounts for subsistence, while selling the larger proportion for cash. There are
very few formal employment positions.

Farming
Almost every household in the towns participates in small-scale and subsistence
agricultural activities, with men clearing and preparing fields and women
involved in the sowing of seeds and in harvesting. Some individuals (generally
the elderly or unwell) employ labourers. Cultivation is done manually and the
size of plots depends on the strength of the individual or family. There are no
irrigation systems. Farming is done using slash and burn agriculture with two
seasons of planting (March-April and September-October).

The primary agricultural products are cassava, groundnuts (the two most
common), corn, tomatoes, banana and plantain. Asemdasuazo is seen to have
the most fertile soil and higher productivity. Some farmers leave plots fallow
and alternate planting, but overall reduced fertility rates are reported due to
farming methods and pressure for land. All three towns reported selling
significant proportions of their crops (particularly cassava) although the lack of
storage facilities means that prices remain low during times of surplus.

Agro-processing
Agro-processing is one of the dominant livelihood activities in the Study Area.
The major cash crops used are coconuts and oil palm and raffia palms for oil and
gin (in Asemdasuazo) respectively. There are a small number of processing mills
in each town and the oil produced is sold within the Study Area but is also
exported to Takoradi and even Accra. There is limited informal employment
associated with these activities, notably gin production.

Fishing
Probably the largest income-generating livelihood activity in Atuabo and Anokyi
is seasonal fishing (and fish mongering). Marine fishing activities are divided
along gender lines with men catching the fish and women processing and
selling. There are two fishing seasons, towards the end of June and peaking
during August and September and towards the end of November, peaking
between late January and March. April to May is a rest period for mending nets,
boat repair and fishermen engage in onshore artisanal work to supplement their
income. Children catch crabs along the beach, near the river and streams and
these are eaten at home or sold.

Marine fishers employ traditional artisanal (small scale) methods, predominantly


beach seining. Fishing boats are not mechanised and require companies of up to
nine people per boat (and up to 70 as land crew) for paddling and net casting.
The company (including land crew) divides income from a catch with the
company owner taking approximately 50 percent. Five marine fishing
companies operate from Atuabo, while four operate from Anokyi and one from
Asemdasuazo. The shore around Anokyi is rocky and fishers therefore use the
major portion of the beach between Anokyi and Atuabo.

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Freshwater fishers (men and women) fish in the Amansuri River, streams
leading to the river, flood plains and perennial ponds in the area. There are two
freshwater fishing seasons, peak season in May-July and minor season
November-February. Freshwater fishing gear includes basket traps, chicken
wire traps, gill nets, scoop nets and hook and line. Various species are caught
and Asemdasuazo fishermen reported rare additional amphibious catches
including crocodiles, alligators and tortoises.

Fishermen reported locally declining catches over the past number of years,
attributed to increased human populations and consumption, increase in fishing
activities, increase in fishing canoes working the area and illegal fishing. Many
community members in the Study Area believe that the offshore oil production
activities have contributed to the decline in fisheries. Fishermen reportedly
consider mechanisation (outboard motors) as a possible solution, which would
allow them to fish further from shore where they believe the fish catch will be
higher. Crews (and therefore employment) for these craft would be significantly
smaller.

Fish mongering
Fish mongering is also an important livelihood activity for women who process
both marine and freshwater fish by salting and drying or smoked. The women
buy fish locally and transport for sale either 30 km away at Aiyinaseor. Large
catches are also sold to hotels in Axim. Income from fish mongering is reduced
due to lack of cold storage such that fish prices are lowered by the high levels of
supply during fishing seasons.

Livestock
Livestock rearing is carried out on a smaller scale than the other livelihood
activities and domestic animals are raised predominantly for ceremonial
occasions rather than for home consumption or market sale. Most households
keep a few chickens, goats, sheep and pigs and some community members’ cattle
pool their livestock (reportedly approximately 400 heads of cattle) and a Fulani
herdsman oversees all of them. The grassland area between Atuabo and
Asemdasuazo is used for grazing in the dry season, while herdsmen travel
outside of the Study area for grazing during the wet season.

Trade, Employment and Other Livelihood Strategies


Small scale or petty trading is undertaken, mainly on the side of the main roads,
and is focussed on fishing and agriculture products but also includes some
manufactured goods, household goods, medicines, clothing and food and
beverages. A small number of local residents are formally employed in the
Study Area in jobs including District assemblyman, teachers, waste management
activities, fishing crews, farm labourers as well as hairdressers, carpenters,
drivers and electricians.

Other livelihood strategies include remittances from migrant workers/ family


members, rent from land or property, and pensions as well as marriage or
informal sexual relationships.

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XXXIX
Other Natural Resource Use

Silica Sand Mining (clay). Licenced silica sand mining is undertaken in an


area a few hundred meters north-east of Atuabo (within the Project site) and
to the north of Anokyi (outside of the Project site) by women and men within
the communities.

Wood and Charcoal. Collecting wood is a supplementary livelihood activity


undertaken daily (except Sunday) by women inside and outside of the
Project area. There is only limited charcoal making in the Study Area.

Ethnobotanical activities. Traditional healers grow or collect species outside


the Project site and community members also gather local flora for personal
medicinal uses. Raffia palm fronds are used for roofing materials and walls;
and sand is used in brick making. There is no reported hunting.

Community Lifestyle, Identity and Relationships

Sense of Place
The topography is generally flat and consistent with no large structures and
double-storey buildings being extremely unusual. Extended tracts of palm tree
plantations and bush screen areas from one another and dominant sounds are
the sea, the winds, voices and birds. Residents reportedly valued the quiet rural
nature of the area and the sense of community identity and the general absence
of crime is an appealing asset. Overuse/ abuse of alcohol appears to be rare and
there are reportedly no hard drugs in the Study area. Asemdasuazo in particular
is characterised by a cultural “wholesomeness” that includes no smoking and no
reported teenage pregnancies.

Socio-cultural Cohesion
The three towns describe one another as family as there is significant
intermarriage between all three towns. There are also strong trade links of
agricultural produce and fish being traded between the communities. The fairly
remote location of the communities has resulted in maintenance of traditional
beliefs and practices, which contribute to the sense of community identity. The
community demonstrated respect for the chiefs and elders as a core social
behaviour and respect for elders. Cultural practices such as puberty rites for
girls are important activities that are seen to help maintain social order and
family structures. There is already reported tension between Ellembelle District
and Jomoro related to the re-siting of the Gas Plant from the Jomoro District to
adjacent to the Project site.

Poverty and Vulnerability

The communities’ perceptions that they have enough food for their own
consumption points to a general sense of food security in the Study Area.
General poverty levels are, however, considered to be high and the involvement
of all family members in labour activities, children included, is common.

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XL
Vulnerable groups in the Study area include the elderly, children (especially
orphans or those cared for grandparents), women (particularly female-headed
households), share-croppers, fishermen and disabled people. The declining
fisheries sector, high illiteracy levels and a lack of employment opportunities
contribute to vulnerability.

Human trafficking is recognised as a problem within the Western Region,


especially for domestic work, with the majority of trafficked children originating
from the poorer areas of Ghana. Ghana is regarded as a key origin, transit and
destination country for internationally trafficked women and children. Drug
trafficking is also on the increase in West Africa with growing government and
international concerns (VibeGhana.com, 2012).

Tourism

Tourism in Ghana has become a major socio-economic activity and one of the
most important and fastest growing sectors (Jubilee EIA, 2009). Tourism
potential in the Western Region is related to its pristine tropical beaches as well
as forests and game reserves featuring tropical rainforests, inland lakes and
rivers. Fort Appolonia (built by the British in 1770) is the only fort in close
proximity to the Study Area in the town of Beyin (approximately 1 km away
from Atuabo). The other recognised tourist attraction in the area is the Nzulezu
stilted village on Lake Amansuri about 3.5 km inland of Atuabo.

1.5 IMPACT ASSESSMENT

1.5.1 Introduction

The Project activities will give rise to a range of impacts of varying magnitude
and significance. The impacts for the short-term construction phases and the
long-term operational phase were considered separately, where appropriate.
The assessment methodology used to assess the significance of impacts took into
account impact magnitude and sensitivity of receptors and/or resources
affected. Impacts were assessed pre-mitigation and a significance rating
determined.

Mitigation measures to avoid, reduce, remediate or compensate for potential


negative impacts and actions to be taken to enhance benefits were identified.
Residual impacts were then assessed taking into account any mitigation and
enhancement measures that Lonrho Ports Ghana has agreed to implement. All
impacts identified and assessed within the ESIA as well as the cumulative
impacts and proposed mitigation measures are outlined in Chapter 6. Table 2
provides a summary of all biophysical and socio-economic impacts identified in
the impact assessment as well as the proposed mitigation measures.

1.5.2 Cumulative Impacts

Cumulative impacts are considered to be Project impacts that act with impacts
from other projects such that the sum of the impacts is greater than the parts or

LONRHO GHANA PORTS LIMITED FINAL ESIA REPORT


XLI
the sum of the impacts reaches a threshold level such that the impact becomes
significant.

The other project considered in the cumulative assessment is the construction


and operation of the gas processing plant on a site directly adjacent to the north
and east of the Project site. Cumulative noise, vibration and light impacts are
considered to be of moderate significance as the security lighting from both
Projects is expected to increase the light levels in the area significantly. Ambient
noise and vibration levels are also expected to increase due to the noise
associated with the Port construction and operation as well as the compressor
systems associated with the gas plant. The impacts on livelihoods and ecosystem
services are also considered to be of moderate significance as the construction of
both Projects in the same region is expected result in accumulated land take and
disturbance of livelihoods. Influx of people into the area would also be
accelerated, increasing the potential for the establishment of informal settlements
and overcrowding.

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XLII
Table 2 Summary of Impacts, Mitigation and Residual Significance

Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Impacts on the Biophysical Environment – Terrestrial
Soils Disturbance Construction MODERATE Implement site drainage/ storm water management plan, including monitoring of over land run-off MINOR
and loss of Operation NEGATIVE and sedimentation. NEGATIVE
soil reserves Minimise vegetation clearance.
Remove and stockpile topsoil for later use (eg less than 4m high and side slope of < 3:1).
Restrict preparation and clearing activities and vehicles to demarcated work areas.

Increased Construction MINOR Implement site drainage plan, including monitoring of over land run-off and sedimentation. MINOR
potential for Operation NEGATIVE Rehabilitate and revegetate areas (not to be developed) using locally sourced indigenous plants. NEGATIVE
soil erosion
Groundwater Drawdown Construction MINOR Considers technologies and controls to minimise water use. MINOR
Operation NEGATIVE Final design of Project water supply to be informed by comprehensive groundwater study. NEGATIVE
Supplement community potable water supply, if necessary.

Deterioratio Construction MODERATE Final design of Project water supply to be informed by comprehensive groundwater study. MODERATE
n of water Operation NEGATIVE Develop and implement a groundwater monitoring programme, with corrective actions. NEGATIVE
quality

Surface Water Removal of Construction MINOR Implement site drainage/ storm water management plan, including monitoring of over land run-off MINOR
surface Operation NEGATIVE and sedimentation. NEGATIVE
water bodies Use silt traps.
Change in Construction MODERATE Capture and treat contaminated storm water to meet applicable regulatory standards. MINOR
drainage Operation NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
patterns
Increased Construction MINOR NEGLIGIBLE
siltation Operation NEGATIVE
Terrestrial Loss and Construction MINOR Minimise vegetation clearance. MINOR
Flora and disturbance NEGATIVE Restrict construction activities to demarcated work areas. NEGATIVE
Habitats of existing Rehabilitate and revegetate areas (not to be developed) using locally sourced indigenous plants.
flora and Plan clearing to habitat corridors if possible.
habitats

XLIII
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Change in Operation MINOR MINOR
habitat and NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
floral
composition
Terrestrial Disturbance Construction MODERATE Staff induction to include environmental awareness (including impacts to fauna). MINOR
Fauna and Operation NEGATIVE Develop an anti-poaching policy and communicate this to staff. NEGATIVE
mortality Train all drivers on driving techniques to minimise environmental impacts.
Establish and enforce appropriate speed limits on site.
Fit vehicles and machinery with appropriate noise reducing devices, where feasible and appropriate.

Bird Strikes Construction MODERATE Develop Aircraft Control Plan to coordinate flight paths and schedules with input from an MINOR
Operation NEGATIVE appropriately qualified ornithologist/ecologist. NEGATIVE
Maintain clearance of vegetation along the length of the airstrip and helipad; keep grass short.
Good housekeeping within waste storage areas.
Implement site drainage/ storm water management plan to avoid ponding around the airstrip and
helipad.
Discourage perching and nesting of birds on buildings.
Implement a bird strike monitoring programme.

Freshwater Disturbance Construction MODERATE Implement mitigation measures for surface water management. MINOR
fish of Operation NEGATIVE Implement monitoring programme in freshwater bodies identified offsite (north of Asemdasuazo), NEGATIVE
freshwater with corrective action.
fish
Air Quality Degradation Construction MINOR Generators and incinerator design to not exceed air quality standards and compliant with World MINOR
of air NEGATIVE Bank Ground EHS Guidelines. NEGATIVE
quality: air Operate equipment in accordance with design specifications and ensure regular maintenance.
pollutants Use energy efficiency equipment, where possible.
Monitor GHG emissions and implement a programme for identifying and implementing GHG
Degradation Construction MINOR reduction actions. MINOR
of air NEGATIVE Undertake dust monitoring, with corrective actions. NEGATIVE
quality: dust Implement operational rules to minimise vehicle/ vessel emissions (eg restricting engine idling,
restrictions on badly-maintained equipment).
Degradation Operation MINOR MINOR
of air quality NEGATIVE NEGATIVE

XLIV
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Contributio Construction SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT
n to Operation NEGATIVE
NEGATIVE
Greenhouse
gas
emissions
Noise and Increased Construction MINOR Plan construction activities to limit noisy activities close to sensitive receptors. MINOR
Vibration Noise and NEGATIVE Use lowest noise producing equipment and methods to minimise noise, including alternatives to NEGATIVE
Vibration diesel/petrol engines, where feasible.
Implement a noise monitoring programme in liaison with local communities, with corrective actions.
Maintain and operate equipment and engines in accordance with of noise rating specifications.
Ensure balling of noisy equipment and operate equipment with original noise baffling systems.
Limit construction activities (including vehicle movements) to local daylight hours, schedule
activities to avoid important social activities (eg festivals) and no noisy activities at night.
Communicate work schedules to interested and affected parties.
Implement grievance mechanism, with corrective action.

Increased Operation MODERATE Minimise noisy activities near communities (ie near the Project boundaries). MINOR
noise and NEGATIVE Limit noisy activities (including vehicle movements and aircraft flights) to local daylight hours,
vibration schedule activities to avoid important social activities (eg festivals) and no noisy activities at night.
(port Enforce guidelines for contractors/ port users specified noise emission limits and activities
activities) specifications.
Airstrip Operation MODERATE Implement a noise monitoring programme in liaison with local communities, with corrective actions. MODERATE
Operation NEGATIVE Implement grievance mechanism, with corrective action. NEGATIVE
Develop Aircraft Control Plan to coordinate flight paths to avoid local communities and ground
operations to minimise noise (eg minimise idling).

Traffic Increased Construction MAJOR Undertake a Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) for the construction phase traffic to identify measures MODERATE
Traffic NEGATIVE to minimise risks to local people and fauna. NEGATIVE
Volumes, Implement Traffic Management Plan (TMP), including requirements for road maintenance (in
Strain on cooperation with local and regional government).
Road Train all drivers on driving techniques to minimise environmental impacts, obey local road rules
Network and compliance with TMP.
and Sensitisation programme with roadside communities.
potential Implement grievance mechanism, with corrective action.
deterioratio
n of Road
Infrastructur
e

XLV
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Increased Operation MINOR Update the TMP to consider specific operations requirements. MINOR
Traffic NEGATIVE Train all drivers on driving techniques to minimise environmental impacts, obey local road rules NEGATIVE
Volumes and compliance with TMP.
and Implement grievance mechanism, with corrective action.
Potential Ensure road quality monitoring.
Deterioratio
n of Road
Infrastructur
e
Improved Operation MINOR Liaise with local government to ensure maintenance and timely repair of roads used by Project MINOR
Road POSITIVE vehicles. POSITIVE
Conditions
Visual Impacts on Construction MAJOR Limit construction activities (including vehicle movements and aircraft flights) to local daylight MODERATE
Character visual Operation NEGATIVE hours. NEGATIVE
character Minimise security lighting and design lighting to minimise light spill to adjacent areas.
Minimise vegetation clearance.
Plan vegetation clearing to retain sections of existing vegetation to act as screening.
Rehabilitate and revegetate areas (not to be developed) using locally sourced indigenous
planReduce light spill by using direction covers on lights.

Impacts on the Biophysical Environment – Marine


Marine water Increased Construction MODERATE See mitigation for Impacts on Soils and Surface Water MODERATE
Quality turbidity Operation NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Complete the bulk of breakwater and groyne construction before commencing dredging activities, if
possible.
Minimise dredging as far as possible.
Ensure high performance of dredge spoil dewatering system.
Plan dredging to minimise turbidity plume, especially near marine habitats.
Dredging vessels will comply with the MARPOL 73/78 Convention.

XLVI
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Marine Impacts on Construction MODERATE See mitigation for Impacts on Marine Water Quality MODERATE
Sediment Marine Operation NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Quality and Sediment Liaise with EPA and local fishers to identify disposal sites and obtain necessary permits.
Benthic and Quality and Survey disposal sites (grab sampling) to avoid ecologically sensitive areas and spawning areas.
Intertidal Benthic and Carry out dredging activities (capital and maintenance) in line with the conditions of the dredge
Ecology Intertidal disposal permit.
Ecology Identify dredging dump sites to original substrate as far possible.
Ballast water not permitted to be released into Port waters, but to be pumped ashore for treatment.

Coastal Impacts on Construction MAJOR Monitor coastal erosion, with corrective action ie implementing beach nourishment (sand pumping/ MODERATE
Processes coastal Operation NEGATIVE physical transport and redistribution). NEGATIVE
processes
Underwater Increased Construction MINOR Begin noisy activities (including piling) slowly, gradually increasing noise levels. NEGLIGIBLE
noise underwater Operation NEGATIVE Choose low noise equipment as far as possible and limit duration of noisy activities.
noise Vessels to be powered down and switched off while berthed or moored, where possible.

Marine Impacts on Construction MINOR See mitigation for Impacts on Marine Water Quality and Underwater Noise NEGLIGIBLE
Mammals marine Operation NEGATIVE
mammals Implement marine mammals observation procedure (including sightings, any injured animals and
reporting) during marine works.
Vessels are to avoid collisions or disturbance of marine mammals, while maintaining safe operation
of the vessel.

Sea Turtles Lighting, Construction MAJOR Implement procedure for identifying (daily inspections) relocating nesting turtles within the Project MODERATE
habitat loss, Operation NEGATIVE area, involving a specialist ecologist. NEGATIVE
and Liaise with and support local NGOs to promote community sensitisation on turtles.
poaching Fit directional covers (and use sodium lamps where feasible) on lighting infrastructure close to the
beach.
Restore beach profile outside port area after construction.

Marine Fish Disturbance Construction MODERATE See mitigation for Impacts on Marine Water Quality, Surface Water Resources and Underwater Noise MINOR
of Fish Operation NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Establish baseline and monitor contamination levels in fish through fish catch surveys and
monitoring.
Require all construction and dredging vessels to have an on-board ballast water management plan.
Prohibit and prevent ballast water release within the port.
Implement marine fish catch monitoring programme.

XLVII
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Impacts on the Socio-Economic Environment
National and Increased Construction MODERATE Make taxation payments in a transparent, accurate and timely manner. MODERATE
regional government POSITIVE POSITIVE
economy revenue
Operation MODERATE MODERATE
POSITIVE POSITIVE

Economic Construction MINOR Disseminate procurement information and requirements as early as possible. MINOR
Developmen POSITIVE Provide quality standards for procurement of goods and services. POSITIVE
t and Operation MINOR- Support the development of a supplier training programme. MINOR
Diversificati MODERATE Encourage unbundling of certain contracts by its selected D&B contractors. POSITIVE
on of the POSITIVE Identify and implement livelihood replacement Projects that fit with the National agenda for
Economy diversified but sustainable economic development. MODERATE-
Consider Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities that promote sustainable Projects, and MAJOR
training. POSITIVE
(Lonrho’s
intervention)
Increased Construction MODERATE MODERATE
Business POSITIVE POSITIVE
Experience,
Training Operation MODERATE MAJOR
and Skills POSITIVE POSITIVE

Economic and Loss of Construction MAJOR Develop and implement Livelihood Restoration Plan (LRP) with alternative livelihood and MINOR
Physical Farming, NEGATIVE compensation options (cash compensation as a secondary option). NEGATIVE
Displacement Agro- Investigate acquiring alternative agricultural and grazing land, in liaison with the Awulae Livelihood
processing Restoration Sub Committee tasked and relevant authorities.
and Grazing Participate in local/ district government initiatives to develop of a sustainable land use and
Land settlement plan for the area.
Loss of Construction MAJOR Consider assistance with relocation of fishers, if necessary. MINOR
Access to Operation NEGATIVE Explore development of small-scale commercial fish farming, with extension programmes and the NEGATIVE
Fishing community companies, if necessary.
Areas and Assist in improving levels of mechanisation to allow fishers to access fishing areas further from
Related shore , if found to be necessary and appropriate.
Resources

XLVIII
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Ecosystem Decreased Planning MODERATE Collaborate with traditional authorities, regional government and planning authorities in the MINOR
Services Availability Construction TO MAJOR development and implementation of Spatial Development Framework (SDF) for the area NEGATIVE (if
of Land for NEGATIVE Initiate a capacity building/ institutional strengthening programme within the three communities. successful
Settlement MODERATE Provide technical support to the relevant government bodies, where possible, and promote joint relationships are
TO MAJOR planning approaches for agricultural and housing Projects. established)
NEGATIVE Assist traditional authorities and government with the identification of transitional zones for MODERATE TO
settlement, business and informal trading within the three communities. MAJOR
Promote/support the establishment of a joint stakeholder forum for the broader Project area. NEGATIVE

Decreased Operation MINOR


availability NEGATIVE (if
for land for successful
settlement relationships are
established)
MODERATE TO
MAJOR
NEGATIVE

Reduced Construction MAJOR See mitigation for Economic and Physical Displacement MINOR TO
Access to / Operation NEGATIVE MODERATE
Increased Communities to participate in pre-construction harvesting of resources as part of vegetation NEGATIVE
Competition clearing. Identify optimal methods of storing harvested materials.
for Flora Consider partnering with district government and communities in establishing nurseries to replace,
and Fauna harvest and re-plant species of local significance.
Implement fish farming activities. MODERATE
Develop codes of conduct (to include contractually) for Project contractors, tenants and employees NEGATIVE (with
regarding local natural resource use. no alternative non-
Include sensitisation on conservation and sustainable harvesting of natural resources into subsistence-based
stakeholder engagement strategies. livelihood)

Livelihoods Employmen Construction MODERATE Maximise local employment and training where possible directly and through contractual MODERATE TO
t Creation POSITIVE requirements for contractors and tenants. MAJOR
Apply principles of hiring first from three communities, then neighbouring communities... POSITIVE
Operation MODERATE Train and employ appropriate local construction workers during operations and develop succession MAJOR
TO MAJOR plan to guide this. POSITIVE
POSITIVE Undertake a skills audit of the towns and surrounding communities.
Assist in the development of a Community Based Manpower Agency and where possible institute
pre-construction training to empower local residents to meet Project standards.
Advertise employment opportunities (and skills requirements) timeously, locally and to be easily

XLIX
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
accessible.
Prohibit and prevent labour-brokering (paying for job applications) and employee to pay any
recruitment fees.
Implement skills development and training programmes for Project employees.
Distribute certificates of employment on conclusion of successful employment.

Impact on Construction MAJOR Focus social investment, welfare and development activities towards the most vulnerable. MODERATE
Prices and NEGATIVE Promote ongoing dialogue with vulnerable groups through a stakeholder forum. NEGATIVE
Exacerbatio Operation MODERATE MINOR
n of NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Economic (vulnerable
Vulnerabilit groups)
y MINOR MINOR
POSITIVE POSITIVE (those
(those able to able to access
access opportunities)
opportunities)

Changes to Construction MAJOR See mitigation for Impacts on Livelihoods: Employment Creation MINOR
Livelihood NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Strategies Commit to the principles of sound corporate governance, responsible corporate citizenship, and
MODERATE transparent business interactions with affected communities. MODERATE
POSITIVE Develop and implement Livelihood Restoration Plan (LRP) with alternative livelihood and POSITIVE
compensation options (cash compensation as a secondary option).
Support and/or develop information and awareness programmes related to economic
Operation MAJOR entrepreneurialism and small business development within the local communities. MINOR
NEGATIVE Focus social investment, welfare and development activities towards the most vulnerable. NEGATIVE
Implement HIV/AIDS programme for contractors, employees and local communities.
Make condoms easily available to all contractors and employees and work with local health services
MODERATE to ensure condoms are accessible in the communities. MODERATE
POSITIVE Implement a grievance procedure. POSITIVE

Increased Construction MINOR See mitigation for Impacts on Livelihoods: Employment Creation MODERATE
Potential for POSITIVE POSITIVE
Income
Stability Operation MODERATE MAJOR
TO MAJOR POSITIVE (with
POSITIVE on-the-job training

L
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
and commitment
to localisation
Social Transfer of Construction MODERATE No direct mitigation measures. MODERATE
Infrastructure, Skilled and NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Governance Semi-Skilled
and Service Personnel MINOR
Delivery from Public NEGATIVE for
Sector local education
Institutions Operation MINOR- MINOR-
to the MODERATE MODERATE
Project NEGATIVE NEGATIVE

Pressure on Construction MAJOR Meet all practical needs of employees within the Project footprint for access to services and NEGLIGIBLE
Basic NEGATIVE infrastructure. NEGATIVE (for
Infrastructur Initiate discussions with the Ministry of Health in order to plan for anticipated increased demands direct impacts)
e, Services on local health facilities due to influx
and Local Develop a Community Health, Safety and Security Management Plan. MAJOR
Government Support government initiatives that ensure local education’s capacity. NEGATIVE (for
Capacity Maintain transport routes in the area that are directly impacted by Project vehicles. indirect impacts
Explore ways in which to support local policing if there is increased pressure on the limited associated with in-
resources as a result of the Project. migration)
Promote the implementation of joint planning (government/ key stakeholders) for strategically
important housing Projects.
Consider forming partnerships with government and organised business to address the provision of
bulk services and infrastructure, transportation services, sites for informal trading and related
community services.

Growth of Operation MAJOR Implement planned settlement of construction contractors and employees within the Project NEGLIGIBLE
Informal NEGATIVE footprint during construction. NEGATIVE
Settlements Collaborate with traditional authorities, regional government and planning authorities in the (indirect impacts -
development and implementation of Spatial Development Framework (SDF) for the area construction
Community awareness on H&S related to operations, hazards areas and future development. workforce and
Securely fence site to discourage informal settlement. contractors)
Prohibit informal recruitment at the Project gate. MODERATE to
MAJOR
NEGATIVE
(indirect impacts -
in-migration)

LI
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Construction MAJOR MODERATE
NEGATIVE NEGATIVE (direct
impacts - Project
workforce)
MODERATE to
MAJOR
NEGATIVE
(indirect impacts -
in-migration)
Socio-Cultural Changed Construction MAJOR Locate contractor accommodation to retain sense of place. MODERATE
Impacts Sense of Operation NEGATIVE Pursue a proactive Stakeholder Engagement Programme. NEGATIVE
Place (especially Use LRP to identify alternative livelihood opportunities appropriate for existing culture and sense of (especially elderly
elderly and place. and vulnerable)
vulnerable) Where opportunities exist to maximise the benefits of changed sense of place, consider these as part
MODERATE of a social development plan. MODERATE
POSITIVE Work with local health services to monitor community health and well-being. POSITIVE (those
(those eagerly eagerly desiring
desiring change)
change)
Changes to Construction MAJOR Implement induction programmes, including a Code of Conduct, for all employees/ contractors/ MODERATE to
Cultural and NEGATIVE tenants. MAJOR
Social Work with local health services to monitor community health and well-being (especially HIV/ AIDS NEGATIVE
Norms MINOR rates). MINOR
POSITIVE Implement a grievance procedure and continued local engagement as guided by the SEP. POSITIVE

Operation MODERATE MINOR


NEGATIVE NEGATIVE

Increase in Construction MODERATE Implement induction programmes, including a Code of Conduct and cultural awareness MINOR TO
Social TO MAJOR programme. MODERATE
Pathologies NEGATIVE Include the Code of Conduct in contractual agreements with tenants. NEGATIVE

LII
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Operation MODERATE Develop a Community Health Safety and Security Management Plan. MINOR TO
NEGATIAVE Develop and implement an HIV/AIDS programme for contractors, employees and communities. MODERATE
Make condoms easily available to all contractors and employees and work with local health services NEGATIVE
to ensure condoms are accessible in the communities.
Implement a grievance procedure.
Work with local health services to monitor community health and well-being.
Provide a range of sport and recreational facilities for all employees.

Tension and Construction MODERATE Collaborate with traditional authorities, regional government and planning authorities in the MINOR
Conflict Operation NEGATIVE development and implementation of Spatial Development Framework (SDF) for the area NEGATIVE
between (for inter-town Collaborate with traditional authorities, regional government and planning authorities in the
Towns (and tension & development and implementation of Spatial Development Framework (SDF) for the area and
possibly conflict) promote inclusion of consultations with local communities.
Districts) Ensure that all affected towns receive equal access to opportunities, including employment.
MINOR Establish information office and appoint a permanent community liaison officer accessible to all NEGLIGIBLE
NEGATIVE local communities. NEGATIVE
(for inter Establish a site-based grievance/complaints office.
district tension
Where skill-levels allow, recruit for employment opportunities that cannot be filled from three
& conflict)
communities, from neighbouring communities.

Community Construction MODERATE See mitigation for Impacts on Livelihoods: Employment Creation MINOR
Anger and NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Resentment Communicate pre-employment and internal training efforts in a transparent, timely and accessible
over Not manner, highlighting achievements or milestones in local employment.
Sharing in Operation MINOR TO MINOR
Project MODERATE NEGATIVE
Benefits NEGATIVE

LIII
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Health Increased Construction MAJOR Employees’ Code of Conduct designed to limit the direct impact of the Project on communicable MODERATE
Prevalence Operation NEGATIVE diseases in the Study Area. NEGATIVE
of Sexually Develop and implement a management plan and Project policy for HIV/AIDS and other
Transmitted communicable diseases.
Infections, Include HIV/AIDS awareness and education as part of mandatory induction.
HIV/ AIDS Support, or facilitate, ongoing awareness programme with the local residents and workers around
and other the risks of HIV/AIDS and STIs and support initiatives in local schools.
Communica Make condoms easily available to all contractors and employees and work with local health services
ble Diseases to ensure condoms are accessible in the communities.

Nuisance Construction MINOR See mitigation for Impacts on Air Quality MINOR
and Operation NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Irritants: air
pollutants
Nuisance Construction MINOR – MINOR
and Operation MODERATE NEGATIVE
Irritants:
dust
Tourism Impacts on Construction MINOR See mitigation for Impacts on Visual Character and Socio-cultural Impacts: Changed Sense of Place MINOR
Tourism NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
Operation NEGLIGIBLE Ensure that the road rerouting is safe and easily visible for tourists. NEGLIGIBLE TO
TO MINOR MINOR
POSITIVE POSITIVE
Impacts of Unplanned and Accidental Events
Accidental Soils Construction MINOR Bund fuels and lubricant storage areas, with raised outflow pipes MINOR
Spills Operation NEGATIVE All chemical storage areas will have impermeable bases. NEGATIVE
Surface Construction MINOR Regularly inspect bonded area outflow pipes to prevent blockages. MINOR
water Operation NEGATIVE Develop detailed spill response plan. NEGATIVE
Immediate cleaning and remediation of spills with post remediation verification.
Ground Construction MINOR Implement a site drainage/storm water management plan, including oil-water separators, silt traps MINOR
water Operation NEGATIVE and sufficient maintenance, including construction. NEGATIVE
Refuelling in designated areas and on hard standing ground/ using spill protection measures and
will collection systems to be reused, treated or removed.
Implement a ground and surface water monitoring programme.
Drip trays when servicing vehicles or equipment.

LIV
Impact Impact Phase Pre-mitigation Summary of Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Residual
Description Significance Significance
Marine Construction MINOR Vessel effluents will be treated in accordance with MARPOL 73/78 requirements. MINOR
water and Operation NEGATIVE Oil discharge monitors are placed on all construction/ dredging vessels. NEGATIVE
sediments Develop an oil spill contingency plan.
All vessels entering the terminal to comply with MARPOL 73/78 requirements.
Ballast, bilge and sanitation water disposed only of at port reception facilities.
No discharge of sewage or food waste while in the port.

Fire and Damage to Construction MODERATE Undertake a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to quantitatively assess the explosion and fire MINOR
Explosions buildings Operation NEGATIVE risks associated with the bulk storage facility and infrastructure. NEGATIVE
and harm to Use QRA results to refine the location of the tank farm in location to the neighbouring communities.
people Training for workers handling flammable materials and fire response.
Fire issues and good housekeeping awareness to be included in mandatory induction.
Flammable storage in line with Ghanaian laws and with international good practice.
Adequate and maintains (through regular inspections) fire response equipment and systems.
Undertake Fire and life safety assessment.

Waste Impacts Construction MODERATE Develop a waste inventory and Waste Management Plan. MINOR
related to Operation NEGATIVE The incinerator, sewage treatment plant, sewage outfall designed and constructed to industry best NEGATIVE
incorrect practice.
waste Storage of waste products on the Project site will only be permitted within designated areas with
disposal hard standing.
Wastes will only be disposed of at an appropriately licenced facility.
All effluent discharge from terrestrial sources will meet IFC EHS guideline limits, with regular
monitoring and corrective action.
Effluent associated with vessel repair facilities and wash-down areas will be contained and flow
through oil/ water separator before disposal.

Vehicle Traffic Construction MAJOR See mitigation for Impacts on Traffic MODERATE
Accidents accidents Operation NEGATIVE NEGATIVE
The Project will undertake sensitisation in the local communities (including along the construction
route), including appropriate warning signs and notifications of the risks of traffic accidents.

LV
1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Introduction

The ESMP describes the mitigation and enhancement measures identified


through the ESIA process that the Project will undertake and the systems that
will be developed to ensure their effective implementation. The ESMP will be
refined and updated through the Project development process, especially
following completion of the detailed design plans, and will be incorporated
into a comprehensive Project Environmental and Social Management System
(ESMS). Although Lonrho, as the port operator, will retain overall
responsibility, mitigation will also be implemented by the port tenants and/
or contractors (during construction).

Regulatory Requirements

An ESMP is required as part of an ESIA in terms of the Environmental


Assessment Regulations of 1999. In addition, Performance Standard 1, 2012 (1)
requires that the ESMP be part of the client’s overall management system for
the project and this is also required in terms of the AfDB’s Environmental
Review Procedures for Private Sector Operations of the African Development Bank.
This ESMP is also consistent with the Lonrho Environmental Policy.

Planning

The Project has utilised the ESIA process as a tool to identify mitigations and
draft this ESMP. The ESMP is an outline ESMP, based on available design
information and provides a delivery mechanism for environmental and social
mitigation and monitoring. Lonrho will develop a Project ESMP as a ”live”
document, which will include specific management plans and functions as an
overarching plan linking other plans with the Project ESMS. The following
specific management plans will also be developed:

Waste Management Plan


Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan
Spill Response Plan
Traffic Management Plan
Marine Logistics Plan
Aircraft Control Plan
Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP)
Chance Finds Procedure
Employment and Workforce Management Plan
Occupational Health and Safety Plan
Influx Management Plan
Preventative Maintenance Plan
Livelihood Restoration Plan

(1) Performance Standard 1: Social and Environmental Assessment and Management Systems from IFC Performance
Standards on Social and Environmental Sustainability (2012)

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LVII
Implementation and Checking

Lonrho is committed to providing resources and establishing the systems and


components essential to the implementation and control of the ESMP
including appropriate human resources and specialised skills, training
programmes, communication procedures, documentation control,
communications with authorities and communities as well as a procedure for
the management of change. Lonrho will have an HSE department with an
external affairs function as well as contractor management structure, with
competent staff on the basis of appropriate education, training and experience.

Checking includes inspections and monitoring activities as well as audits to


confirm effectiveness of the mitigation measures and proper implementation
of checking systems. Checking will be undertaken through continual
inspection and reporting of HSE incidents, monitoring and auditing and will
be documented through a formal non-compliance tracking procedure.
Monitoring will be conducted to ensure compliance with regulatory
requirements as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of operational controls.

Grievance Mechanisms

Grievances may be verbal or written and are usually either specific claims for
damages/injury or complaints or suggestions about the way that the Project is
being implemented. A Grievance Mechanism has been developed as part of
the SEP (Annex A), in accordance with the Performance Standards and will be
implemented by the Project to manage and address all public grievances
including livelihood compensation and restoration. Labour-related grievances
will be dealt with internally through Lonrho’s HR department.

1.7 CONCLUSIONS

The findings of the EIA presented in Chapter 6 indicate that there is only one
issue of Major negative significance that could not be mitigated. This is the
indirect impact on social infrastructure, governance and services delivery
through an increased pressure on basic infrastructure, services and local
government capacity as a result of influx (during construction). The
mitigation relies on Lonrho finding ways to support government initiatives
and liaise with the relevant government bodies to assist with their planning
processes.

A number of other impacts are also considered to be of major negative


significance prior to mitigation. These are related to traffic, visual character,
coastal processes, sea turtles, economic and physical displacement, ecosystem
services, livelihoods and changes in livelihood strategies, social infrastructure,
governance and services delivery, changed sense of place, changes to social
and cultural norms, health impacts and vehicle accidents. The contribution of
the Project to greenhouse gases is also considered to be significant. These

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LVIII
negative impacts require careful implementation of effective mitigation
measures and ongoing monitoring. With mitigation, these impacts are
reduced to moderate or moderate-major significance. In addition, impacts
related to ecosystem services (decreased land availability), groundwater
quality, aircraft noise, marine water quality and sediment/ benthic/ intertidal
impacts remain of moderate significance after mitigation.

A range of positive impacts of major positive significance are also identified,


namely impacts on the national and regional and livelihoods (employment
creation and increased potential for income stability). Impacts on national and
regional economy and impacts on livelihoods during construction are also
considered of moderate–major significance.

Apart from those cumulative impacts (with the neighbouring gas plant)
considered to be minor, cumulative impacts on noise, vibration and light and
negative impacts on livelihoods and ecosystem services related to additional
influx are considered to be of moderate negative significance. Increased
employment and income stability in the area is identified as a cumulative
positive impact of minor significance.

All mitigation and monitoring measures identified through the impact


assessment are summarised into Chapter 7 and, along with the ESMP in
Chapter 9, form the basis of Lonrho’s commitments to reducing the
significance of negative impacts and enhancing Project benefits. Together
with the Stakeholder Engagement Plan (Annex A), these detailed plans will
provide support for the implementation of Lonrho’s commitments in the
construction and operation of the Project.

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LIX
ABBREVIATIONS

ABS American Bureau of Shipping


AfDB African Development Bank
AIDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable
ARI Acute Respiratory Infection
ARV Anti-retroviral
ATK Aviation Turbine Kerosene
BDT Basic Design and Technology
BECE Basic Education Certificate Examination
BID Background Information Document
CBO Community Based Organisation
CCG Christian Council of Ghana
CHPS Community-based Health Planning and Services
CHRAJ Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
CO Carbon Monoxide
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
COLREG International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
CRC Coastal Resources Centre
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
CTD Conductivity Temperature Depth
DCE District Chief Executive
DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DFI Developmental Finance Institutions
DMTDP District Assembly Medium Term Development Plan
DNV Det Norske Veritas
EA Electoral Area
ECC Equatorial Counter Current
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African State
EDP Ellembelle District Profile
EDA Ellembelle District Assembly
EEZ Economic Exclusion Zone
EHS Environmental, Health and Safety
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EPs Equator Principles
EP Environmental Permit
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPFI Equator Principles Financial Institutions
ERM Environmental Resources Management
ESL ESL Consulting Limited
ESIA Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
ESMP Environmental and Socio-economic Management Plan
ESR Economic Recovery Programme
FAD Fish Aggregating Devices
FPSO Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessel

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LX
GARFUN Ghana Aids Response Project Fund
GCLME Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GEF Global Environmental Fund
GES Ghana Education Services
GHS Ghana Health Service
GIIP Good International Industry Practice
GIS Geographical Information System
GMA Ghana Maritime Authority
GNPC Ghana National Petroleum Corporation
GoG Government of Ghana
GPHA Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority
GPRTU Ghana Private Road Transport Union
GPRII Growth and Poverty Reductions Strategy
ha Hectare
HFO Heavy Fuel Oil
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
IBA Important Bird Area
ICT Information Communication Technology
ICCAT International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic
Tunas
IFC International Finance Corporation
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organisation
IOM International Organisation for Migration
ITCZ Inter-tropical Convergence Zone
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature
JHS Junior High School
KVIP Kumasi Ventilated-Improved Pit
LLMC Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims
Lonrho Lonrho Ghana Ports Limited
LPG Liquid petroleum gas
LRP Livelihood Restoration Plan
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution
from Ships
MGO Marine Gas Oil
MOSB Marine Offshore Supply Base
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MOWAC Ministry of Women and Children
MPV Multi-Purpose Vessel
MoH Ministry of Health
MTDP Medium Term Development Plan
NDC National Democratic Congress
NEAP National Environmental Action Plan
NEP National Environmental Policy
NHIS National Health Insurance Scheme
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
NOx Oxides of Nitrogen

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LXI
nm Nautical mile
OPRC Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation
OSPAR Oslo and Paris Conventions for the protection of the marine
environment of the North-East Atlantic
OST Oil Services Terminal
PC Paramount Chief
PEA Preliminary Environmental Assessments
PNDC Provisional National Defence Council
PNDCL Provisional National Council Law
PPP Purchasing Power Parity
PS Performance Standards
PTA Parent Teacher Association
RAP Resettlement Action Plan
RCC Regional Coordinating Council
RME Religious and Moral Education
SAEMA Shama Ahanta East Metropolitan Assembly
SEMP Stakeholder Engagement Management Plan
SEP Stakeholder Engagement Plan
SHS Senior High School
SIA Social Impact Assessment
SNEP Strategic National Energy Plan
SOLAS International convention for the Safety of Life At Sea
SOPEP Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan
SPV Special Purpose Vehicle
SRC SRC consulting
STCW International Convention on Standards of Training,
Certification, and Watch keeping for Seafarers
STI Sexually Transmitted Infection
STM Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis
STMA Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolitan Assembly
TB Tuberculosis
TH Teaching Hospital
ToR Terms of Reference
UN United Nations
UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
USD United States Dollars
VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds
VCT Voluntary Counselling and Testing
WAEC West African Examination Council
WRCC Western Region Coordinating Council
WRSDF Western Region Spatial Development Framework

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LXII
1 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF REPORT

1.1 OVERVIEW

Lonrho Ghana Ports Limited (Lonrho) signed a Memorandum of


Understanding (MOU) with the Government of Ghana in August of 2011 to
develop, construct and manage an ‘Exclusive Deepwater Petroleum and
Hydrocarbon Logistics Base Port’ (hereafter referred to as ‘the Project’) along
the coast of the Western Region in Ghana. The Project is being developed to
meet the infrastructure development requirements related to Ghana’s growing
oil and gas industry.

Following an extensive site selection study conducted by Royal Haskoning,


Lonrho proposes to situate the Project on a green-field site (Figure 1.1)
between the communities of Atuabo and Anokyi within the Western Region.

The MOU provides Lonrho with 12 months to conduct site selection,


feasibility studies for the construction and operation of the Project and to
make a decision on the viability of the Project and whether or not to proceed.
If Lonrho decides to proceed, it will be awarded a 50 year concession contract
to develop and operate the Project pending all necessary government
approvals including environmental permits.

Lonrho’s original agreement stated that the Government of Ghana would


acquire the land through a compulsory acquisition process and that this
would be provided as equity into the project. The traditional leadership in the
community have proposed an alternative arrangement for the land to be
provided directly, in exchange for equity in the Project. Discussions with the
GoG are ongoing in which this approach is developed further with the GoG
providing guarantee for the land. In this way, the proposed port would form
a special purpose vehicle (SPV) with the majority share owned by Lonrho, and
the Government of Ghana and the traditional leadership as shareholders, the
percentage of which will be based on the value of the land and the overall
capital investment of the Project (Lonrho, 2011).

The development of the Project will comprise the construction of the main
breakwater, quays, an airstrip, ship berths, a naval forward operating base, a
turning circle and a variety of onshore tenant facilities including a clinic,
warehousing, storage facilities for hydrocarbon products, offices and
accommodation. Potable water, power and telecommunications utilities and
infrastructure will also be constructed as part of the development.

1.2 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION

The Project is being developed to support the oil and gas industry in Ghana
and in the wider region. It is intended to provide services necessary for oil

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1-1
and gas exploration development and production. This will be of benefit to
the oil and gas developers because support services will be in closer proximity
to their operation. It will also benefit the local economy by providing local
employment opportunities and other economic benefits as well as offering the
infrastructure to attract transformational industries.

The Jubilee Field, discovered in 2007, is one of the largest oil discoveries in
West Africa in the past decade. Together with a second oilfield, established in
2011, total production of both oilfields is estimated to reach approximately 125
000 barrels per day (Ghana Online, 2012 as cited in Lonrho, 2011). Although
the Jubilee Field is currently the most high-profile development in Ghana,
numerous additional fields have been identified for exploration and potential
development in and around the western part of Ghana. It is estimated that
Ghana could reach an output of 500,000 barrels of oil per day by 2014
(Bloomberg, as cited in Lonhro, 2011). In order to realise this potential, the oil
industry requires efficiently operated ports that are designed to meet the
industry’s servicing needs.

Currently the logistics of the offshore supply to the Jubilee field is very
inefficient with goods brought in from a wide range of ports in the region
including Abijan, Takoradi, Sekondi, and Tema. This inefficiency adversely
affects the production level of the Jubilee field. The location of the Port close
to the Jubilee fields will significantly increase the efficiency of offshore supply
services assisting to ensure that oil production remains efficient.

1.3 PURPOSE OF ESIA

Lonrho has commissioned Environmental Resources Management (ERM) in


collaboration with ESL Consulting (ESL) to undertake the Environmental and
Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) (1) for the development of the Project. The
ESIA report has been compiled in accordance with the Ghanaian
Environmental Assessment Regulations (1999) (as amended), the International
Finance Corporation’s (IFC) Performance Standards’ (hereafter referred to the
Performance Standards), the Equator Principles and the African Development
Bank (AfDB) standards and will be submitted to the EPA for review and
consideration for approval.

Lonrho recognizes that comprehensive planning and management of


environmental and socio-economic issues are essential to the execution of any
successful project and, therefore, intends to fully integrate environmental and
socio-economic considerations into the lifecycle of the proposed Project. A
key objective of the ESIA is thus to assess the potential impacts of the Project
and Project-related activities on the biophysical and socio-economic resources
and receptors, and where necessary to design mitigation measures to avoid,
mitigate, reduce or compensate for negative impacts and enhance benefits.

(1) Please note that apart from specific references relating to the Ghanaian EIA Regulations and requirements, this report
uses the term ESIA rather than an EIA

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1-2
Furthermore, this ESIA aims to achieve an acceptable level of conformance
with the applicable international standards ie the Equator Principles in
particular, in order to provide potential international lenders with assurance
that environmental and social risks are comprehensively understood by
Lonrho and that systems and processes are in place to manage these to an
acceptable level.

In addition, the ESIA process focused on the following objectives:

identify, and enhance, positive impacts and opportunities arising from the
development of the Project;

be thoroughly integrated, meaning that impacts and related mitigation


measures for environmental and socio-economic aspects are coordinated;

communicate at key points with a full range of stakeholders and


incorporate stakeholder feedback throughout the process; and

use the results of the ESIA to provide input to the Lonrho Project team and
design engineers to ensure an optimised design that reduces as far as
practicable, environmental and socio-economic impacts (Chapter 3).

1.4 ESIA PROCESS

Section 11 of the Ghanaian Environmental Assessment Regulations (1999), as


amended, requires that an EIA is undertaken for the construction and
operation of a port. The Ghanaian Environmental Assessment Regulations
(1999) also require Project registration and authorisation by the Ghana
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This assessment investigates the
effects of Project infrastructure and related activities on the social, economic
and environmental settings of the region.

The overall process and schedule for applying for an Environmental Permit
(EP) under Ghanaian regulations is shown schematically (Figure 1.1). The
ESIA process for the Project is aligned with the requirements of the
Environmental Assessment Regulations (1999) and Environmental
Assessment in Ghana Guidelines (1995) as well as the Equator Principles and
the IFC requirements.

This section outlines the ESIA process followed to date, represented


graphically in Figure 1.1.

1.4.1 Project Registration

Undertakings likely to have significant impacts on the environment (eg those


listed in Schedule 2 of the Environmental Assessment Regulations) must
register with the EPA and obtain an environmental permit before

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1-3
commencement of construction and operations. The proposed Project was
submitted for registration with the EPA on 12 February 2012.

1.4.2 Project Screening

According to the Environmental Assessment Regulations, within 25 days from


the time a registration form is received the EPA will place the development at
the appropriate level of assessment. The EPA has determined that the
development falls into the category of undertakings (Regulation 3) for which a
full ESIA is required.

1.4.3 Scoping Phase

One of the main objectives of scoping is to identify the potentially significant


environmental issues relating to the implementation, operation and
decommissioning of the proposed development that should be addressed as
part of the ESIA. This enables the developer to address the key issues from
the outset and allows early recognition of these issues in the design and
evolution of the scheme. The process also facilitates the ‘scoping out’ of
aspects that would not be expected to experience significant adverse impacts.
Ultimately, it helps define the scope for the ESIA, which will examine and
report the full suite of impacts associated with the Project.

Scoping is an iterative process and the scope of the ESIA may change during
project development, for example, as a result of the findings of technical
studies or information supplied by stakeholders. The main objectives of
scoping phase were as follows:

Provide an overview description of the Project.

Describe the existing environmental and socio-economic baseline, using


secondary data only.

Undertake a preliminary assessment of the potential environmental and


social impacts associated with the proposed Project in both offshore and
onshore settings.

Identify key data gaps.

Obtain early input from key stakeholders in the identification of potential


impacts and mitigation measures.

Define a proposed Terms of Reference (ToR) for an ESIA study and define
an appropriate program for consultation with stakeholders for approval
by EPA.

A scoping report, including ToR for the ESIA, was submitted to the EPA on 5
April 2012. The scoping report was approved on 22 May 2012. The approved
scoping report was then made available to the public on a website (www.

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1-4
www.erm.com/Lonrho-oil-services-ESIA), at public libraries and the EPA
offices as well as through the delivery of hard copies to stakeholders during
the last week of May 2012.

Figure 1.1 Overview of ESIA Process, Indicating Stakeholder Consultation Activities

Note: the red arrows indicate the points at which key stakeholder activities occur..

1.4.4 Baseline Data Collection

The ESIA report provides a description of the existing environmental and


socio-economic conditions as a basis against which the impacts of the Project
can be assessed. The baseline includes information on receptors and resources
that were identified during scoping as having the potential to be significantly
affected by the proposed Project. The description of the baseline has the
following main objectives:

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To identify the key environmental and socio-economic resources and
conditions in areas potentially affected by the Project (such as atmosphere,
geology and soil, groundwater, surface water, fauna and flora and the
marine environment).

To describe, and where possible quantify, their characteristics ie their


nature, condition, quality and extent.

To provide data to aid the prediction and evaluation of possible impacts.

To inform judgements about the importance, value and sensitivity or


vulnerability of resources and receptors.

For the current Project, baseline data collection was obtained from existing
sources including the following:

stakeholders consulted during the Project including government agencies,


local communities and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs);

local experts and research and academic organisations; and

published sources.

Additional primary baseline data was collected as follows:

Dry season sampling was under taken in April 2012. This sampling
included assessing baseline soil, geology, groundwater, air quality, noise,
fauna and flora conditions.

Wet season (May to October) sampling was undertaken during July and
August 2012 after the drafting of the ESIA report, and the relevant data
will be attached as an addendum to the main report.

Socio-economic field surveys were carried out in April 2012. These surveys
involved focus group interviews with different groups and organisations
in the three towns directly affected by the Project; Atuabo, Asemdasuazo
and Anokyi.

1.4.5 Stakeholder Consultation

The objective of the consultation process was to present the proposed Project
and ESIA process as well as identify associated issues, concerns and
opportunities. Further details on the stakeholder consultation process for the
Project are included below in Section 1.5 and in the Stakeholder Engagement
Plan (SEP) included in Annex A.

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1.4.6 Impact Assessment

Impact assessment and development of mitigation measures is an ongoing


process that commences during the scoping stage and continues throughout
the ESIA process. The key objectives of this process are as follows:

To analyse how the Project may interact with the baseline in order to
define, predict and evaluate the likely extent and significance of
environmental and social impacts that may be caused by the Project.

To develop and describe acceptable and cost effective mitigation measures


that avoid, reduce, control, remedy or compensate for negative impacts
and enhance positive benefits.

To evaluate the predicted positive and negative residual impacts of the


Project.

To develop a system whereby mitigation measures will be integrated with


the Project and will be taken forward as commitments. This is achieved
through the development of a provisional ESMP.

The impact assessment process has the following four main steps:

1. Prediction of what will happen as a consequence of Project activities.

2. Evaluation of the importance and significance of the impact.

3. Development of mitigation measures to manage significant impacts where


practicable.

4. Evaluation of the significance of the residual impact.

Where significant residual impacts remain, further options for mitigation may
be considered and impacts re-assessed until they are reduced to as low as
reasonably practicable (ALARP) levels. This approach takes into account the
technical and financial feasibility of mitigation measures.

In addition to predicted impacts from planned activities, those impacts that


could result from an accident or unplanned event within the Project (such as a
pollution event from a petroleum product spill or explosion/fire) are taken
into account. In these cases the likelihood (probability) of the event occurring
is considered. The impact of non-routine events is therefore assessed in terms
of the risk, taking into account both the consequence of the event and the
probability of occurrence.

The methodology used for the assessment of the environmental and social
impacts identified is included in Section 6.2.

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1.4.7 Mitigation and Management Planning

The range of different measures to mitigate impacts identified through the


ESIA process is reported in the ESIA report within the project description and
mitigation chapters. These have been brought together in a framework
Environmental and Socio-economic Management Plan (ESMP) for the Project
(see Chapters 7 and 9).

The provisional ESMP consists of the set of management, mitigation and


monitoring measures to be taken during implementation of the Project to
eliminate adverse environmental and social impacts, offset them, or reduce
them to acceptable levels. The plan details the specific actions that are
required to implement the controls and mitigation measures that have been
agreed through the ESIA process.

1.4.8 Reporting and Disclosure

The outputs of the above tasks are drawn together into the draft ESIA report
and submitted to the EPA for review.

Regulatory Requirements

Once the draft ESIA report is submitted, this is subjected to a review by a


panel of experts constituted by the EPA. The EPA distributes the draft ESIA
to the relevant experts and Ministers and following the review period, their
findings are presented to the Project team for revision of the report to produce
the final ESIA Report.

Lender Requirements

The ESIA Report will also be disclosed in line with potential lender
requirements and timeframes. This will include disclosure of an Executive
Summary on the relevant institutions website for public review and comment.

Public Disclosure

At this stage, as part of the formal regulatory process, the EPA will make a
public notice of the opportunity for information and comment on the draft
ESIA report for the Project. The EPA will publish a notice concerning the
details of the ESIA report in mass media for a period of 21 days. Display
venues will be decided by the EPA but would be expected to include at least:

EPA offices, Accra;


Ministry of Environment; and
Ellembelle District Authority headquarters.

The EPA has indicated their intention to hold a public review meeting
regarding the proposed Project within the local communities at the end of
August 2012.

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Decision Making

Comments received on the draft ESIA report from the EPA and stakeholders’
written comments are addressed in the final ESIA report which is submitted to
the EPA for their decision on whether to issue certification for the ESIA, which
provides environmental authorisation for the Project.

1.5 SUMMARY OF STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION

1.5.1 Background and Objectives

This Chapter represents a summary of the consultation and disclosure


activities undertaken during the ESIA process. This includes a description of
the stakeholder mapping activities, consultation undertaken during the ESIA
phases, development of a grievance mechanism in addition to an overview of
the key issues raised through the ESIA consultation process.

ERM have also compiled a Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP) (Annex A) on


behalf of Lonrho which is intended to act as a ’live’ document and be updated
and adjusted as the Project progresses.

Stakeholder engagement is a key component of sustainable development and


the ESIA process. It involves those stakeholders interested in, or affected by a
proposed development working to actively highlight opportunities, risks and
issues of concern. Stakeholder engagement assists in accounting for locally
relevant conditions rather than imposing potentially insensitive processes and
designs onto an existing social and biophysical environment.

The primary objectives of stakeholder engagements and disclosure are


outlined below:

ensure that adequate and timely information is provided to identified


stakeholders;

provide sufficient opportunity to stakeholders to voice their opinions and


concerns, and to ensure that these concerns influence Project decisions;
and

establish a relationship and form of communication between the


proponent, Lonrho, and affected communities for the lifetime of the
Project.

Stakeholder engagement is also a regulatory requirement in Ghana and a


requirement in terms of the Equator Principles as it is recognised that failure
to engage stakeholders can create significant risks to a project development.

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1.5.2 Stakeholder Engagement within the ESIA Process

Ideally, stakeholder engagement occurs continuously throughout an ESIA


process. In the Ghanaian ESIA process, consultations are required at specific
stages. These are identified in Figure 1.1.

During the Screening phase a list of key informants were established and this
list was used to plan Scoping phase consultations. During Scoping phase
consultations, Project information was presented and discussions were held
with stakeholders to understand their views, identify sensitivities, and to
identify additional stakeholders. The Scoping Report was also distributed to
relevant stakeholders for their input.

1.5.3 Reporting of Stakeholder Engagement Activities

Minutes were recorded during all formal meetings during the ESIA process.
The issues raised during meetings were extracted and captured in an Issues
Table, along with additional issues raised through written correspondence
received during the ESIA process.

Records of all engagement activities (stakeholder database, minutes, lists of


attendees, copies of comments received and issues trail) are presented in
Annex B. ESIA engagement materials have been kept on file in order for the
Project team to refer to them for consideration during implementation, to
identify any trends in grievances, and to design necessary corrective actions.

The Ghana ESIA process also includes a number of formal consultation and
disclosure steps. These occur in the Scoping phase with the public disclosure
of the ESIA Draft Scoping Report and Terms of Reference (ToR),following the
submission of the Draft ESIA report to the relevant authority through public
disclosure and in some cases public hearings.

1.5.4 Stakeholder Identification

The objective of stakeholder identification is to establish which organisations


and individuals may be directly or indirectly affected (positively and
negatively) by, or have an interest in, the Project. Stakeholder identification is
an on-going process, requiring regular review and the updating of the
stakeholder database as the Project proceeds. The sections that follow provide
an overview of stakeholder groups that have been identified to date, as well as
an indication of their interest in the Project.

As part of ESIA Scoping phase, a stakeholder mapping exercise was


undertaken to identify key stakeholder groups and organisations. This
mapping exercise drew on knowledge of the Project area, and prior experience
of ESIAs in Ghana particularly in the Western Region. It also incorporated
experience gained by Lonrho through stakeholder engagement activities,
primarily related to commercial matters.

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Stakeholders were selected on the basis that they would have an interest in the
Project, and would also have knowledge through which to provide insight
into possible issues and concerns related to the Project. Further stakeholder
groups were identified through consultation activities. A full list of the
stakeholders consulted in the ESIA (up to the time that the SEP was
published) is provided in Annex A.

During this process stakeholders were grouped in order to develop


appropriate tools and methodologies, and to maximise the value of
engagement activities. Stakeholders were divided into two main categories:
primary stakeholders and secondary stakeholders (Table 1.1).

Table 1.1 Primary and Secondary Stakeholder Groups

Primary Stakeholders Secondary Stakeholders


Directly affected communities and residents, Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and
landowners and land users (with special Community Based Organisations (CBOs)
consideration of the various disaggregated active at a national and local level, as well as
groupings within these categories, including those having international representation in
vulnerable groups) the country

Regulatory authorities, councillors and Other groups including media, environmental


traditional authorities covering national, associations, business groups
regional, district and stool levels with
authority in the directly affected Project area.
Ghana National Petroleum Corporation
(GNPC) and Ghana Maritime Authority.

Ministry representatives in political positions Relevant sector specific agencies operating


nationally or locally

Primary Stakeholders

This category of stakeholders includes those directly affected by Project


activities, as well as the regulatory authorities and other ministries of
government authorities with direct authority over aspects of the Project
activities.

Directly Affected Stakeholders

Within this range of stakeholders, affected communities were identified to be


the communities located on or adjacent to the Project footprint. In the case of
the Project, this includes the communities of Atuabo, Anokyi and
Asemdasuazo, in the Ellembelle District. While none of the physical
infrastructure of the communities will be directly affected by the Project,
farming, plantation and fishing areas are within the Project’s footprint. The
directly affected stakeholder groups that were engaged included:

local residents: men, women and children;


traders;

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fishers;
farmers and plantation owners;
agricultural producers (particularly palm oil, coconut oil and palm wine);
youth;
religious groups;
elderly; and
traditional healers.

The Paramount Chief (Awulae) of the Stool sits in Atuabo and is the
owner/custodian of the land. As a result, the Chief was identified to be
directly affected on many levels, in addition to his traditional council and
elders in addition to the Community District Assembly based in Atuabo. The
traditional leadership in both Anokyi and Asemdasuazo were also identified
to be directly affected stakeholders.

The disaggregated stakeholder groups in this category were identified


through map work, scoping meetings and socio-economic and fisheries
fieldwork. Emphasis was placed on identifying potentially vulnerable groups
within this category.

Government Authorities

Relevant regulatory and ministerial authorities were identified as those


departments and divisions representing the Ghanaian Project decision-makers
with direct involvement in the planning and permitting for the Project.
Authorities are also key role-players in the implementation of aspects of the
management plans during Project implementation.

Regulatory authorities were identified from existing databases, liaison with


government officials, prior project experience and consultation, government
databases and telephone directories.

The affected National, Western Region and Ellembelle District regulatory


authorities that were engaged through the ESIA process included:

Ghana EPA;
Ministry of Energy;
Western Regional EPA;
Western Region Coordinating council (WRCC);
Western Regional Office of the Minister; and
Ellembelle District Assembly.

Ministerial representatives were also engaged directly by the developer in


order to update them regarding the progress and to ensure on-going and
regular interactions. These included the following:

Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology;


Ministry of Energy;
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources;

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Ministry of Road and Highways;
Ministry of Transport;
Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing;
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning;
Ministry of Tourism;
Ministry of Food and Agriculture.
National Security;
Petroleum Commission;
Ghana Customs and Preventive Service;
Town and Country Planning Department (Western Region); and
Ghana Civil Aviation Authority.

Secondary Stakeholders

This group of stakeholders was identified to comprise of interest groups who


have a personal, business or civil interest in this Project. These groups include
NGOs and CBOs from Accra, and other major towns in the nearby area, as
well as locally relevant schools, clinics and businesses. A small number of
Ghana-based international organisations involved in sustainable
development, environmental issues, health, media, academia and research
organisations and other such potentially interested groups were also
identified

These stakeholders were identified from existing databases, internet resources


and local telephone directories. Further identification took place during
informal contact between Lonrho and individuals or organisations. Additional
stakeholders were identified during the baseline data collection process where
special interest groups that may have been overlooked were recognised as
clear stakeholders in the Project’s development. These secondary stakeholders
included:

Fisheries Commission;
Friends of the Earth;
Oilwatch;
National Fisheries Association;
Interim Guinea Current Commission;
Wildlife Division of Forestry Commission;
Marine Fisheries Research Division;
Ricerca e Cooperazione;
Friends of the Nation/ Coastal Resources Centre (CRC);
Ghana Tourism Authority;
Wildlife Department of the Forestry Commission;
Ghana National Canoe Fishermen Association - Western Region;
Hydrological Society; and
Ghana Wildlife Society.

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Vulnerable Groups

In addition, it is important to consult with groups classified by the World


Bank as potentially marginalised or vulnerable. Vulnerable groups may be
affected by the Project by virtue of their physical disability, social or economic
standing, limited education and a lack of employment or housing. They may
also have difficulty participating in the stakeholder engagement process and
thus may not be able to fully express their concerns regarding the Project.

Potential vulnerable groups identified as part of the ESIA included women,


the elderly, children, sharecroppers and fishermen. Vulnerability of these
groups is based on reduced opportunities to participate in local decision-
making, as well as their economic vulnerability, particularly with regard to
land access, employment and dependence on other community members. As
such, engagement activities were designed to ensure representation of these
groups among stakeholders, and to seek to understand potential Project
interactions with their livelihood opportunities and agency within the
communities. The ESIA team held women’s meetings at times and places that
suited the women in each community. These meetings were led by a female
member of the ESIA team, where possible.

1.5.5 Stakeholder Engagement Process

This section provides an overview of the stages of stakeholder engagement in


the Project. The stakeholder engagement and disclosure process has been
divided into four key stages, each having different objectives for engagement:

Scoping consultation, including notifications and consultations with key


informants and community representatives;
Engagement during detailed ESIA baseline studies;
ESIA Disclosure; and
Project Execution.

The key elements of each stage of the stakeholder engagement process are
outlined in the sections that follow.

Stage 1: Scoping

Background Information Document (BID)


A Background Information Document (BID) was developed to provide an
overview of the proposed Project, potential environmental and social issues
and a description of the ESIA process and timeline. BIDs were used during
Scoping to provide basic information to stakeholders. A response sheet was
included with the BID and gave interested parties an opportunity to register
for the Project and to raise their concerns, issues or suggestions.

Notifications
The stakeholder mapping exercise identified stakeholders that would be best
engaged through face-to-face meetings. A copy of the BID and a covering

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letter requesting a meeting were hand-delivered to these stakeholders.
Meetings were confirmed through subsequent telephone and email
communication.

Consultations with Key Informants and Community Representatives


Scoping engagement was carried out in February and March 2012 to identify
the potentially significant environmental and social issues relating to the
implementation and operation of the Project. These issues were used to
define the ESIA approach, to inform the design of the environmental and
socio-economic baseline studies, and to ensure that there is sufficient
information to address all potential impacts and issues in the ESIA process.

During Scoping, a total of 25 meetings were held with 28 stakeholder groups


or organisations. Stakeholders consulted included national, regional and
district authorities, traditional leadership, Non-Governmental Organisations
(NGOs), international organisations and fisher associations. A list of the
Scoping consultation meetings undertaken is provided in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2 Summary of Scoping consultation meetings (February and March 2012)

No. Organisation’/Group Date Location Attendees


1 Fisheries Commission 14-Feb-12 Accra 1
2 EPA 15-Feb-12 Accra 4
3 Friends of the Earth 15-Feb-12 Accra 1
4 Oilwatch 15-Feb-12 Accra 1
5 National Fisheries Association 15-Feb-12 Accra 2
6 Ministry of Energy 15-Feb-12 Accra 2
7 Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) 16-Feb-12 Accra 2
8 Interim Guinea Current Commission 16-Feb-12 Accra 1
9 Wildlife Division of Forestry Commission 16-Feb-12 Accra 1
10 Marine Fisheries Research Division 16-Feb-12 Tema 3
11 Ricerca e Cooperazione 17-Feb-12 Accra 4
12 Community District Assembly representatives, 19-Feb-12 Atuabo 44
Atuabo Traditional council
13 Nzema East Council of Chiefs 19-Feb-12 Atuabo As above
14 Chief Fisherman of Atuabo, 19-Feb-12 Atuabo As above
15 Anorkyi District Assembly representatives and 20-Feb-12 Anorkyi 23
chief fisherman
16 Ellembelle District Assembly 21-Feb-12 Ellembelle 6
17 Western Region Coordinating council (WRCC) 21-Feb-12 Takoradi 1
18 Friends of the Nation/ Coastal Resources Centre 21-Feb-12 Takoradi 4
(CRC)
19 Ghana Tourism Authority 22-Feb-12 Takoradi 1
20 Wildlife Department of the Forestry Commission 22-Feb-12 Takoradi 1
21 EPA: Western Region 22-Feb-12 Takoradi 4
22 Ghana National Canoe Fishermen Association - 22-Feb-12 Takoradi 2
Western Region
23 Fisheries Commission 22-Feb-12 Takoradi 1
24 Ghana Navy 24-Feb-12 Accra 2
25 Ghana Maritime Authority 24-Feb-12 Accra 3
26 Hydrological Society 24-Feb-12 Accra 1
27 Ghana Wildlife Society 5-Mar-12 Accra 1
Note: Additional stakeholder consultation activities were undertaken during April 2013. The details of
these interactions are included in Annex K.

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Each of the face-to-face meetings followed a general format:

introduction by the meeting facilitator;


introduction to Lonrho and a brief description of Lonrho operations;
description of the proposed port development and the Project
components; and
discussion of the key issues and any information that may be relevant to
the Project.

The stakeholders that participated in each consultation meeting were recorded


in an attendance register. The consultation team also included translators
who spoke Fante and Nzema so that the key elements of the Project and the
main issues arising could be discussed with non-English-speaking
stakeholders. Notes of the consultation meetings, attendance registers and
written comments received are provided in Annexes F, E and H of the SEP.

Distribution of Scoping Report


In line with the EPA’s requirements the Scoping Report was submitted to the
EPA in April 2012. Copies of the Scoping Report were also delivered to key
stakeholder groups. Hard copies of the Report were also made available
within affected communities, where a public copy was left with each of the
towns’ Community District Assembly representatives, the Chief or a
Traditional Council member.

Stage 2: Detailed Baseline Studies

Socio-economic Baseline Field Research


Socio-economic baseline field research fieldwork (undertaken from 10 - 17
April 2012) included meetings with traditional authorities and town elders,
Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with identified special interest groups in the
towns, and Key Informant Interviews (KII) with individuals who had
information of particular relevance to the Project (eg education and health).

A schedule of these meetings is outlined in Table 1.3.

Table 1.3 Summary of Engagements with Affected Communities

Day Community Team 1 Team 2


10th April (pm) Atuabo Elders
11 April (am) Women Youth
(pm) Coconut Oil Co-Op Fishermen
12 April (am) Land Users Markets
Elderly Teachers
(pm) Economic Activity Observation Herbalists
Religious Leaders Market Area
13 April (am) Anokyi Sub Chief Sub Chief
Women Youth
(pm) Land Users; Coconut-Oil And Fishermen
Farmers

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Day Community Team 1 Team 2
14 April Sat Elders – History & Culture Museum
Museum
16 April (am) Asemdasuazo Sub-chief Sub Chief
Women Fishermen
(pm) Land Users Elders
17 April (am) Ekabaku Clinic (Beyin) Youth
Teachers

Each engagement was facilitated in English, Fante and Nzema as appropriate,


and structured using all or some of the following methodologies (1):

an introduction to the Project using the BID along with photographic


representations of similar projects;
community mapping;
seasonal calendars;
land-use mapping;
walkabouts by the social specialists accompanied by members of a
stakeholder group to locations of significance to the group.

These methods provided mechanisms where no one group member would


dominate an engagement activity, but rather facilitated broad participation
with an emphasis on ensuring that women and vulnerable groups were heard
and recorded. Information derived from the activities has been used in the
ESIA to highlight community strengths and vulnerabilities, and to identify
potential Project impacts.

Significantly, this type of active engagement contributes to the development of


relationships based on trust between stakeholders and the Project that can act
as a bridge for future phases of the Project cycle.

Figure 1.2, provide photographs illustrating the different methodologies used


for engagement.

Scoping Report Disclosure through Field Work


The socio-economic specialist studies within the local communities began
shortly after the submission of the Scoping Report, which outlined the ToR for
specialist studies. Stakeholder groups in these affected communities were
informed of the Scoping Report, locations for reviewing the Report, and the
timeframes for submitting comments during the socio-economic assessment
using the following:

Posters (in English and Nzema) and maps to the location of each Scoping
Report were put up in affected communities (Annex F of the SEP); and

A set of key Project Messages (in English and Nzema), posted alongside
the posters (Annex G of the SEP).

(1) The detailed methodologies used during these engagements are described in Chapter 5.

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Figure 1.2 Community Meetings and Introduction to Project

Stage 3: ESIA Disclosure

A Draft EIS/ ESIA Report (referred to in this report as an ESIA Report) has
been compiled and submitted to the EPA for their consideration. At this stage
consultation will take place through the EPA-led disclosure process, likely to
include an open public comment process and potential public hearings. If
convened, the hearings would likely be held in Accra, Takoradi, the
Ellembelle District and in the affected communities.

Once the Environmental and Social Management Plans (ESMP) are finalised,
and as the Project enters into the construction phase, key stakeholders and
communities will receive meaningful and accessible information of the
mitigation and management measures contained in the ESMP. Information
from the ESMP will be presented through a number of briefing sessions and
community meetings. Various forms of supporting material will be
developed specifically for this ESMP disclosure purpose, such as posters and
flyers.

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Stage 4: Project Execution

An output of the ESIA process is the development of ESMPs during Project


construction and operations. This SEP is one component of the ESMPs and
will be further refined prior to the next phase of the Project, once more
detailed information on implementation structures, roles, responsibilities and
resources is available.

Information on the contents and implementation of the ESMP will be


presented through a number of briefing sessions and on-going meetings with
local communities. These will take place at different levels within the Western
Region, Ellembelle District and in affected communities.

In addition, the grievance mechanism (Appendix J to the SEP in Annex A) will


be implemented to be effective throughout the Project lifecycle.

Ad hoc Consultations Led by Lonrho

Lonrho, through its corporate and communications team, is continuing


engaging stakeholders on a regular and ad hoc basis. Meetings between the
Paramount Chief and Lonrho regarding access to land for the Project’s
development are on-going.

In the same way, Lonrho continues to meet with interest groups in affected
communities, NGOs and regulatory authorities. These interactions, together
with the outcomes of Scoping and baseline data activities, are influencing the
design of the Project on a day-to-day basis. This will continue until the
submission of the ESIA at which point the design will be finalised in order for
environmental permitting, on a set Project design, to take place.

1.5.6 Key Issues Raised

This section provides an overview of the key issues raised by stakeholders


during the Scoping phase. A summary of these comments raised during the
Scoping consultations is provided in Table 1.4.

These comments have been recorded and considered in developing the Terms
of Reference for the ESIA (see Annex C) and are presented in the full issues
trail in Annex D of the SEP.

Table 1.4 Summary of Issues

Issue Group Summary of issues


Project Benefits The majority of stakeholders voiced support for the Project as well as
expectations of employment and other opportunities that it would create
for local communities. A number of stakeholders noted the importance
of local content. Government stakeholders voiced support for a new
port facility in the region, especially as a new hub for other development.

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Issue Group Summary of issues
Livelihoods and Stakeholders indicated that the proposed Project area is currently used
compensation for fishing, farming, grazing and sand mining and expressed concern
regarding the loss of livelihoods and the stressed the need for
compensation of any lost livelihood.

Cultural heritage Stakeholders expressed concern over the loss of local culture (including
language and traditional structures), the potential effect on sacred sites
and the rural sense of place of the community. Stakeholders identified
that any archaeological resources in the area need to be well-understood.

In-migration Stakeholders expressed concern that there would be in-migration of


people (especially job-seekers) into the area resulting in impacts to the
socio-economic structure, traditional values, demographics and cultural
heritage.

Tourism impacts Some stakeholders expressed concern regarding the conflicting proposed
industrial land use and activities with the plans for the development of
the Western Region coastline as an area for sustainable tourism.

Site selection Stakeholders queried the choice of Atuabo East as the best site for the
Project and requested details of the site selection process.

Access, security and While a number of stakeholders indicated that the people should be
port control allowed access for traditional fishing and tourism activities, others
stressed that the port would need to meet Ghanaian and International
Maritime Organisation control and security requirements.

Sensitive Stakeholders voiced concern regarding the impacts of the Project on


biodiversity sensitive biodiversity receptors such as the mangroves, benthic
environment and wetlands (especially the Amansuri wetland area). The
impacts on nesting turtles and other marine fauna (fish, marine
mammals) were raised as important aspects for consideration. Concerns
were also raised regarding the Project’s impacts on the annual algal
bloom, as well as impacts of the bloom on the Project.

Coastal erosion Stakeholders expressed concern with regard to potential coastal erosion
and the impacts of the Project on coastal sediment transport.
Stakeholders highlighted the importance of monitoring erosion during
operation.

Pollution and waste Stakeholders highlighted the importance of marine and onshore
management pollution control and ensuring responsible waste management at the
port

Community and Stakeholders voiced concern regarding community safety risks related to
worker Health and construction traffic and activities. Stakeholders also encouraged Lonrho
Safety (H&S): to ensure that occupational H&S would be addressed.

Fishing Apart from the livelihoods aspects (above), stakeholders indicated their
concerns regarding disturbance to fishing activities including damage to
fishing gear, access to fishing areas and potential catch reduction.

Air emissions Stakeholders were concerned about the potential air emissions from
waste management facilities (eg incinerator and waste storage) on site
and from vessels.

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Issue Group Summary of issues
Noise Stakeholders expressed concerns regarding the noise generated from
aircraft using the airstrip and associated disturbance of local
communities.

ESIA process and A number of stakeholders requested that they receive copies of the
stakeholder Scoping Report and highlighted the need for consultation with the
engagement traditional authorities and the local communities. The EPA highlighted
the requirements for thorough stakeholder consultation process as part
of the ESIA.

Alignment with Stakeholders indicated that the planning and design for the Project
regional planning, should be integrated with other local and regional planning processes.
industrial growth Planning for the Project was encouraged to include and anticipate future
and other or other developments in the area.
developments

Cumulative impacts Stakeholders highlighted that cumulative impacts need to be thoroughly


assessed in the ESIA.

1.5.7 Project Grievance Mechanism

Grievances are complaints or comments concerning the way in which a Project


is being implemented. A grievance mechanism provides a formal and on-
going avenue for stakeholders to engage with the company, whilst the
monitoring of grievances provides signals of any escalating conflicts or
disputes.

Identifying and responding to grievances supports the development of


positive relationships between the Project proponent and the communities,
and other stakeholders. An effective grievance management process should
include the components described in Box 1.1 below.

A preliminary Grievance Mechanism has been developed as part of the SEP,


in accordance with the IFC’s Performance Standards and the Equator
Principles (Annexure J of the SEP). This procedure will be refined once a
decision on the ESIA Report has been taken. This procedure will outline staff
responsibilities and allocate financial resources to implementing and
managing the Mechanism.

The process for managing grievances will be through the External Affairs
Department, with a Manager based in Accra and a Community Liaison Officer
(CLO), based on site. The Manager will be responsible for co-ordinating
grievances as they come into the Project and will follow the Grievance
Procedure in ensuring resolution. The CLO will likely be the first port of call
for people wishing to submit grievances and so s/he will be responsible for
ensuring adherence to the grievance procedure.

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Box 1.1 Key Components of an Effective Grievance Mechanism

Simple Process: It should be convenient to submit complaints. There should be several,


appropriate channels through which community stakeholders can submit complaints free of
charge.

Simple Internal Procedure: A simple and consistent procedure is required to record grievances,
identify those responsible for addressing them and ensure that they are resolved.

Staff Arrangements: Roles and responsibilities in the grievance management process need to be
defined and agreed.

Training: The launch or modification of the grievance management process should include
internal induction and/or training for operational staff and a Community Liaison Officer.

A Set Timeframe: The grievance process should set a timeframe within which complainants
can expect acknowledgement of receipt of grievance and a response and/or resolution of
grievance.

Sign Off: Actions planned to resolve grievances considered to be of significant concern by the
Grievance Officer should be signed-off by a member of the senior management, suitably
qualified to assess the effectiveness of the response.

System of Response: A clear system of response is required to identify who should respond to
the complainant and how.

Monitoring Effectiveness: Mechanisms should be set in place for monitoring the effectiveness
with which complaints are being recorded and resolved.
Source: ERM, 2011

1.6 ESIA TEAM

ERM and ESL are jointly referred to as the ESIA team. The ESIA team
comprised environmental and social specialists with a combination of ESIA
experience in Ghana and experience in undertaking ESIAs for oil and gas and
infrastructure development projects elsewhere.

In addition, a series of studies were undertaken by a number of other


specialists to address key issues. The core ESIA team members that are
involved in this ESIA are listed in Table 1.5.

Table 1.5 The ESIA team

Name Role Qualifications, Experience


Henry Camp (ERM) Project Director BA, 27 years

Andrew Bradbury (ERM) Technical Advisor BSc (Hons), MSc, 18 years

Karen Opitz (ERM) Project Manager, Environmental BSc (Hons), MPhil, 6 years
Lead

Lydia du Toit (ERM) GIS Specialist BSc, 20 years

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Name Role Qualifications, Experience
AK Armah (ESL Consulting) Marine specialist, Lead Local MSc, MPhil, 20 years
Specialist

Andy Spitz (ERM) Social specialist MA, 15 years

Samantha Button (ERM) Social consultant MA, 2 years

Kate Munnik (ERM) ESIA consultant BSc (Hons), MSc, 1 year

ESIA team contact details are provided below.

Assistant Project manager Karen Opitz


Address: ERM Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd
Building 32, Woodlands Office Park
Woodlands Drive, Woodmead
Sandton, 2148
Tel: +27 (0)11 798 4300
Email: karen.opitz@erm.com

1.7 STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT

An outline of the ESIA report is provided in Table 1.6. The structure follows
guidance provided by the EPA.

Table 1.6 ESIA Report Structure

Chapter Title Description


Executive Summary Summary of the report written in non-technical
language.

1 Introduction Introduction to the Project; overview of stakeholder


engagement activities; introduction to ESIA
methodology and legislation ad standards.

2 Legal and Policy framework Legislation and lender requirements and guidelines
determining Project design and operation.

3 Project Description Technical description of the Project infrastructure


and activities.

4 Description of Existing Description of the relevant environmental conditions


Biophysical Environment in the area surrounding the Project Site.

5 Description of Existing Description of existing social, economic and health


Socio-economic conditions.
Environment

6 Associated and Potential Additional description of methodology; potential


Impacts impacts; identification of residual impacts.

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Chapter Title Description
7 Mitigation Measures Summary of mitigation measures to reduce, remove
or avoid negative impacts to environmental and
social receptors.

8 Decommissioning Plan Description of approach for decommissioning


including planned mitigation measures.

9 Environmental and Social Outline of the Environmental and Social


Management Plan Management Plan (ESMP) taking into account
identified impacts and planned mitigation measures
and monitoring requirements.

10 Summary and Conclusions Summary of the consultations from the ESIA.

11 References A list of references and websites cited in the text.

Annex A Stakeholder Engagement A summary of the consultations undertaken during


Plan (SEP) and associated the ESIA as well as a list of stakeholders, meeting
Annexes minutes, attendance records and photos.

Annex B Comprehensive Baseline Comprehensive baseline study data from wet and
Study Data dry season baseline surveys.

Annex C Terms of Reference for the The terms of reference for the ESIA.
ESIA

Annex D Scoping Report Approval Confirmation of the approval of the Scoping Report
Letter by the EPA.

Annex E Relevant Design and The design and engineering standards which will be
Engineering Standards adopted by the proposed Project.

Annex F Terms of Reference for the Outline of how the issues and concerns raised
ESIA report during scoping will be addressed in the ESIA report.

Annex G Environmental Control Lonrho’s Environmental Control Rules and


Rules and Regulations Regulations

Annex H Memorandum of
Understanding between
Lonrho and the Ministry of
Transport

Annex I Livelihood Restoration Plan

Annex J Topographical Map

Annex K Additional Stakeholder


Engagement Materials(2013)
Annex L Proposed Stormwater
Management Plan
Annex M Oil Services Terminal
Masterplan (2013)

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2 LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This Chapter summarises the institutional framework applied to the Project, as


well as the most relevant national legislation and applicable international best
practice policies (including the Equator Principles, the International Finance
Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards and AfDB guidelines) that have
been taken into consideration in the preparation of the ESIA. In particular,
this Chapter provides a description of the following:

Ghanaian administrative and legislative organisation;

the Ghanaian environmental and social laws and regulations applicable to


the Project;

status of protected areas and species that may have an effect on the
proposed development;

international conventions and standards to which Ghana is a signatory


and which the Project must therefore take into account;

consideration where relevant, of other international conventions and


standards with which the Project will also be consistent; and

international treaties, conventions and protocols relevant to the Project


relate to such issues as biodiversity, climate change, marine pollution and
employment conditions.

2.2 GHANAIAN GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION FRAMEWORK

Ghanaian legislation is issued at the national level through policies, acts,


regulations and guidelines. These pieces of legislation are enforced by a
number of administrative bodies.

The key ministries and other administrative organisations that are relevant to
the Project are summarised in the following sections. Those government
agencies with interest or decision-making authorities for the Project include:

Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA);


Ghana Maritime Authority (GMA);
Ghana Ports and Harbor Authority (GPHA);
Ministry of Agriculture (Fisheries Commission);
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning;
Ministry of Energy;
Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Houses;

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Ministry of Trade and Industry;
Ministry of Roads and Highways;
Ministry of Transport;
Free Zone Authority;
Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources;
Civil Aviation Authority;
Western Region Administration; and
Ellembelle District

2.2.1 Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The EPA falls under the Ministry of Environment Science and Technology and
is the leading public body for protecting and improving the environment in
Ghana. The EPA is charged with carrying out Government policy and
legislation, inspecting and regulating businesses and reacting when there is an
emergency such as a pollution incident.

In addition, the EPA’s objectives are to create awareness of the environmental


considerations in the development process at the national, regional, district
and community levels and ensure implementation of environmental policy to
promote the maintenance of environmental quality in Ghana. The EPA is also
tasked with ensuring environmentally sound and efficient use of both
renewable and non-renewable resources and guiding development to prevent,
reduce, and as far as possible, eliminate pollution.

The main pieces of legislation enforced by the EPA are:

Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1994 (Act 490);


Environmental Assessment Regulations, 1999;
Fees and Charges (Amendment) Instrument, 2011 (LI 1986); and
Fees and Charges (Amendment) Regulations (2011)

The EPA is the primary decision-making authority in the EIA process and
environmental permitting authority for the Project.

2.2.2 Ghana Maritime Authority and Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority

The Ghana Maritime Authority (GMA) and the Ghana Ports and Harbours
Authority (GPHA) fall within the Ministry of Transport. The Ghana Maritime
Authority Act, 2002 (Act 630) establishes the GMA with responsibility to
monitor regulate and coordinate activities in the maritime industry, and the
responsibility to implement the provisions of enactments on shipping in
Ghana. The primary objectives of the GMA are to regulate, monitor and
coordinate the country’s maritime industry.

These aims are met through various obligations including:

the implementation of the provisions of the Ghana Shipping Act 2003 (Act
45);

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ensuring safe navigation in Ghanaian waters;

regulating the activities of shipping agents, freight-forwarders and similar


shipping service providers; and

ensuring the implementation of international maritime conventions.

The Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority Act, 1986 under the PNDC Law 160
established the Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority (GPHA). The GPHA, a
merger of the former Ghana Ports Authority, Ghana Cargo Handling
Company Limited and Takoradi Lighterage Company Limited, is a Statutory
Corporation operating under the Provisional National Council Law (PNDCL
160) of 1986 and owns Ghana's two main ports, Takoradi and Tema built in
1928 and 1962 respectively. The GPHA is charged with the responsibility of
planning, building, managing, maintaining and operating the seaports of
Ghana that are outlined in this Act.

The Project is being developed privately by Lonrho, with the Government of


Ghana and the Stool being equity partners. Although the port is being
developed in line with the principles and guidelines of the GMA, the
overseeing governmental body is in fact the Free Zone Board under the Free
Zone Act (504/1995) (see Section 2.2.7), as the development is expected to be
designated as a Free Port.

The Shipping Act 2002, (Act 645) regulates shipping activities including
requirements for access and prohibition of trade in Ghanaian waters. The Act
details the qualifications for the ownership of Ghanaian ships, registration and
importation of foreign vessels and details on obtaining registration.

2.2.3 Ministry of Agriculture (Fisheries Commission)

The Fisheries Regulation LI 1968 was introduced on the 16th June 2010 by the
Minister responsible for fisheries based on section 139 (1) of the Fisheries Act,
2002 (Act 625) and on recommendation of the Fisheries Commission. The
Fisheries Commission was established in order to regulate, manage and
sustainably develop the fisheries in Ghanaian waters.

The key functions of the Fisheries Commission are to facilitate the formulation
and implementation of appropriate policies and programmes in support of a
sustainable fishing industry and ensure the implementation of fisheries laws
and regulations. In addition, the Fisheries Commission is tasked with
generating social economic data as basis for improving the human capacity of
the fishing industry and collaborating with sub-regional and international
organisation in the study and management of shared fisheries resources.

The Fisheries Commission also plays a facilitating role in the acquisition and
marketing of produce to fishers, fish farmers, fish processors and traders

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provides technical support to fishermen, fish farmers, fish processors and
traders on efficient management of fisheries resources.

The Fisheries Commission is an important stakeholder in terms of planning


for livelihood restoration associated with the loss of fishing areas as a result of
the Project.

2.2.4 Ministry of Energy

The Ministry of Energy is tasked with the development, implementation,


monitoring and evaluation of energy sector policies, including petroleum,
power and renewable energy sectors. The Ministry is tasked with providing
easily accessible energy services to the citizens of Ghana in an
environmentally sustainable manner. Specifically, the Ministry leads the
following activities:

development of infrastructure for the production and supply of adequate


energy services to meet national requirement and for export;

developing the required infrastructure to ensure universal access and


efficient and reliable supply of energy services;

ensuring that energy is produced and supplied in a form that minimises


adverse health, safety and environmental impacts; and

ensuring that energy is produced, transported and used efficiently.

The Ministry has also developed a Local Content Policy (Section 2.3.1) to
ensure Ghanaian involvement and employment in energy-related projects.
Although no resulting legislation has been enacted, the policy aims to ensure
that local Ghanaians share in the development and profit potential associated
with major oil and gas projects within the country.

2.2.5 Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning

The Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning is responsible for the


following activities:

mobilisation of external and internal resources;


allocation of resources to all economic sectors;
ensuring sustainability of public debt;
preparing and implementing Ghana’s annual budget and financial
statements;
management of public expenditure; and
development and implementation of financial sector policies.

As part of its objectives, the Ministry aims to promote sustainable economic


growth and development of Ghana and its people (Ministry of Finance and
Economic Planning, 2012). As part of the Ghana public private partnership

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programme, the Ministry has also compiled a draft resettlement policy
framework which sets out the requirements for project developers with regard
to physical and economic resettlement of Ghanaians potentially affected by
their Projects.

Although all forms of physical resettlement are being avoided by the


proposed Project, there will be economic resettlement as a result of the Project.
The resettlement planning and implementation will need to take cognizance of
this policy.

2.2.6 Ministry of Trade and Industry

The Ministry of Trade and Industry has overall responsibility for the
formulation, implementation and monitoring of Ghana's internal and external
trade. It is the sector ministry that ensures that Ghana derives maximum
benefit from internal trade relations and that domestic trade is conducted in a
smooth and orderly manner. The Ministry seeks to strengthen trade relations
with all friendly countries with a particular focus on African countries.

To meet the challenges posed by the changing domestic and international


trade environment; the Ministry is pursuing proactive policies designed to
create conditions for the renewal of Ghanaian industry and commerce. One of
the major policy measures being employed for the achievement of accelerated
and sustainable growth is the Ghana Trade and Investment Gateway
Programme, which seeks to promote foreign direct investment and to
establish Ghana as a major manufacturing, value-added, financial and
commercial centre in West Africa. The Ministry of Trade and Industry
oversees the Free Zone Board, which will oversee the proposed Project.

2.2.7 Free Zones Board

The Free Zone Act (504/1995) established the Free Zones Board as responsible
for implementation of the Act. The Act enables the establishment of free zone
areas in Ghana, where incentives and tax-free operations are used to make
these areas attractive to foreign investment. The Free Zones programme has
become an important tool ensuring Ghana is an attractive investment
destination for foreign countries.

Through the Free Zones programme, Export Processing Zones are also being
developed. These areas are established to encourage the development of
commercial and service activities at air and seaport areas, thus ensuring the
whole country is accessible to potential investors.

The Project will be located in one of the Export Processing Zones and will
therefore be regulated by the Free Zone Board (rather than the Ghana Harbour
and Ports Authority).

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2.2.8 Ministry of Roads and Highways

The Ministry of Roads and Highways is mandated to provide and maintain an


integrated, cost-effective and sustainable road transport network. The main
objective of the ministry is to create and sustain an accessible and efficient
transport network and to integrate land use, transport and development
planning with effective service provision.

2.2.9 Ghana Highways Authority

This Act is in place to establish the authority responsible for the


administration, control, development and maintenance of trunk roads and
related facilities. The Act designates this Ghana Highways Authority as
responsible for the upkeep, management and construction of bridges, road
closures, trunk road excavations and toll roads.

2.2.10 Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources

The Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources manages the lands, forests,
wildlife and mineral resources of Ghana. Their aim is to ensure the
sustainable management and utilisation of Ghana’s natural resources for
socio-economic growth and development. In order to achieve this goal the
ministry has set out the following objectives, namely to:

• develop and manage sustainable lands, forest, wildlife and mineral


resources;

• facilitate equitable access and benefit sharing;

• promote both public awareness and local communities participation as


well as private sector involvement;

• to review, update, harmonise and consolidate existing legislation and


policies and support and lead research initiatives; and

• develop effective institutional capacity at the national, regional, district


and community levels.

In addition, the Land Commission was established under the Ministry Lands
and Natural Resources to oversee all Land issues. The commission comprises
four divisions:

• Land Registration Division (Formerly Land Title Registry and the Deeds
Registry);
• Land Valuation Division (Formerly Land Valuation Board);
• Survey and Mapping Division (Formerly Survey Department); and
• Public and Vested Lands Management Division (Formerly Lands
Commission) (Common wealth of nations, 2012).

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The Land Commission governs land acquisitions, as will be required for the
Project.

2.2.11 Ministry of Transport

The Ministry of Transport was created to oversee infrastructural development


and service delivery predominantly for the maritime and rail transporation
subsectors and to complement the other modes of transport in the country. As
mentioned above, the Ghana Maritime Authority (GMA) and the Ghana Ports
and Habour Authority (GPHA) all fall under the National Ministry of
Transport (refer to Section 2.2.2).

In addition to this, two authorities relating to road and vehicle usage have
been established under the Ministry of Transport, the Road Safety
Commission and the Driver and Vehicle Licencing Authority. The Road
Safety Commission aims to develop and implement interventions to ensure
the sustainable management of road safety in Ghana. In line with this
mandate, the Road Safety Commission have developed the Road Safety
Strategy III 2011-2020, a strategic framework which aims to address and
reduce the increasing trend in road traffic related fatalities and injuries.

With assistance from the GMA and GPHA, the ministry aims to ensure the
provision of an efficient, safe, economic and reliable movement of goods and
people using the rail and maritime systems and ensure the rail, inland
waterways, ports and harbours contribute significantly to the socio-economic
development of the country.

The roads and transportation infrastructure related to the Project will need
authorised and approved by the Ministry of Transport. All construction and
operation of these roads will have to be carried out in accordance with the
above mentioned Road Safety Strategy III 2011-2020.

A copy of the Memorandum of Understanding (2011) that exists between


Lonrho and the Ministry of Transport in relation to the proposed Project is
provided in Annex M.

2.2.12 Civil Aviation Authority

The main objective of the Civil Aviation Authority is to provide safe, secure
and effective aviation regulations and air navigation services. This authority
issues licences and certification for airports and airstrips and provides training
and technical support for the Ghanaian aviation industry.

The airstrip on the Project site (as well as associated aircraft and helicopters)
will need to be authorised by the Civil Aviation Authority and therefore must
comply with the associated regulations.

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2.2.13 Western Region Administration

The local government system, as defined under the Local Government Act 462
of 1993, is made up of the Regional Coordinating Council (RCC), four-tier
Metropolitan and three-tier Municipal/District Assemblies with
Urban/Town/Area/Zonal Councils Unit Committees. The RCC is the head
of the local government system and is the highest decision-making body.
There are ten RCCs corresponding to ten Regions within Ghana. The RCC is
made up of the following:

regional minister as chairman, and his deputies;


presiding member of each district assembly;
district Chief Executive of each district in the region;
two chiefs from the Regional House of Chiefs;
regional coordinating director (secretary to the RCC and the head of the
civil administration of the region); and
regional heads of decentralised ministries.

The RCCs under Act 462 are non-executive bodies responsible for monitoring,
coordinating and evaluating the performance of the district assemblies and
any agency of the central government, rather than a political and policy-
making body.

The Western region Administration is the regional administrative body in the


province associated with the Project and will have decision-making powers in
terms of infrastructure development and planning.

2.2.14 Ellembelle District

The Western Region has 19 parliamentarians at the National Assembly


representing the people of the district and each of the district assemblies
within the region. The Project site falls within the Ellembelle District, which
comprises one constituency with seven area councils and 31 electoral areas.
The district capital is Nkroful. These area council authorities complement the
functions of the district assemblies. The Project site falls within the Atuabo
Area Council.

Until 2007, the Ellembelle District Assembly (EDA) was part of the Nzema
East District. In December 2007, the EDA was created by Legal Instrument
1918, and was inaugurated in February 2008. Strategic development planning
for the District is in its early phase, including planning related to the
emergence of the oil and gas industry and related industrial activities.

2.3 RELEVANT DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND PLANS

The following is a summary of known policy and project development plans


with relevance to the Project.

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2.3.1 Relevant National Policies

The National Environmental Policy (NEP)

The Ghanaian Government has been working towards a comprehensive


environmental strategy since 1988. The National Environmental Policy (NEP)
was adopted in 1991 with the aim to improve the living conditions and the
quality of life of all Ghanaian citizens while seeking to ensure increasing
economic and social development and conserving natural resources and
ensuring a high environmental quality. In particular, the NEP specifically
seeks to:

maintain ecosystems and ecological processes essential for the functioning


of the biosphere;

ensure sound management of natural resources and the environment;

adequately protect humans, plants and animals, their biological


communities and habitats against harmful impacts and destructive
practice, and preserve biological diversity;

guide development in accordance with quality requirements to prevent,


reduce and as far as possible, eliminate pollution and nuisances; and

integrate environmental considerations in sectoral, structural and socio-


economic planning at the national, regional district and “grassroots”
levels.

The Government of Ghana has undertaken to apply the precautionary


principals to environmental issues and has committed itself to the following
actions:

commit to environmentally sound use of both renewable and non-


renewable resources in the process of national development;

develop procedures for the utilisation of land resources in a manner that


will ensure the maximum efficiency and avoid conflict;

take appropriate measures to protect critical ecosystems, including the


flora and fauna; and

promote and support research programmes aimed at better understanding


of the different ecozones, health-related environmental problems and
appropriate technologies for environmentally sound management
(including renewable energy resources).

The NEP provided a framework for the implementation of the National


Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) as well as a number of other policies
relating to conservation and environmental management. The NEAP is a

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comprehensive document based on the extensive review of large sectors of the
country’s economy including land management, forestry and wildlife, water
management, marine and coastal ecosystems, mining, manufacturing
industries, hazardous chemicals, and human settlements. This plan is based
on the managing the environment in a sustainable manner and calls for the
establishment of monitoring and reporting programmes on the local, regional
and national level. The NEAP also makes mention of the need for Ghana to
participate and collaborate internationally in international environmental
conservation efforts.

Strategic National Energy Plan (SNEP) (2006 to 2020)

The Ghanian Energy Commission has developed a Strategic National Energy


Plan (SNEP) (July, 2006) to plan to meet the future demands for energy in
Ghana (from 2006 to 2020) in a sustainable manner. The direct objective of
SNEP is to contribute to the overall development of an energy market which
provides sufficient, viable and efficient energy services for Ghana. The
implementation of SNEP is considered important to contribute to Ghana’s
long-term development plans (ie Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy) and the
transformation its low-income developing country status into an upper
middle-income one by 2020. The plan sets out ten key objectives for
implementation within the energy sector, namely to:

1) “Stimulate economic development by ensuring that energy plays a catalytic role


in Ghana’s economic development.
2) Consolidate, improve and expand existing energy infrastructure.
3) Increase access to modern energy services for poverty reduction in off-grid rural
areas.
4) Secure and increase future energy security by diversifying sources of energy
supply.
5) Accelerate the development and utilization of renewable energy and energy
efficiency technologies.
6) Enhance private sector participation in energy infrastructure development and
service delivery.
7) Minimise environmental impact of energy production, supply and utilisation.
8) Strengthen institutional and human resource capacity and R&D in energy
development.
9) Improve governance of energy sector.
10) Sustain and improve commitment to energy integration as part of economic
integration of West Africa”.

In line with Objective 2, this Project provides supporting infrastructure and


facilities to service Ghana’s oil and gas industry’s operations.

Local Content Policy

The Ghanaian “Policy on Local Content and Local Participation in the


Petroleum Industry” was announced by the Minister of Energy during March
2012. The primary objective of the policy is to ensure a minimum percentage
of the monetary value of goods and services is sourced from Ghana and the

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minimum level of Ghanaian equity ownership within the industry. The policy
is intended to assist with the sustainable development of the oil and gas
industry in Ghana and help to avoid social and political instabilities, by
promoting and requiring involvement of Ghanaian citizens, goods and
services.

The policy requires that local content and participation should be embedded
into the planning and development phases of every oil and gas-related Project.
The policy requires that a minimum of 90 percent of supplies and services
should be sourced within Ghana within ten years of the commencement of a
Project. These minimum local content requirements increase from 10 percent
at the commencement of the Project, to 20 percent in the second year and a
further 10 percent each year thereafter until the targeted 90 percent is reached.

In addition, the policy provides that priority should be given to Ghanaian


citizens for the ownership of concession areas such that local participation by
the Ghanaian private sector should be at least 5 percent in petroleum licenses,
permits and contract operators and at least 10 percent for providers of
supplies and services.

The policy also outlines that the submission of a detailed annual recruitment
and training programme for recruiting and training Ghanaians within 12
months of receiving a grant or license. The staffing requirements of the policy
are as follows:

management staff: at least 50 percent Ghanaian from start of Project


activities, increasing to a target of 80 percent in the first five years.

core technical staff: 30 percent at commencement increasing to 80 percent


in five years and further to 90 percent in ten years.

other staff: a target of 100 percent Ghanaians.

As part of Lonrho’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies the Project


will strive to meet the Government of Ghana’s targets in respect of local
content. This will be reflected in terms of contracting and employment.

National Wetlands Conservation Strategy

The National Wetlands Conservation Strategy, implemented in 1999 by the


Ministry of Lands and Forestry, provides the formalised guidelines,
recommendations and frameworks necessary to ensure the conservation of
Ghana’s wetlands and their associated ecosystem goods and services. The
Government of Ghana has recognised the importance of wetlands in
maintaining the water table, mitigating floods as well as in the process of
water purification. In order to conserve these functions this strategy seeks to
discourage:

the physical draining of wetland water;

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draining of streams and water courses feeding the wetlands;
human settlements and their related infrastructural developments in
wetlands;
disposal of solid waste and effluents in wetlands; and
mining in wetlands.

The policy also seeks to promote the use of wetlands for farming, grazing,
fishing, timber production and salt-winning, provided that such uses also
serve to conserve the ecosystem, biodiversity and sustainable productivity of
the wetlands.

The strategy identifies the major threats to wetland systems as water loss
through drainage, salt water intrusion in coastal areas (as a result of drainage
or excessive use of the water resources) and pollution through discharge of
contaminated effluent, including sewage.

Through this strategy, Ghana has initiated a number of conservation projects


to conserve and restore wetlands and is part of the RAMSAR convention
which recognises environmentally important wetlands throughout the world.
The wetlands conservation strategy aims to achieve the following five
objectives:

promote the participation of local communities, traditional authorities,


and other stakeholders in sound management and sustainable utilisation
of Ghana’s wetland resources;;

maintain the ecological, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values of


wetlands;

ensure that national policies, local knowledge, regulations and activities


contribute to the sound management of Ghana’s wetland resources;;

ensure that capacity-building and appropriate legal and institutional


frameworks are in place for effective wetland conservation; and

create awareness on the importance of wetlands and encourage a


commitment from the people of Ghana to conservation and wise use of
wetlands.

The term ‘wetland’ refers to a “wide range of habitats that share common features,
the most important of which is continuous, seasonal or periodic standing water or
saturated soils” (National Wetlands Conservation Strategy, 1999). In addition
to the Amansuri Wetland areas (classified as freshwater swamp forests)
located approximately 3 km to the northwest of the site, the baseline studies
indicate seasonal inundation of areas within the Project site. These low-lying
areas will be cleared and possibly elevated as part of the construction phase of
the Project.

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The Project design and operation will therefore need to minimise the removal
of seasonally inundated areas on the Project site as well as possible
disturbance to neighbouring wetland areas.

2.3.2 The Coordinated Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies,


2010 – 2016

In 2011, Ghana’s Parliament adopted a report by the Committee on Poverty


Reduction Strategy entitled The Coordinated Programme of Economic and
Social Development Policies for 2010-2016. The strategy was dubbed “Agenda
for Shared Growth and Accelerated Development for a Better Ghana (2010 – 2016)”
(hereafter called “Agenda”) and was designed to address historical economic
and social challenges that are seen to have hampered national development.
The Agenda is driven by a medium-term vision of shared growth through
accelerated job creation, integrated industrial development and agricultural
modernisation, via policy measures that the government plans to pursue in
order to “transform the economy from its over-dependence on primary raw materials
to a diversified and prosperous 21st Century nation” (President Atta Mills, State of
the Nation Address, 2010).

The Agenda stipulates that in the medium term, government’s policy choices
should be designed to ensure an annual minimum average real Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 8.0 percent to guarantee the
attainment of a per capita income of at least 3,000 USD by the year 2020. In
the long-term, the vision is to deliver an industrial economy with sustainable
quality jobs.

This “strategic blueprint” document is set to drive sectoral and district


programmes and strategic initiatives including:

agricultural modernisation;
infrastructure development;
integrated industrialization funded through innovative financing
combining public and private sector resources;
infrastructural expansion and modernisation;
human development (including a commitment to gender equity);
private sector development;
transparent and accountable governance; and
bilateral state-to-state arrangements.

To achieve this Agenda the Government of Ghana (GoG) has identified priority
areas for intervention (Box 2.1).

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Box 2.1 “Better Ghana Agenda” priority interventions

• Economic Development
• Social Development
• Science, Technology and Innovation
• Infrastructural Development
• Special Development Zones
• Natural Resource Management and Environmental Governance
• Transparent and Accountable Governance

As a country, Ghana has political stability, a stable macro-economic


environment and an abundance of natural resource endowments. The GoG,
in further exploring the country’s various strengths, has recognised the
discovery of oil and gas and its associated activities as a major development
opportunity that has introduced a potential paradigm shift for the nation’s
development prospects, policy dynamics and potential risks. As the world
economy hinges on oil and gas, the GoG has asserted that all policy decision-
making at all levels should be designed to take advantage of this strategic
resource. The international community’s interest in Ghana as a result of this
discovery could bring in significant investment and catalyse the anticipated
industrial development and increased employment opportunities, with
concomitant spin-offs.

The Agenda as a national policy document thus recognises that all


programmes and initiatives should be developed in a strategic manner in light
of planned exploitation of the newly discovered oil and gas and other natural
resource endowments. It is this position that has driven the World Bank to
reclassify Ghana from a low-income status country to lower middle-income
status.

2.3.3 Land Commission Guidelines for Considering Large-Scale Land Transactions


for Agricultural and other Purposes

In February 2012 the Land Commission released a policy document aimed at


providing guidelines when faced with acquisitions of tracts of land larger than
50 acres (20.2 hectares). The Commission points out that most land in Ghana
is owned by traditional leaders (from chiefs to family heads) who generally
have not had experience in managing such large transactions. In addition, the
Commission highlights that most of the land users in rural areas (where the
majority of large scale land acquisitions are occurring in Ghana) are
smallholder farmers without registered title deeds or interests on those lands.
Most of these farmers only have rights to use the land and are thus vulnerable
to negotiations undertaken by a higher interest holder (like a chief or family
head) over the release of the land.

The Policy outlines processes that should be followed during such


transactions and emphasises the participation of all stakeholders in the
process to ensure first-hand access to information on all aspects of the

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acquisition and the ability to express concerns. Furthermore, it emphasises
the need for the full range of participants to find solutions to address those
concerns (Land Commission Policy Document, February 2012).

2.3.4 Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF)

This draft framework was developed in 2011 by the Ministry of Finance and
Economic Planning as part of the Government of Ghana’s Public-Private
Partnership (PPP) programme. This programme was established in an
attempt to increase investment in public service delivery and infrastructure in
support of the country’s growing development needs. The developments and
projects proposed by the PPP are likely to involve land acquisition and
resettlement impacts which are addressed by the RPF.

The RPF has been developed in line with the Performance Standards’ and as
part of a World Bank funding application for support of the PPP programme.
The RPF guidelines and requirements must be adhered to during the
planning, construction and operation of any PPP project.

This Project will be developed and operated by Lonrho, with the Government
of Ghana as a shareholder in the Project. As such, the Project can be
considered as PPP, and these guidelines will be taken into consideration in the
planning and implementation of the resettlement aspects related to land
acquisition.

2.3.5 Western Region Spatial Development Framework (WRSDF)

The preparation of the Western Regional Spatial Development Framework


(WRSDF) is a project funded by NORAD under its “Oil for Development
Programme Agreement” together with the Government of Ghana. The
WRSDF is a spatial plan and platform for the integration of social, economic
and environmental policies and plans for the region and is currently in a draft
form. The key focus areas of the WRSSDF are settlements, economic
development, infrastructure and the environmental protection.

Settlements

The WRSDF has identified that the Western Region has an uneven population
distribution with the majority of high grade settlements (Grade 1:
metropolitan cities, Grade 2: regional capitals) within the coastal districts. In
order to balance the distribution, the WRSDF proposes to enhance the capacity
of market towns (Grade 3) in the western and northern districts (by linking
them to district capitals) which would then provide increased access to the
neighbouring smaller Grade 4 and 5 settlements.

Economic Development

The WRSDF lays out planning provisions for economic development and
divides the regional economy into four key sectors: agriculture, mining/

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quarrying, oil and gas development and tourism and lays out the following
priorities for the region:

Agriculture: the WRSDF highlights the importance of understanding food


production potential, storage, processing and exporting and maximising
land use by increasing the yields of industrial crops (eg cocoa). The
document recognises the importance of protecting forest reserves for
future timber crops and biodiversity.

Mining: The WRSDF proposes the delineation of all mineralised areas,


marking areas for future mining concessions over approximately 20 years
and to avoid resettlement.

Oil and gas: In order for the oil and gas sector to become a key
employment and business opportunity for Ghanaians, the WRSDF
recommends the establishment of training and business facilities in
growth nodes throughout the Western Region and that oil and gas
activities be confined within two specified zones.

Tourism: For tourism development, the document recommends support of


top-end tourism and the protection of high biodiversity, cultural and
conservation sites.

Infrastructural Development

The WRSDF recommends an Integrated Transport Policy for the Western


Region compliant with the National Plan and including road, rail, port and
harbours and airports. The energy supply of the region is expected to be
boosted by the developing oil and gas exploration and future production
although a high level of investment is required to develop water resources to
meet expected future requirements.

Environmental Protection

The WRSDF includes implementation measures for environmental protection,


including measures against illegal logging and delineation and protection of
remaining pockets of high biodiversity such as primary forests and wetland
areas. The WRSDF identifies the need for better monitoring of land
rehabilitation following gold mining operations and improvements in
measuring and monitoring pollution sources. The report determines that
future developments be constructed outside the 100 year flood line of rivers
and 1 m above the 100 year rise in sea level.

Of significance to the Study Area is the WRSDF’s recognition of the discovery


of oil and gas as a key driver of development in the region. This is seen in the
following plans for onshore oil and gas developments including:

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the Western Corridor gas infrastructure project (comprising the
construction of a gas processing plant at Atuabo and onshore trunk
pipelines);

an oil refinery and a large scale facility that would store Liquefied
Petroleum Gas and other petroleum products at Pumpuni (Ahanta West);

gas powered electricity generation at Domini Lagoon/ Bonyere (Jomoro),


Aboadze (Shama) and Prestea (Prestea Huni Valley); and

a specialist oil and gas harbour with associated supply facilities at Atuabo
(Ellembelle) (namely this proposed Project).

As mentioned above, a key objective driving this Regional sector and which
will apply to this Project, is the recognition that maximising employment
opportunities requires long term strategic plans for training as well as wide
access to business procurement in institutional, structural and future land use
and infrastructure terms.

As above, the Project has been highlighted as a key project for the
development of the oil and gas sector within the Western Region. Although
the WRSDF is still in a draft form, the Project will take cognizance of the other
plans within the WRSDF in the development and design of the Project.

2.3.6 Ellembelle District Assembly Medium-Term Development Plan 2010-2013

The Ellembelle District Assembly (EDA) was carved out of the then Nzema
East District and was created in December 2007 by Legal Instrument 1918.
The District was inaugurated in February 2008. The creation of the District
came at a time when the implementation of the four year Development Plan
(2006 – 2009) prepared under the Growth and Poverty Reductions Strategy
(GPRII) was being implemented, thus after its birth the District adopted the
relevant strategies enshrined in the Nzema East District Assembly Medium
Term Development Plan 2006-2009 (DMTDP). Although the EDA attempted
to implement these programmes and projects, it was confronted with
significant challenges and constraints relating to the inadequate and untimely
release of government and donor funds, limited human resources, inadequate
data for planning purposes and the high cost of goods and services. As a
result, the District Assembly in consultation with its stakeholders
subsequently re-aligned District strategies within the context of the Agenda
2010-2013, and formulated the Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP) 2010
– 2013.

The overarching goal of the Ellembelle District through the MTDP is to:

“coordinate social services and environmental sustainability, improve


security and develop accessibility to production areas and strengthen
local institution for equitable growth and sustainable
development” (Ellembelle MTDP, 2010).

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The MTDP strives to harness both internal and external resources to
implement programmes and projects that are in line with the national Agenda,
referred to above.

Box 2.2 Ellembelle Supplementary Programme and Policy Areas

The Ellembelle District MTDP supplements the national “Better Ghana Agenda” through
policies and programmes under the following priorities and thematic areas:
Ensuring and sustaining of Macroeconomic Stability
Accelerated Agricultural Modernization and Sustainable Natural Resource Management
Oil and Gas Development
Infrastructure, Energy and Human Settlements
Enhancing Competitiveness in Ghana’s private Sector
Transparent and Accountable Governance
Human Development, Productivity and Employment

As highlighted in Box 2.2, in addition to the national Agenda, and the Regional
WRSDF, the Ellembelle MTDP also takes into account and prioritises oil and
gas-related development, through a variety of associated thematic areas.
Thus, the current Project is likely to profit from a focus in the Project area on
improved infrastructure as well as concerted administrative efforts to create a
socially and physically enabling environment. When designing the Project
and planning for impact mitigation and the maximisation of opportunities,
Lonrho would benefit by engaging with these national, regional and district
development policy documents – particularly when identifying non-core
activities, like corporate social responsibility (CSR) projects that could partner
with broader regional and district programmes to ensure sustainability
beyond the life of the Project.

2.4 GHANAIAN LAWS AND REGULATIONS

2.4.1 The Ghanaian Constitution

The Constitution of Ghana (Article 41(k) in Chapter 6) requires that all citizens
(employees and employers) protect and safeguard the natural environment of
the Republic of Ghana and its territorial waters. In response to this,
Parliament promulgated the Environmental Protection Agency Act 1994
which establishes the EPA who is responsible for enforcement of
environmental laws.

The right to information is guaranteed by the Constitution under Article 21(1)


(f) such that ‘All persons shall have the right to information subject to such
qualifications and laws as are necessary in a democratic society.’ This principle is
shown also in the stakeholder consultation requirements within the ESIA
process.

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2.4.2 Ghana Environmental Legislation

In consideration of national environmental legislative requirements, the


following issues form some of the important environmental aspects of the
Project:

fisheries and access for fishing;


biodiversity and habitat disturbance;
coastal processes and geomorphology;
effluent and waste management and disposal;
seabed infrastructure development and dredging; and
noise emissions impacting local communities

Table 2.1 presents a summary of the most relevant and significant national
legislation that may apply to the Project, which are summarised in further
detail below.

Table 2.1 List of Relevant National Environmental Legislation

Applicable Legislative Instrument Issue


Environmental Protection Agency Act, 1994 (Act 490) Environmental Protection
Environmental Assessment Regulations, 1999 (LI 1652) EIA requirements and process
Environmental Assessment (Amendment) Regulations
Wild Animals Preservation Act, Act 235 1964 Biodiversity
Wildlife Conservation Regulations 1971 (LI 685), Biodiversity
Wild Reserves Regulations 1971 (LI 740) Biodiversity
Wetland Management (RAMSAR sites) Regulation, 1999 Biodiversity
Water Resources Commission Act (Act 522 of 1996) Water Resources
Water and Sewerage Corporation Act (Act 310 of 1965). Water Resources
Oil in Navigable Waters Act (Act 235 of 1964) Pollution Control
Maritime Zones (Delimitation) Law 1986 (PNDCL 159) Seabed Infrastructure
Development
Beaches Obstructions Ordinance, 1987 (CAP. 240) Beaches and coastal areas
Ghana Building Regulations (LI 1630) Development of physical
structures
Ghana National Petroleum Corporation Act (Act 64 of 1983) Petroleum activities
Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Law (Act 84 of 1984) Petroleum activities
National Petroleum Authority Act (Act 691 of 2005) Petroleum activities, including
the regulation of transport of
petroleum products
Ghana Civil Aviation Authority (aerodrome) regulations Aerodromes
2011 (LI 2004)
Ghana Maritime Authority Act (Act 630 of 2002) Maritime law
Petroleum Commission Act (Act 821 of 2011) Petroleum activities
Shipping Act (Act 645 of 2003) Maritime law
Ghana Highways Authority (Act 540 of 1997) Transport activities
Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules, 1974 (LI 971) Hazardous materials, maritime
law

The Environmental Protection Act

The Environmental Protection Agency Act (Act 490 of 1994) establishes the
authority, responsibility, structure and funding of the EPA. Part I of the Act

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mandates the EPA with the formulation of environmental policy, issuing of
environmental permits and pollution abatement notices and prescribing
standards and guidelines. The Act defines the requirement for and
responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Inspectors and empowers the
EPA to request that an ESIA process be undertaken. The Act establishes and
mandates the EPA to seek and request information on any undertaking that in
the opinion of the Agency can have adverse environmental effects and to
instruct the proponent to take necessary measures to prevent the adverse
impacts.

Environmental Assessment Regulations

The ESIA process is legislated through the Environmental Assessment


Regulations (LI1 652, 1999) as amended (2002), the principal enactment within
the Environmental Protection Act (Act 490 of 1994). The ESIA Regulations
require that all activities likely to have an adverse effect on the environment
must be subject to environmental assessment and issuance of a permit before
commencement of the activity. The ESIA Regulations set out the requirements
for the following:

• Preliminary Environmental Assessments (PEAs);


• Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs);
• Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (also termed the ESIA Report);
• Environmental Management Plans (EMPs);
• Environmental Certificates; and
• Environmental Permitting.

Schedules 1 and 2 of the Regulations provide lists of activities for which an


environmental permit is required and ESIA is mandatory, respectively. Those
Activities for which an environmental assessment is mandatory include:

agricultural (including fishing) and related services;


all forms of mining;
manufacturing;
construction;
communication and other utilities; and
power generation and transmission.

The Environmental Assessment Regulations, 1999 (LI 1652), as amended in


2002 establishes the requirements for environmental assessment in Ghana.
The Act requires that an environmental permit be issued prior to starting any
undertaking listed in Schedule 1 to the Act. Section 3 then states that no
environmental permit shall be issued for undertakings listed in Schedule 2
unless an EIA, in terms of these regulations, has been submitted to the agency.

The regulations require that an application for an environmental permit be


submitted to the Agency. The Agency will then screen this application and
compile a report stating whether the application has been approved, is
objected to, requires submission of a preliminary environmental report or

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requires the submission of an environmental impact statement. This decision
will be communicated to the applicant within 25 days from the date of receipt
of the permit application.

Sections 11, 13(1), 15(1), 16(3), 17(2, 3), 18 and 19 of the Regulations also
provide specific requirements for stakeholder engagement within the ESIA
process. This includes the requirements for engagement with relevant
Ministries, government departments and organisations and Metropolitan,
Municipal or District Assembly, distribution of ESIA documentation
(including the Scoping Report and EIS). The regulations also outline the
discretionary responsibilities of the EPA for stakeholder engagement within
the ESIA process, including disclosure of the EIS through notification and
public meetings.

In terms of the Environmental Impact Assessment regulations (1999), this


Project requires a full EIA process to obtain the environmental permit. The
ESIA process followed by Lonrho has been undertaken in accordance with the
national EIA regulations and guidelines.

Environmental Guidelines

The EPA has issued formal guidance on regulatory requirements and the ESIA
process. The following document is relevant to the ESIA process and the
Project: Environmental Assessment in Ghana, a Guide to Environmental Impact
Assessment Procedures (EPA, 1996). This is an EPA guidance document which
outlines procedures to be adhered to during the EIA process.

Included in the EPA’s EIA guidance document are a number of supporting


standards. Those that are considered applicable to the Project are presented
below. The design and operation of the Project will need to comply with these
limits.

Air Quality
The Ambient Air Quality Guidelines as described in the EPA’s EIA guideline
document are provided in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 Ambient Air Quality Guidelines

Substance Time Weighted Average (TWA) Averaging Time


Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 900 μg/m3 Industrial 1 hour
700 μg/m3 Residential 1 hour
150 μg/m3 Industrial 24 hours
100 μg/m3 Residential 24 hours
80 μg/m3 Industrial 1 year
50 μg/m3 Residential 1 year
Nitrogen Oxides 400 μg/m3 Industrial 1 hour
(Measured as N02) 200 μg/m3 Residential 1 hour
150 μg/m3 Industrial 24 hours
60 μg/m3 Residential 24 hours

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Substance Time Weighted Average (TWA) Averaging Time
Total Suspended 230 μg/m3 Industrial 24 hours
Particulate 150 μg/m3 Residential 24 hours
75 μg/m3 Industrial 1 year
60 μg/m3 Residential 1 year
PM10 70 μg/m 3 24 hours
Smoke 150 μg/m3 Industrial 24 hours
100 μg/m3 Residential 24 hours
50 μg/m3 Industrial 1 hour
30 mg/m3 Residential 1 hour
Carbon Monoxide 100 mg/m3 15 min
60 mg/m3 30 min
30 mg/m3 1 hour
10 mg/m3 8 hours
Hydrogen Sulphide 150 μg/m3 24 hours
Mercury 1 μg/m3 1 year
Lead 2.5 μg/m3 1 year
Cadmium 10 - 20 ng/m3 1 year
Manganese 1 μg/m3 24 hours
Dichloromethane 3 mg/m3 24 hours
(Methylene Chloride)
1,2-Dichloroethane 0.7 mg/m3 24 hours
Trichloroethane 1 mg/m3 24 hours
Tetrachloroethene 5 mg/m3 24 hours

Sector Specific Effluent Discharge Guidelines


These are provided for a number of different industries, although those
applicable to project activities include the Food and Beverages Industry and
the Hospitals and Clinics Industry. The specific effluent limits are laid out in
Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 Sector-specific effluent quality guidelines for discharges into natural water
bodies (maximum permissible levels) as stipulated by the EPA

Parameter Sectors
Food and Beverages Hospitals and Clinics
pH 6-9 6-9
Oil and Grease 5 5
Temperature Increase < 3 °C above ambient < 3 °C above ambient
Colour (TCU) 200 150
COD (mg/l) 250 250
BOD3 (mg/l) 50 50
Total dissolved Solids 1000 1000
(mg/l)
Cadium (mg/l)
Chromium (+6) mg/l 0.1
Sulphide (mg/l) 1.5 1.5
Phenol (mg/l) 2 2
Total Coliforms 400 400
(MPN/100 ml)
E.Coli (MPN/100 ml) 10 10
Turbidity (N.T.U) 75 75
Total suspended solids 50
(mg/l)
Lead (mg/l) 0.1 0.1

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Parameter Sectors
Food and Beverages Hospitals and Clinics
Nitrate (mg/l) 50 50
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 2 2.0
Conductivity (µS/cm) 1500 1500
Mercury (mg/l) 0.005 0.005
Ammonia as N (mg/l) 1.0
Zinc (mg/l)
Total Pesticides (mg/l) 0.5
Total Arsenic (mg/l) 1.0
Soluble Arsenic (mg/l) 0.1
Alkalinity as CaCO3 150
(mg/l)
Fluoride (mg/l) 10
Chloride (mg/l) 250
Total Chromium (mg/l)
Total Iron (mg/l)
Copper (mg/l)

All effluent generated by Project related activities (including the planned


hospital and catering facilities) will need to comply with the Ghanaian effluent
limits and/ or World Bank EHS Guidelines (described further in Section 2.6.3
below), whichever are more stringent.

Ambient noise level guidelines


The maximum permissible noise levels during day and night time hours are
presented in Table 2.4.

Table 2.4 Ambient Noise Level Standards in Ghana

Zone Description of Noise Receptor Permissible Noise Level in dB (A)

Day Night
06:00 – 22:00 22:00 – 06:00
A Residential areas with negligible or 55 48
infrequent transportation
B1 Educational (school) and health (hospital 55 50
clinic)
Facilities
B2 Area with some commercial or light 60 55
industry
C1 Area with some light industry, place of 65 60
entertainment or public assembly and place
of worship such as churches and mosques
C2 Predominantly commercial areas 75 65
D Light industrial areas 70 60
E Predominantly heavy industrial areas 70 70

The Project will need to take these ambient noise level standards into account
for the planning of construction and operation phase activities to ensure that
these are not exceeded.

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Biodiversity

The pieces of legislation which regulate biodiversity in Ghana are the Wild
Animals Preservation Act, Act 235 1964, Wildlife Conservation Regulations 1971
(LI685), the Wild Reserves Regulations 1971 (LI 740).

The Wild Animals Preservation Act, Act 235 1964 provides for various matters
relating to the protection of wildlife in Ghana including the appointment of
game officers, collection of specimens for scientific purposes and hunting and
the identification of wholly or partially protected faunal species. The Wildlife
Conservation Regulations 1971 (LI685), as amended, provide further regulations
for hunting, commercialisation of animals and various other provisions for the
conservation and protection of faunal species in Ghana.

The Wild Reserves Regulations 1971 (LI 740) allow for the designation and
proclamation of protected areas, in various categories. The regulations
prohibit certain activities (eg hunting, removal of faunal or floral species)
allowed within the various reserves without a permit. The regulations forbid
the pollution of water resources and littering within a protected area.

Project activities will need to take into account the requirements with respect
to the preservation of faunal species and minimising pollution of the
environment set out in the above legislation.

Water Resources

Water resources in Ghana are government by two pieces of legislation, namely


the Water Resources Commission Act (Act 522 of 1996) and the Water and
Sewerage Corporation Act (Act 310 of 1965).

The Water Resources Commission Act (Act 52 of 1996) establishes a commission


to regulate and manage the water resources of the Republic of Ghana. The
commission is tasked with establishing comprehensive plans for the use,
conservation, protection, development and improvement of Ghana’s water
resources and is able to grant water rights for the exploitation of water
resources. Water rights must be obtained for the use of water resources, on
application from the Commission. The Act specifies the requirements and
process for the application and transfer of water rights.

Section 14(e) of the Water and Sewerage Corporation Act (Act 310 of 1965)
establishes a body mandated with:

‘(a) the provision, distribution and conservation of the supply of water in


Ghana for public, domestic and industrial purposes; and
(b) the establishment, operation and control of the sewerage systems for
such purposes.’

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In addition, the Water and Sewerage Corporation is authorised to formulate
regulations regarding the prevention of water pollution.

The Project will need to ensure that any associated water use as well as
effluent and sewage released into the environment complies with the
requirements under these Acts.

Pollution Control

There is currently no single integrated pollution legislation in Ghana.


Pollution control exists as part of the environmental and water resource
legislation and marine pollution is dealt with by the Oil in Navigable Waters Act
(Act 235 of 1964) (see below). The Act makes the discharge of any oil or
mixture containing oil from any vessel or from land, an offence.

The EPA is also entitled to issue pollution abatement notices under section 2(f)
of the Environmental Protection Act (Act 490 of 1994) for:

“controlling the volume, types, constituents and effects of waste


discharges, emissions, deposits or other sources of pollutants and of
substances which are hazardous or potentially dangerous to the quality if
the environment or any segment of the environment…”

Furthermore, Section 2(h) of the same act permits the EPA to prescribe
standards and guidelines relating to air, water, land and other forms of
environmental pollution.

The operations of the port, including effluent management, ships wastes and
disposal of dredged materials will need to comply with these guidelines and
legislation regarding discharges to the environment.

Coastal and Marine Areas

Ghana subscribes to a number of international conservation programmes,


however, Ghana has at present no nationally legislated coastal or marine
protected areas and there are no international protection programmes
specifically covering the Project area. The Wetland Management (RAMSAR
Sites) Regulations 1999 are made under the Wild Animals Preservation Act 1961
(Act 43) and provide for the establishment of RAMSAR sites within Ghana.
There are five designated RAMSAR wetland sites along the coast of Ghana
including: Keta Lagoon Complex, Densu Wetland, Muni-Pomadze, Sakumo
and Songor. There is a sixth RAMSAR site (Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary)
situated inland. These are located within the Volta, Greater Accra and Central
regions and do not lie close to the Project site.

Ghana also has two UN Biosphere Reserves (Bia and Songor) and two World
Heritage Convention sites. The World Heritage Convention sites include the
Asante Traditional Buildings, located near Kumasi, as well as Forts and

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Castles, most of which are located along the coast in the Central and Western
Regions (UNESCO, 2009).

The Beaches Obstructions Ordinance, 1897 (CAP. 240) details the permissions
and authorisations required prior to the removal of sand from the beach and
coastal areas as well as digging of channels etc. The legislation also details
repercussions for any activities or persons causing obstructions for navigation.

Ghana Maritime Authority Act establishes the Ghana Maritime Authority


(GMA) as responsible for the regulation and coordination of activities in the
maritime industry and for the implementation of the provisions of enactments
on shipping. The act requires that the GMA advise on policies for the
development and maintenance of maritime infrastructure such as ports and
harbours in the country and regulate the activities of shipping agents, freight
forwarders and similar shipping service providers.

The Shipping Act (Act 645 of 2003) regulates trade in Ghanaian waters and
stipulates the grounds on which trade is permissible. The Act includes details
such as how a party may qualify for the ownership of Ghanaian ships,
registration as well as the importation of foreign vessels. The Merchant
Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules, 1974 (LI 971) provide requirements for
the management and handling of dangerous goods.

The Project will need to conform to the above-mentioned legislation in terms


of all activities carried out in along beaches and coastal area, including
permissions for the marine and beach works

Protected Areas and Species

The following is a summary of the status of protected areas in Ghana,


including those identified as environmentally sensitive areas, terrestrial
protected areas, coastal and marine protected areas and protected species.

Nationally Recognised Sensitive Areas


In terms of LI 1652 (the EIA regulations), the following are recognised as
environmentally sensitive areas:

All areas declared by law as national parks, watershed reserves, wildlife


reserves and sanctuaries including sacred groves;

Areas with potential tourism value;

Areas which constitute the habitat of any endangered or threatened


species of indigenous wildlife (flora and fauna);

Areas of unique historic, archaeological or scientific interests;

Areas which are traditionally occupied by cultural communities;

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Areas prone to natural disasters (such as geological hazards, floods,
rainstorms, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity);

Areas prone to bushfires;

Areas classified as prime agricultural lands;

Recharge areas of aquifers; and

Water bodies characterised by one or any combination of water tapped for


domestic purposes, water within the controlled and/or protected areas
and water which support wildlife and fishery activities.

This Project would therefore be considered an environmentally sensitive area


in terms of LI 1652. As such, the EIA process aims to understand existing
conditions on the Project site, the sensitivity of the receptors to Project-
induced changes and assess the significance of the impact of the Project on the
receptors. The results of the sensitivity analysis and impact assessment are
presented in Chapter 6.

Terrestrial Protected Areas


In Ghana, the protected areas are administered through the Department of
Game and Wildlife, Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources. There are three
types of protected areas, namely national parks, game production reserves,
strict nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries.

Ghana has 18 wildlife protected areas that include seven national parks (Bia,
Bui, Digya, Kakum, Kyabobo Range, Mole and Nini-Suhien), six resources
reserves, four wildlife sanctuaries and five coastal Ramsar sites.

Two of these protected areas are situated within the Western Region, namely
the Ankasa resource reserve and Bia National Park, also designated as a
UNESCO Biosphere reserve. The Ankasa reserve is located approximately 20
km to the north of the Project site and as such is not expected to be directly
impacted by the development of the Project (Chapter 6).

Coastal and Marine Protected Areas


The most widely used definition of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) is the one
of IUCN:

“Any area of intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying


waters and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, that
has been reserved by legislation or other effective means to protect part or
all of the enclosed environment.”

This intentionally broad definition covers all types of marine areas under
some level of protection provided their primary objective is to protect
biodiversity.

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Ghana has at present no nationally legislated coastal or marine protected
areas. There are no international protection programmes that specifically
cover the Project site. There are regional programmes that promote the
sustainable use of the regional marine environment but no protection
programmes per se.

The Project will need to adhere to the guidelines laid out in any regional
coastal conservation strategies with regards to marine and coastal
development.

Protected and Endangered Flora and Fauna


At least 26 species of marine mammals and five species of sea turtles occur in
the region, including several endangered, critically endangered, or vulnerable
species. Endangered and threatened flora and fauna are protected through
national law. There are eight globally threatened bird species in Ghana, but
none are seabirds or are specifically associated with coastal habitats, and are
therefore unlikely to be associated with the Project site.

Ghana’s coastal wetlands provide feeding and roosting sites for thousands of
resident and migratory birds including at least 11 species of tern. Thirty-six
sites in Ghana have been designated as Important Bird Areas, of which five
are along the coast. Two sites, the Anlo-Keta and Songor Lagoons, each
support over 100,000 shore birds as well as internationally important numbers
of several species of wading birds. In terms of conservation areas, the
Amansuri Wetlands (situated < 1 km to the north west of the site) are
considered an Important Bird Area (IBA) and rated as A4i. Although this
rating indicates least concern wetland area, Project activities will need to be
planned and designed to minimise impacts on this IBA.

The impact assessment process considered the potential impacts of the


proposed development on notable habitats, flora and fauna as discussed in
Chapter 6.

Petroleum Legislation

National petroleum related legislation includes the Ghana National Petroleum


Corporation Act (Act 64 of 1983), the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Law
(Act 84 of 1984) and National Petroleum Authority Act (Act 691 of 2005).

The Ghana National Petroleum Corporation Act (Act 64 of 1983) established the
Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) as mandated to promote
exploration and planned development of the petroleum resources of the
Republic of Ghana.

The Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Law (Act 84 of 1984) establishes the
legal and fiscal framework for petroleum exploration and production activities
in Ghana. The Act sets out the rights, duties and responsibilities of
contractors; details for petroleum contracts; and compensation payable to
those affected by activities in the petroleum sector.

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The National Petroleum Authority Act (Act 691 of 2005) establishes the National
Petroleum Authority (NPA) of Ghana to regulate, oversee and monitor
downstream petroleum activities.

The Petroleum Commission Act (Act 821 of 2011) establishes the Petroleum
Commission with the objective to manage Ghana’s petroleum resources. The
Act establishes the responsibilities, functioning and governance of the
commission as well as the interaction of this commission with other
government bodies in relation to petroleum resources.

The Project will also take the relevant pieces of legislation in account in the
design and operation of the petroleum storage activities on site.

Air and Road Transportation

As a signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago


Convention, 1944), Ghana is required to adhere to international aviation safety
standards. The Ghana Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) has recently
formulated regulations pertaining to the design and safety of airports and
aerodromes. The Ghana Civil Aviation (aerodrome) Regulations (LI 2004) of 2011
provides specific guidelines for the design, construction and operation of
aerodrome facilities, as well as regulations pertaining to the extent of noise
emissions and permitted land use types in their vicinity.

Of particular relevance to the proposed Project is Section A 22.4, which


outlines the specific noise limits and prohibited land use types in the areas
surrounding aerodromes. The Project will need to ensure that the airstrip is
not situated unsuitably close to sensitive receptors (such as local communities
or towns).

The Ghana Highways Authority Act (Act 540 of 1997) is in place to establish and
authority responsible for the administration, control, development and
maintenance of trunk roads and related facilities. The Act places the
responsibility for the upkeep, management and construction of bridges, road
closures, trunk road excavations and toll roads on the Ghana Highways
Authority.

2.4.3 Ghanaian Social Legislation

Ghanaian legislation relating to social aspects is also considered in terms of


the described Project. Specifically, the social aspects covered by this
legislation are as follows:

labour, working conditions and employment;


resettlement and economic displacement;
economic activities;
community health and safety; and
cultural property and natural heritage.

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A list of the relevant social legislation is included in Table 2.5 below. This
legislation is then described in more detail below.

Table 2.5 Summary of Relevant Social Legislation

Applicable Legislative Instrument Issue


Fisheries Act 2002, Act 625 Fisheries and Access to Fishing
Fisheries Regulation, LI 1968 Fisheries and Access to Fishing
Labor Act, 2003, Act 651 Economic Activities
Industrial Relation 1965, Act, 299 Economic Activities
Labor Decree of 1967, NLCD 157 Economic Activities
Local Government Act 462 Social Responsibilities
Lands Commission Act, 1994 (Act 483) Land management
Land Planning and Soil Conservation Act , 1953 (Act Land management
32)
Stool Lands Act, 1994 (Act 481). Land management

Fishing

The Fisheries Act (Act 625 of 2002) repeals the Fisheries Commission Act (Act 457
of 1993) to consolidate and amend the law on fisheries. The Act provides for
the regulation, management and development of fisheries and promotes the
sustainable exploitation of fishery resources. Section 93 of the Fisheries Act
stipulates that if a proponent plans to undertake an activity which is likely to
have a substantial impact on the fisheries resources, the Fisheries Commission
should be informed of such an activity prior to commencement. The
Commission may require information from the proponent on the likely impact
of the activity on the fishery resources and possible means of preventing or
minimising adverse impacts.

The Project will need to ensure that it meets the requirements of this Act with
regard to any impacts on fishing, including any notification activities.

Economic Activities

The Labour Act, 2003 (Act 651) and the Labor Decree of 1967, NLCD 157 outline
the Ghanaian standards and conditions of employment for all economic
sectors. This legislation covers the protection of: wages, contracts,
employment terms and conditions and recruitment as well as classification of
workers and special worker types. The Industrial Relation 1965, Act, 299
regulates the registration of trade unions and conditions of membership to
registered unions.

The Project will need to ensure that these conditions are adhered to and that
contactor employment contracts follow the guidelines laid out in the
abovementioned legislation.

Local Government

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The Local Government Act, 1993 (Act 462) was developed in accordance with
the constitution and details the establishment and regulation of local
government systems. The Act was created to establish and regulate the local
government system in accordance with the Ghanaian constitution and
outlines the stipulations and qualifications regarding local elections, provides
requirements for the functioning of district assemblies and outlines the
responsibility of each level of local government. Lonrho will need to ensure
that they communicate and build relationships with the correct levels of local
government in the region where the Project site is located.

Land

The Lands Commission Act, 1994 (Act 483) details the management frameworks
for public and other lands and establishes a commission to assist and advise
the government, local and traditional authorities on land related issues, usage
and management concerns. The management and administrative processes
applicable to Stool land are described in the Stool Lands Act, 1994 (Act 481).
Stool lands are defined as that which belongs to or is controlled by a stool or
skin, the head of a particular community or the captain of a company, for the
benefit of the subjects of that stool or the members of that community or
company. This act also describes (in Section 8) the appropriate distribution of
any revenue accrued from stool lands, which should be divided as follows:

ten per cent of the revenue accruing from stool lands shall be paid to the
Office to cover administrative expenses,

the remaining revenue shall be disbursed in the following proportions by


the Administrator:
25 percent to the stool through the traditional authority for the
maintenance of the stool in keeping with its status;
20 percent to the traditional authority; and
55 percent to the District Assembly within the area of authority in
which the stool lands are situated.

The Land Planning and Soil Conservation Act, 1953 (Act 32) was established to
ensure better utilisation of land and to allow for proper land use planning
through the establishment of committees. These committees are formed in
order to avoid land degradation.

Lonrho will need to adhere to the regulations laid out in these acts and ensure
the project is implemented according to the management structures in place in
the region. This will be particularly necessary in considering the resettlement
aspects of the Project and the development and implementation for the
Livelihood Restoration Plan (LRP).

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2.4.4 National Environmental and Social Legislation under Preparation

It is recognised that in view of the developing oil and gas industry, the
Ghanaian government is drafting new environmental and marine regulations
and guidelines, which are now at the stage of revision by the Parliament.
These include the following.

Draft Oil and Gas Policy for Ghana (2008);


Ghana Petroleum Regulatory Authority Bill;
Hazardous Waste Regulations, 2012;
Marine Pollution Bill, 2010;
Maritime Security (Amendment) Act, 2010;
Shipping (Safety Zone and Pipeline Protection Area) Regulations, 2010;
and
Shipping Amendment Bill, 2010.

The design of the port should take these draft pieces of legislation, into
account in order to plan for compliance once this legislation comes in to force.

Draft Oil and Gas Policy for Ghana

This policy has as its goal to become a net exporter of Oil and Gas and a major
player in the global petroleum industry, through the development and
management of Ghana’s petroleum resources and revenue streams in a
transparent and environmentally responsible manner for the benefit of every
Ghanaian, now and in the future.

The Policy addresses two main areas for the successful regulation and
monitoring of petroleum operations, namely:

the guiding principles for governmental monitoring; and


the regulatory and legal framework.

The policy will be supported by a master plan which shall embody a


Strategies and Action Plan based on the principles and ground rules for
governmental monitoring and management of petroleum operations. This
policy has not yet been finalised.

Ghana Petroleum Regulatory Authority Bill

The Ghana Petroleum Regulatory Authority (GPRA) Bill of 2008 proposes the
formation of a regulatory authority to regulate, oversee and monitor activities
in Ghana's petroleum industry.

The GPRA has a variety of objectives which include enabling increased


private sector participation and investment, and a strengthening of the
regulatory framework for healthy competition in Ghana's petroleum sector.
Petroleum agreements are also initiated, negotiated and administered under
the GPRA.

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Marine Pollution Bill

The GMA has drafted a Marine Pollution Bill, which will empower the GMA
to regulate marine pollution. The bill deals with all aspects of marine
pollution and notably will include the provisions related to the Protocol of the
London Dumping Convention (1996), which Ghana has ratified. This includes
the requirement that all dredge disposal sites will need to be authorised by
either the Ghanaian EPA or the GMA prior to the commencement of dredging
activities. The Bill was brought before parliament in March 2012, but had not
yet been approved at the time of compilation of this report (August 2012).

2.4.5 Marine State, Conventions and Classification Requirements

The regulatory requirements for an offshore vessel are generally set out by the
coastal state or shelf state, the flag state, international conventions and the
classification society. The dredging vessels and tug boats will need to satisfy
all of the requirements from these authorities before they are approved fit for
purpose.

Coastal State Regulations

All countries have full sovereignty to regulate activities on their continental


shelves. As the dredging vessels will be operational within Ghanaian waters,
Ghana regulations, as administered by the Ghana Maritime Authority, are the
governing regulations and take precedence over all flag state and class
requirements. However, many jurisdictions, including Ghana, refer to
maritime codes, rules and standards related to flag and classification
requirements as described below.

Flag State Regulations

Ships or offshore facilities trading internationally have to comply with the


safety regulations of the maritime authority from the country whose flag the
unit is flying. A dredging vessel does not need a flag unless required by the
coastal state (ie GMA in Ghana) or when in transit through international
waters. Flag states require classification and implementation of the safety
regulations such as those of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).

Classification Societies

The dredging vessels will be classed by a classification society that is


recognised by the maritime administrator of the flag state, such as the
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) or Det Norske Veritas (DNV).

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2.5 INTERNATIONAL LAWS AND AGREEMENTS

2.5.1 International Conventions and Agreements

Ghana is signatory to a number of international conventions and agreements


relating to industry, development and environmental management. In certain
cases, conventions and agreements have influenced policy, guidelines and
regulations and therefore are relevant to planning, construction and operation
of the Project.

Table 2.6 lists the relevant international conventions and protocols to which
Ghana is signatory. Those most pertinent to the project are explained in
further detail below.

Table 2.6 International Conventions Relating to the Project

Date Name of Convention


2003 The Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention)

2001 The International Labour Organisation (ILO) Fundamental Conventions


related to forced labour, freedom of association, discrimination and child
labour

2000 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

2000 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

1999 Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem Project (GCLME)

1999 Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Conservation Measures for


Marine Turtles of the Atlantic Coast of Africa

1994 United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity

1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change

1991 Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes within Africa - Bamako
Convention
1991 Convention of Fisheries Cooperation among African States Bordering the
Atlantic Ocean

1989 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

1989 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

1988 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

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Date Name of Convention
1987 Convention Concerning the Protection of Workers against Occupational
Hazards in the Working Environment due to Air Pollution, Noise and
Vibration (ILO No 148)

1983 United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Montego
Bay, Jamaica

1981 Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the


Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region
(Abidjan Convention)

1975 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural
Heritage (World Heritage Convention), Paris

1971 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund


for Compensation of Oil Pollution Damage

1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, Especially as


Waterfowl Habitats

1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade,


and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery

1968 African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources


1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention)

Note: The date refers to the date of aaccession or ratification in Ghana

Basel Convention

The Basel convention aims to protect human health and the environment
against the harmful effects of hazardous waste. The convention’s provisions
relate to reducing hazardous waste generation, promoting environmentally
sound waste management and restricting transboundary movement. The
provisions of the convention include a range of wastes defined as “hazardous”
as well as “other wastes” including household waste and incinerator ash.

In particular, the convention prohibits the export of hazardous wastes to


Antarctica, a state not party to the Basel Convention, or to a state that has
banned the import of hazardous wastes. This is unless the transboundary
movement of hazardous and other wastes is an environmentally responsible
solution, permission is obtained from all states concerned and it is carried out
in line with environmentally responsible and sound methods and principles
(Secretariat of the Basel Convention, 2012). Ghana is in a process of restricting
the importation of hazardous and other wastes to Ghana for recovery and
final disposal.

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There is ongoing consideration of the interaction between the Basel
Convention and other IMO treaties regulating maritime activities with regard
to disposal of wastes generated on marine vessels. In this regard the Basel
Convention Secretariat and Secretariat of the IMO are undertaking a
participatory legal analysis which identifies the waste types which are
controlled under the Basel Convention. The analysis suggests that the
MARPOL provisions with regard to management at sea are supportive of the
Basel Convention and that the Basel Convention requirements related to
transboundary movement and environmentally sound management apply
only once the waste is offloaded from the vessels (Secretariat of the Basel
Convention, 2012a).

The Project will need to take the application of both the Basel Convention and
IMO requirements into account and monitor the legal analysis process to
ensure compliance of the waste management facilities and operations planned
for the port.

Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME)

Established in 1999 after the end of the Global Environmental Fund’s (GEF)
pilot Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystem project, this is an eco-system
based effort to assist countries associated with the Guinea current to move
towards environmental and resource sustainability (http://gclme.org/). The
project involves establishing long-term management objectives and
frameworks to sustain the production potential of the system as a whole.

United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (UNcoBD)

This international treaty is legally binding with its main objectives being to
conserve biological diversity and to ensure sustainable use of natural
resources as well as fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from
resources. The precautionary principle is used to guide conservation
strategies recommended by the convention and built around ecosystem
management and protection.

As Ghana is a signatory of this treaty, Project activities will need to be aligned


with the objectives mentioned above.

United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS)

Ghana is signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea
(UNCLOS). Under this convention Ghana claims rights within 12 nm of
territorial water and a 200 nm Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Clearance for
Project vessels (eg dredging vessels, tug boats) travelling into the territorial
waters (eg to and from the onshore base) must be obtained from the Ghana
Maritime Authority (GMA) and notification should also be made to the
Ghanaian Navy.

Local Jurisdiction

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Ghana is signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS). Under this Ghana claims rights within a 12 nautical mile (Nm)
territorial sea and a 200 Nm Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). EEZs and
territorial seas are defined by UNCLOS and specific rules apply within them.

Article 145 of the UNCLOS agreement is relevant to the Project and requires
all signatory states to implement measures to ensure the protection of the
marine and coastal environment, including preventing, controlling hazardous
activities or cause marine pollution ie from harmful effects of dredging,
excavation, waste disposal and construction activities.

Article 194 outlines measures through which the Project can control, reduce
and prevent pollution and damage to the marine environment. All applicable
mitigation measures listed here should be applied as far as possible to Project
design and activities.

International Maritime Organisation Conventions

Ghana is signatory to the following International Maritime Organisation


(IMO) Conventions.

International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in


Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties (Intervention Convention), 1969;

Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at


Sea (COLREGs), 1972;

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974;

Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (LLMC), 1976;

International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and


Watch keeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978;

International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from


Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL
73/78); and

International Convention of Oil Preparedness, Response and Co-operation


(OPRC), adopted 1990.

Further details of the MARPOL Convention and the OPRC Convention are
provided below.

The MARPOL Convention


The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
(MARPO L 73/78) contains a number of the provisions relevant to the Project.
These include general requirements regarding the control of waste oil, engine
oil discharges as well as grey and black waste water discharges. Table 2.7

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provides a list of MARPOL provisions relevant to oil and gas developments.
Annexes I and II were ratified first and in 2010, Ghana ratified the remaining
Annexes III to V which came into force in January 2011. The draft Marine
Pollution Bill will adopt the remaining three annexes of the MARPOL
standards into Ghanaian legislation but is yet to be enacted.

Table 2.7 Relevant MARPOL 1973/1978 Provisions

Environmental Provisions of MARPOL 1973/1978 Annex


Aspect
Drainage water Ship must be proceeding en route, not within a 'special area' I
and oil must not exceed 15 parts per million (ppm) (without
dilution). Vessels must be equipped with oil filtering,
automatic cut-off and an oil retention systems.

Accidental oil Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) is I


discharge required.

Bulked chemicals Prohibits the discharge of noxious liquid substances, II


pollution hazard substances and associated tank washings.
Vessels require periodic inspections to ensure compliance.
All vessels must carry a Procedures and Arrangements
Manual and Cargo Record Book.

Sewage discharge Discharge of sewage is permitted only if the ship has IV


approved sewage treatment facilities, the test result of the
facilities are documented, and the effluent will not produce
visible floating solids nor cause discoloration of the
surrounding water.

Garbage Disposal of garbage from ships and fixed or floating V


platforms is prohibited. Ships must carry a garbage
management plan and shall be provided with a Garbage
Record Book.

Food waste Discharge of food waste ground to pass through a 25 mm V


mesh is permitted for facilities more than 12 nm from land.

Air pollutant Sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions VI
emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits deliberate emissions of
ozone-depleting substances including halons and
chlorofluorocarbons. Sets limits on emissions of nitrogen
oxides from diesel engines. Prohibits the incineration of
certain products on board such as contaminated packaging
materials and polychlorinated biphenyls.

The Project will need to ensure that all port vessels and visiting vessels to
comply with MARPOL requirements.

OPRC Convention

Ghana is a signatory to the International Convention on Oil Pollution


Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC) which was entered into

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force in 1995. This convention facilitates co-operation and assistance between
member states regarding major oil related incidents (such as spills and fires).

As a signatory Ghana is required to have established a national system for


response to oil pollution incidents including, at least, a national contingency
plan for such incidents. This plan is required to make the following
provisions:

a minimum level of pre-positioned oil spill combating equipment;


a programme of exercises for oil pollution response organisations;
training programme for relevant personnel;
mechanisms or arrangements to co-ordinate the response to an oil
pollution incident; and
capabilities to mobilise resources.

These provisions were extended to hazardous and noxious substances in 2007,


through the establishment of the OPRC-HNS protocol. Ghana has developed
a National Oil Spill contingency plan (2010) in line with this convention.
Project activities will need to comply with the requirements of this plan.

2.6 INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION (IFI) ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL


PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

At this stage of the Project development, details about how it would be


financed are not fully decided. However, there is the possibility that Lonrho
or other parties may seek financing from financial institutions that have
specific requirements for environmental and social performance. These may
include commercial banks that have adopted the Equator Principles as well as
Developmental Finance Institutions (DFIs) such as the AfDB and the IFC. In
anticipation of this possibility, the Project is being developed to meet certain
requirements as described in this section.

The requirements and standards of lending organisation have similarity and


linkages, with the greatest being the connection of the Equator Principles to
the IFC Sustainability Framework through specific reference to the Performance
Standards’ on Environmental and Social Sustainability (2012). In this way,
reference to and conformance with the Performance Standards’ covers a major
part of the Equator Principle requirements. The relationships between the
Equator Principles, the Performance Standards and the World Bank Group
Guidelines are shown schematically in Figure 2.1.

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Figure 2.1 Relationship between Lender Requirements

Source: ERM 2012

2.6.1 Equator Principles

The Equator Principles (EPs) are an approach by financial institutions to


determine, assess and manage environmental and social risk in project
financing. The EPs emphasise that lenders will seek to ensure that the Project
is developed in a manner that is socially responsible and reflects sound
environmental management practices.

These Principles have been adopted by a wide range of banks and lenders all
over the world in order to manage the social and environmental risks
associated with their potential investments and are listed in Box 2.3 below.

Box 2.3 Equator Principles

The principles comprise the following:


Principle 1 Categorisation of projects
Principle 2 The borrower has to conduct an Environmental and Social Impact
Assessment (ESIA)
Principle 3 Applicable Social and Environmental Standards
Principle 4 Action Plan and Management System
Principle 5 Consultation and Disclosure
Principle 6 Grievance Mechanism
Principle 7 Independent Review
Principle 8 Covenants
Principle 9 Independent Monitoring and Reporting
Principle 10 Equator Principles Financial Institutions (EPFI) Reporting

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Principle 3 requires that the borrower apply the applicable social and
environmental standards to the Project. In this regard, the Project references
the Performance Standards’ (PSs) as summarised below and will apply these
standards in the implementation of the Project.

The 2006 version of the Equator Principles is currently under review and due
to be updated at some point in 2012. Further major changes are not expected
with the exception that the EPs might be applied to situations other than those
involving purely project finance (eg to corporate loans). This may have
implication to the Project depending on how the financing is structured.

2.6.2 IFC Performance Sustainability Framework and Performance Standards

The IFC Sustainability Framework (2012) comprises three elements:

IFC’s Policy on Environmental and Social Sustainability;;


the Performance Standards’ on Environmental and Social Sustainability;;
and
IFC’s Access to Information Policy.

Since the IFC is not directly engaged in financing the Project, only the
Performance Standards’ apply as they are incorporated in the Equator
Principles. The Project has committed to complying with the updated 2012
edition of the Performance Standards’ throughout the implementation of the
Project.

The following Performance Standards are considered to be relevant to this


Project (1):

PS1: Assessment and Management of Social and Environmental Risks and


Impacts;
PS2: Labour and Working Conditions;
PS3: Resource Efficiency and Pollution Prevention;
PS4: Community Health, Safety and Security;
PS5: Land Acquisition & Involuntary Resettlement;
PS6: Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living
Natural Resources; and
PS8: Cultural Heritage.

Additional guidance is contained in the Guidance Notes to the Performance


Standards. The IFC’s set of Guidance Notes corresponds to the Performance
Standards and provide guidance on the requirements contained in the
Performance Standards, including reference materials on good sustainability
practices to improve Project performance. The following IFC handbooks are
also relevant to the Project:

(1) Not all of these Performance Standards are addressed through the ESIA Process

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Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook for Companies
Doing Business in Emerging Markets;
Strategic Community Investment: A Good Practice Handbook for
Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets; and
Projects and People: A Handbook for Addressing Project-Induced In-
Migration.

2.6.3 World Bank Group Guidelines

The EHS Guidelines are technical reference documents that address IFC’s
expectations regarding the industrial pollution management performance of
projects. The updated EHS Guidelines serve as a technical reference source to
support the implementation of the Performance Standards’, particularly in
those aspects related to PS3: Resource Efficiency and Pollution Prevention, as
well as certain aspects of occupational and community health and safety.

This information supports actions aimed at avoiding, minimising, and


controlling EHS impacts during the construction, operation, and
decommissioning phase of a project or facility. The relevant World Bank
Group EHS Guidelines that will apply to the Project are the following:

EHS General Guidelines (World Bank Group, 2006;


EHS Guidelines for Ports, Harbours and Terminals (World Bank Group,
2007);
EHS Guidelines for Airports (World Bank Group, 2007):
EHS Guideline for Waste Management Facilities (World Bank Group,
2007); and
EHS Guidelines for Shipping (World Bank Group, 2007.

EHS General Guidelines (World Bank Group, 2006)

The Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) General Guidelines are technical
reference documents, which promote Good International Industry Practice
(GIIP). The General EHS Guidelines contain information on cross-cutting
environmental, health, and safety issues potentially applicable to all industry
sectors and should be used together with the relevant IFC industry sector
guidelines.

When a member of the World Bank Group is involved in a project, the General
EHS Guidelines are to be used in conjunction with the appropriate industry
sector EHS Guidelines. Recommendations for the management of EHS
impacts typical to most large industrial facilities are included in these
Guidelines (World Bank Group, 2007a).

EHS Guidelines for Ports, Harbours and Terminals (World Bank Group, 2007)

The Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines for Ports, Harbors
and Terminals apply to commercial ports, harbors and terminals for cargo and
passenger transfer. These EHS Guidelines address environmental,

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occupational health and safety as well as community health and safety issues
that can arise in port and terminal construction, operation and/ or
decommissioning. These EHS Guidelines request the implementation of
monitoring against Performance Indicators of all the activities that have been
identified to have potentially significant impacts in order to monitor these
impacts over time (World Bank Group, 2007b).

EHS Guidelines for Airports (World Bank Group, 2007)

The Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines for Airports apply to
the operation of commercial airports. These Guidelines identify EHS issues
that can arise during the operational phase of a commercial airport and
provide recommendations of their management in relation to the
environment, occupational health and safety as well as community health and
safety. The guidelines request the implementation of Performance Indicators
of all the activities that have been identified to have potentially significant
impacts in order to monitor these impacts over time (World Bank Group,
2007c).

EHS Guideline for Waste Management Facilities (World Bank Group, 2007)

The Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines for Waste


Management Facilities is applicable to facilities that are committed to the
management of municipal solid waste and industrial waste, including waste
collection and transport, waste receipt, unloading, processing and storage;
landfill disposal, physico-chemical and biological treatment and incineration
projects. The guidelines identify EHS issues that can arise during the
operational and decommissioning phases of waste management and provide
recommendations of their management in relation to the environment,
occupational health and safety as well as community health and safety. These
guidelines request the implementation of monitoring against identified
performance indicators of all the activities that have been identified to have
potentially significant impacts in order to monitor these impacts over time and
to compare them to Industry Benchmarks (World Bank Group, 2007d).

EHS Guidelines for Shipping (World Bank Group, 2007)

The Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines for Shipping relate to
the operation and maintenance of ships used for the transportation of bulk
cargo and goods and only to fossil-fuel-operated vessels. These Guidelines
identify EHS issues associated with the shipping industry which occur during
the operation and decommissioning phase and provide management
recommendations in relation to the environment, occupational health and
safety as well as community health and safety. These EHS Guidelines request
the implementation of monitoring according to identified Performance
Indicators of all the activities that have been identified to have potentially
significant impacts in order to monitor these impacts over time (World Bank
Group, 2007e).

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2.6.4 African Development Bank Policies and Guidelines

The AfDB has a number of policies and guidelines which will apply to this
Project, and must be taken into account through the development of the
Project and ESIA process. These are the following:

The Bank Group Policy on the Environment (2004);


The Bank Group Involuntary Resettlement Policy (2003);
Environmental Review Procedures for Private Sector Operations (2001);
Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA)
Guidelines (2003); and
Bank Group's Handbook on Stakeholder Consultation and Participation
(2001).

The Bank Group Policy on the Environment (2004)

The Bank Group Policy on the Environment sets out the policy and strategic
framework for all lending and non-lending AfDB operations with the
objective of promoting environmentally sustainable development, to help
improve the quality of life of the people of Africa and to help preserve and
enhance the Africa’s ecological capital and ecological services.

The Bank Group Involuntary Resettlement Policy (2003)

The Bank Group involuntary resettlement policy is intended to provide a


framework for addressing the involuntary displacement of people as a result
of a Project. This policy applies when the Project results in loss or relocation
of shelter, loss of assets or when livelihoods are affected, and requires that
livelihoods be enhanced as a result of a Project.

Environmental Review Procedures for Private Sector Operations (2001)

The environmental review procedures provide AfDB’s environmental and


social impact assessment requirements for private sector projects. The
procedures document the processes that the AfDB follows to assist in ensuring
that Projects are environmentally sustainable and socially responsible.

Integrated Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (IESIA) Guidelines (2003)

The IESIA Guidelines have been developed as a tool to guide the


implementation of the AfDB’s Environmental and Social Assessment
Procedures. The guidelines include an overview of potential impacts and
benchmark enhancement/mitigation measures as well as a summary of
Project risks for a number of sectors. The guidelines also contain monitoring
requirements and indicators as well as additional references. These guidelines
are currently available for the following sectors: Irrigation and Agriculture,
(Crop Production, Livestock and Rangeland Management), Forestry, Fisheries,
Hydropower Production, Roads and Railways, Water Supply, Infrastructure,
Dams and Reservoirs as well as Transportation and Distribution.

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Bank Group's Handbook on Stakeholder Consultation and Participation (2001)

The AfDB Handbook on Stakeholder Consultation and Participation is


intended to provide guidelines for AfDB-funded projects. The guidelines
provide an overview of participatory tools, and techniques, identify
constraints and recommended activities to ensure that the AfDB’s policy
commitments are implemented.

2.7 LONRHO HSE POLICIES AND STANDARDS

2.7.1 Introduction

Lonrho and its contractors or tenants will be bound by Lonrho’s internal HSE
policy as well as their specific guidelines, rules and requirements. These
result from Lonrho’s commitment to developing environmentally, socially and
health & safety sound/conscious Projects globally as well as project specific
rules and requirements developed for the Project.

Lonrho’s requirements are designed to ensure limited negative impacts on the


environment and local communities during the construction and operational
phases of the proposed Project.

2.7.2 Lonrho’s Engineering Standards

Project-related infrastructure will be built in according to the appropriate


international safety, construction and design standards. This is to ensure the
integrity of all structures as well their safe construction and safe and
longstanding operation. The standards that are relevant to the proposed
Project are summarised below (a full list can be viewed in Annex E):

Marine construction and infrastructure: PIANC criteria, CIRIA, Eurocode,


Eurotop, BS EN, ASME among others;
Navigational Aids: IALA standards;
Testing and Investigation Standards including Quarry testing, ISRM, EN
and other strength tests;
General construction: ACI, AISC, API, ASCE, ASTM International and
AWS.

2.7.3 Lonrho HSE Policy

Lonrho has developed an HSE policy which provides the context for HSE
performance by the Project (Box 2.4).

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Box 2.4 Lonrho Environmental Policy

Lonrho Ghana Ports Ltd expects all parties involved in his projects (Self-perform and Sub-
Contractors) to comply with all applicable environmental, health and safety legislation as a
minimum standard. The adoption of best practice will be positively encouraged, and all parties
will be required to demonstrate their application of best practice and innovation in order to
reduce adverse environmental impacts.

On top of the applicable legislation, this document identifies relevant environmental protection,
which is applicable to all Lonrho Ghana Ports Operations and any other commitments. It details
action to be taken to meet the target of 100% Environmental Compliance.

2.7.4 Lonrho’s International Commitments

United Nations Global Compact

Lonrho is a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact (Global


Compact), which is an initiative for businesses committed to aligning their
operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas
of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption (Box 2.5). Lonrho’s
approach to stakeholder engagement has incorporated processes to ensure
adherence to the Global Compact Ten Principles. The company formally
adopted the Global Compact on 4th January 2012.

Box 2.5 Global Compact Principles

Human Rights
Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed
human rights.
Principle 2: Businesses should make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.

Labour
Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition
of the right to collective bargaining.
Principle 4: Businesses should eliminate of all forms of forced and compulsory labour.
Principle 5: Businesses should effectively abolish child labour.
Principle 6: Businesses should eliminate discrimination in respect of employment and
occupation.

The Environment
Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges.
Principle 8: Businesses should undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental
responsibility.
Principle 9: Businesses should encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally
friendly technologies.

Anti-corruption
Principle 10: Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and
bribery.

Source: www.unglobalcompact.org

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ISOA Code of Conduct

Lonrho is a member of the International Stability Operations Association


(ISOA) and as of 20 October 2012 a signatory to the ISOA Code of Conduct
(Version 13). Elements of the Code of Conduct relevant to stakeholder
engagement are as follows:

Human Rights, Property and the Environment:

“Signatories shall respect the dignity of all human beings and adhere
to all applicable international humanitarian and human rights laws.”

Transparency

“Signatories shall operate with integrity, honesty and fairness.”

“Signatories shall, to the extent possible and subject to contractual


and legal limitations, be open and forthcoming on the nature of their
operations and any conflicts of interest that might reasonably be
perceived as influencing their current or potential ventures.”

Accountability

“Signatories, understanding the unique nature of the complex


environments in which many of their operations take place, fully
recognize the importance of clear and operative lines of accountability
to ensure effective peace and stability operations and to the long-term
viability of the industry.”

Signatories are also required to adhere to rules of international humanitarian


and human rights laws as set out in:

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948);


Geneva Conventions (1949);
Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights (2000); and
UK Bribery Act (2010).

In practice, this requires the following:

broad and inclusive stakeholder engagement;


active engagement with government;
transparency; and
a grievance mechanism.

2.7.5 Project Environmental and Social Regulations and Controls

Draft Environmental Control Rules and Requirements (ECRR)

This Project specific document aims to ensure that Project related activities
carried out by Lonrho or its tenants are 100 percent compliant with relevant
international and local standards and regulations (full text available in Annex

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G). This will ensure that the environmental and social impacts associated with
Project activities are managed and mitigated as far as practicably possible.

In particular, this document regulates the activities of Lonrho’s tenant and


Lonrho itself to ensure:

a clean and safe working environment;

the design, construction and operation of facilities in accordance with


international best practice methodology;

a high standard of air quality through the control of dust and air pollution
including monitoring and performance testing requirements;

marine and freshwater pollution control and protection as well as the


establishment of adequate monitoring activities;

safe and responsible treatment, storage, handling and disposal of


hazardous wastes and materials; and

noise control and monitoring.

Additionally the ECRR provides details regarding the requirements for


environmental reporting and auditing as well as stipulating fines and relevant
penalties issued in cases of non-compliance. Relevant EHS tariffs and service
charges relating to the Project site are also presented.

Lonrho and its tenants will construct, design and operate all Project related
activities and facilities in line with the requirements of this document.

Draft Environmental / Waste management and Emergency Response Procedures

This document covers potential threats or risks to the environment, local


communities or Project employees resulting from Project activities. These
risks include the possibility of events such as spills, leaks, explosions or
contamination events and outline relevant controls to prevent these as well as
details of emergency responses.

The environmental and management issues that have specifically been


considered within this document include the following:

water quality;
air quality;
noise and vibration;
traffic management;
waste management;
contaminated land;
public relations and community liaison;
wildlife flora and fauna;

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visual intrusion, signage and lighting; and
worksite housekeeping.

The document aims to provide a framework for incorporating the identified


controls into the Project’s design, construction and operational phases and will
be integrated into the Project ESMP.

Port Rules and Regulations

The Rules and regulations identified by Lonrho Ghana Ports Limited describe
the specific requirements of tenants or contractors wishing to operate within
the free trade zone associated with the port. The tax and customs regulations
that are unique to free trade zone areas are also identified.

Furthermore, the document presents guidelines and requirements for


specifications of buildings and the management of tenant’s plots within the
Project site. These include methods to prevent fires and treat sewage and
industrial waste in accordance with local and international best practice, as
well as the protocols to follow when reporting incidents and emergencies.

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3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This Chapter provides a description of the Project in terms of the facilities and
equipment required for the port and associated project activities during all
phases of the Project. In addition, the Chapter outlines the emissions,
discharges, personnel requirements and provides an analysis of alternatives
considered.

3.1.1 Overview of the Project

Lonrho is proposing to construct and operate an Exclusive Deepwater


Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Logistics Base Port at Atuabo (4° 58' 37.73"
North; 2° 32' 20.01" West) in the Western Region of Ghana. The port,
infrastructure, and services will be constructed by Lonrho. The construction
will be carried out by various contractors selected through a competitive
tender process, the scope of which will include the general infrastructure
requirements and specific tenant requirements. Once constructed, Lonrho will
retain overall management of the port, including security and the supporting
infrastructure. Lonrho will also manage certain operations. Some facilities
and operations will be managed by tenants of the port who will build facilities
or customise existing facilities. All port users will need to comply with the
Port Rules and Regulations, which will contain requirements for adherence to
Lonrho’s environmental, health, safety and security policy and , where
applicable, the environmental and social requirements contained within the
ESMP as well as applicable Ghanaian and international legislation.

During operations, the activities at the port would involve movement of


vessels in and out of the harbour and transport of personnel and goods to and
from the offshore oil and gas operations. Offshore drilling rigs would also
move in and out of the port for repairs and certification. Activities in the port
would include ship repair, storage, fabrication, loading and offloading of
goods as well as fixed-wing aircraft and helicopter movements transporting
personnel and goods. There will be additional vessel movements associated
with the naval base and infrequent maintenance dredging of the port areas.

Onshore support operations would include the import, storage and


distribution of fuels products, generation and supply of electricity, water
treatment and supply and the operation of accommodation, recreation and
office facilities. The port will include waste management facilities for solid
waste, waste water, and sewage. A drill cuttings treatment facility would also
be installed and operated.

3.1.2 Project Components

The Project will comprise the following main elements:

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Port, comprising a harbour protected by a rock breakwater to the west and
a rock groyne to the east, a dredged approach channel, a turning circle,
berth pockets; and quays;

Service Facilities, located in the port along the quays providing support
services to the offshore oil and gas industry including: rig repair facility;
waste treatment and management facility; fabrication facility; and supply
facility;

Airstrip, located near the port to facilitate aircraft and helicopter transport;
and

Infrastructure, including supporting facilities (accommodations, offices;


naval logistics support base, hydrocarbon fuels storage area) and roads
(internal to the port and the public road).

During construction, there will be a number of Temporary Facilities including


structures, workshops, work areas (eg laydown yards) and material staging
areas. These will be located in the Project footprint

Although the area around the port may be used in the future for development
by others, this ESIA considers only the listed components.

3.1.3 Project Site

The total amount of land allocated to the Project will be approximately 514 ha
(1271 acres). The port, service facilities, airstrip, and infrastructure, as well as
temporary facilities, will be located within this area (Figure 3.1). The harbour
area (including the ship berths, turning circle and approach channel) is
approximately 214 ha (544 acres).

The areas within the Project site that are not developed will be restored if
necessary and left in the natural condition. In those areas that are suitable,
controlled grazing may be permitted as a means of land management.

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Figure 3.1 Layout of the proposed Project
3.2 FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS

3.2.1 Marine Facilities

Harbour, Turning Basin and Access Channel

The Project consists of a harbour area protected from rough water and storms
by constructed breakwaters. The harbour will be accessed through a dredged
channel from the southeast between the larger breakwater to the west and
shorter groyne to the east. A deepened turning circle will also be dredged to
allow vessels to turn within the harbour before exiting along the access
channel.

Sheltered Waiting Area

An area for temporary anchorage of vessels and rigs will be provided within
the harbour, to the west of the entrance channel. An area of 200 x 100 m in a
water depth of 12.5 m has been designated for this purpose, providing
sufficient space for two waiting vessels.

Breakwater and Groyne

The marine infrastructure comprises two seawalls including a breakwater on


the western portion of the site approximately 500 m east of Atuabo and a
small groyne approximately 200 m west of Anokyi. The breakwater will be
approximately 2 km in length extending towards the southeast, while the
groyne will extend approximately 1 km to the southwest. The two seawalls
will create a sheltered harbour for the port.

Quays

The Project will include a number of quays or berthing areas to allow vessels
to dock, and load and unload personnel and cargo. The quayside is formed
from fixed platforms, located on pilings or alternatively using combi-walls
with the deck laid on compacted ground, and will be approximately 1150 m in
total length. The quay walls will include a naval logistics base and four berths
as detailed below:

Berth 1: Marine Offshore Supply Base (MOSB) (300 m length);


Berth 2: Storage and supply of liquid bulk products (200 m length) (Oil
Berth);
Berth 3: Rig repair facilities (400 m length); and
Multi-Purpose Vessel (MPV) berth (200 m length).

In addition, a 50 m pier will be installed for the mooring of various service


vessels in a water depth of 6 m. This will provide berths for seven general
service vessels. These service vessels will include tugs, pilot vessels and a
mooring launch.

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3.2.2 Service Facilities

Rig Repair Facility

One of the main facilities in the port will provide repair and maintenance
services for offshore drilling rigs. The facility would be located along the quay
with landside workshops, warehouses and offices in an area totalling
approximately 16 ha. The types and sizes of the various facilities is
summarised in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 Facilities and Dimensions of the Rig Repair Yard

Rig Repair Facilities Size Quantity


Fabrication hall/Mechanical shop 100x150 m (1.5 ha)
Blast shop 25x25 m (0.3 ha) 4
Pipe shop 50x50 m (0.3 ha) 4
Electrical shop 25x25 m (0.3 ha) 4
Cutting shop 25x25 m (0.3 ha) 4
Office block 50x50 m (0.3 ha)
Workshop facilities 50x50 m (1.0 ha) 4
Warehouse 200x100 m (2.0 ha)
Outside storage 250x250 m (6.3 ha)
Roads, car parks, fences As needed

The different types of drilling rigs and expected at the facility include:

Semi-submersible rig (18 m length x 120 m beam x 15 m draft) (Figure 3.2);

Jack-up rig: (80 m length x 60 m beam x 8 m draft) (


Figure 3.3); and

Drill ship (sixth generation type): (250 m length x 40 m beam x 13 m draft)


(Figure 3.4).

This facility will be situated near the deepest section of the harbour, in a water
depth of approximately 16.5 m. It would have a quay length of approximately
400 m to allow for the simultaneous repair of two semi-submersible drilling
rigs or up to eight jack-up platforms drilling rigs (or a combination).
Approximately eight rig repair programmes are expected to be commissioned
per year. The nature of the repairs made to rigs requires that each vessel
remains in its assigned berth for an extended period, while the repair work
(including welding, painting, refitting of piping, scaffolding and replacement
of key machinery and equipment) takes place.

A floating dry dock will be moored alongside the rig repair facility to allow
for speciality type repairs and to increase the capacity of the yard. The size of
the dry dock is expected be approximately 140 m x 35 m.

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Figure 3.2 Semi-submersible Rig

Source: Shutterstock stock photo

Figure 3.3 Jack-up Rig

Source: Shutterstock stock photo

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Figure 3.4 Drill Ship

Source: Oil Rig Jobs, 2012

Marine Offshore Supply Base (MOSB) and Fabrication Yard

Activities
The port will include facilities to supply goods and equipment to the offshore
oil and gas exploration and production areas. Supplies will be delivered to
the port via ship (eg container vessel), offloaded, and stored. In some cases,
supplies would undergo a fabrication process at the port. In other cases,
materials will be delivered to the terminal areas overland in trucks. Once on
the site, supplies will then be transferred offshore using vessels. Goods stored
and supplied would include ship’s chandlery-type goods (eg food,
maintenance supplies, cleaning supplies), operating supplies (eg barite for
drilling, drill pipe), and equipment (spare parts, subsea equipment).

The MOSB and Fabrication Yard will occupy approximately 300 m of quay
with three or four general purpose berths of approximately 9 m water depth.
A further berth using approximately 200m of quay will be used for a Multi-
Purpose Vessel (MPV) which will have a low occupancy of approximately one
vessel per week. This MPV will supply offshore facilities with general cargo
including cement, drilling muds and containers.

In total, approximately 2500 vessel calls per year are anticipated, each for
duration of six to eight hours. The quay allocated to the MOSB is shared with
the liquid bulk quay.

The MSOB will use 9 ha behind the quay to accommodate various facilities
(Table 3.2). An example photograph of similar warehousing is included in
Figure 3.5. The major facilities are described further below.

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Table 3.2 Overview of requirements for the facilities to be included in the MOSB

Marine Offshore Supply Base Facilities Size Size (ha) Remarks


Open storage area (lay down yard) 100x100m 4.0 4
Main warehouse 100x50m 0.5
Other storage facilities 50x50m 1.0 4
Machine and workshop facilities 50x50m 1.0 4
Hazardous material storage 25x25m 0.1
Waste storage/incineration 25x25m 0.1
Scrap yard 25x25m 0.1
Oil based mud treatment plant 50x50m 0.3
Oil spill response facility 25x25m 0.1 On waterside at
bunkering quay
Liquid bulk and dry bulk storage (cement, 100x50m 0.5 Including pipelines to
barite, fresh water, drill water) quay vessel supply
Truck waiting areas 30mx20m 0.06 Inside main gate
Roads, car parks, fences As needed

Figure 3.5 Indicative Representation of Warehousing and Waste Management Activities


(Luba Freeport, Equatorial Guinea)

Source: Lonrho, 2012

Fabrication Facility
A fabrication / assembly facility will be established for the manufacture of
subsea structures for use in offshore production. The process involves the
assembly of subsea equipment by welding, finishing (including grinding),
then inspecting, testing and coating according to specified use.

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The facility will include a number of areas for storage and maintenance of
equipment and a large covered workshop (approximately 9 ha) for welding,
grinding, drilling, etc. Other facilities will likely include the following:

sand-blasting and paint shops;


storage areas for engine tools and spare parts;
an electrical instrument workshop;
a laboratory; and
male and female toilets, washing facilities and changing rooms.

Raw materials will be imported directly into the port via ship, or if sourced
locally, these materials will be brought into the terminal area overland.

Port Reception Facilities and Drilling Waste Treatment and Management Facility

A facility will be constructed for the handling and treatment of wastes


generated during offshore drilling. These include the ‘cuttings’ that are
generated from the borehole, some of which are contaminated with petroleum
hydrocarbons or with drilling fluids. The facility would treat the drill cuttings
to remove the hydrocarbons and dispose of the remaining solids. The treated
solids can also be used in building materials. The process involves heating of
the cuttings to ‘desorb’ the contaminants.

Figure 3.6 Drill Cuttings Desorption Plant

Source: M-I SWACO, 2012

Port Reception facilities will be a mixture of mobile (trucks) and fixed (storage
tanks within the tank farm) to receive waste from vessels and rigs. The

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facilities site will also have a fire fighting facility to supplement fire fighting
installations within the individual tenant facilities.

The equipment associated with the port reception and waste treatment and
management facility includes:

air compressor;
generator;
switch and control room;
air and nitrogen supply room;
diesel tank;
recovered oil /water tanks;
fin fan cooler and cooling conveyors;
steam condensing system;
oil condensing system;
cyclone and scrubbing;
mill and motor drive; and
access platforms;
workshop/laboratory; and
locker room/toilet, mess room/kitchen and offices.

3.2.3 Airstrip and Helipad

An airstrip will be constructed for small aircraft for crew changes and to
support supply logistics for the offshore oil and gas activities. The length of
the airstrip will be approximately 1350 m. The total area of the airstrip and
surrounding area will be approximately 10 ha. In addition, a helipad of
approximately 1 ha (100 x 100 m) will be situated towards the centre of the
airstrip. The aircraft will be used to transport supplies and personnel for the
Project and to be transported offshore. There will be no access or use by the
public.

The airstrip and helipad are expected to accommodate approximately 1633


fixed wing and approximately 2700 helicopter landings annually.

3.2.4 Infrastructure

Offices and Accommodations

Required support services include port control and port operations offices,
general office space, medical services (clinic), fire-fighting facilities, power
supply, waste water and sewage treatment infrastructure, potable water
supply and purification plant, telecommunications network and road access.
Living and leisure facilities will also be installed. The requirements of these
facilities are described in Table 3.3 below.

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Table 3.3 Overview of Other Port-related Facilities

Facility Size
Office block (including the harbour master office, pilot office, 100x50 m (0.5 ha)
customs, security office, Ghana Port Authority)
Communications Building 10x10 m (0.1 ha)
Medical Facility 200 m2 (0.02 ha)
Staff accommodation and recreational facilities 10 ha
Generator (supplying power to the port) 150x200 m (0.3 ha)
Roads, car parks, fences

Medical Facility

The medical facility is expected to provide day-to-day assistance for minor


injuries or illness and act as a first response support for injured personnel
(before transport to hospital). The facility will comprise an emergency room, a
consulting and examination room, a pharmacy, and a small two-bed ward and
bathroom facilities.

Naval Logistics Support Base

This will be a facility for naval operations and personnel with access to a 50 m
long floating pier with area enough for two berths and a water depth of
approximately 6 m. Small onshore facilities will also be constructed to
accommodate a training centre and an office block. The total area of the
onshore facilities is expected to be approximately 200 m2.

Bulk Storage Facility

A bulk storage facility will be built to store fuels for use in port operations and
for vessel fuelling. It would also handle bulk storage of other liquids. The
facility would comprise a number of large, steel tanks and interconnecting
pipeline and control equipment. The facility is expected to have a total tank
storage capacity of approximately 46,100 m3. The facility will store fuels such
as:

gasoline;
Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO);
Aviation Turbine Kerosene (ATK);
Marine Gas Oil (MGO); and
lubricants/greases.

In addition to storage of fuels, the tanks may also be used for the temporary
storage of industrial water and slops from vessels. Tanks will be designed
and constructed according to international standards. The tanks will be
bunded (in an area at least 110 percent of the volume of the largest tank, or 25
total tank capacity) to contain accidental spills. All tank valves and pipework
will be contained within the bund area.

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The facility will be located on an area of approximately 6 ha. Associated
facilities for the tank farm will include a pipeline along the quayside with
appropriate manholes interspaced alongside, an electrical power source, and
potable water. Approximately 272,000 t of fuel per annum will be transferred
along the pipeline from the fuel storage facility to fuelling vessels. This will
require between five and ten vessel calls per month. Fuelling would occur at
the port however, road tankers may also be used occasionally for the import
or export of heavy fuels from the port.

The storage and delivery mode of each of the fuels and an indicative
photograph of bulk storage facility are included in Table 3.4 and Fig xx.

Table 3.4 Product Storage and Delivery Specifications for each Product Type

Product Form Mode Storage Mode of delivery Tank size


MGO Bulk Vertical steel Delivered through inline flow meter 2 x 10,000m3
tanks and pipelines installed in the quayside
subway, and hose connections
HFO Bulk Vertical steel Delivered through inline flow meter 2 x 10,000m3
tanks and pipelines installed in the quayside
subway, and hose connections
HFO/ Bulk Vertical steel Delivered through inline flow meter 4 x 1000m3
MGO tank and pipelines installed in the quayside
Blend tank subway, and hose connections
ATK Bulk Vertical steel Delivered through inline flow meter 4 x 500 m3
tanks and pipelines installed in the quayside
subway, and hose connections
Gasoline 91 Bulk Underground Delivered through high speed 2 x 45 m3
tanks dispensers
Lube/ Drums Warehouse Palletised for delivery by forklift. 2 x 27m3 and
Greases /IBCs shed / above /Delivered through inline flow meter warehouse
/ Bulk ground and pipelines installed in the quayside storage
horizontal steel subway, and hose connections and or
tanks lube bay
Industrial Bulk Vertical steel Delivered through inline flow meter Industrial
water tanks and pipelines installed in the quayside water – 2 x
subway, and hose connection 3000 m3
Fire water – 2
x 5000 m3
Slop Bulk Vertical steel From the vessel to the tanks through 2 x 500 m3
tanks pipeline installed in quayside subway

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Figure 3.7 Bulk Storage Facility

Source: Lonrho, 2012

The fuelling area requires a deep-water berth (approximately 12.5 m) to


accommodate a wide range of vessels. The largest vessel is expected to be
30,000 DWT.

Roads

Roads are planned around the Project site to provide access to the site from
the existing coastal road (Figure 1.1). The new road will be tarred and will
provide a rerouting of the coastal road and will run from Anokyi and follow
the Project site boundary to the north. The road will then turn to run
westwards approximately 400 m north of the site for approximately 2 km
before turning towards the southwest and Atuabo. This section of the road
will run between the airstrip portion to the west and the remainder of the port
facility to the east. A road will also be constructed to connect Asemdasuazo to
the new re-routed coastal road from close to the northern portion of the
airstrip.

Power Generators

A set of diesel generators (approximately 5 x 1 600 KVA 400 Volt and 50 Hz)
will be used to provide power to the Project site during the construction and
operation phases of the Project. A step up transformer will also be
constructed and electricity distributed across the site to the various operations.
Diesel fuel for the generators will be stored in a 10,000 gallon (approximately
38 m3) horizontal steel tank located adjacent to the generators.

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Fresh Water Supply

Water for drinking, washing, bathing and for use for industrial purposes on
site will be sourced from boreholes drilled on site. The extracted water will be
filtered and treated to meet Ghanaian and WHO potable water standards and
will include a desalination plant. The area for the water purification/
treatment plant will cover approximately 0.3 ha. Sludge from this plant will
be disposed of either by dilution of the brine with the output from the effluent
treatment plant or direct disposal to the sea.

Borehole water will also be used for fire-fighting. Water will be pumped from
boreholes on site and stored in fire/service water storage tanks. The size of
the tanks will be determined during detailed design in accordance with the
calculated requirements for fire-fighting.

The total annual water demand for the site is expected to be approximately
110,000 m³ per annum sourced from local boreholes. This value is attributable
to:

Rig repair area (25 m3/day)


MOSB and Offshore Fabrication yard (25 m3/day);
Facilities building (15 m3/day);
Onshore facilities (airstrip side) (15 m3/day);
Hotel (20 m3/day)
Vessel Supply (150 m3/day); and
Miscellaneous (50 m3/day). .

Waste Management Facilities

Waste generated by port users and tenants will be transported, handled and
treated by a qualified waste management contractor. The contractor will
ensure that the necessary waste management facilities required to properly
treat and dispose of Project related waste are compliant with relevant local
and international legislation. The waste management infrastructure expected
to be developed at this facility as well as on the Project site includes:

wastewater treatment plant:


sewage treatment plant and retention pond;
incinerator; and
waste sorting and storage areas (including hazardous waste).

The potential spatial requirements of these facilities are summarised in the


table below (Table 3.5).

Table 3.5 Spatial requirements of the Associated Waste Management Facilities

Waste related facility Size


Wastewater treatment plant 100x200 m (2.0 ha)
Sewage treatment plant 50x50 m (0.3 ha)

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Waste related facility Size
Sewage water retention pond 200x50 m (1.0 ha)
General waste management facilities: incineration, small 50x50 m (0.3 ha)
hazardous waste storage, separation area

Lonrho and its contractors and tenants will explore possibilities for the re-
use/ recycling and recovery of wastes before their disposal. The types of
wastes that will be produced, handled, stored or processed at the port will
include:

domestic solid waste;


sewage and liquid domestic effluent;
industrial effluent;
industrial solid waste; and
hazardous waste.

The effluent and waste volumes generated are discussed in Section 3.6.

Domestic Solid Waste


Domestic waste produced by port users will be collected, managed and
appropriately disposed of at the waste management facility operated by the
appointed contractor. This facility will be established and operated in line
with Ghanaian legislative requirements for waste disposal sites and will be
lined with an impermeable lining. All domestic wastes generated on site will
be managed by controls described in Lonrho’s Environmental Control Rules
and Requirements (ECRR) document which include:

that wastes be stored on-site in leak proof drums/containers;


that wastes are stored in a “Waste Handling/Storage Facility” in a
designated, marked location;
that there is no soil contamination hence wastes are stored on an
impermeable surface;
tenants control the wastes such that wastes are not windblown beyond the
storage area;
any runoff from waste storage areas be controlled; and
that wastes are disposed of regularly and are not allowed to accumulate.

Sewage and Liquid Domestic Effluent


A sewage system will be constructed on site to manage domestic liquid
effluent; no industrial effluent will be permitted to be discharged into such
facilities. No soak-away type systems will be permitted in the port, although
holding tanks (with regular evacuation) may be constructed if required.

The proposed layout of the sewage treatment facility and relevant effluent
discharge infrastructure are included in Figure 3.1.

Industrial Effluent

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Liquid industrial wastes will be treated separately by each user before
disposal into the receiving medium (land, sea, sewage system). Liquid
effluent discharged to the port’s system will be metered with the ability to cut
off input.

Lonrho will implement controls and requirements for tenants including the
following:

no effluent discharge to the sea will be permitted without prior


authorisation from Lonrho as well as the Ghanaian EPA;

the authorisation from Lonrho will detail the type of waste and the
maximum daily effluent volumes allowed as well as a reference to
chemical concentration limits;

no pesticides, herbicides, oils or solvents, radioactive substances or paint


residues will be permitted to be discharged into the fresh or marine water
environments;

each outflow point will be located below the water surface and will
include a sampling point to enable monitoring; and

requirement for a monitoring programme to ensure compliance with the


stipulations of the authorisation.

Solid Industrial Waste


Solid, non-hazardous wastes, including general industrial wastes, metal
offcuts, wooden pallets and waste pieces, plastics and paper will be collected
and stored separately from domestic waste. The solid industrial waste will be
disposed of at the onshore waste disposal facility with the domestic solid
waste (described above).

Hazardous Waste
Hazardous waste generated onsite will be separated, stored for transport and
disposal at an approved hazardous waste disposal site. The hazardous waste
temporary storage area will be built on hardstanding surface and covered.
Waste will be transported for offsite disposal at a licenced disposal site.
Hazardous waste disposal documentation will be retained for all hazardous
waste disposed.

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Figure 3.8 Proposed Sewage Treatment and Outfall Facilities
3.3 SITE PREPARATION

3.3.1 Activities

Site preparation will include the following activities:

mobilisation, equipment and material transport (using existing roads) and


office set-up;
site clearing, grubbing, and grading of land areas;
installation of temporary security fencing and lighting;
construction of a construction vessel berth;
construction of a heavy-haul road linking the site to the existing road
network;
development of internal road networks;
dredging of shipping channel, berths and turning basin;
land reclamation in the shallow waters to create area for onshore facilities;
and
additional geotechnical studies will be carried out during this phase.

Vegetation Clearance

The total area to be cleared of vegetation is approximately 514 ha in extent and


will include the area within the site boundary (including the airstrip portion)
fence. The environmental characteristics of this area are described in Chapter
4.

The initial clearing activities will involve the clearing and stripping of existing
vegetation and the provision of suitable access to the project site. A large area
of vegetation will be cleared to enable access of general and breakwater
construction machinery to the water’s edge. The cut trees will be transported
to an area on or near the site and will be available for community use.

Marine Site Preparation Works

The marine site works will include the dredging for the channel, turning
basin, channel and associated land reclamation area for the onshore facilities.

The marine facilities will include a level reclaimed area for a portion of the
Project’s onshore facilities (may or may not require soils improvement), a
dredged access channel, turning basin and 900 m of berth space. This berth
space would include 400 m rig repair berths, 300 m MOSB berths and 200 m
liquid bulk/multi-purpose berths.

Road Upgrading

Construction material for the breakwater will be transported along existing


roads between the Project site and the Tarkwa mines. The roads are a mix of
asphalt and gravel and are in relatively good shape and only minor upgrade is
expected to be required, including strengthening or replacement of a small
bridge along the route near Bakanta.

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Lonrho will undertake a detailed Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) to confirm
the requirements for upgrading any intersections, roads and any additional
bridges.

Dredging and Land Reclamation

The current construction plans include capital dredging of the approach and
entrance channel, the harbour basin, and the service berths. The dredging
work to be executed consists of:

dredging of the new harbour basin and turning circle to -16.5 m CD; and
dredging of the approach and entrance channel to -17.5 m CD.

[Note: CD is ‘chart datum‘, the level at which both tidal levels and water
depths are lowest. On marine charts it is the level of the predicted lowest
astronomical tide (LAT).]

The total quantity of capital dredged materials is estimated to be in the order


of 13 million m3. Two dredgers operating for 360 days will remove this
volume of sediment over 2600 trips (each dredger has the capacity to dredge
3000 m3 of sediment per hour).

Engineering studies have confirmed that most of the marine sediment is


suitable for fill without treatment. The majority of the dredged material
will be pumped to the shore for re-use for infill, land reclamation as well as
for any beach-erosion compensation at the eastern side of the main
breakwater. For dredging of the new harbour basin, turning circle and quay
wall, materials dredged from these areas will be transported via a pipeline
system consisting of floating pipeline, sinker line (optional) and landline and
pumped a maximum distance of 2000 m onto the reclamation area. Some of
the excess of the suitable dredged material will be pumped onto the
construction area for future re-use.

Non-suitable material and possibly excess suitable material will be disposed


offshore. The clayey material cannot be pumped on to the reclamation area
and will be dumped at a designated offshore location by means of ‘bottom
dumping’ ie release from the bottom of the dredge material vessel.

The disposal site will be selected in consultation with Ghana EPA. The site
will be located in waters of 30-40 m depth (or greater) to minimise risk to
artisanal fishing activities and to fish spawning and feeding grounds. A
preliminary survey will need to be undertaken to determine the nature and
ecological health of marine sediments of the location. This will likely be
through sediment grab sampling with laboratory analysis for contamination
levels and sediment characteristics (physical properties such as particle size
distribution) as well as consultations with local artisanal fishers. Sensitive
ecological areas identified during the physical sampling and engagement with

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fishers will be avoided. Once a preferred site has been selected, monitoring
will be undertaken of the site to determine recovery of ecological health.

A detailed list of equipment required for dredging activities is provided in


Table 3.7.

Table 3.6 Dredging Equipment

Name Number
Medium-size Trailer Suction Hopper Dredger 1
Cutter Suction Dredger 1
Survey boat 1
Bunker barge 1
Small tug boat 1
Multi Cat 1
Pipeline 1

The level down to -7 m CD can only be dredged by using stationary Cutter


Suction Dredgers, while a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger will be used to
remove the clayey materials.

Maintenance Dredging

Maintenance dredging is expected to be required to ensure that the entrance


channel, turning circle and vessel berths remain at their required depths and
free of debris. This is important in order to ensure the safe passage and
manoeuvring of vessels in the terminal area. The approach channel and
turning circle will be maintained at a depth of 16.5 m CD, and up to 25 m CD
in some areas.

Maintenance dredging activities are planned to occur every three years and
are expected to remove approximately 1 million m3 of sediment for each
dredging programme. If suitable, the dredged material will be used for sand
replenishment to the east of the Project site. If found to be unsuitable, the
dredged material will be disposed of at the offshore dump sites identified for
the capital dredging during site preparation and construction.

3.3.2 Facilities

Temporary Work Facilities

The following temporary facilities and infrastructure will be required during


the construction phase. These will include the following:

equipment and bulk materials lay down and storage areas (including rock
storage);
pre-fabrication yard;
construction worker accommodation;
segregated waste storage facilities;

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potable water treatment facility;
waste treatment/ sewage treatment facility;
diesel-powered generation facilities and electrical grid;
concrete batching plant;
aggregate dock;
storm water and drainage system;
offices; and
temporary fencing and security lighting.

The location of temporary facilities is shown in Figure 3.9.

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Figure 3.9 Temporary Construction Facilities

Source: Lonrho, 2012


Boundary Security and Lighting
Temporary fencing will be installed primarily to identify the site boundary.
Approximately 20 km of temporary fencing will be established around the site
perimeter.

Laydown Areas
Laydown areas will be established and used for storage areas for permanent
materials and consumables required for construction of the works. The yard
will include facilities for:

lay-down and general storage areas;


tubular steel piles storage;
cement storage shed;
rock storage and stock-pile area (approximately 150 t and 200 x 200 m);
and
equipment and vehicles parking areas.

These facilities are expected to be laid out as shown in Figure 3.10.

Figure 3.10 Layout of Laydown Areas

Source: Lonrho, 2012

Temporary Fabrication Yard


A temporary fabrication yard will be established on site to fabricate materials
used in the construction of the breakwater and quay such as the X-Blocs
(Figure 3.11), core-lac and berthing members. This facility is expected to
occupy approximately 4410 m2 while a further approximately 19,000 m2 will
be required for a stockpiling area where the precast units produced over four
months will be stored in three layers. A steel processing workshop will also
be established and requires an area of approximately 6000 m2.

Fuel Storage
Fuel for generators, vehicles and machinery used in construction will be
stored in metal or plastic containers, placed within a bunded area or double
walled tanks. This fuel will be transported to the site via road and it is

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anticipated that approximately 10 million litres will be used during
construction. The tanks will be located in a central storage area, and will be
serviced by a bowser which will transport fuel to where it is needed on the
Project site.

Figure 3.11 Photograph of Similar Temporary Fabrication Yard

Source: Lonrho, 2012

Temporary Offices and Accommodations

Site Offices
Site offices including toilet facilities will be located at the project site in a
designated area. The construction contractor will provide necessary
communications infrastructure within the site offices to enable phone, email,
and internet access. A satellite office will be established at the Tarkwa mine.

Worker Housing
Construction worker housing will be temporary style accommodations located
within the Project site to the south of Asemdasuazo and the proposed tank
farm location. Water will be sourced from boreholes drilled on site. The
extracted water will be filtered and treated to meet Ghanaian and WHO
potable water standards. It is anticipated that approximately 30 m3 of water
will be required per day.

Provision within the temporary construction camp will be made for


approximately 200 (non-local) workers to be accommodated over the 18 to 24
month construction period. Junior managers and labourers are expected to be

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housed in 16 to 20 man accommodation units with individual rooms and with
shared ablutions.

Septic tanks will be installed for the collection of sewage during the
construction phase. Solids and liquids will be periodically recovered and
disposed of at an approved sewage treatment facility.

Port Village
Medium and long-term stay accommodation will be provided in an
accommodation block designed to meet the needs of senior business
executives. These will include accommodation facilities equivalent to a four-
star hotel and will include a living room and cooking areas as well as
communal lounge, dining and recreational area.

In additional, an “EasyHotel” is expected to be constructed within the project


area to accommodate visitors to the port for short periods.

3.4 CONSTRUCTION

Following site preparation, construction of the port facilities will commence.


This will include:

construction of the breakwater and groyne;


construction of quay walls;
construction of the onshore facilities; and
road construction around the site and between Anokyi and Atuabo.

The construction phase will require use of cranes, trucks, generators,


earthworks vehicles, piling equipment, concrete mixers and dredging
equipment. Table 3.7 below provides details on the materials that will be used
during the construction phase, the approximate volume of each and a listing
of the expected source.

Table 3.7 General construction phase

Material Quantity Source


Cement 3,000T From suppliers outside of Ghana
Construction Steel 3,000T From suppliers outside of Ghana
Rock / Aggregate 1,300,000m³ Existing quarries in Ghana
Diesel 1,000,000 ltr Purchased from suppliers in Ghana
Timber for 1,000m³ From suppliers in Ghana
construction
Mechanical & Various From suppliers outside of Ghana
electrical equipment

The planned construction schedule is presented in Figure 3.22.

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3.4.1 Construction of Breakwater and Groyne

Approach

The seawalls will consist of a core rock material, an under layer of placed rock
material and a cover layer of concrete armour units. The total rock and
armour unit volumes are estimated at about 2 million m3 of rock. The rock
will be placed in layers on the beach and near shore area, in accordance with
the breakwater design.

Construction methods for the breakwater are predominantly land-based, and


are developed to ensure working onshore as much as possible. Because of the
wave patterns, the area is not considered appropriate for the development of a
floating plant and construction using sea-based approaches.

Rock Placement

The rock material used to form the core of the seawall (0.5 – 500 kg rock) is
placed by means of direct tipping from the trucks. Rock material is supplied
to the work front using tipper trucks, each with a payload of 25 t, starting from
the shore. The seawall core will be formed from rock placement at an
elevation of 2.5 m with a width of 9 m. This allows the tipper trucks to pass
each other while driving over the section of breakwater already constructed
(Figure 3.12). In addition, Figure 3.13 shows a cross-section of the seawall
design. It is anticipated that the core material will adopt a natural slope of
approximately 3:4.

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Figure 3.12 Trucks Delivering Rock during a Rock Placement

Source: Lonrho, 2012

Figure 3.13 Cross-section of Breakwater Design

Source: Lonrho, 2012

Slope Refinement

To construct the slope in the required profile of 2:3, additional core material is
placed using a long-boom excavator and the 200 t crawler crane to form the
toe of the core. This will be carried out in conjunction with the construction of
the breakwater core as it formed. The under-layer will be placed on top of the
rock and directly behind the advancing core face to limit the exposure of the
core material.

The long-boom excavator will be used to shape the slopes of the core
(coloured orange in Figure 3.5). This will be undertaken at night so that the

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operation of the excavator does not obstruct the supply of rock used to form
the core during the daytime.

Figure 3.14 Long-boom Excavator Shaping the Breakwater Slope

Source: Lonrho, 2012

A crawler crane will be operated on a purpose-designed and constructed


portal structure (Figure 3.15) to enable the tipper trucks to pass underneath
and not to obstruct the supply of rock to the work fronts. The portal frame is
mounted on tracks is able to move along the alignment of the breakwater and
place rock along the toe of the breakwater.

Placement of Armour Layer

Installation of the armour layer (x-blocks) will follow closely behind the
under-layer to limit the duration of exposure. This will be done using a second
crane portal (as for placement of the toe). The initial focus will be installation
of the armour on the more exposed sea-side, followed by installation of the
armour on the port-side of the breakwater (Figure 3.16). All armour will be
installed by the crane using a 10 t rock grab. The remainder of the breakwater,
from elevation +2.5 to +6.0 m will then be constructed working back towards
the shoreline.

An excavator will then be used to place the materials (Figure 3.17). At this
stage, the main equipment can be released to commence working on the lee
breakwater.

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Figure 3.15 Portal Cranes Working on a Breakwater.

Source: Lonrho, 2012

Figure 3.16 Installation of X-Block Armour by Crane

Source: Lonrho, 2012

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Figure 3.17 Installation of Armour by Excavator

Source: Lonrho, 2012

Breakwater Construction Material

The rock for the breakwater construction is planned to be sourced either from
the overburden 1from the mines at Tarkwa, approximately 120 km to the
northeast of the Project site or from the Eagle Star quarry (8 ha) alongside the
Tarkwa-Esiama road approximately 140 km from the Project site. Rock would
be loaded from overburden stockpiles or blasted from the quarry rock faces.
Rock will be transported from the source to the Project site using 35 t payload
tipper trailers that are loaded by a front end loader. It is anticipated that
approximately 65 trailer/head combinations will be involved with the supply
of rock from the quarry to site. Once the rock has been transported to the
Project site, via the preferred route, the trucks will dump the rock off an
elevated road into stockpiles located within the site boundary. The material
can then be loaded into separate dump trucks to haul the rock to the
breakwater construction area.

The Eagle Star quarry is not included in the ESIA report and should this site
be selected as the preferred source of rock for the Project, the environmental
and social impacts associated with resuming operations at the site may need
to be assessed and addressed prior to commencement of blasting.

1Overburden refers to the rock and soil material situated above a mine’s target material. During mine operations,
overburden is removed and stockpiled either for final disposal or for re-use in mine rehabilitation.

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Two transportation route alternatives are currently being considered. The
shortest route from both the quarry and the mines at Tarkwa is Route 1 on
Figure 3.19 via the Tarkwa-Esiama road to the coast.. An alternative route via
Barso and the Agona-Elubo Road (Route 2, Figure 3.19) is also proposed.

The existing road conditions and bridge which may require upgrading are
shown below in Figure 3.18and Figure 3.20. The heavy volume of trucks will
require a dedicated team and equipment to maintain the condition of the last
20 km stretch of gravel road for the duration of the project. A mechanical
service team including roadside assistance trucks will be dedicated to support
the fleet of trucks.

Figure 3.18 Existing Road Conditions along the Transport Route (gravel conditions for
the last 20 km to the Project site)

Source: Lonrho, 2012

The technical, social and environmental considerations of these three


alternatives will be assessed in the Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA). The TIA
will also assess the strain on local road traffic infrastructure (such as
intersections, road surfaces and bridges) as a result of the increase heavy
vehicle traffic. Once all aspects of the two routes have been assessed, the most
suitable will be identified. It is anticipated that the proposed routes along the
public road network to the quarry/mine site may require some upgrading
work, including repair of a bridge, prior to the commencement of rock cartage.

The TIA will also identify a number of mitigation measures to ensure the
safety and satisfaction of local communities as well as the preservation of the
natural environment alongside the selected transport route. The results and
recommendations of the TIA will be submitted to EPA for their approval.

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Figure 3.19 Map Showing the Proposed Transportation Routes for Breakwater Rock Material
Figure 3.20 Existing bridge along the Transport Route (may require upgrading)

Source: Lonrho, 2012

3.4.2 Construction of Quay Walls

Construction of the quay walls will commence at the same time as the
breakwaters. Construction operations will be undertaken continuously
starting from one side of the wall and working towards the other.

The construction of the quay walls involves piling equipment such as a


hydraulic hammer, a vibrator and a pile driver. Additionally various
construction cranes including crawler cranes (for sheet piles and king piles
installation), mobile crane and a tower crane are required. Other equipment
to be mobilised includes a backhoe, dumpers, trucks and a mobile concrete
pump.

The surface will be levelled to a working platform (approximately +3.8 m


above mean sea level). Additional ground materials will be removed by trucks
and placed in designated areas onshore. A dewatering system will be
installed. The open excavation pit will be protected with fencing as the works
progresses.

Next, foundation piling will be done using a crawler crane with vibratory
hammer. Longer piles will be driven to toe elevation in the mudstone layer
using a hydraulic impact hammer. Pre-drilling is not expected to be required.
Sheet piles will be driven using the crawler crane using hydraulic vibrator and
a hydraulic hammer to reach the final depth. Once the concrete slabs have
been poured for the quayside, additional dredging is required and used to fill
the final berth pocket. Low level cathodic protection anodes will also be

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installed on the quay walls using in-house professional divers or a qualified
diving sub-contractor.

All steel piles and tie-rods will be shipped to Takoradi Port from where they
will be transported to site by road on trucks and stored in the lay-down area.
A pile-splicing yard will be developed where the piles will be fabricated to the
required length and provided with clutches (ie joint seals) before delivery to
the work areas.

3.4.3 Construction of Onshore Facilities

Following site clearance, the construction of the onshore facilities will


commence. This will include pouring of concrete slabs, building construction
for administration buildings, offices, warehousing and industrial units,
workshops, accommodation and other buildings living quarters as well as the
construction of onsite roads, laydown yards and paved areas.

A temporary precast and stack yard for rock and backfill materials will be
established (approximately 102,000 m2). The temporary precast yard will
include the following facilities:

a fabrication yard covering a total area of 4,410 m² and have a production


capacity of approximately 55 pieces (of Core-lac and berthing member) per
day;

a stockpiling area, which will cover a total area of 19,860 m² , to stockpile


the precast units produced in four months in three layers;

a steel processing workshop, which will cover a maximum area of 6,000


m²; and

an 8 m wide access road.

An access road of approximately 5.6 km in length will be built on the Project


site for use during construction. In addition to this, five existing small
bridges/ water crossings on site will be reinforced with steel works.

In addition, water reticulation drainage and storm water systems will be laid
across the site and will include drainage systems for low-lying areas, which
may become waterlogged. The proposed layout for the storm water drainage
system is presented in Figure 3.21.

Tanks and associated piping and infrastructure will be installed for the
hydrocarbon storage facilities. The wastewater treatment facilities will also be
constructed and installed along with any waste storage infrastructure and any
landfill areas.

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After levelling of the area for the airstrip, it will be covered with hardstanding.
This will be designed and constructed in accordance with Ghanaian aviation
requirements as well as the relevant international standards.

Entry control points will also be established for the entire site.

After around 18-24 months from the start of construction, general site activity
will decrease as the Project moves into commissioning.

3.4.4 Construction Schedule

The planned construction schedule is presented in Figure 3.22.

3.4.5 Decommissioning

The proposed Project and facilities have been designed for a 50 year lifespan,
and to withstand 100-year storms. It is expected that the facility will continue
to operate beyond its designed lifespan. At the end of the 50 year concession
period the Government of Ghana will have the right to purchase the assets on
the Project site.
All decommissioning activities at the eventual end of the Project’s life will
need to be reviewed for environmental and social permitting requirements
(See Chapter 8).

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Figure 3.21 Proposed Drainage System for the Project site
Figure 3.22 Planned Construction Schedule (including Dredging Activities during Site Preparation)
3.5 TRAFFIC

3.5.1 Marine Traffic

Approximately 2,548 calls of supply vessels and 174 calls of liners are
expected per annum. Approximately eight rig calls are expected per annum.
This number may increase in future years.

The number of tug boats required will depend on the number of the number
of rigs visiting the port per annum and the number of liquid bulk vessel calls.
The demand for oil field related services (and therefore the vessel activity) is
expected to be continuous throughout the year, although during the months
where bad weather and rough seas persist; there will be a greater requirement
for tugboats, to ensure safe passage of vessels into the terminal area. The
vessel types expected at the port, and their sizes, are outlined below in Table
3.8.

Table 3.8 Expected Vessel Types and Sizes

Vessel Size
Supply Vessel 80 m length x 15 m beam x 7 m draft
Liner/ Multipurpose vessel 139.9 m length X 21.5 m beam x 8.40 m draft
Rig
Barge 110 m length x 32 m beam x 7 m draft
AHT 60 m length x 15 m beam x 5 m draft
MPV 150 m length x 25 m beam x 8 m draft
Product carrier (liquid bulk) 180 m length x 25 m beam x 11 m draft
Tugs 29 m length x 8.8 m beam x 4.5 m draft, 3 berths
Pilot vessel 10 m length x 2.5 m beam x 1.5 m draft
Mooring launch 5 m length x 1.5 m beam x 0.5 m draft
Service vessel 29 m length x 8.8 m beam x 4.5 m draft
Naval patrol vessel 30 m length x 9 m beam x 4.5 m draft

Vehicle Traffic
All roads within the Project site boundary will be tarred to allow efficient and
safe transport of goods and personnel within the port. The number of vehicles
expected to be registered on site, during the operational phase of the Projects
is provided in Table 3.9.

Table 3.9 Number of Vehicle Registrations During Operations

Vehicle Type Number of Annual Number of Daily


registrations Registrations per annum
Car 124 8 711
Truck 98 320
Minibus 42 30
Crane and Forklift 53 20
Bus 10 5

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In addition, approximately 2790 vehicles are expected to have access to the
quayside per annum. Parking of all vehicles will only be permitted in
designated areas and an onsite speed limit of 30 km/h will be enforced.

3.6 EMISSIONS, DISCHARGES AND WASTES

The Project will result in air, noise, and liquid emissions and the generation of
liquid and solid waste during both the constructi
on and operations phases. These are described in further detail below.

3.6.1 Air Emissions

The port activities, including waste facilities, possible incinerator and site
clearance and construction activities will generate emissions to the
atmosphere during the operational and construction phases respectively. Key
sources of air emissions will include the following:

dust during construction;


air emissions from combustion engines associated with vessel, vehicle and
air traffic as well as diesel generators; and
air emissions from the operation of the incinerator.

Combustion engines, which are expected to contribute to a large portion of


project related emission emit greenhouse gases and varying amounts of other
pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and
sulphur (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter.
Additional air emissions (eg methane) will result from waste management
activities. Small volumes of fugitive emissions will also likely result from the
storage of hydrocarbon fuels within the tank farm.

The main sources of emissions are the following:

generators;

incinerator;

vehicles during construction including quarry trucks, abnormal load size


trucks, construction trucks, construction/ plant equipment and cranes;

vehicles during operation including passenger vehicles, trucks, minibuses,


cranes and forklifts and passenger busses;

vessels during construction including dredging vessels and marine


construction vessels; and

vessels during operation ie tug boats, liners and support vessels.

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The typical estimated values of the emissions generated by the Project during
construction and operation are summarised in Table 3.10. The list of
assumptions supporting these estimations is presented in Annex F.

Table 3.10 Air Emissions Inventory for the Project during Construction and Operation

Equipment Capacity Quantity Emissions (tonnes/year)


tCO2e NOx CO PM Hydrocar
bons
Generator 1.44 MW 7 67 100.22 812 1 007 48 115
Diesel
Incinerator 30 000 1 13 666 60 15 3 3
(operational m3 waste
phase)
Vehicles Range Approx. 9 388 5.86 47.48 Not 1.93
(construction 115 available
phase)
Vehicles Range Approx. 1 336.52 0.88 6.00 0.14 0.44
(operational 327
phase)
Vessels Support 10 705.23 179.61 126.42 3.58 0.94
(construction vessels
phase)

Vessels Range 20 6 064.98 351.6 252.80 25.28 Not


(operational available
phase)
Aircraft Range 3 1 450.04 3.55 2.22 0.72 0.92

3.6.2 Noise Emissions

The construction and operation activities will create noise emissions. The
majority of the noise emissions during construction phase result from
vegetation clearing, piling and the movement of heavy vehicles. During the
operational phase, noise emissions will be generated from the general port
operations including noise associated with the operation of machinery,
generators, compressors and other equipment as well as during landing and
take-off of the fixed-wing and rotary aircraft. Vessel manoeuvrings and
vehicle operations are also expected to produce noise emissions.

A modelling study was carried out to estimate the extent of noise emissions
associated with the airstrip. The results of this study (Figure 3.23) indicated
that aircraft associated noise at the DNL 65 dB level will extend between
approximately 500 – 1300 m from the airstrip, with a skewing to the northeast.
Figure 3.23 further indicates that no sensitive receptors fall within the area
affected by the aircraft noise emissions.

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Figure 3.23 Modelled Aircraft Noise Contours (55, 65 and 75 dB)
3.6.3 Liquid Effluents

The port operations, including the repair and spooling operations and the
effluent treatment plants as well as the support vessels will produce a series of
effluent and wastewater discharges. All effluent will be treated to meet
Ghanaian legislative requirements, World Bank group EHS guidelines as well
as MARPOL requirements (whichever is more stringent) prior to discharge.
Lonrho will require all port tenants monitor the effluent composition through
regular monitoring.

Potential contaminants from project related activities may include


polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
heavy metals (such as copper, zinc, mercury, lead, chromium and iron),
arsenic, chloride, sulphates, boron as well as petroleum products and phenols.

This effluent generated will be routed to a central effluent treatment plant,


which is expected to receive approximately 25 m3 per day. Effluent will be
treated on an EFLO constant transfer system, where it will be exposed to
extended aeration and biological treatment. The treated effluent will be
discharged to sea through an outfall pipeline and will be monitored for
compliance with the relevant standards and guidelines. Current IFC General
EHS Guidelines (for Environmental Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality)
do not specify limits for heavy metals in effluent; however the World Bank’s
Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook (PPAH) guidelines for the
discharge of heavy metal concentrations to surface waters will be considered.
This guideline is set at a maximum limit of 10 mg/l. The sludge generated
through the effluent treatment process will be categorised and disposed as
required. If considered hazardous, this will be disposed of at a suitable
licenced landfill, with the required hazardous waste disposal documentation.
Box 3.1 below provides the design criteria that will be used during the
construction of the central effluent treatment plant.

For storm water generated at the quayside, oil-water separator will be located
on each end of the quay to capture the potentially contaminated runoff. The
total oily waste water discharged from the site is expected to be approximately
6000 m3 per annum.

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Box 3.1 Design Criteria for Effluent Treatment Plant

Plant Operation

The plant shall operate automatically with the minimum of supervision required. Process units
shall be arranged in parallel. Where pumps, compressors, etc. are required, duty / standby
operation shall be provided, with automatic switching between duty and standby equipment
after each cycle to ensure even wear. An in-built alarm system is intended to warn of any failure
events. It should be noted that the oil-sludge waste from ships and drill-cuttings are not meant
to be included in the processes of the effluent treatment plant; however the design criteria
proposed are deemed appropriate and feasible.

Requirements

The wastewater treatment plant shall be of modular construction initially designed to serve a
workforce of 1,500 persons, with the ability to be extended to serve an ultimate workforce of
3000 persons. The plant will be designed to treat crude sewage to produce a final effluent which
shall comply with the following discharge standard on a 95 percentile basis:

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5): 25 mg/l


Suspended Solids (SS): 35 mg/l
Total Nitrogen: 15 mg/l
Feacal Coliform 100 CFU/100ml
Total Coliform 500 CFU/100ml
Turbidity 1 NTU
Dissolve Oxygen 80 to 120 %of Sat.
Chlorine residual 1 ppm
pH 6 to 9

Domestic effluent requirements

Population 3000 (Final)


Dry weather flow: 45 litres/head/day
Peak flow (4 x DWF): 180 litres/head/day
Biochemical Oxygen Demand: 400 mg/l
Suspended Solids: 500 mg/l

Trade effluent requirements

The effluent treatment plant shall be capable of receiving and treating trade effluents which
may contain contaminants as scheduled in Section 3.3.4.2 of the Environmental Control Rules
and Requirements.

General

The effluent treatment plant shall be robust in design, construction and operation and be
arranged for ease of maintenance. All materials used shall be entirely suited to the climate and
aggressive environment in which they are to be installed.

3.6.4 Solid Waste

Waste generated during the site preparation and construction phase will
include vegetation, scrap metal, paper, packaging materials, wood, plastic,

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empty containers, old machinery, oily rags, excavated road material and food
wastes.

Operations will generate solid waste including metal, paper, plastic, wood,
glass, empty drums and hazardous waste such as oily rags, spent oil and
medical wastes. This waste would include machinery and parts, sludge from
effluent treatment plants, organic and food wastes, and from operational
supplies such as shipping pallets, containers, office waste from the
administrative facilities and domestic waste from the accommodation
facilities. Solid waste, effluent and drilling wastes from the offshore vessels
and rigs would be brought to the port for disposal, storage and transfer and/
or treatment. The site is expected to produce approximately 6500 m3 of
general garbage annually.

Lonrho aims to achieve 100 percent compliance with all relevant regulations
and guidelines in place for the emission, discharge and disposal of wastes and
effluents, noise and air pollution associated with this Project.

Waste Management Activities

There will be slops and oil transferred from berthed ships to the shore of up
approximately 1500 l per year, and will be stored within the tank farm. This
value includes only the residues from this cleaning process that cannot be
reused on the ship (or burned). In cases where the supply of oil waste is
higher, the appropriate capacity increase for processing will be installed by
the responsible contractor. These waste products will be stored and treated by
the contractor in charge of waste and will be disposed of in a suitable manner.
The vessels calling at the OST will have oily-water separators on board and
will clean the bilge water on board the ship.
Wastes generated onsite will be sorted and stored in the assigned areas either
for treatment (effluent, sewage and drill cuttings) or transportation for offsite
disposal (hazardous wastes) via the waste contractor. General solid domestic
and industrial waste will be disposed of offsite at a suitably certified waste
disposal facility. It is estimated that approximately 434 t of general waste will
be generated onsite per annum.

Hazardous wastes will be removed from site by a suitably certified contractor,


and all handling, storage and transfer of hazardous wastes will be undertaken
and documented in compliance with Ghanaian legislation and international
best practice. It is estimated that approximately 166 t of hazardous waste will
be generated per annum during operations.

3.7 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

During construction, approximately a peak maximum of 600 workers will be


employed, primarily in unskilled and semi-skilled positions. Unskilled labour
will be drawn from the neighbouring communities as far as possible.

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Approximately 330 permanent port staff as well as approximately 1200
employed by tenants and port users will be employed during operation of the
port. In addition, up to 500 contract workers would be required for large rig
repair and other ad hoc projects. These will comprise a mix of highly skilled
managerial positions likely to be filled by expatriates and Ghanaian staff, and
other skilled, semi-skilled and un-skilled positions. These positions would
primarily be semi-skilled workers such as welders, fitters, turners, painters,
electricians, for approximately 3-6 months at a time.

Lonrho will ensure the EPC contractor takes due recognition of the local
content policy and requirements issued by the Government of Ghana.

A breakdown of the number of employees required for the different phases of


the Project is provided below (Table 3.11).

Table 3.11 Employment requirements for the Project

Employment Level Number


Construction Phase
Senior managers 30
Technical staff 260
Skilled local personnel 330
Unskilled people 230
Dredging Operations
Senior staff 23
Technical crew operators 79
Semi and unskilled personnel 56
Operation of the port
Senior expat staff 7
Senior/junior staff 37
Skilled and semi-skilled staff 180
Unskilled staff 106

3.8 HEALTH AND SAFETY (H&S) AND SECURITY

All port employees as well as tenants and contractors will be required to


adhere to rules and guidelines stipulated in the HSSE requirements developed
by Lonrho, which include requirements for health and safety, access control
and security measures.

Lonrho will require all employees, contractor and tenants to adhere to the
Lonrho H&S Policy for the site as well as Ghanaian H&S legislation. This will
include use of suitable personal protective equipment (PPE), hearing
protection and implementation of and adherence to a permitting system for
activities associated with particular H&S risks. These would include working
at heights, work in confined spaces and hot work.

As the port will be a ‘free zone’, the entire perimeter of the project site will be
fenced, and therefore entry into the terminal area will only be permitted
through controlled access gates. Identification cards and access permits will

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be required for staff and visitors. The site security will include permanent
perimeter fencing and lighting which will be monitored by a security force of
ten security guards. The fence will be fitted with the appropriate warning and
information signs related to Project activities.

All employees will be issued with a Company Employment Card (CEC) which
provides a unique identification for each employee. This card will serve as a
permit allowing access into the Free Zone and also is the source of
identification and must be carried by the client’s employee at all times when
in the Free Port area. Vehicles entering the Project site will be subject to
security checks and searches. No firearms will be allowed in or out of the
Project site, including security personnel. Any required armed response will
be provided by the Ghanaian National security Forces.

3.9 ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

This chapter describes the proposed Project design. In developing the concept
and the design of the Project, a number of alternatives were considered. This
Section provides a description of the following:

No Project alternative;
alternative projects;
location alternatives; and
layout design and/ or technology alternatives.

3.9.1 Consideration of Alternatives During Project Design

The Project has been developed in consideration of the environmental and


technical engineering constraints. The design is based on proven engineering
techniques and design methods, safe working conditions and consideration of
environmental and social constraints. Within the constraints, consideration of
environmental and social impacts was considered in the design process and
consideration of alternatives was embedded in the approach and taking
measures to optimise the design to:

minimise of the overall footprint;


minimising the materials required;
ensuring optimum re-use of dredged material;
including measures to mitigate negative impacts on the biophysical and
social environment into the design of the Project and methods; and
avoiding physical resettlement of existing communities.

Any additional structures or infrastructure constructed or designed tenants


will be required to comply with the procedures and specifications stipulated
in the ESMP.

The primary activities and steps in the planning and technical engineering
design process included the following:

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information gathering and site surveys (including for construction
material);
defining of design conditions and criteria;
selection of preferred Project layout;
technical studies including wave tranquillity studies, ship manoeuvring
studies, dredging and sedimentation study and operational downtime
assessment;
refining of the Project layout based on the results of the technical studies;
conceptual engineering of main Project elements;
refining the CAPEX estimates;
value engineering workshop; and
finalisation of implementation schedule.

This process of refining the site is described in Section 3.9.

3.9.2 No Project Alternative

One of the potential alternatives is the No Project alternative. In this scenario


the Project would not be developed and the Project site would remain as is
with agriculture and fishing activities continuing, unaffected. The
environmental and social effects as well as the negative impacts of the
construction and operations activities would therefore not occur. Additionally,
there would be no additional noise, air and effluent emissions into the
environment. Furthermore, local livelihoods remain at risk from diminishing
fish catches and manual, inefficient farming practices.

If the Project does not go ahead, the positive impacts would not occur. There
would be no additional employment during the construction and operational
phases. At a national level, Ghana will forgo foreign currency injections as a
result of the operations. The oil and gas operators will need to travel further
to service the rigs in other countries (South Africa and the Canary Islands).

The Project need is justified on the basis of commercial benefits as well and
developmental benefits. The growth of the oil and gas sector in Ghana has
created a demand for services to offshore oil and gas operations and
development of services in Ghana is in line with the government’s objective to
increase local content in oil and gas sector. It is also in line with regional
development plans.

3.9.3 Alternative Projects

The existing port at Takoradi is currently congested as a result of high levels


of traffic and use. This prompted the Government of Ghana to invite
proposals from a number of experienced developers for a new port (with oil
and gas facilities) that would help to alleviate the strained infrastructure at the
Takoradi port.

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Lonrho was selected by the Government of Ghana to develop a new port, on
the basis of their conceptual design as well as their recent experience
developing the Luba Freeport Project, a similar facility in Equatorial Guinea.

3.9.4 Location Alternatives

In developing the Project, Lonrho carried out a site selection process prior to
selecting the preferred Project location near Atuabo. The selection process
began with the identification of ten possible sites which matched the initial
criteria for a port development to service the offshore oil and gas fields. The
sites considered were all located to the west of Takoradi due to proximity to
offshore oil and gas operations as well as the directive of the Government of
Ghana. The sites for consideration were initially identified from maps and
aerial photographs and based the following criteria:

a minimum size of 2000 acres (approximately 809 ha) for development;


avoid lagoons and wetland areas;
minimise impacts on the environment and avoid designated wildlife areas;
and
limit resettlement of people as much as possible and avoid location close
to settlements of more than 1000 people.

Information about the sites was gathered through a combination of desktop


research and a site visits. The long list of sites was evaluated using a form of
Criteria Analysis (MCA) whereby technical, environmental, and social criteria
were compared, weighted and ranked (Table 3.12). Five of the sites were
rejected due to technical feasibility reasons (proximity to the border,
insufficient space for future development). Of the remaining five, one site
(near Cape Three Points) was ranked significantly lower than the others and
was discarded.

The four short-listed sites included Axim East, Esiama, Atuabo-West and
Atuabo-East. These were examined more closely to establish the best-suited
area.

Esiama was not preferred as a result of high population densities and land
ownership disputes. The undesirable location close to a sensitive lagoon and
tourist resort were also key factors in Esiama’s rejection. Axim was also not
preferred due to the potential high cost of levelling the site and dredging
relevant channels in the rocky substrate. The two sites at Atuabo were
therefore considered most suitable for the development of the port.

Atuabo-East (the selected Project site) was found to be most favourable as


physical resettlement could be avoided. The site also effects less (seasonal)
wetland area than the other sites and is further from tourism activities and the
ecologically sensitive areas.

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Table 3.12 Site Evaluation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cape Three points


Weighing Factor

Atuabo -West

Atuabo-East
Half Assini

Axim East

Egyambra
Bakanta
Kengen

Esiama
Benyin
From East to West
Techno / Costs
Technical
Distance to service area (offshore oil
fields) 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 -3
Presence of natural sheltered water 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wind, Wave / climate conditions 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Onshore soil conditions 2 2 -2 0 0 -2 2 2 2 2 0
Presence of rocky areas (offshore) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 -3 -3 -3
Need for onshore land levelling / land fill 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 -2 -2 -2
Construction & Maintenance costs
Distance to construction materials - Land
fill 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Distance to construction materials -
Quarry 2 -2 0 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 2 -2 2
Distance to deep water / Dredging
Volume 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 -2 -2 2 2
Availability and condition of hinterland
connections 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 -1
Removal or reconfiguration of existing
roads 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1
Availability of utilities (power and water) 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
Socio - Environmental
Ecological & Environmental
Offshore ecosystem (fish & turtles) 1 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1
Intertidal ecosystem (turtles, birds,
microalgae) 1 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 0 -1 1 1 1
Onshore ecosystem (lagoons) 1 0 0 -1 0 -1 -1 1 0 0 1
RAMSAR-site - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Socio-economic environment
Population density 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 1 0 -1
Resettlement 3 0 0 0 -3 -3 0 -3 0 0 0
Tourism developments 2 0 0 -2 -2 0 -2 0 -2 -2 -2
Visual impact 2 2 2 -2 -2 2 -2 2 2 -2 -2
Existing industrial activities 2 2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 2 -2 -2
Human use ranking 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Other
Safety of navigation 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 -3 -3 -3 -3
Distance to labour force 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 -1
Growing potential - 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1
Distance to border Ivory Coast - -1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Overall Suitability - 6 9 7 8 -7
Source: Royal Haskoning, 2012

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3.9.5 Layout Alternatives

Aspects of the Project design process have been interactive and have taken the
input from the ESIA process, baseline studies and technical studies as well as
community engagement into account.

A number of layout alternatives were considered for the port to maximise the
use of the coastal land available and to avoid sensitive features (Figure 3.24).
The other criteria used to evaluate the various options were functionality of
operations on the site and minimising social impacts, ie avoiding physical
resettlement or the need to disturb culturally sensitive features (eg cemetery).

Reconfiguration of the breakwaters: The initial configuration of the


breakwaters in a mainly north-south orientation was revised to account for
coastal current and to minimise the effects on coastal sediment transport
from the west to the east. The breakwaters are now oriented in a more
south-westerly manner.

Reconfiguration of the access roads: The access road between


Asemdasuazo and Atuabo was re-designed for better access between
communities after implementation of the Project. The design team
subsequently revised the proposed access route and the updated layout
and Project site boundary to allow the road to pass to the east of the
airstrip rather than be routed around the airstrip.

Refinement of the site boundary: The site boundary was revised such
that the Asemdasuazo community is not isolated from the all of the
surrounding fields currently used for farming.

Location of the airstrip: The airstrip was sited to avoid the communities
and to minimise the effects of noise. Noise emissions’ modelling was
conducted to determine emissions levels and confirm the location and
buffer areas.

The results of this site refinement process are shown in Figure 3.24below.

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Figure 3.24 Different Layout Options for the Proposed Project facilities
4 BIOPHYSICAL BASELINE

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The biophysical baseline survey is a description of the current biophysical


environment of the Project site and surrounding area. This chapter presents an
overview of the terrestrial and marine aspects of the environment which may be
directly or indirectly affected by the proposed Project infrastructure and
activities. In this way this baseline can also be used to develop mitigation
measures which will ensure that the present state of the environment is upheld as
far as possible.

For the purposes of this chapter the area of influence is considered to be the direct
Project footprint including the marine infrastructure, dredging disposal sites and
environment immediately surrounding the Project site. The Study Area for air
and noise extends to the wider area including the three neighbouring
communities of Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo.

The information on the biophysical baseline is derived from published sources as


well as from the dry season field surveys that were conducted during April 2012.
The laboratory analysis of all groundwater and soil sample analysis was
conducted by ESL Consulting. Information is also drawn from secondary data
sourced from the EIA report for the development of the Jubilee Field, as well as
published journal articles and online sources.

4.2 CLIMATE AND METEOROLOGY

The regional climate is controlled by two air masses: one over the Sahara desert
(tropical continental) and the other over the Atlantic Ocean (maritime). These
two air masses meet at the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). During the
boreal winter, the tropical continental air from the northern anticyclone over the
Sahara brings in north-easterly trade winds which are dry and have a high dust
load. During the boreal summer, warm humid maritime air reaches inland over
the region. In general, the region is characterised by two distinct climatic periods,
namely the dry and wet seasons.

The coastal part of the western region is influenced by the dry North-East Trade
Winds and the wet South-West Monsoon Winds of West Africa. The north-south
oscillation of the warm, humid south westerly winds and the hot, dry north
easterly winds of the ITCZ determines the two main seasons in this area (the dry

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season and the wet season). The dry season usually begins in late September or
early October and ends in April while the wet season usually starts from May
and ends in October. The dry season is characterized by the dry dusty wind
blowing across the Sahara Desert from the northwest coast of Africa while the
wet season brings in rains. The hazy dry north-east wind is locally called
Harmattan. The prevailing wind is from the south-west and the swell direction is
predominantly from the south to south west. The region experiences few storms
and moderate wave action.

Meteorological conditions in the western region are characterised by relatively


stable temperatures throughout the year. Daily maximum temperatures range
from an average of 27°C from July to September and between 30 and 31°C
between November and April. The mean daily temperature ranges between 21
and 23°C. Average relative humidity shows a consistent daily variation, reaching
95 percent overnight and decreasing to 70 percent to 80 percent during the day
(HPI, 2009). The Project area is located in between two weather stations of the
Ghana Meteorological Agency, Axim on the east and Half Assini on the west.
Data from these two stations was be used to describe the climatic conditions in
the Project area.

4.2.1 Rainfall

Generally, in Ghana there are two rainy seasons, the first begins in May and ends
in mid-July and the second begins in late August and ends in October. The
average annual rainfall is about 730 mm. Half Assini and Axim experience
rainfall throughout the year. The average rainfall recorded in the Project area
during the last ten year period ranged from 0 to 1290.2 mm.

A bi-modal pattern is observed with peaks in May - June and October -


November (Figure 4.1.). During the peak periods, Half Assini records slightly
higher rainfall than Axim. Mean peak value for Half Assini in June is about 568.3
mm and the mean peak value for Axim is about 479.0 mm, normally in June.
Both stations experience lowest rainfall in January of 33.9 mm and 50.9 mm for
Half Assini and Axim respectively.

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Figure 4.1 Average Monthly Rainfall for Half Assini and Axim from 2002 to 2011

Source: Ghana Meteorological Agency, 2012.

4.2.2 Temperature

The Project Area is relatively warm with very little variation throughout the year.
The average temperature is higher between February to May and from November
to December with peak temperatures recorded in March. Lower temperatures for
the two areas were recorded between June and October with the coolest month
usually being August. In Axim, the mean monthly temperature ranges from
23.57°C in August (the coolest) to 31.53°C in March (the hottest) while in Half
Assini, the coolest month is August with a temperature average of 23.7°C and
March is the hottest with a temperature average of 32.35°C (Figure 4.2).

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Figure 4.2 Monthly Average Temperature for Axim and Half Assini from 2002 to 2011

Source: Ghana Meteorological Agency, 2012.

4.2.3 Relative Humidity

Average relative humidity shows a consistent daily variation, reaching over 95


percent overnight and decreasing to 70 to 80 percent during the day (HPI, 2009).
The relative humidity tends to be slightly higher in Half Assini than in Axim.
Mean monthly relative humidity (RH) values for early morning (at 0600 GMT)
and mid-afternoon (at 1500 GMT) for Axim and Half Assini are presented in
Figure 4.3. The morning values range from 90 to 94 percent and 94.6 to 96.3
percent for Axim and Half Assini respectively. This suggests a westward
decrease in morning humidity regimes. The afternoon values also indicate a
similar trend with values ranging from 71 to 82 percent and 79.6 to 87.1 percent
for Axim and Half Assini respectively. Humidity over the sea, according to the
US Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World, varies between 80 and 85 percent
throughout the year (Jubilee EIA, 2009).

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Figure 4.3 Average Monthly Relative Humidity for Axim and Half Assini from 2002 to 2011

Source: Ghana Meteorological Agency, 2012.

4.2.4 Wind

Surface atmospheric circulation in the region is largely influenced by north and


south trade winds and the position of the ITCZ. Onshore wind direction for
Axim almost consistently from south-westerly such that the average wind
direction from 2002 – 2011 at Axim (1) was measured as from the southwest except
for January and February 2006 (westerly) (Ghana Meteorological Agency, 2012).
The wind direction in the Project Area can confidently be considered to be
southwest. During the day the wind circulation is generally from southwest
while at night it is usually from northwest due to a land breeze which occurs at
night. However, inter-annual variability in direction occurs for some months.

(1) There was no wind data from the Ghana Meteorological Agency’s station at Half Assini thus data from Axim was used

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The average monthly wind speed for Axim ranges between 2.4 and 3.2 knots for
the past ten years (Figure 4.4.). Over the past ten years, averagely wind speeds
tend to be low from November to January and increases in speed from February
to October with a slight decrease in May. Winds speeds normally range between
4.3 – 10.8 knots. Daily wind speeds are lowest during the night and early
morning and highest in mid-afternoon. Extreme high winds are caused by
squalls (storms), associated with the leading edge of multi-cell thunderstorms
(Jubilee EIA, 2009).

Figure 4.4 Average Monthly Wind Speed for Axim from 2002 to 2011.

Source: Ghana Meteorological Agency, 2012.

4.2.5 Oceanography

The Project site is located on the coast of western Ghana, of the Gulf of Guinea.
The oceanography of the Gulf of Guinea is largely influenced by the
meteorological and oceanographic processes of the South and North Atlantic
Oceans. The circular ocean currents called gyral (Fontaine et al, 1999; Merle and
Arnault, 1985) drive the oceanographic processes in the region.

Currents

The thermal cycle occurs in the upper two elements of the water column which
together form the tropical surface water mass. There are three main water
current systems influencing the movement of water masses in the region of the
Project site. These are the eastward flowing Guinea Current, a small westward
counter current and the westward flowing south Equatorial current (Bernacesk,
1986 and Armah, 1987), as shown in Figure 4.5. In addition, the oceanic gyral
currents of the North and South Atlantic Oceans create a counter current, the
Equatorial Counter Current (ECC) which becomes known as the Guinea Current
(Figure 4.6) as it flows from Senegal to Nigeria.

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Figure 4.5 Major Current Systems Influencing the Gulf of Guinea

Source: WACS PER, 2010

The principal current along the Ghana coastline is the Guinea Current, which is
an offshoot of the Equatorial Counter Current (EEC). The ECC (Figure 4.5) is
driven by westward wind stress. When this subsides during February to April
and October to November, the direction of the ECC is reversed. The Guinea
Current (Figure 4.6) reaches a maximum strength between May and July during
the strongest South-West Monsoon Winds when it peaks at 1 to 2 knots
[approximately 1 m/s]. For the rest and greater part of the year, the current is
weaker.

Near the coast, the strength of the current is attenuated by locally generated
currents and winds. The current is less persistent near-shore than farther
offshore. Geotropic effects induce the tendency of the Guinea Current to drift
away from the coast especially during its maximum strength.

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Figure 4.6 The Guinea Current

Source: Jubilee EIA, 2009

The coastal surface currents are predominantly wind-driven and confined to a


layer approximately 10 - 40 m in diameter. Littoral drift, main driving force
behind local coastal circulation, is predominantly generated by breaking waves.
These littoral drifts generally flow in an eastward direction, with flow rates of less
than 1 m/s. They are also responsible for transporting large volumes of
sediments.

Stratification of Oceanic Water Masses

Water masses offshore the Ghanaian coast consist of five principal layers
(Longhurst, 1962). These are Tropical Surface Water (TSW); South Atlantic

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Central Water (SACW); Antarctic Deep Water (ADW); North Atlantic Deep
Water (NADW); and Antarctic Bottom Water (ABW).

The topmost layer is the Tropical Surface Water (TSW), warm and of variable
salinity which extends down to a maximum of about 45 m depending on the
seasonal position of the thermocline. Below the thermocline (which varies from 5
to 35 m) occurs the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, cool and high salinity)
down to a depth of about 700 m. Below this are consecutively, three cold layers,
namely the Antarctic Deep Water (ADP, 700-1,500 m), the North Atlantic Deep
Water (NADP, 1,500-3,500 m) and the Antarctic Bottom Water (ABW, 3,500-
3,800).

Sea surface Temperatures (SST) typically vary between 27 - 29°C, although strong
seasonal cooling occurs during the season related to coastal upwelling processes.
In general, the surface waters are much warmer than waters at greater depth.
Most of the year, the coastal waters are thermally stratified with a well-mixed
layer of warm, low salinity water (33.67 – 34.22 percent) 30 – 40 m above a sharp
thermocline. Salinity is at maximum (35.05 – 35.38 percent) below the
thermocline at 60 – 80 m depth. During upwelling, the thermocline weakens and
rises to the surface resulting in a vertically homogeneous salinity profile above
the shelf (Mensah and Anang, 1998)

Upwelling

Seasonal changes in the hydrographic regime come in the form of minor and
major upwelling events, alternating with periods of stratification (strong
thermocline). The position and dynamics of the upwelling are varied. The
movement of colder, nutrient-rich SACW from depth to replace TSW at the
surface, leading to the breaking of the thermocline, occurs in a process termed
Upwelling. This phenomenon results in increased primary productivity (Figure
4.7).

The major upwelling occurs from July through to September or October, while
between December and February, the surface waters tend to be slightly cooler,
indicating a minor upwelling. The rest of the year is characterised by the strong
thermocline fluctuating at depth between 10 and 40 m. The two upwelling
seasons are characterised by decreasing sea surface temperature (SST), typically
<25°C, increasing salinity and decreasing dissolved oxygen.

Seasonal coastal upwelling periodically modifies the physicochemical parameters


of the water masses and controls the biology of the sub-system (Minta, 2003). The
major and minor upwellings increase primary production thus has considerable
influence on the local fisheries in the sub-region. The upwelling influences the

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migratory patterns of pelagic fish and is linked with the marine fish catch. Years
of higher upwelling indices seem to coincide with those of high yield for the
Sardinella spp (Koranteng, 1991).

Figure 4.7 Primary Productivity (mg C m-2 d-1) Offshore Ghana during August and April.

Source: Sea Around Us Project, 2008

Tides and Waves

The nature of the tide on the coast of Ghana is regular and semi-diurnal (Armah
et al, 2003). The average range of neap and spring tides increases from west to
east. The tidal currents are low and have insignificant influences on coastal
processes except within tidal inlets.

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Waves reaching the shores of Ghana consist of swells originating from the
oceanic area around the Antarctica Continent and seas generated by locally
occurring winds (Noble-Denton, 2008). The coast is open south-south-easterly
long swells induced by dominant wind forcing over a large fetch in the South
Atlantic Ocean. Wave heights are generally between 0.9 m and 1.4 m and rarely
greater than 2.5m or more. During occasional swells, the wave amplitude may
peak to six meters.

Longshore Drift

Longshore drift is caused by wave and current action and is the primary method
of sediment transport. The wave regime described in this Section is characteristic
of strong sustained longshore drift that prevails along much of the coastline of
Ghana. Due to the orientation of the coastline, the Guinea Current arrives at the
coast of Ghana such that the waves are positioned at oblique angles of between 10
to 15 degrees to the coastline. As a result of this, longshore currents along the
Ghanaian coast (including the coastal area at the Project site) move
predominantly in an easterly direction, as is shown in Figure 4.8.

Figure 4.8 Coastline of Ghana showing the Net Direction of Longshore Drift

Source: Boateng (2006), adapted from Ly (1980) and Benneh and Dickson (1988)
Note: cross used to indicate approximate Project location.

The Ghanaian coastline can be divided into three regions based on


geomorphological features ie Eastern, Central and Western Coasts. The littoral
sediment is dominated by fluvial (river) sources across the length of the coastline,

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and sediments forming the beaches of the Western Coast region are likely from
the Ankobra and Tano rivers.

The Eastern and Central Coastal areas are considered high and medium energy
environments (Boateng, 2006), while the Western Coast is characterised by low
energy environment with wide, flat beaches backed with coastal lagoons.

Due to the general eastwards direction of longshore drift along the coast of
Ghana, and the relatively limited supply of sediment from areas to the west
(Tsidzi and Kumapley, 2001), coastal erosion has been found to be present within
all three of the coastal regions. Erosion is particularly significant along the
Eastern Coast, particularly in close proximity to the Volta delta due to the high
energy environment. The beaches along the Western Coast are however
generally considered to be stable (Tsidzi and Kumapley, 2001). Longshore
currents move eastwards at speeds averaging 0.2 – 0.4 m/s along this coastline
(Boateng, 2006).

4.3 BATHYMETRY AND SEABED TOPOGRAPHY

The continental shelf (200 m water depth) off the coast of the Western Region of
Ghana is at its narrowest (20 km wide) off Cape St Paul in the east and at its
widest (90 km) between Takoradi and Cape Coast in the west (Armah and
Amlalo, 1998). The continental slope is steep and the depths increase sharply
from approximately 100 m on the shelf, dropping to approximately 1,500 m at the
deepest part of the slope.

Ghana’s near shore area comprises various sediment types, varying from soft
sediment (mud and sandy-mud), sandy bottoms to hard bottoms (Martos et al,
1991). On the continental shelf, seabed sediments range from coarse sand on the
inner shelf to fine sand and dark grey mud on the outer shelf (Armah et al, 2004).
Sediments on the shelf and upper continental slope are predominantly
terrigenous (derived from erosion of rocks from land), with smaller amounts of
glauconite-rich (iron silicate) sediments, and biogenic carbonate from mollusc
shells.

4.4 GEOLOGY, SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY

4.4.1 Geology

Most of the coastal region of Ghana comprises of hard granites, granodiorites,


metamorphosed larva and pyroclastic rock. These formations would have been

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created during the Cretaceous period (135 million years ago). In some cases these
coastal formations are covered by Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian sandstone
and shale (HPI, 2009).

The project area lies within the Western Region of Ghana and forms the
southernmost part of the Ashanti volcanic belt. The area has a comparatively
prominent morphology, defined by NE-SW trending ranges of hill mostly
underlain by volcanic rocks. The geology of south western Ghana is dominated
by greenstone belts composed of mafic volcanic rocks and intervening basins
typically consisting of fine-grained deep marine sediments metamorphosed at
green schist facies. The sedimentary rocks of the Tano Basin, which includes the
project area, are grouped together as “Apollonian System” of the lower
cretaceous, Mesozoic rocks. These rocks overlie a pre-Cambrian basement of
metamorphic rocks known as the Birimian System. The Birimian rocks are
schists, phyllites and greywackes.

The rocks of the project area comprises of limestone, marl, mudstone with
intercalated sandy beds and may be divided as follows from older to younger in
ascending succession:

Unit I: Beach deposits of loose sand with occasional layers of clays and shaly
clays.

Unit II: Nauli-type limestones with interbedded black-shaly clays.

Unit III: Sandstones with minor shales.

Unit IV: Conglomerates consisting of beds of pebbles and cobbles of igneous


and metamorphic rocks firmly cemented with calcareous cement.

Unit V: Sandstones with minor shales.

Unit VI: Black carbonaceous shales. The unit is entirely composed of thin-
bedded black, carbonaceous shales which are separated from each other by
much thinner layers of grey silt. The black shales are very rich in
carbonaceous matter.

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Figure 4.9 Geological map of south western Ghana

Source: Ghana Geological Survey Department, 2009

Higher ground in the region, which is considered to represent a deeply dissected


peneplain, reaches elevations of 70-120 m above sea level and rises distinctly
above the adjoining lower ground, which is frequently underlain by intrusive
rocks and does not exceed 50 m in elevation. The terrain covered by basin
sediments and Cretaceous rocks is very flat and swampy in most parts.

With regards to seismic activity, southern Ghana is not considered a highly active
area; however it is capable of experiencing significant earthquakes (HPI, 2009).

The crustal evolution of coastal Ghana was characterised by the development of a


series of spatially restricted shallow, mostly marine coastal basins roughly along
a line running close to the present-day Ghanaian coastline during the
Phanerozoic eon about 540 million years ago. The Phanerozoic constitutes the
age of multicellular animal life on Earth. During this time micro- and
multicellular organisms left a detailed fossil record, and built up complex and
diverse ecosystems. Oil in commercial quantities has recently been discovered in
the Phanerozoic coastal basins offshore the project area.

Extensional coastal basin formation began as early as the Ordovician (Sekondian


Group) and was followed by formation of basins represented by the Devonian

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(Accraian Group), the Upper Jurassic (Amisian Group) and the Upper Lower
Cretaceous (Apollonian Group). Sedimentation in coastal basins continued as
evidenced by Tertiary and Quaternary clastic sediments widespread in the Keta
and Tano basins (Figure 4.8).

4.4.2 Soils

The major soils of the area are forest and savanna ochrosols, which are usually
red and brown in colour and moderately well-drained. Fertile soils exist in the
low lying coastal regions as a result of the previous dominance of thick coastal
forests combined with high levels of rainfall (CRC-URI, 2010).

Soil samples for analysis were taken at depth intervals of 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm
at the sampling points shown in Figure 4.10. A composite sample made up of
equal samples from all the depth intervals was also prepared. These samples
were analysed to determine the pH, conductivity, nutrients, soil elements, soil
organics and organic matter content.

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Figure 4.10 Location of Soil, Air, Noise and Water Sampling Study Sites in the Vicinity of the Project area

Note: The sample at the stream at Eikwe is located to the east of the Project site.
pH and Conductivity

The soil samples were found to be acidic, ranging in pH from 4.70 to 6.20 and
with an average pH value of 5.52±0.48. The pH increased moderately in all the
levels towards the sea at S 3 (ATU-03) although there was no discernible pattern
between the profile depths. Average conductivity of the soil samples was
0.05±0.06 mS/cm and ranged between 0.01 and 0.22 mS/cm.

Figure 4.11 Distribution of pH Levels across the Soil Profile Pits

Notes: These labels refer to the following sites on the sampling locations map: ATU-01 = S1, ATU-02
= S2 and ATU-03 = S3

Nitrate and Phosphorus

Average concentration of nitrate in the soil samples was found to be 0.42±0.13


mg/l with a range of 0.21 to 0.56 mg/l. Nitrate levels were elevated in the top
soil layers (ie 0-25 cm) as well as in the composite samples (Figure 4.12). Average
levels of phosphorus values in the soil sample were 4.66±1.24 mg/l with a range
of 3.08 to 7.1 mg/l and were higher in the top soils (0-25 cm) compared to the
other profile depths. This is as would be expected an agricultural land use and is
likely as a result of the higher levels of organic matter.

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Figure 4.12 Distribution of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Levels across the Soil Profile Pits

Notes: These labels refer to the following sites on the sampling locations map: ATU-01 = S1, ATU-02
= S2 and ATU-03 = S3

Oil and Grease and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH)

The results of the oil and grease, and TPH in the soil samples are presented in
Table 4.1. As would be expected considering the rural nature of the site, the oil
and grease and TPH concentrations were low across the site, indicating a largely
uncontaminated site.

The concentration of oil and grease ranged from 1- 3 ppm with an average of
1.00±1.04 ppm. A similar trend was observed for TPH levels in soil samples with
a minimum value of 1 ppm and a maximum value of 4 ppm and an average of
2.42±1.24 ppm.

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Table 4.1 Concentrations of Oil & Grease and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in soil
samples

SID Oil and grease (ppm) TPH (ppm)


ATU-01 (0-0.25 m) 1.00 2.00
ATU-01 (0.25-0.50 m) 1.00 1.00
ATU-01 (0.50-0.75 m) 1.00 4.00
ATU-01 composite 3.00 3.00
ATU-02 (0-0.25 m) 0.00 1.00
ATU-02 (0.25-0.50 m) 1.00 1.00
ATU-02 (0.50-0.75 m) 0.00 4.00
ATU-02 composite 1.00 3.00
ATU-03 (0-0.25 m) 1.00 2.00
ATU-03 (0.25-0.50 m) 0.00 1.00
ATU-03 (0.50-0.75 m) 0.00 4.00
ATU-03 composite 3.00 3.00
Notes: These labels refer to the following sites on the sampling locations map: ATU-01 = S1, ATU-02
= S2 and ATU-03 = S3

Heavy Metals in Soil Samples

The levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in the soil samples were found
to be below laboratory detection levels (<100 ppt). The other trace/heavy metals
analysed showed varied levels in the soil with declension in average
concentration following the sequence as Ni>Cu>Al>Zn=Mg>Cr>Fe>Cd>Pb.
According to this sequence, the levels of nickel, copper and aluminium in the soil
were relatively high, likely reflecting the natural the rock composition in the area
and any anthropogenic contribution could pose environmental concern.

A summary table of heavy metal soil concentrations is included as Table 4.2.


below.

Table 4.2 Concentration of Heavy Metals in Soils of the Proposed Atuabo Project Area

SID Cd Pb Cu Cr Al Ni Zn Mg Hg Fe Mn
µg/kg µg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
ATU-01
(0-0.25 m) 25.61 34.63 168.95 10.93 41.74 392.57 18.88 18.88 <0.001 1.49 <0.01
ATU-01
(0.25-
0.50m) 34.73 9.70 164.11 3.96 40.61 658.68 16.84 16.84 <0.001 3.47 <0.01
ATU-01
(0.50-0.75
m) 22.16 10.38 159.14 7.96 35.81 497.31 16.71 16.71 <0.001 2.98 <0.01
ATU-01
COMP 47.84 6.98 184.45 0.80 53.84 478.56 17.75 17.75 <0.001 6.48 <0.01

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SID Cd Pb Cu Cr Al Ni Zn Mg Hg Fe Mn
µg/kg µg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
ATU-02
(0-0.25 m) 31.98 76.40 169.19 5.97 40.80 403.07 17.12 17.12 <0.001 3.98 <0.01
ATU-02
(0.25-0.50
m) 19.69 37.33 164.05 0.50 33.80 521.97 20.48 20.48 <0.001 2.98 <0.01
ATU-02
(0.50-0.75
m) 21.88 6.78 144.71 3.99 35.93 444.11 41.92 41.92 <0.001 2.50 <0.01
ATU-02
COMP 26.92 11.15 173.47 1.19 58.49 446.07 31.42 31.42 <0.001 7.43 <0.01
ATU-03
(0-0.25 m) 49.97 44.10 189.09 19.90 40.80 373.21 23.49 23.49 <0.001 2.79 <0.01
ATU-03
(0.25-0.50
m) 17.67 12.27 168.85 4.97 34.76 645.61 35.96 35.96 <0.001 3.38 <0.01
ATU-03
(0.50-0.75
m) 15.94 4.64 144.97 13.00 33.99 609.88 19.80 19.80 <0.001 1.00 <0.01
ATU-03
COMP 15.51 3.95 159.62 1.70 55.87 558.66 35.32 35.32 <0.001 2.49 <0.01
Notes: These labels refer to the following sites on the sampling locations map: ATU-01 = S1, ATU-02
= S2 and ATU-03 = S3

Nickel levels were reported at an average value of 502.48±98.08 mg/kg with a


range of 373.21 to 658.68 mg/kg. The average concentration of copper in the soil
ranged from 144.71 to 189.09 mg/kg with an average of 165.88 mg/kg. Copper
and its compounds are naturally present in the earth's crust and rock, either in its
pure form or in compounds. Both nickel and copper levels were therefore above
the critical level of 100 mg/ kg suggested by EPA/ROC (1989). Geological,
meteorological, and biological processes disperse copper into the air, soil, and
water as well as into organisms. Human activity also accounts for much of the
copper found in air, soil, and water as industrial operations such as smelters,
foundries, power stations, incinerators and other combustion sources emit copper
into the atmosphere, where it can return to the earth in precipitation.

Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust, making up


approximately 7 percent of the mass of the earth crust. Aluminium is not an
essential element for either plants or animals and excess soluble or available
aluminium (Al3+) is toxic to plants. Average Aluminium concentration in the
soils in the vicinity of the project site was found to be 42.20 mg/kg and ranging
between 33.99 and 33.80 mg/kg.

Cadmium in soils is derived from natural and anthropogenic sources. Cadmium


is much less mobile in soils than in air and water. The major factors governing

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cadmium speciation, adsorption and distribution in soils are pH, soluble organic
matter content, hydrous metal oxide content, clay content and type, presence of
organic and inorganic ligands ( ion or molecule able to bond to a central metal
atom), and competition from other metal ions. Cadmium occurs in the earth’s
crust at an abundance of 0.1–0.5 ppm and exposure is known to potentially cause
the following health effects in humans: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle
cramps, salivation, sensory disturbances, liver injury, convulsions, shock and
renal failure and can cause kidney, liver, bone and blood damage during long
time exposure. The average cadmium levels identified in the Project area were
found to be 27.49 µg/kg (ie ranging from 15.51-49.97µg/kg). this is less than the
limit suggested by the EPA/ROC (1989) of 10 mg/kg of dry soil.

Lead is a naturally occurring element and exposure to lead may cause a range of
health effects from behavioural problems and learning disabilities to seizures and
death. Natural levels of lead in soil range between 50 parts per million (ppm)
and 400 ppm. Mining, smelting, and refining activities have resulted in
substantial increases in lead levels in the environment, and lead concentration in
soils is an important indicator of local industrial contamination. Average
concentration of lead in the samples was found to be 21.53µg/l with a minimum
and maximum value of 3.95 and 76.40 µg/l respectively. This is below the
permitted level as suggested by EPA/ROC (1989) of 120 mg/kg and therefore
confirms the rural nature of the Project site..

Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil,


and in volcanic dust and gases. Chromium enters soil as chromium (III) and
chromium (VI) through natural processes as well as human activities. Chromium
in soils attaches to soil particles and as a result is not particularly soluble in
groundwater. Chromium concentration in the soils samples analysed ranged
from 0.50 to 19.90 mg/kg with an average value of 6.24±5.86 mg/kg. The
suggested critical level of Chromium in dry soil is 16 mg/kg (EPA/ROC 1989)
and most of the samples recorded levels below this limit.

4.4.3 Terrestrial Topography

The coastline where the Project site is located is comprised of regular sandy
beaches with no headlands or rocky outcrops. The hinterland is generally low
lying and relatively flat. These costal low lying areas extend inland after which
the topography of the region becomes hilly.

Beach Profiling

The shores of Ghana have been reported to exhibit variable beach morphology.
Furthermore, coastal erosion, flooding, and shoreline retreat are serious problems

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along the coast (Boateng, 2009). The eastern coast of Ghana and notably low-
lying areas such as the Volta Delta, Ada and Keta lagoon seem to be more
affected than the Western Region.

The topography of a beach determines the effect of wave energy on that beach.
An important feature of beach profiles is their overall gradient, ie the average
slope between seaward and landward limits which can be either steep or shallow
(Pethick, 1984). Textural properties of beach sediments and the size of waves
have been documented to significantly influence beach slope variation (King,
1959).

The study measured the beach profile at six points (Figure 4.13) in the vicinity of
the proposed Project site to provide a baseline of the beach topography. The full
report on the beach profiling study is reported at Annex B6 with a summary of
the major results presented here. Refer to Annex J for a topographical map
illustrating the shoreline topography of the proposed Project site and
surroundings.

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Figure 4.13 Locations of Beach Profile, Intertidal and Fisheries Sampling
Beach profiles for all the six points are provided in Annex B6. Beach gradient
(height: distance) measured for all the sites, revealed that approximately 80
percent of the stations showed relatively high gradients. Generally, the beach
within the Project area exhibited a moderate profile, with intermittent sharp
scarps at certain stations. The mean beach width recorded during the study
was 29.55 m. Stations BP 3 and BP 4 had similar profile and revealed very
gentle slopes. Alternatively, stations BP 1 and BP 2 (both close to Atuabo
Town) showed steep profiles with sharp scarps alluding to the impact of
shore waves causing erosion of the beach material. Although the greater part
of the project area appeared firm in terms of beach stability, erosion along the
beach profile was observed near the water level at stations BP 1 and BP 2.

4.5 HYDROLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY

4.5.1 Regional Hydrogeology

Two main hydrogeological provinces are found within Ghana, namely the
Basement Complex (consisting of Precambrian crystalline igneous and
metamorphic rocks) and the Palaeozoic consolidated sedimentary formation
(Voltain formation). The Basement Complex and the Voltaian formation
cover 54 percent and 45 percent of Ghana respectively. The Cenozoic and
Mesozoic sediments form the remaining 1 percent of the rock cover, including
that within the south western regions of Ghana, including the Project site.

The Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments occur mainly in the extreme south
eastern part of the country (ie the location of the Project site). Three aquifers
occur in this formation:

upper unconfined freshwater aquifer in the sandy layer;


intermediate saltwater aquifer in sandy clays; and
deep freshwater aquifer in limestone.

Diagrammatically the upper two aquifers occur as depicted in Figure 4.14.

The first aquifer is a sandy unconfined aquifer and occurs in the recent sand
close to the coast. It is between 2 m and 4 m deep and contains fresh meteoric
water. The intermediate aquifer is either semi-confined or confined and
occurs mainly in the Red Continental deposits of sandy clay and gravels. The
depth of this aquifer varies from 6 m to 120 m, and it contains mostly saline
water. The third aquifer is a deep limestone aquifer, which varies in depth
between 120 m and 300 m. The groundwater in this aquifer occurs under
artesian condition and is fresh.

Recharge to the freshwater aquifer systems is mainly by direct infiltration of


precipitation through fracture and fault zones along the highland fronts and

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also through the sandy portions of the weathered zone. Some amount of
recharge also occurs through seepage from ephemeral stream channels during
the rainy seasons. The infiltration of saltwater occurs from the sea and there
is an interface of the fresh water and saltwater at some depth, deeper away
from the coast line but still generally shallow across the coastal strip.

Figure 4.14 Diagram Showing the Two Upper Aquifers along the Coast

Source: USGS, 2003

4.5.2 Groundwater Quality

Groundwater sampling was carried out in the dry season by assessing the
characteristics of water samples taken from hand dug community wells in
each of the three communities. The locations of these wells and those of the
surface water sampling locations are presented in (hand dug well sites are
WS 1, WS 4 and WS 6). The water in these wells is considered potable by
local residents. The depth of the water table is high and varies slightly across
the Project site.

The assessment of the groundwater drawdown and groundwater interactions


of the seasonal wetland system has been based on professional opinion and
available secondary baseline data, and dry season primary baseline sampling.
No predictive modelling has been undertaken. Further details on the
groundwater users close to the site and the extent of the inundated areas
during the wet season will be investigated during wet season sampling. The
results of the wet season sampling will be appended to the Final ESIA Report
for submission to EPA..

In terms of the quality of local groundwater, the full report for the water
quality analysis is included in Annex B, while summaries are provided below.
A summary of each sampling location is provided in Table 4.3.

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Table 4.3 Description of Surface and Ground Water Sampling Locations

SID Samplin Co-ordinates Water Description


g Name Syste Community
m
ATU-1(LT) IT 1 N 04° 58′ 43.5″ Sea Low tide seawater at
W 002° 33′ 22.6″ water Atuabo east of the project
area
ATU-2 (LT) IT 2 N 04° 58′ 29.5″ Atuabo Low tide seawater at
W 002° 32′ 10.6″ Atuabo at the mid-way
of the project area
ATU-1 IT 1 N 04° 58′ 43.5″ High tide seawater at
(HT) W 002° 33′ 22.6″ Atuabo east of the project
area
ATU-2 IT 2 N 04° 58′ 29.5″ High tide seawater at
(HT) W 002° 32′ 10.6″ Atuabo at the mid-way
of the project area
ANO-1 IT 3 N 04° 58′ 21.3″ Low tide seawater at
(LT) W 002° 31′ 22.1″ Anokyi Anokyi
ANO- (HT) IT 3 High tide seawater at
Anokyi
ATU-HW WS 4 N 04° 58′ 54.1″ Groun Atuabo Community well at
W 002° 33′ 26.5″ d Atuabo
ASE-HW WS 6 N 04° 59′ 23.6″ water Asemdasuazo Community hand dug
W 002° 32′ 22.8″ well at Asemdasuazo
ANO-HW WS 1 N 04° 58' 25.6 Anokyi Community hand dug
W 002° 31' 19.2 well at Anokyi
EKW-BR WS 9 N 04° 59' 06.9 Surface Eikwe Stream at Eikwe at the
W 002° 26' 26.9 water bridge
ASM-STR WS 7 N 04° 59′ 39.5″ Stream north of
W 002° 32′ 23.5″ Asemdasuazo Asemdasuazo
ASM-PD WS 8 N 04° 58′ 46.1″ Fresh water pond
W 002° 31′ 56.5″ southeast of
Asemdasuazo
Note: There are no established names for the two streams at WS9 and WS7 and are considered
tributaries of the Amansuri system

Temperature and pH

The average temperature of the ground water samples (from hand dug wells)
were found to be 28.25±1.50 ºC, ranging from a minimum value of 26.75 ºC to
a maximum value of 29.74 ºC. There are no WHO standards for the
temperature of drinking water. However, high water temperature in a well
will increase the extent at which elements dissolve in the water hence
affecting its quality.

The pH of the shallow well samples in the each of the three communities were
found to be near neutral with an average pH of 6.97 with a minimum pH of
6.74 to a maximum value of 7.36. pH values fall within the WHO standard of
6.5-8.5.

The community well at Atuabo recorded slightly higher values of temperature


and pH (Figure 4.15.) than at Anokyi and Asemdasuazo.

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Figure 4.15 Distribution of Water Temperature and pH for Groundwater Samples
(community hand dug wells)

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6 and ANO-HW = WS 1.

Total Dissolved Solids, Conductivity and Resistivity

The total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration measures the amount of


substances dissolved in the water samples while the conductivity measures
the electrical conductance as a result of the presence of dissolved ions. The
United States Pharmacopeia (USP) states that the maximum permissible
conductivity of drinking water at a pH of approximately 7, should be below
5.8 µS/cm (micro siemens per centimetre) (Drinking Water Standards, 2003 ).
High concentrations of TDS may affect taste adversely and deteriorate
plumbing and appliances and there are WHO health-based limited for
drinking water. The WHO has identified that TDS concentrations below 1000
mg/l are normally acceptable to consumers (WHO, 1996).

The average TDS and electrical conductivity values of the groundwater


samples were 0.21±0.06 mg/l and 0.32±0.10 mS/cm respectively, which are
well below the generally accepted TDS limits. The community hand dug well
at Asemdasuazo recorded the highest conductivity and TDS values followed
by the Community hand dug well at Anokyi which was slightly higher than
the Community well at Atuabo (Figure 4.16.)

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Figure 4.16 Conductivity and Dissolved Solids Concentrations of Groundwater Samples

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6 and ANO-HW = WS 1.

Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids

Turbidity measures the light scattering properties of water samples relative to


a standard (in this case formazine) while total suspended solids (TSS)
measurement determines the amount of matter suspended in the water
samples. Turbidity and TSS both affect the aesthetic qualities of water and
may indicate problems such as silt, chemicals and/or contamination.
Twenty-five percent of the water samples were found to have turbidity values
outside of the WHO guidelines (0-5 NTU).

The average turbidity of the ground water samples was 1.25±0.16 NTU and
ranged from 1.13 to 1.43 NTU. The community hand dug well at Anokyi
recorded the highest turbidity value (1.43 mg/l) while the average TSS value
was 8.0 mg/l with a range of 6.0 and 9.0 mg/l. The samples at Atuabo and
Anokyi recording similar concentrations, which were slightly higher than that
reported in Asemdasuazo (Figure 4.17).

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Figure 4.17 Distribution of Turbidity and Suspended Solids Concentrations across
Groundwater Sample Stations.

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6 and ANO-HW = WS 1.

Nutrient (nitrates, phosphate and silicate)

Nitrates generally occur in trace quantities in surface water but high levels
may occur in some groundwater sources. Excessive concentrations of nitrates
may contribute to methemoglobinemia in infants, a blood disorder in which
an abnormal amount of methemoglobin (form of haemoglobin is produced).
A limit of 10 mg/litre is usually imposed on drinking water in order to
prevent this disorder. Average nitrate value in the ground water samples was
1.45±1.24 mg/l ranging from 0.24 to 2.71 mg/l. The nitrate values for two of
the three samples were lower than the WHO guideline value of 0.2 mg/l for
short-term although the one value above this level indicates a potential
sensitivity to increased nitrate levels. The community hand dug well at
Asemdasuazo recorded the highest concentration of nitrates, silicate and
orthophosphate followed by Anokyi and Atuabo groundwater samples
(Figure 4.18.).

Orthophosphate levels ranged from 0.1 (Atuabo) to 3.70 mg/l (Asemdasuazo)


with an average value of 2.27±1.91 mg/l. Phosphorus occurs in natural
waters solely as phosphates with a concentration of approximately 0.02 mg/l.
Phosphate sources in water include leaching from agriculture lands where it is
applied as fertilizer, or from domestic waste water. Although the WHO does
not regulate the amount of phosphate permissible in drinking water, they

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recommend a safe level of 5 mg/l and a recommended daily allowance (RDA)
total of 800 mg. The phosphate levels within the study area are therefore
above those considered to be natural, and are indicative of the agricultural
land use and potential use of fertilisers in the area, although do not pose a
health hazard to local communities.

There are low levels of silicates recorded for the three communities, with the
highest concentration of silicate at Asemdasuazo, followed by the Anokyi
(Figure 4.18.). No limits are prescribed for silicate levels.

Figure 4.18 Nutrient Levels across Groundwater Sampling Stations.

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6 and ANO-HW = WS 1.

Elemental Analysis (Heavy/Trace metals)

The effects of heavy metals in water range from beneficial to dangerously


toxic. Some metals are essential to growth while others may adversely affect
local communities ingesting the through drinking water.

Cadmium and lead


Cadmium occurs in sulphide minerals that also contain zinc, lead or copper.
The solubility of cadmium in water is linked to the hardness of the water (the
lower the hardness, the lower the level of cadmium in the water). Cadmium
is extremely toxic and accumulates in the kidneys and liver, with prolonged
intake at low levels leading to kidney failure.

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The results of the groundwater samples showed some traces of cadmium
(Table 4.5). The levels of cadmium ranged from 0.1037 to 0.2188 µg/l with an
average value of 0.1741±0.06 µg/l, which are all below WHO drinking water
limits (0.003 mg/l equivalent to 3 µg/l).

The average lead concentration in the groundwater was 0.1613 µg/L, also far
lower than the WHO guideline of 10 µg/l.

Iron, Aluminium, Copper and Zinc


Almost all the water samples recorded iron concentration below the US EPA
drinking water standard of 0.3 mg/l. The WHO does not provide a drinking
water limit for iron, but water containing levels above the US EPA
recommended 0.3 mg/l level is known to cause a nuisance in terms of staining
laundry. A similar trend was observed for aluminium in the water samples
(where most samples were below 0.01 mg/l and the US EPA non-enforceable
guideline is 0.05 -0.2 mg/l). As with iron, the WHO does not provide a health
based limit for the amount of aluminium present in drinking water. This is
because high levels of aluminium in drinking water are not known to result in
direct health implications, but may cause cosmetic (such as skin or tooth
discolouration) or aesthetic (such as taste, odour or colour) effects (US EPA,
2012).

Copper concentrations in groundwater are usually less than 0.1 mg/l. Copper
is considered an essential trace element but some compounds may be toxic.
Excessive concentrations of copper in drinking water may lead to liver or
kidney damage. The maximum WHO guideline for copper is 2.0 mg/l. The
results showed copper levels in the various samples to be below the WHO
guideline with average value of 0.13±0.04 mg/l (Table 4.5). The copper
chronic toxic effect level in a marine environment is 3.1 mg/l (NOAA, 2009).

Average zinc concentration of the groundwater samples was 0.01 mg/l and
ranged from 0 to 0.01 mg/l and was below the US EPA drinking water limit of
5 mg/l. The WHO does not have a health based limit on the amount of zinc
in drinking water (WHO, 2012). The solubility of zinc in natural water is
controlled by adsorption to mineral surfaces, carbonate equilibrium and
organic complexes. Zinc is an essential growth element but elevated levels
may prove toxic to some aquatic life.

Nickel , Magnesium and Mercury


Nickel concentration of the groundwater samples (1.40-2.10 mg/l) were all
below laboratory detection limits (<0.001 mg/l).

Average magnesium concentration in the borehole water samples was 12.67


mg/l ranging from 9- 13.0 mg/l.

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Mercury is extremely toxic to human health and accumulates in the kidneys
and liver, with prolonged intake at low levels leading to kidney failure. The
WHO recommended drinking water limit for mercury is 0.002 mg/l. The
results showed mercury levels in the water samples to be below laboratory
detection limits (<100 ppt) (Table 4.5).

Microbial Content

The microbial load of the freshwater water samples analysed (1) (Figure 4.10.)
is presented in the Table 4.4.. The results indicate a widespread load of total
heterotrophic bacteria counts with the community borehole at Atuabo
dominating the total heterotrophic bacteria contamination.

None of the boreholes samples meet the WHO Guideline (for all the microbial
parameters measured) and E. coli levels are within the range (0-1000
cfu/100ml) to be considered as high (WHO, 2006), indicating contamination,
likely from anthropogenic sources such as sewage and organic wastes. The
total heterotrophic bacteria concentrations (ranging between 68 and 1344
cfu/100ml) also exceeded the Ghanaian standard for four of the six samples
(Ghanaian Specifications for Drinking Water, 2009).

Table 4.4 Microbial Concentrations of Groundwater and Surface Water Resources


(Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo)

SID Total Heterotrophic


Total Coliform Faecal Coliform E. Coli Bacteria
(cfu/100ml) (cfu/100ml) (cfu/100ml) (cfu/1ml)
ATU-HW 744 232 136 1536
ASE-HW 264 72 35 1024
ANO-HW 152 96 24 1152
EKW–BH 789 176 49 68
ASM-STR 14 0 0 120
ASM-PD 1395 796 16 1344
WHO Guideline Below detection Below detection Below detection Below detection limits
limits limits limits
Ghanaian 0 0 0 1000
Standard
Note: Water sampling labels correspond to the following locations on the sampling site map:
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6, ANO-HW = WS 1, EKW-BR = WS 9, ASM-STR = WS 7and
ASM-PD = WS 8

(1) Only groundwater and surface water samples were analysed for microbial content. These are considered the primary
receptors in terms of understanding microbial contamination of resources which form habitat for freshwater species and
used by local communities(drinking, domestic uses).

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Table 4.5 Trace/ Heavy Metal Concentrations of Groundwater and Surface Water Resources

SID Hg Cd Pb Cu Cr Al Ni Zn V Mg Fe Sn
Ppm Ppb ppb ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm
Ground Water
ATU-HW <0.001 0.2188 0.135 0.00 0.03 <0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03 16 <0.01 <0.01
ASE-HW <0.001 0.1037 0.2232 0.00 0.06 <0.01 0.00 0.00 <0.01 9 <0.01 <0.01
ANO-HW <0.001 0.1999 0.1258 0.04 0.02 <0.01 0.00 BDL <0.01 13 <0.01 <0.01
Surface Water
EKW -BR <0.001 3.486 2.808 0.16 0.11 <0.01 0.10 0.03 0.02 55 <0.01 <0.01
ASM-STR <0.001 4.016 3.152 0.30 0.21 0.05 0.30 0.02 <0.01 5 0.5 <0.01
ASM-PD <0.001 5.153 3.179 0.14 0.10 <0.01 0.00 0.00 0.03 12 <0.01 <0.01
Figure 4.19 Microbial Load in Groundwater, Surface Water Resources and Sea Water
(Atuabo)

4.5.3 Surface Water

Ghana’s western region experiences the country’s highest rainfall and as a result
many brackish and freshwater lagoons and wetlands occur in the low lying
coastal region of this province (Aggrey-Fynn et al, 2011 and Yankson 1999). An
increasing number of these lagoon and wetland systems are becoming degraded
due to the influence of anthropogenic activities (Aggrey-Fynn et al, 2011, Karikari
et al 2006). These regions are particularly important as they serve as ecotones
between freshwater, marine and terrestrial environments, and as a result exhibit
high species diversity and heterogeneous habitat types (Aggrey-Fynn et al, 2011
and Basset et al, 2006). These areas are typically surrounded by mangrove
forests.

The largest rivers in the west of the country are the Ankobra, Bia and Pra rivers,
with the Tano River forming part of the Ghana’s western border. The Amansuri
River is located to the north of the Project site and flows eastwards. The
Amansuri wetland system and seasonally inundated areas are situated from
approximately <1 km north and to the north west of the Project site (Figure 4.20).

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Figure 4.20 Estimated Amansuri wetland areas and Amansuri Lake as well as the assumed drainage basin of the Amansuri Wetland area
Lagoons and Wetlands

The largest lagoons in the region are the Domunli Lagoon near Half Assini
and the Amansuri Lagoon near Esiama. The Amansuri wetland is located to
the north and northwest of the Project site. These areas are seasonally flooded
up to a depth of approximately 1 m in some areas (Ramsar, 2012) and have
been proposed (but not designated) as a Ramsar wetland site (1) . This is the
largest freshwater marsh in the western region (approximately 8 000 ha), with
a catchment of approximately 1010 km3 (Ramsar, 2012). The wetland area
feeds into the Amansuri Lake (approximately 2.5 x 1 km in size) and finally
(via the Amansuri River) into the Amansuri coastal lagoon (further to the east,
at approximately 2°23’ W) - (FAO, 2012) (Figure 4.20.). The Amansuri system
which receives water from several streams including the Adenimumio, Evini,
Bosoke, Eivla and Myejini, drains to the east behind an elevated coastal area
(including the Project site), which obstructs drainage seawards (Ramsar,
2012). A second important wetland is the system of Tano, Aby and Ehy
lagoons on the south-western border with Ivory Coast. Six Ramsar wetlands
exist in the country (World Bank, 2006) but are located in the Volta and
Central Regions, ie are not located close to the Project site.

Table 4.6 Details of lagoons found within the projects area of influence

Name Latitude Longitude


Domunli Lagoon N 05°01.198' W 002°44.882'
Allenzule lagoon N 05°00.554' W002°41.635'
Twenen Lagoon N 05°00.345' W 002°40.684'
Elloenyi N 04°59.716 W 002°37.727'
Bakanta N 04°57.210'' W 002°25.601'

The low lying grasslands to the north of the community of Atuabo are
reportedly (by local community members) seasonally flooded during the wet
season and are considered to be a seasonal wetland area. There is evidence of
both ephemeral and permanent ponds located within this wetland area
(Figure 4.21). At the time of the field visit (dry season) only isolated
permanent ponds were present on the Project site close (southeast) to
Asemdasuazo. The permanent ponds identified in the vicinity of the Project
site at WS 8 (fresh water ponds at Asemdasuazo) (Table 4.3, Table 4.6) host
numerous fish species and play an important role in the livelihoods of the
local people, particularly from Asemdasuazo and Atuabo. In the dry season a
hand held grab net is used, whereas in the rainy season a trap/cylindrical
basket type system is used to catch species such as tilapia (see Chapter 5).

(1) Named after the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands held in Ramsar, India in 1971

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Local communities reported these permanent ponds to be approximately 2 ha
in dimension, but the local communities reported that they could grow as
much as ten times this size in the main rainy season, when they were flooded.
One of the ponds, sampled in this study is located within the Project site (WS
8, Figure 4.22). The pond was observed to contain a number of aquatic plant
species, which may serve as refugia for other aquatic fauna. Observations
also indicate that though the pond may contain appreciable tilapia species,
which are fished by local communities (the level of fishing is unknown).

It is possible that these water bodies are linked through upper aquifer
groundwater flow to the Amansuri system to the north and northwest but it is
not expected that these seasonal areas of inundation on the Project site are
connected to this system via surface water flows. The extent of the areas of
inundation across the Project site will be further investigated during the wet
season sampling, and results will be appended to the Final ESIA Report.

Figure 4.21 Fresh water Stream/ pond close (south east) to Asemdasuazo

Figure 4.22 Freshwater Ponds within the Project Site south east of Asemdasuazo

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Temperature and pH

The stream at Eikwe (further downstream of the sampling location at the


stream north of Asemdasuazo) and that north of Asemdasuazo recorded
temperatures of 28.03 °C and 25.83 °C respectively (Figure 4.23).

The pH of the stream at Asemdasuazo was mildly acidic (5.11) while that of
Eikwe (further along the Amansuri system) was moderately acidic (6.22).
These levels were outside of the WHO permissible range of 6.5-8.5. Pollution
can change water’s pH, which in turn can harm animals and plants living in
the water. The acidic nature of the surface water could be attributed to run-
offs high levels of exchangeable aluminium ions as a result of rock type and
human activities.

Figure 4.23 Water Temperature and pH Distribution of Surface Streams of Atuabo Area

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
EKW-BR = WS 9, ASM-STR = WS 7and ASM-PD = WS 8

Total Dissolved Solids, Conductivity and Resistivity of surface streams

The stream at Eikwe at the bridge recorded the highest conductivity and TDS
values among the surface water bodies as shown in Figure 4.24. The averaged
conductivity and TDS value of the surface water were 1.30±2.09 mS/cm and
0.85±1.36 mg/l respectively. There were high variability in both conductivity
and dissolved solids concentration between the sampled locations.

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Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids of surface streams

Elevated turbidity and TSS values were recorded at stream west of


Asemdasuazo, fresh water pond at Asemdasuazo and the stream at Eikwe
(Figure 4.25).

Figure 4.24 Conductivity and Dissolved Solids Concentrations in Surface Streams

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
EKW-BR = WS 9, ASM-STR = WS 7and ASM-PD = WS 8

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Figure 4.25 Distribution of Turbidity and Suspended Solids in Surface Streams at Atuabo
Area

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
EKW-BR = WS 9, ASM-STR = WS 7and ASM-PD = WS 8
Nutrient (nitrates, phosphate and silicate)

The highest value for orthophosphate was recorded for the stream west of
Asemdasuazo with a value of 28.80 mg/l followed by the stream at Eikwe
(close to the bridge), which was slightly higher than the fresh water pond at
Asemdasuazo (Figure 4.26.). The elevated concentration of orthophosphate in
the stream of west Asemdasuazo could be ascribed possibly to poor sanitary
conditions.

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Figure 4.26 Nutrient Levels across Surface Water Sampling Stations

Note: the stations presented here correspond to the following on the sampling locations map:
EKW-BR = WS 9, ASM-STR = WS 7and ASM-PD = WS 8

4.5.4 Trace/ Heavy Metal Analysis

Cadmium and Lead


The concentration of cadmium in surface water ranges between 3.486 – 5.153
µg/100ml, which is below the recommended drinking water standard for
cadmium is 10 µg/100ml.

The average lead concentration in surface water resources are higher than
groundwater levels and are recorded as 2.808, 3.152 and 3.179 µg/100ml, also
far lower than the WHO guideline of 10 µg/l.

Iron, Copper and Zinc


Two of the three surface water samples recorded iron concentration below
detection limits. The stream west of Asemdasuazo recorded a value of 0.5
mg/l, which is slightly higher than the US EPA drinking water standard of 0.3
mg/l. A similar trend was observed for aluminium in the water samples.

Copper concentrations in the surface water resources were all below the WHO
guideline for copper of 2.0 mg/l. The copper chronic toxic effect level in
marine environment is 3.1 mg/l (NOAA, 2009). The surface streams recorded
moderately higher copper with an average of 0.20±0.09 mg/l but this value is

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lower than the 9.0 mg/l of exposure concentration for chronic toxic effect in
surface water?(NOAA, 2009).

The zinc levels were recorded as 0.02 and 0.03 mg/ l and therefore below
detection limits and below the US EPA drinking water standard of 5 mg/ l.
The solubility of zinc in natural water is controlled by adsorption to mineral
surfaces, carbonate equilibrium and organic complexes and elevated levels
may be toxic to some aquatic life.

Microbial Content
The stream west of Asemdasuazo reported a faecal coliform and E. coli
concentrations of zero whiles the stream at Eikwe reported concentrations of
176 and 49 (cfu/100 ml) respectively for faecal coliform and E. coli (Table 4.5.
These are below the WHO Guideline (1000 cfu/ 100ml), indicating relatively
uncontaminated surface water resources. The elevated levels of faecal
coliform and E. coli at the Eikwe stream sampling location could be a result of
this site being downstream of a number of settlements being located between
the two sampling sites.

4.6 MARINE WATER QUALITY

4.6.1 Water Temperature and pH

The average temperature of low tide sea water samples was 26.86±1.220C with
a range between 25.870C and 29.190C. Average temperatures of the low tide
samples (27.0 °C) were moderately higher than that of the high tide samples
(26.71oC) as depicted in Figure 4.27.

The pH of both the low and high tide sea water samples were found to be
moderately alkaline with a minimum value of 8.17 and a maximum of 8.34.
However, the average pH of the high tide sea water samples (8.27) was
slightly higher than that of the low tide samples (8.24).

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Figure 4.27 Water Temperature and pH Distribution of Seawater Samples at Low and
High Tides

Note: The sampling sites referred to here, correspond to the following sites on the sampling
location map: ATU-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 1, ATU-2(LT)/ (HT) = IT 2, ANO-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 3;
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6

4.6.2 Total Dissolved Solids, Conductivity and Resistivity

Average conductivity and dissolved solids of the sea water samples was
49.46±0.23 mS/cm and 32.13 ±0.17 mg/l respectively. The dissolved solids
concentrations ranged between 39.90 mg/l and 32.95 mg/l. However,
average conductivity and TDS values of the high tide samples were slightly
higher than the low tide samples (Figure 4.28.). This could be attributed to
dilution of the seawater from land drainages during the low tide periods.

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Figure 4.28 Conductivity and Dissolved Solids Concentrations in Seawater Samples
during Low and High Tides

Note: The sampling sites referred to here, correspond to the following sites on the sampling
location map: ATU-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 1, ATU-2(LT)/ (HT) = IT 2, ANO-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 3;
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6

4.6.3 Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids

Average turbidity and TSS values of the sea water samples were 1.96±0.45
NTU and 10.67±1.37 mg/l respectively. However, average turbidity and TSS
values were highest in the low tide periods as compared to the high tide
periods Figure 4.29. with samples from Anokyi recording the highest
concentrations.

4.6.4 Nutrient (nitrates, phosphate and silicate)

The average value of phosphate for the sea water samples was 3.35±1.57 mg/l
with a minimum value of 1.60 mg/l and a maximum value of 5.80 mg/l
(Figure 4.29.). Nitrate in the sea water samples on the other hand recorded an
average value of 0.70±0.08 with a range of 0.62 to 0.84 mg/l. The highest
concentrations were recorded at high tide period.

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Figure 4.29 Distribution of Turbidity and Suspended Solids Concentrations in Seawater
Samples

Note: The sampling sites referred to here, correspond to the following sites on the sampling
location map: ATU-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 1, ATU-2(LT)/ (HT) = IT 2, ANO-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 3;
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6

Figure 4.30 Nutrient Levels of Seawater Samples

Note: The sampling sites referred to here, correspond to the following sites on the sampling
location map: ATU-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 1, ATU-2(LT)/ (HT) = IT 2, ANO-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 3;
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6

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4.6.5 Elemental Analysis (Heavy/Trace metals)

Cadmium and Lead


Cadmium in the sea water samples ranged from 3.614 to 4.431 µg/L with an
average value of 4.021±0.33 µg/l. The average lead concentration in the sea
water samples was 3.73µg/L. The WHO limit for Cadium in seawater is 0.003
mg/l (Table 4.7).

Iron, Copper and Zinc


All the water samples recorded iron and aluminium concentration below
detection limits. Copper concentration in sea water is approximately 10 mg/l.
The results showed copper levels in the various sea water samples to be below
the US EPA action level of 1.3 mg/l with average value of 0.13±0.04 mg/l
ranging from a minimum value of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/l in the seawater samples.
Average zinc concentration of the sea water samples was 0.18±0.02 mg/l.

Nickel and Magnesium


The average nickel concentrations of the sea water samples were 1.75±0.26
mg/l. Magnesium is present in sea water in amounts of about 1300 ppm.
Average magnesium concentration in the seawater samples was
1633.33±121.11 mg/l ranging from 1500 to 1800 mg/l. The results showed
mercury levels in the water samples to be below laboratory detection limits.

Table 4.7 Trace/Heavy Metal Concentrations of Seawater of Atuabo Area

SID Hg Cd Pb Cu Cr Al Ni Zn V Mg Fe Sn
Ppm ppb ppb ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm
Salt Water
ATU- <0.00 4.431 4.673 0.10 0.04 <0.01 2.10 0.16 <0.01 1500 <0.01 <0.01
1(LT) 1
ATU- <0.00 4.105 4.584 0.10 0.01 <0.01 1.95 0.17 <0.01 1500 <0.01 <0.01
1 1
(HT)
ATU- <0.00 3.614 5.372 0.12 0.04 <0.01 1.65 0.21 0.02 1800 <0.01 <0.01
2 1
(LT)
ATU- <0.00 3.666 1.382 0.20 0.02 <0.01 1.40 0.16 <0.01 1700 <0.01 <0.01
2 1
(HT)
ANO <0.00 4.311 4.743 0.12 0.00 <0.01 1.55 0.18 <0.01 1700 <0.01 <0.01
-1 1
(LT)
ANO <0.00 3.998 1.642 0.14 0.04 <0.01 1.85 0.20 <0.01 1600 <0.01 <0.01
(HT) 1
Note: The sampling sites referred to here, correspond to the following sites on the sampling
location map: ATU-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 1, ATU-2(LT)/ (HT) = IT 2, ANO-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 3;
ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6

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4.6.6 Bacteriology

Levels of heterotrophic bacteria in the sea water samples fell below the Ghana
Standard of 1000. The values are presented in the table below Table 4.8.

Table 4.8 Microbial Concentrations of Seawater at Atuabo and Anokyi

SID Total Heterotrophic


Total Coliform Faecal Coliform E. Coli Bacteria
(cfu/100ml) (cfu/100ml) (cfu/100ml) (cfu/1ml)
ATU-1(LT) 172 68 18 384
ATU-2(LT) 136 28 3 8
ANO-1 (LT) 104 8 2 14
ATU-1 (HT) 92 16 3 92
ATU-2(HT) 35 0 0 34
ANO (HT) 164 17 5 208
WHO 0 0 0 0
GUIDELINE
GHANA 0 0 0 1000
STANDARD
Note: The sampling sites referred to here, correspond to the following: ATU-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 1,
ATU-2(LT)/ (HT) = IT 2, ANO-1(LT)/ (HT) = IT 3; ATU-HW = WS 4, HSE-HW = WS 6

4.6.7 Productivity (Chlorophyll concentration)

Average concentration of chlorophyll in the water sample was 33.16 µg/l


ranging from 27.39 to 36.81µg/l. The results of chlorophyll analysis in the
water samples are presented in Figure 4.31. below.

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Figure 4.31 Chlorophyll Concentration in Seawater Samples at Atuabo

4.7 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

There are no major industrial activities present in the region and most
emissions arise from the smoke of cooking fires, generators used for power
supply and bush clearing for clearing of lands for farming.

The baseline data for the project area was collected during the dry season over
a period of three consecutive days (one day at each Town) at the locations
presented in Figure 4.10. The air quality parameters measured in all the three
sampling locations in Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo were Local
Meteorological Conditions (including Air Temperature, Relative Humidity,
Rainfall, Wind speed and Wind direction); Dust and Particulate Matter
(including TSP, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10); Toxic gas pollutants (including Oxides
of Nitrogen (NOx), oxides of sulphur (SOx), Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen
sulphide (H2S), volatile organic compounds (VOC); and Noise were measured
using AQM60 air monitor.

The complete air quality technical report can be found in Annex B4.

4.7.1 Dust and Particulate Matter (TSP, PM1, PM2.5, PM10)

The concentrations of TSP, PM2.5, PM1, and PM10 in Atuabo, Anokyi and
Asemdasuazo were analysed using the particle profiler of the AEROQUAL
AQM 60 Air Quality Station.

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Particulate matter may be generated by natural processes (eg pollen, bacteria,
viruses, fungi, mould, yeast, salt spray, soil from erosion) or through human
activities, including vehicles, power plants, wood stoves, firewood burning,
refuse burning and industrial processes. The particulate matter
concentrations found in a particular location is dependent on the source, on
the wind or other influencing factors at that particular time such as rain,
temperature and humidity. Particulates can cause a health risk if they occur
in high concentrations. This is because when inhaled by humans they can
result in respiratory problems. The size of dust and particulates determines
the possible impacts on human health as most particles above 10 micrometres
(PM10) are filtered out (by hairs etc) before inhalation into the lungs (Ecotech,
2012); therefore the harmful particulates are those smaller than 10
micrometres. These include PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, where the number refers
to the size, in micrometres, of the relevant particulates. Together the dust and
particulates make up the total suspended particulates (TSP), which is a further
measure of the amount of particulate matter (PM) in the air. The pollutant is
PM, while the measurements of TSP, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 are different
indicators of the amount of PM polluting the air in a given area (Buser et al.
2001)

Total Suspended Particles (TSP)

The hourly averages of TSP (1) recorded for Atuabo during the study ranged
from 7.20 µg/m³ to 13.20 µg/m³ with a mean concentration of 9.70 µg/m³.
The concentration of TSP was high at about 6 am, stabilising and then peaking
again at 2-4 pm. This time corresponded with a high period of activity of local
communities and relative strong wind movement within the community. The
TSP concentrations recorded in Anokyi during the study were higher than
that recorded at Atuabo.

The mean of the hourly concentrations of TSP was calculated to be 12.32


µg/m³ which was higher than the 9.70 µg/m³ calculated for Atuabo. The TSP
concentration recorded for Asemdasuazo during the study was lower than
that recorded at Atuabo. The mean of the hourly concentrations of TSP was
calculated to be 5.56 µg/m³ which is lower than the 9.70 µg/m³ calculated for
Atuabo. The concentration deceased from 5.94 µg/m³ at 6am to 3.08 µg/m³ at
about 7am (Figure 4.32.) peaking at 6.97 µg/m³ and stabilising at about 5.4
µg/m³ for the most part of the rest of the day.

(1) The size usually differentiates the various categories of particulates. Tiny airborne particles or aerosols that are less
than 100 micrometres (mm) are collectively referred to as total suspended particulate matter (TSP). PM10 are particles
with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 mm. Ten microns is approximately one seventh the diameter of a human hair.
PM2.5 are also particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 mm while PM1 has an aerodynamic diameter of less
than 1 mm

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PM1

PM1 concentration recorded in Atuabo followed a similar trend as the TSP.


however the highest recorded reading for the day was at 4 pm having been
stable through the morning to early afternoon. The PM1 concentration
recorded in Anokyi on the sampling day followed a similar trend as the
concentration recorded for TSP but with a slight fluctuations in the morning.
The mean hourly concentration of PM1 of 3.28 µg/m³, Asemdasuazo was
generally low and did not fluctuate much during the day.

PM2.5

The PM2.5 concentration recorded in Atuabo during the day followed similar
trends as TSP and PM1 concentration. However, the PM2.5 concentration
peaked at 3 pm and 4 pm recording concentrations of 10.40 µg/m³ and
10.51µg/m³ respectively and then dropping sharply to 6.53 µg/m³ at 5pm. In
Anokyi, the concentration was stable for the most part of the day. The hourly
average concentrations of PM2.5 recorded during the day followed similar
trends as TSP and PM1 concentration with a mean concentration of 9.20
µg/m³. PM2.5 concentrations recorded in Asemdasuazo followed a similar
trend as PM1 concentrations. The lowest concentration of 2.33 µg/m³ was
recorded at about 7 am while the highest concentration was 3.69 µg/m³
recorded at about mid-day, see Figure 4.33. The day’s average concentration
of PM 2.5 was calculated to be 3.25 µg/m³. The PM2.5 concentrations recorded
in the three communities were below WHO permissible limit of 25µg/m3.

PM10

PM10 which consist of particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic


diameters 10µm or less (PM 10) was stable for the most part of the day in
Atuabo. It however, peaked at 3pm recording a concentration of 12.83 µg/m³
and dropped at 4 pm and then sharply to 8.17 µg/m³ at 5 pm. The mean
hourly concentration of PM10 recorded for Anokyi (Figure 4.33.) was 12.11
µg/m³ which is well below the WHO permissible limit of 70 µg/m³ for the
annual mean. PM10 recorded in Asemdasuazo showed a similar trend as TSP
with the lowest concentration of 2.91 µg/m³ recorded at 7 am. The highest
concentration of 6.27 µg/m³ was recorded at midday after which the
concentrations were relatively stable for the rest of the day. The day’s average
concentration was calculated to be 5.19 µg/m³ which is also below WHO’s
permissible limit of 70 µg/m³

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Figure 4.32 Time Series of Particulate Matter Concentration at Atuabo (error bars
indicating standard deviation)

Figure 4.33 Time Series of Particulate Matter Concentration at Anokyi (error bars
indicating standard deviation)

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Figure 4.34 Time Series of Particulate Matter Concentration at Asemdasuazo (error bars
indicating standard deviation)

The particulate matter concentrations recorded at Asemdasuazo were low


when compared to the concentrations recorded from Atuabo and Anokyi.
The low concentrations of particulate matter recorded at Asemdasuazo may
be due to the low wind speed in the community and the fact the community is
located about 4 km away from the coastal road (major source of dust).

Vehicles plying the dusty untarred road generate dust which is the main
source of particulate matter in the three communities. The activities
witnessed in Asemdasuazo were also low, as there were virtually no cars
seen moving in the community and no burning of refuse or firewood was
observed on the day of sampling. The particulate matter concentration (PM10)
was very much below the Ghana EPA permissible limit of 70 µg/m³ for
annual mean.

4.7.2 Toxic Gas Pollutant (NOx, SO2, CO, H2S, VOC,)

The toxic gas pollutants monitored during the study period were oxides of
Nitrogen, (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrogen
Sulphide (H2S) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) which was recorded
as Photoionization Detector (PID) by the AEROQUAL AQM 60 Air Station.
The ambient concentrations of the toxic gas pollutants were recorded for
every minute between the hours of 6 am to 6pm, from which the hourly
concentrations were calculated and daily mean concentration determined.
The results of the air quality study are summarised in Figure 4.35 below.

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Figure 4.35 Mean Concentrations of Air Pollutants in the Three Communities

In general, the mean concentrations of toxic gas pollutants were within the
three communities, which is consistent with the rural environment.

The levels of each were higher in Atuabo with the exception of NOx which
seem to be relative constant in all three communities. CO concentrations in
the three communities were higher than all the other gas pollutants, possibly
from vehicle emissions associated with local traffic, see Figure 4.35.

In Atuabo, the mean concentration of CO (0.823ppm) recorded during the


sampling period was lower than the WHO permissible limit of 10 ppm for 8 h.
The mean concentration of NOx recorded was 0.0118ppm which was lower
than WHO permissible limit of 0.096ppm (200µg/m3) for 1 hour and Ghana
EPA annual permissible limit of 0.154ppm (320µg/m3). The hourly
concentrations of PID were relative stable throughout the study period with
mean concentrations of 0.104 ppm. The mean concentration of SO2 recorded
during the sampling period was 0.065 ppm and above the WHO permissible
limit of 0.04 ppm (125µg/m3) for 24 hours but was below the Ghana EPA
permissible limit of 0.070 ppm (200 µg/m3) for 24 hours. The mean
concentration of H2S recorded was 0.181 ppm and above the WHO
permissible limit of 0.1005 ppm (150g/m3) for 24 hour period.

For Anokyi, the mean hourly concentration of CO measured during the study
period representing the day’s mean concentration was 0.639 ppm which is
lower than the WHO permissible limit of 10 ppm for 8hours. The mean
concentration of NOx for the sampling period was 0.0106 ppm, also lower
than WHO permissible limit of 0.096 ppm (200 µg/m3) for 1 hour and Ghana
EPA annual permissible limit of 0.154 ppm (320µg/m3). The hourly
concentrations of PID were relative stable throughout the study period with
mean concentrations of 0.122ppm. The mean concentration of SO2 recorded

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during the sampling period was 0.072 ppm and above the WHO permissible
limit of 0.04ppm (125 µg/m3 (possibly as a result of vehicle emissions) for 24
hours but was below the Ghana EPA permissible limit of 0.070 ppm (200
µg/m3) for 24 hours. The mean concentration of H2S recorded was 0.185 ppm
and above the WHO permissible limit of 0.1005 ppm (150 g/m3) for 24 hour
period.

In Asemdasuazo, the mean hourly concentration of CO measured during the


study period representing the day’s mean concentration was 0.167 ppm,
which was lower than the WHO permissible limit of 10 ppm for 8hours. The
mean concentration of NOx recorded was 0.010 ppm which was lower than
WHO permissible limit of 0.096 ppm (200 µg/m3) for 1 hour and Ghana EPA
annual permissible limit of 0.154 ppm (320 µg/m3). The hourly concentrations
of SO2, H2S and PID were also relatively low with mean concentrations of
0.068 ppm, 0.078 ppm and 0.042 ppm (Annex B4) but the mean concentration
of SO2 recorded for Asemdasuazo was above the WHO permissible limit of
0.04 ppm (125µg/m3) for 24 h. This was however below the Ghana EPA
permissible limit of 0.07 ppm (200 µg/m3) for 24 hrs. . The mean
concentration of H2S recorded was below the WHO permissible limit of 0.1005
ppm (150 g/m3) for 24 hour period.

The air quality results indicate and confirm the rural nature and lack of
industrial development close to the Project area. Key exceptions are the SO2
and which exceed the WHO limits at each of the communities and H2S which
exceeded WHO limits at Atuabo and Anorkyi (over the sampling period).

4.8 NOISE AND VIBRATION

The noise levels were monitored in the three communities between 6 am and
6 pm at the locations indicated in. Noise levels were measured in the three
communities during the dry season using the AEROQUAL AQM 60 air
quality station mounted on a platform at selected sites in each of the three
communities. The machine was calibrated daily.

The results of the monitoring at Atuabo showed that the noise levels fell
gradually from a value of 58 dBA recorded at 6 am to the lowest of 54 dBA at
1 pm and then increased gradually from then to the highest of 59 dBA
recorded at 5pm (Figure 4.36.).

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Figure 4.36 Time Series of Noise Levels in Atuabo (error bars indicate standard
deviation)

The average noise level recorded in Anokyi for the sampling day was 58.39
dBA. The daily trend observed was that the noise levels fell gradually from a
value of 58.86 dBA recorded at 6 am to the lowest of 54.51 dBA at about 10 am
and then increased gradually to the highest of 62.04 dBA recorded at 6pm as
seen in Figure 4.37.

Figure 4.37 Time Series of Noise Levels in Anokyi (error bars indicate standard deviation)

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Figure 4.38 Time Series of Noise Levels in Asemdasuazo (error bars indicate standard
deviation)

At Asemdasuazo, the noise levels were approximately 55 dBA throughout the


day while the highest levels (58.47 dBA) were recorded towards the evening
when there was a lot of activity in the community see Figure 4.38.

Across the three communities, the main sources of noise in the community
was noise generated are likely related to vehicular movements, children
playing, adults chatting, people listening to music/radio and sea waves
breaking at the beach.

The noise levels in Asemdasuazo were recorded as lower than in Atuabo and
Anokyi corresponding with observations of less activity within this
community. Asemdasuazo is also located about 3km from the main road thus
the contribution to the noise level from vehicles is relatively minimal.

4.9 ROAD TRAFFIC

The national roads of the region are generally wide, tarred and in good
condition but many of the secondary roads in the region are narrow with
narrow intersections, which do not allow heavy vehicles to pass safely
through them. These roads, (such as the route from Bokazo to Esiama) pass
directly through villages and are used by people and livestock. Routes such
as these are frequented by light vehicles such as passenger vehicles, minibuses
and taxis.

The Tarkwa-Esiama road, which may be used to transport rock to the Project
site, is currently used by light and heavy vehicles including trucks carrying
mined rock from the Awaso area (approximately 150 km north of Tarkwa).
The Tarkwa to Axim route (another alternative), has traffic volumes of 120 -
435 vehicles per hour (Ghana Highway Authority, 2012). Various types of

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vehicles use this section of road, ranging from light passenger vehicles to
medium and heavy duty trucks. Most bridges along the route proposed for
construction transportation appear to be in reasonable condition, except for
one crossing the Amansuri River, which is not suitable for use by heavy
vehicles.

The roads surrounding, and within the Project site are gravel and contain
relatively low volumes of traffic.

4.10 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY

4.10.1 Flora

Ghana is part of the Upper Guinea forest ecosystem, a region once


characterised by dense forests. Human influence and the growth of cities in
the region have resulted in the shrinking of these natural forests (CRC-URI,
2010, World Bank 2006). Deforestation is therefore a national problem and is
estimated to occur at a rate of approximately 65,000 ha per annum, at a cost of
3.5 percent of Ghana’s GDP as well as habitat and species losses (World Bank
2006). The natural vegetation in Western Region is primary rain forest but as
a result of anthropogenic disturbance to this habitat, secondary forest
comprising pioneer species and their successors, now dominates over the
naturally forested areas. As a result of continued collection of wood for
fuel/cooking and poor agricultural practices, disturbed areas are prone to
increasing rates of desertification (Allotey, 2007).

The coastal region is dominated by vegetation comprising of palm trees and


thorny shrubs (HPI, 2009). Previously forested land is now used for
plantations (coconuts, palm oil, rubber), forestry activities and farming.

The physical environment of the area has been affected by human activities
and no fully natural habitats were observed, although natural areas are
reported to occur to the north of Asemdasuazo (north of the Project site). No
rivers or other surface water features were observed on the site between
Atuabo and Anokyi, although it is understood that the grassland area is
flooded during the wet season and that there are small waterways and
streams, as well as the Amansuri River and wetland system to the north and
northwest of the community of Asemdasuazo.

The project area lies in the Wet Evergreen forest type of Ghana. This type is
floristically very rich and has more characteristic species than any forest type
in Ghana (Hall and Swaine, 1981). The typical undisturbed Wet Evergreen
forest type has trees occurring in three layers with the upper most or the
emergent layer hardly exceeding 40 m in height. Some of the characteristic
species are Soyauxiagrandifolia, Trichomanesguineense, Agelaeatrifolia, Cola

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umbratilis, Scaphopetalumamoenum, Coulaedulis, Placodiscusoblongifolia,
HeritierautilisPentadesmabutyracea and Cola chlamydantha. Permanently flooded
areas are occupied by well-developed freshwater swamp forest dominated by
the palm Raphia hookeri (rhaphia palm) and the aroid Cyrtospermasenegalense
(swamp arum). Local communities report (and mapping indicates) that areas
behind the coast are subjected to seasonal freshwater flooding. These areas
are expected to have heavily leached podzolic soils which support only short
grassland with many herbaceous species.

Terrestrial flora sampling was carried out at the sites identified in Figure 4.39,
a summary of the results of the study (Annex B1) is provided below.

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Figure 4.39 Location of terrestrial flora sampling sites in the vicinity of the Project area
Three main vegetation types were identified in the project area ie, Coastal
Strand, Grassland and thicket and Freshwater Swamp forest.

Coastal Strand and Coconut Plantation (Atuabo to Anokyi along the


beach – Harbour): The coastal stretch from Atuabo to Anokyi has poorly
developed strand vegetation confined to the foreshore, above high-water
mark. The vegetation is typified by Cyperus maritimus (sedge family),
Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning-glory), Canavalia rosea (bay bean),
Sesuvium portulacastrum (sea purslane) and Paspalum vaginatum (seashore
paspalum). On top of the dune the vegetation is composed of species such
as Calophyllum inophyllum (alexandrian laurel), Grewia mollis (grewia
mollis) and Triumfetta rhomboidea (burr bush) as well as the tree Baphia
nitida (barwood). Coconut plantations occur along the entire stretch of the
dune (Figure 4.40.). Coconut plantations occupy most of the well-drained
soils beyond the white sand grasslands. Where the canopy of the coconut
plantation is open, food crops such as cassava are cultivated.

Figure 4.40 Coconut Plantations on sand dunes, in the vicinity of the Project site.

The Grassland and Thicket Vegetation (Atuabo to Asemdasuazo –


Airport and other facilities): The site proposed for the construction of the
airport and other facilities is seasonally flooded grassland and thicket
vegetation. The grassland occurs on white sands which are shallow and
subject to seasonal flooding which does not support forest vegetation. The
grasses found here include Anadelphia afzeliana, Rhytachne rottboellioides,
Panicum congoense, Setaria anceps, Hyparrhenia mutica and Axonopus
flexuosus. The thicket clumps are composed of species such as Elaeis
guineensis, Syzygium sp., Grewia carpinifolia, Baphia nitida, B. pubescens and
Alchornea cordifolia. Borassus aethiopum is scattered widely on the site
(Figure 4.41.).

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Figure 4.41 Grassland vegetation interspersed with thicket clumps

Freshwater Swamp Forest (Asemdasuazo): Isolated patches of freshwater


swamp forest (less than 1 percent of the Project site) are found to the west
of Asemdasuazo, and further west, on the northern section of the airstrip
portion of the site (Figure 4.42.). These are seasonally inundated wetland
areas with emergent tall trees and include areas of cultivation. These
swamp forest patches are not directly connected with the larger wetland
system to the north and northwest and species diversity is very low
compared with conventional dryland or lowland tropical forests.
Permanent freshwater swamp forest is located outside of the Project site to
the north which is connected to the greater Amansuri wetlands and
provides freshwater fishing grounds. Raphia hookeri and Cyrtosperma
senegalense are the dominant species of this area, while Bridelia micrantha,
Anthocleista djalonensis, Macaranga barteri and Uapaca heudelotii are also
common.

Figure 4.42 Freshwater Swamp Forest with Cyrtosperma senegalense (foreground) and
Raphia hookeri (background).

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Floristic Composition of Project Site

The survey encountered 86 species in 77 genera belonging to 37 families


(Annex B1.1). The dominant families were the Papilionaceae (10), Graminae (7),
Rubiaceae (6) and the Euphorbiaceae, Cyperaceae and Mimosaceae with 5 members
each. These families account for 44.2 percent of the species encountered – an
indication that the floral diversity of the project site is poor. Very few Species
dominated the flora. The thicket clumps that dot the grassland between
Atuabo and Asemdasuazo are dominated by the small tree Syzygium
guineense, which occurs in almost pure stands (groups of growing trees or
vegetation in a particular area). The swamp forest was dominated by
Raphiahookeri in the upper storey and by Cyrtosperma senegalense in the under
story. A dominance of Calophyllum inophyllum was observed from the dune to
the roadside, within the project area, which existed in pure stands under the
broken canopy of the coconut plantation along the sand dune, behind the
coastal vegetation.

The percentage life form composition of the species encountered in the survey
indicated a clear dominance of trees over the other life forms (Figure 4.43).
Figure 4.44 shows a preponderance of the Pioneer guild, an indication that the
vegetation is in a state of recovery from disturbance. Green star species (44.2
percent) which are of no conservation concern, together with species ‘Not
Evaluated’ (46.5 percent), mostly common weeds, dominated the floral
composition of the area (90.7 percent). The species of conservation concern, ie
Blue, Red and Pink Star species are species exploited for timber or food and
were found to represent fewer than 10 percent of the flora in the Project area
(Figure 4.45.).

Figure 4.43 Percentage Composition of species by Life Form

Percentage,
Tree, 37.2
Percentage Composition (%)

Percentage,
Climber, 23.3 Percentage,
Herb, 20.9 Percentage,
Shrub, 18.6

Life Form

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Figure 4.44 Percentage Composition of Species by Ecological Guild

Figure 4.45 Percentage Composition of species by Star Rating

Flora in Wetland Areas

The vegetation in the Amansuri wetland area (closest portion located


approximately <1 km to the northwest of the Project site) is Wet Evergreen
Forest, with swamp-forest in wetter parts. The most common tree in the
wetland areas is the Raffia Palm (Raphia vinifera), which grows in stands along
with the large spiny aroid (Cyrtosperma senegalense). The drier portions
adjacent to the wetland areas comprise mainly sedges and grasses. The areas
around the Amansuri wetland experience seasonal flooding during the wet
season. The resulting difficulties to access these areas mean that large areas
surrounding the Amansuri wetlands are undisturbed.

The Amansuri wetland system (including the larger wetland areas, the
Amansuri Lake, Amansuri River and Amansuri Lagoon) are unique habitats
of the Western Region (Figure 4.20.). The Amansuri wetland is one of the
largest stands of wetlands vegetation within the wet evergreen forest zone of

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Ghana with rich indigenous flora and fauna species. About 33 percent of the
237 plant species in the area are native to the wetland while 5 percent are
internationally fairly rare (gold and blue star species) (Enu-Kwesi and
Vordzogbe, 2001). The wetland is a largely pristine ecosystem and comprises
several wetland categories such as peat, swamp and mangrove forests, flood
plains, intertidal mud flats and sandy shores with streams, rivers, fresh water
lake, lagoons and the sea as the environmental features. More than 70 percent
of the area is covered by swamp and mangrove forest with the rest being flood
plains, estuary, intertidal mud flats and sand shores.

4.10.2 Fauna

Ghana, centrally located on the coast of West Africa, has large and viable
populations of wildlife and wild assets (natural heritage) that support a
growing eco-tourism industry to complement the nation’s strong cultural and
historical attractions. Most of these wildlife estates are located in the Western
Region dues to the suitable microclimate and diverse habitats provided by the
evergreen forest found in most parts of the Region. The wildlife is however
found in the protected areas which are the only refuge for them against illegal
hunting and habitat degradation. The Western Region therefore holds viable
samples of wildlife in the country.

Terrestrial fauna include relatively small animals living in primary or


secondary vegetation in the region. These include frogs, toads, snakes and
mice as well as smaller antelope species such as bushbuck. Notable among
the mammals in the Western Region are forest elephant, Red River Hog, and
Leopards. The Primates species include Senegalese bush baby, Bosman’s
potto, Mona monkey, Spot-nosed monkey, and Black-and-white colobus.
There are over 230 species of birds and 600 butterfly species. Reptiles are also
fairly represented in Ankasa (approximately 20 km north of the Project site)
and the surrounding areas.

Eighteen of the mammal species including Loxodonta africana cyclotis (African


forest elephant) and Leopard (Panthera pardus), present in the large Amansuri
catchment including the Ankasa Resource Reserve (Figure 4.20) are of global
and national conservation interest (GWS 2006). There are about twenty-seven
medium to large mammal species in the Amansuri wetlands and the adjoining
coastal areas of western Ghana. This suggests a fairly diverse mammalian
community inhabiting the wetland. The herpetofauna of the wetland and the
nearby coastal area of Western Region comprise about 25 species including
three endangered marine turtle species (Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys
coriecea), Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)
and several other species such as the Slender-snouted crocodile (Crocodylus
cataphractus) and Dwarf crocodile (Osteolamus tetraspis). Most of the
herpetofauna species are quiet common and widespread throughout Ghana
(Attuquayefio, 2001).

Over 250 bird species are known in the western coastal areas of the Western
Region and about ten of these including the hooded vulture ( Necrosyrtes

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monachus), green-tailed Bristlebill (Bleda eximia), grey parrot (Psittacus
erithacus), (Criniger olivaceous) are listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened
species (GWS, 2006). Terrestrial invertebrates of the area include 62 butterfly
species as well as 21 dragon flies. Whilst the butterflies are mainly in the
forested areas, the dragon flies are in the open areas in farmlands as well as
near bodies

A full list of the faunal species found in the Amansuri region is found in
Annex B9. None of these wildlife reported in the protected areas were sighted
in the project area during this study. This could be due to several reasons
such as the distance of the protected areas to the project area. The closest
protected area to the project area is the Ankasa Conservation Area which is
located about 20 km north of the project area. The project site is separated
from the protected areas by a vast expanse of savanna type grassland which is
not habitable by the wildlife and so they do not migrate between the project
area and the protected areas. The project area which is also mainly grassland
does not support any big mammals.

With the decrease in fish catches in recent years, the hunting of wild animals
for sale and consumption of bushmeat has increased sharply. As a result the
biomass of terrestrial wildlife species has dramatically declined (World Bank
2006, Brashares et al. 2004).

4.10.3 Avian Fauna

The west coast of Africa forms an important section of the East Atlantic
Flyway, an internationally-important migration route for a range of bird
species, especially shore birds and seabirds (Boere et al, 2006, Flegg 2004). The
highest concentrations of seabirds are experienced during the spring and
autumn migrations, around March and April, and September and October.
Waders are present during the winter months between October and March.
Seabirds known to follow this migration route include a number of tern
species (Sterna spp), skuas (Stercorarius and Catharacta spp) and petrels
(Hydrobatidae). Species of waders known to migrate along the flyway
include sanderling (Calidris Alba) and knot (Calidris canuta) and are associated
also with the wetland areas in the Western Region.

Common species reported as occurring at the Amansuri wetlands close to the


Project site include the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), the ringed plover
(Charadrius hiaticula), the common sandpiper (Tringa hypoleucos) and the ruddy
turnstone (Arenaria interpres). The eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus
ostralegus) are also sighted (up to 30 individuals) on the beaches close to the
Amansuri wetland area, the only location in Ghana where this species is
reported with some frequency. The royal tern, (Sterna maxima), sandwich
terns (S. sandvicensis), common tern (S. hirundo) and the black tern (Chlidonias
niger) also regularly roost on sandbanks in the estuary. Other species
occurring in the inland freshwater lagoon and swamp areas include gallinules,
crakes and jacanas. A detailed list of the avifauna found in the Amansuri
region can be found in Annex B9.

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The marine birds of Ghana include storm petrels (Oceanodroma castro) and
Ascension frigate birds (Fregata aquila). Records dating back to the 1960s
reveal only limited sightings of a few species (Elgood et al, 1994). The rarity of
oceanic birds may be attributable to the absence of suitable breeding sites (eg
remote islands and rocky cliffs) off the Ghana coast and in the Gulf of Guinea.
The black tern (Chlidonias niger), white winged black tern (Chlidonias
leucopterus), royal tern (Sterna maxima), common tern (Sterna hirundo),
Sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis), great black-back gull (Larus marinus),
lesser black-back gull (Larus fuscus), pomarine skua (Stercorarius pomarinus)
and great skua (Catharacta skua) have also been reported in the offshore
environment of Ghana (WAGP, 2004).

4.11 MARINE AND INTERTIDAL ECOLOGY

4.11.1 Plankton

Plankton community composition and abundance is variable and depends


upon water circulation into and around the Gulf of Guinea, the time of year,
nutrient availability, depth, and temperature stratification.

Information on plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton) was sourced from


previously documented surveys in offshore areas within the Gulf of Guinea,
including ESIAs for the West Africa Gas Pipeline Project (WAGP, 2004) and
other research programmes (eg Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem
project Fisheries Resource Surveys, 2006-2007) and available published
sources (eg Wiafe, 2002).

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton, grouped as diatoms, dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, are


microscopic and range between 30 µm and 60 µm in size. Primary production
is linked to the amount of inorganic carbon assimilated by phytoplankton via
the process of photosynthesis.

A range of 69 species of phytoplankton were identified between in the


nearshore area (15 to 65 m depth) between Nigeria and Ghana (WAGP, 2004)
and the phytoplankton community was dominated by Chaetoceros spp.
possibly a result of planktonic responses to seasonality of the hydrographic
regime (Wiafe, 2002). Other planktonic species included Dinophysis acuta, a
harmful microalgae with the potential to cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning
in bloom condition at high concentrations (Anderson et al, 2001). Distribution
of the species indicated that Penilia avirostris, a cladoceran, dominated the
community in terms of number of individuals. However, a dinoflagellate
species, Chaetoceros spp., occurred in high numbers at all locations sampled.
The diversity of phytoplankton species ranked highest compared to those
recorded offshore of Togo, Benin, and Nigeria (WAGP, 2004).

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The primary production values obtained within the near shore areas indicate a
system of relatively high productivity. Primary production determined for
the Gulf of Guinea is about 4,305 to 5,956 mgC/m2/day. Typically,
productivity in the offshore ecosystems (100 to 200 m water depth) range from
10 mg C/m3/day to 100 mg C/m3/day in terms of volume, or from
75 mgC/m2/day to 1,000 mg C/m2/day in terms of area.

Zooplankton

Offshore zooplankton assemblages are dominated by copepods, followed by


Ostracods (1), Appendicularians (2) and Chaetognaths (3). Maximum
abundance is during the primary upwelling although they are also abundant
during the secondary upwelling (4). WAGP (2004) surveys in the nearshore
area (15-65 m depth) identified 52 zooplankton species with Penilia avirostris,
Temora stylifera and Para-Clausocalanus spp. dominating the zooplankton
community.

Species of zooplankton recorded in the nearshore environment in the Western


Region of Ghana included Cyclopoids: Oncaea, Corycaeus, Farranula; Calanoids:
Acartia, Clausocalanus, Calanoides, Temora, Centropages, cirripid nauplius, Podon,
Evadne, Penilia, Lucifer protozoa, Appendicularia/ Oikopleuara, Pontellia nauplius
and Sagitta.

Benthic decapod larvae and large crustacean numbers are at their highest
between February and June and October and December. Carnivorous species
dominate the plankton during the warm season and diversity is high but
abundance low. Herbivorous zooplankton, dominated by Calanoides carinatus
is highly abundant in upwelling conditions. These are later replaced by
omnivorous species (eg Temora turbinate and Centropages chierchise).

Algae

Green algae blooms of non-toxic marine green algae (Enteromorpha flexuosa)


have been occurring along the coastline of western Ghana and the Ivory Coast
since at least the 1990s. These blooms occur seasonally first appearing
between August and October and remaining in the inshore region for
anywhere from a few months up to a whole year (Kraan, 2009). The seasonal
occurrence of the blooms are expected to be a result of over-fertilisation of
soils alongside rivers draining into the sea, as well as the outflow of untreated
sewage into rivers and the sea (CRC-URI, 2010).

(1) Ostracoda is a class of the Crustacea, sometimes known as the seed shrimp because of their appearance.
(2) Larvaceans (Class Appendicularia) are solitary, free-swimming underwater saclike filter feeders found throughout the
world's oceans.
(3) Chaetognatha is a phylum of predatory marine worms that are a major component of plankton worldwide.
(4) The major upwelling begins between late June or early July when sea surface temperatures fall below 25°C and ends
between late September or early October. The minor upwelling occurs either in December, January or February..

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4.11.2 Sandy Beach Ecology (Intertidal Flora and Fauna)

Benthic macro invertebrates refer to organisms that are greater than 0.5 mm in
size, and represent an extremely diverse group of organisms and are largely
represented by different species of polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans and
echinoderms. They play multiple ecological roles within the intertidal
ecosystem and are a critical part of environmental monitoring and evaluation
programmes. Most macrobenthic animals are relatively long lived and thus
integrate changes and fluctuations in the environment over a longer period of
time. Consequently, macrobenthic fauna constitute good biological
candidates for monitoring ecosystem health and processes.

A study was conducted to provide a baseline data on the macro invertebrates


of the intertidal ecosystem within the project area, at the locations identified in
Figure 4.10. The full report of the study is provided at Annex B6.

The study on the macrobenthos yielded more than 3900 individuals made up
of 16 different species belonging to five major taxa (species). Bivalvia was the
dominant group and in terms of abundance and accounted for about 97
percent of macrobenthic population. Polychaeta was the next dominant,
contributing 1.08 percent, followed by Nemertenia (1.02 percent), Crustacea
(1.02 percent), and Nematoda (0.02 percent). The fauna density ranged from 0
to 25510 ind/m2. The Mid shore of Atuabo recorded the lowest macrofaunal
density whereas the highest was observed at the lower shore of the station
located 1.5 km West of Atuabo, about mid-way of the proposed project area.

The highest frequency of occurrence (44 percent) and abundance (> 3500) were
recorded for the bivalve, Donax pulchellus. Density of polychaetes ranged from
10 to 180 ind.m-2. The most dominant polychaete species was noted for
Capitella capitata (180 ind.m-2) with the highest density occurring at half-way
between Atuabo and Anokyi, within the project area. The other dominant
polychaete species recorded include, Notomastus latriceus, Glycera sp., and
Aglaophamus sp. in the order of decreasing density. The Capitellidae family
was the most diverse with 2 species followed by Glyceridae and Nephtyidae
which were represented by 1 species each. The dominance of these species
particularly those of the capitellidae family can be ascribed to their ability to
survive in harsh and slightly polluted environments.

Among the crustaceans, amphipoda was the dominant group and contributed
to 0.4 percent of the total faunal abundance. Cumacea was next in dominance
and accounted for 0.3 percent, followed by Isopoda and Mysidacea which
together contributed < 0.1 percent.

With regards to the species assemblage pattern, the Shannon-Wiener diversity


was relatively low across the sampled locations, but the highest value was
recorded at the Station located half-way between Atuabo and Anokyi. The
species richness (Margalef’s index) ranged from 1.1 (Atuabo) to 3.1 (Half-way
of project area). This observed spatial pattern is similar to trends observed in

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terms of the Shannon-Wiener diversity. Evenness value ranged from 0.86 to
0.98 at Anokyi and Atuabo respectively. A dendogram divided the stations
into a group and an outlier at a Bray-Curtis similarity of 12.7 (Figure 4.46).
The strongest and only cluster was Anokyi and the Station half-way of the
project area at a Bray-Curtis similarity of 53.81. The cluster of the two can be
attributed to the extremely high densities of Donax pulchellus recorded at both
stations.

Figure 4.46 Dendogram for hierarchical clustering (using group average linking) of
Stations within the project area based on Bray-Curtis similarity.

4.11.3 Fish Ecology

The composition and distribution of fish species found in Ghanaian waters is


influenced by the seasonal upwelling that occurs between Nigeria and the
Ivory Coast mainly in July to September and to a lesser extent in December to
February. The transport of nutrient-rich deep waters to the nutrient-depleted
surface water stimulates high levels of primary productivity. This in turn
increases production in zooplankton and fish. The fish species found in
Ghanaian waters can be divided into four main groups, namely pelagic
species, demersal species and deepwater species.

Pelagic Species

The pelagic fish assemblage consists of a number of species that are exploited
commercially but are also important members of the pelagic ecosystem,
providing food for a number of large predators, particularly large pelagic fish
such as tuna, billfish and sharks. The most important pelagic fish species
found in the coastal and offshore waters of Ghana are round sardinella

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(Sardinella aurita), flat sardinella (S. maderensis), European anchovy (Engraulis
encrasicolus) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). These species represent
approximately 80 percent of the total catch landed in the country
(approximately 200,000 tonnes per annum). In terms of biomass, acoustic
surveys have shown that the two sardinella species and the European
anchovy represent almost 60 percent of the total biomass in Ghanaian waters
(FAO and UNDP, 2006).

Other commercially important pelagic species (1) found in Ghanaian waters


include horse mackerel (Trachurus spp), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus),
bonga shad (Ethmalosa fimbriata), African moonfish (Selene dorsalis), West
African Ilisha (Ilisha africana), largehead hairtail (Triciurus lepturus), crevalle
jack (Caranx hippos), Atlantic bumper (Chloroscombrus chrysurus), barracuda
(Sphyraena spp), long-finned Herring (Opisthopterus tardoore), kingfish / West
African Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus tritor) and frigate mackerel (Auxis
thazard).

Large pelagic fish stocks off the coast of Ghana include tuna and billfish.
These species are highly migratory and occupy the surface waters of the entire
tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean. They are important species in the
ecosystem as both predators and prey for sharks, other tuna and cetaceans as
well as providing an important commercial resource for industrial fisheries.
The tuna species are skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna
(Thunnus albacares) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus). Billfish species occur in
much lower numbers and comprise swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Atlantic blue
marlin (Makaira nigricans) and Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans). Small, but
significant shark fishery in Ghana targets blue sharks (Prionace glauca) and
hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp).

Demersal Species

Trawl surveys have shown that demersal fish are widespread on the
continental shelf along the entire length of the Ghanaian coastline (Koranteng
2001). Species composition is a typical tropical assemblage including the
following families.

Porgies or Seabreams (Sparidae) (eg bluespotted seabream Pagrus


caeruleostictus, Angola dentex Dentex angolensis, Congo dentex Dentex
congoensis, canary dentex Dentex canariensis and pink dentex Dentex
gibbosus);

Grunts (Haemulidae) (eg bigeye grunt Brachydeuterus auritus and to a


lesser degree sompat grunt Pomadasys jubelini and bastard grunt Pomadasys
incisus);

(1) ‘Other pelagic species’ include those listed in Jubilee Phase 1 ESIA Report and verified during consultations in Ghana in
April 2011 as part of the Fisheries study.

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Croakers or drums (Sciaenidae) (eg red pandora Pellagus bellottii, Cassava
croaker Pseudotolithus senegalensis);

Goatfishes (Mullidae) (eg West African goatfish/red mullet Pseudupeneus


prayensis);

Snappers (Lutjanidae) (golden African snapper Lutjanus fulgens, Goreean


Snapper Lutjanus goreensis);

Groupers (Serranidae) (eg white grouper Epinephelus aeneus);

Threadfins (Polynemidae) (eg lesser African threadfin Galeoides


decadactylus);

Emperors (Lethrinidae) (eg Atlantic emperor Lethrinus atlanticus); and

Triggerfish (eg grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus).

The seasonal upwelling causes changes in the geographical distribution of


some of the demersal fish species (Koranteng, 2001). During the upwelling
season, the Croakers’s bathymetric range is reduced to a minimum, while the
deep water Porgies are found nearer the coast than at other times of the year.

The demersal species that are most important commercially (in terms of catch
volumes) are cassava croaker (Pseudotolithus senegalensis), bigeye grunt
(Brachydeuterus auritus), red pandora (Pellagus bellottii), Angola dentex (Dentex
angolensis), Congo dentex (Dentex congoensis) and West African Goatfish
(Pseudupeneus prayensis). The cassava croaker is considered the most
commercially important demersal fish in West African waters, although it is
reported that in recent years in Ghana their importance has declined (Froese
and Pauly, 2009). They are distributed along the west coast of Africa as far
south as Namibia and as far north as Morocco. They are a demersal species
occupying both marine and brackish water down to a depth of 70 m and are
found in coastal waters over muddy, sandy or rocky bottoms.

Deep Sea Species

Froese and Pauly (2009) lists 89 deep-sea fish species from 28 families
including Alepocephalidae, Gonostomatidae, Myctophodae and Stomiidae
that are likely to be found in Ghanaian waters. Information on the
distribution of specific deep water species is in Ghanaian waters is limited.

Protected or Endangered Species

The sensitive species in Ghanaian waters according to the International Union


for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list (IUCN, 2011) are presented in
Table 4.9. A number of these species are commercially important and are
subjected to heavy exploitation, particularly Albacore tuna and swordfish. It

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should be noted that Albacore catches in Ghanaian waters are not currently
recorded (ICCAT Fish stat data).

In the global context there is concern about the bigeye tuna stocks. The
International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) has
listed it as the species of greatest concern, after the bluefin, in terms of its
population status and the unsustainable levels of exploitation exacted on this
species.

Table 4.9 Threatened Fish Species in Ghanaian Waters (IUCN, 2011)

Scientific name Common name Red List Category


Cephalopholis taeniops African Hind Data Deficient
Dasyatis margarita Ray species Endangered
Epinephelus aeneus White Grouper Near Threatened
Epinephelus caninus Dogtooth Grouper Data Deficient
Epinephelus costae Goldblotch Grouper Data Deficient
Epinephelus goreensis Dungat Grouper Data Deficient
Epinephelus haifensis Haifa Grouper Data Deficient
Epinephelus itajara Goliath Grouper Critically Endangered
Epinephelus marginatus Dusky Grouper Endangered
Hippocampus algiricus West African Seahorse Data Deficient
Pristis pectinata Wide Sawfish Critically endangered
Pristis perotteti Largetooth Sawfish Critically endangered
Raja undulata Undulate Ray Endangered
Rhinobatos cemiculus Blackchin Guitarfish Endangered
Rhinobatos rhinobatos Common Guitarfish Endangered
Rhynchobatus luebberti Lubbert’s Guitarfish Endangered
Rostroraja alba Bottlenose Skate Endangered
Sphyrna lewini Scalloped Hammerhead Endangered
Thunnus alalunga Albacore Tuna Data Deficient
Thunnus albacares Yellowfin tuna Lower Risk
Thunnus obesus Bigeye Tuna Vulnerable
Xiphius gladius Swordfish Data Deficient

The fisheries component of the environmental baseline study will provide


additional information on fishing within the nearshore, inshore and Project-
affected areas.

4.11.4 Marine Mammals

The ecological significance of Ghana’s coastal waters for dolphins and whales
has only recently become the subject of scientific studies, which partially
explains the lack of population abundance estimates and why their natural
history in the region remains largely unknown. The conditions created by the
seasonal upwelling in the northern Gulf of Guinea are however considered to
be favourable for marine mammals.

Specimens derived from by-catches and strandings show Ghana to have


moderately diverse cetacean fauna, comprising at least 18 species belonging to
five families: 14 species of Delphinidae (dolphins) and one species each of
families Ziphiidae (beaked whales), Physeteridae (sperm whales), Kogiidae

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(pygmy sperm whales) and Balaenopteridae (rorquals). These species and the
IUCN conservation status and sensitivity are set out in Table 4.10.

Table 4.10 Dolphins and Whales of Ghana and IUCN Conservation Status

Species IUCN Status


Delphinidae
Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Least Concern
Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene) Data Deficient
Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Data Deficient
Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuate) Least Concern
Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) (G. Cuvier, 1829) Data Deficient
Long-beaked common dolphin ( Delphinus capensis) Data Deficient
Fraser's dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) Least Concern
Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) Least Concern
Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) Least Concern
Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra) Least Concern
Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) Data Deficient
Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus Data Deficient
Killer whale (Orcinus orca) Data Deficient
False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) Data Deficient
Ziphiidae (beaked whales)
Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) Least Concern
Kogiidae (pygmy sperm whales)
Dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) Data Deficient
Physeteridae (sperm whales)
Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus or Physeter catodon) Vulnerable
Balaenopteridae (rorquals)
Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Least Concern

4.11.5 Turtles

The Gulf of Guinea serves as an important migration route, feeding ground


and nesting site for sea turtles. Five species of sea turtles have been identified
within Ghanaian waters, namely the loggerhead (Caretta caretta), the olive
ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), the hawksbill (Erectmochelys imbricata), the green
turtle (Chelonia mydas), and the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) (Armah et al,
1997, Fretey, 2001). The olive ridley is the most abundant turtle species in
Ghana. All five of these sea turtle species are listed by the CITES and National
Wildlife Conservation Regulations under Schedule I (Table 4.11).

Table 4.11 Turtles in the Gulf of Guinea, IUCN Conservation Status

Species IUCN Status


Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) Endangered
Olive ridley (Lepidochelys Vulnerable
olivacea)
Hawksbill (Erectmochelys Critically endangered
imbricata),
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Endangered
Leatherback (Dermochelys Critically endangered
coriacea)

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Marine turtles spend most of their life at sea, but during the breeding season
they go ashore (to their natal beaches) and lay their eggs on sandy beaches.
Approximately 70 percent of Ghana’s coastline is found suitable as nesting
habitat for sea turtles, and three species, the green turtle, olive ridley and
leatherback turtles have been recorded nesting along the Ghanaian coast
(Armah et al, 1997; Amiteye, 2002). Population estimates from four previous
surveys of these turtle species are provided in Table 4.12, with (86.3 percent)
being olive ridley turtles.

The beaches of Ghana from Keta to Half-Assini are important nesting areas for
sea turtle species. The nesting period stretches from July to December, with a
peak in November (Armah et al, 1997). The Project site is considered to be part
of the turtle nesting area along the Western Region coastline.

Table 4.12 Population of Sea Turtle Species that Nest on Beaches of Ghana

Author, year Leatherback Olive ridley Green Turtle


Amiteye, 2002 46 412 32
Agyemang, 2005 30 190 10
Allman, 2007 418 134 0
Agyekumhene, 74 103 0
2009
Average 142 210 21
Source: Armah et al (1997)

The sandy beaches close to the Project site are reportedly used by nesting
turtles. In addition there are a number of turtle nesting sites reported to be
near the Project site (CRC-URI, 2010). Studies conducted in the project area at
the locations presented in Figure 4.47(full report at Annex B7) revealed that the
communities are largely aware of the important ecological role that turtles
play in marine ecosystems as well as the benefits business (resort) operators
in the region, as a result turtles are mostly protected in the area. Apart from
the national Wildlife laws that conserve sea turtles, some of the communities
have traditional regulations that further protect the species.

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Figure 4.47 Location of interviews conducted as part of the turtle study
4.12 LOCAL FISHERIES

A catch assessment study was performed of the beach seine fishery at Atuabo
in the Ellembelle District of the Western where the proposed Project is to be
situated. An additional study was made of an inland freshwater (pond)
fishery on the proposed Project site. GPS devices were given to local fishers to
record the positions where they cast the net in the water offshore.

4.12.1 Marine Beach Seine Fishery

The Atuabo landing beach covers an area of shore line approximately 1.5 km
long and extends approximately 0.5 km wide into the sea. A total of five
beach seine canoes were identified in the study area at the time this study was
conducted. The average length of the canoes was 4.3 m and none of them
used outboard motors. The particular gear used for fishery constitutes of a net
with a bag about 27.7 m long, and a 19.6 m circumference mouth opening.
The mesh size of the nets is about 5/8th of an inch.

In the major upwelling season (between September and October), when the
stocks are abundant, a fishing crew can cast their nets twice in one day.

4.12.2 Marine Fish Catch

The sampled catch was considered to be average. There was a significant


amount of Jellyfish (Medusae spp.) in the bag and this constituted the biggest
portion of the total landed weight of 50.7 kg. For the fish species landed, the
Threadfin (Galeodis dacadactylus) represented the majority of the total catch
biomass, comprising of a total of 37.2kg, while the Puffer fish (Lagocephalus
spp.) contributed the least to the total weight of the catch with a weight of
(1.2kg) (Figure 4.48.).

After bringing in the nets it was evident that the bag (cod end) of some of the
nets had some amount of Sargassum spp. but was not present in significant
quantities compared to the remainder of the catch. Consequently no attempt
was made to sample the Sargassum as the beach itself as this was already
littered with the weed from previous fishing events.

The list of species and corresponding weights recorded during the fishing
study are provided in Table 4.13 below.

Table 4.13 List of Species Caught and Weights

Common Name Scientific Name Weight (Kg)


Flat sardinella Sardinella eba 5.700
Round sardinella S. auritas 4.950
Threadfin Galeodis spp. 37.158
Burrito Brachdeuterus auritas 3.716
Bumper Chrpomoscumbrus chry 3.963

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Common Name Scientific Name Weight (Kg)
Cassava fish Pseudotholitus senegalensis 7.430
Saflo Scumberomorus tritor 14.863
Horse mackerel Caranx crysos 12.386
Canary Drum Sciaenid 4.958
Barracuda Sphirena sphirena 12.386
African horse mackerel Caranx senegalensis 7.432
Spadefish Drepane africana 7.432
Roncador Pomadysisus 4.954
Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus 9.909
Guitar fish Rhinobatos spp. 7.432
Moon fish Selene dosalis 7.432
Puffer fish Lagocephalus laevigatus 1.20
Jellyfish Medusa spp. 50.70
Total 204.0

Figure 4.48 The Graphical Relationship of the Species Range and the Indices of
Abundance

In terms of the state of the regional inshore and offshore marine fisheries,
there appears to be an increasing decline in local stocks. Many of the
community elders included in a recent study carried out by the H&N Mpoano
indicated that the amount of fish caught by local fishermen had decreased and
that their canoes have to travel further out to sea to catch their fill.
Furthermore, this seems to be the case for the local communities in the
neighbouring Ivory Coast and nearby Nigeria (H&N Mpoano, 2010). The
actual extent of the reported decline in local stocks is often distorted because

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of the increased effort by fishermen (such as improved gears and fishing
further offshore) and thus the apparent stability of stocks if based on landed
catches. Even so, the decrease in available fisheries resources is becoming
increasingly apparent. Korangeng (2001) has reported a decrease in demersal
fish on Ghana’s continental shelf from approximately 50 kg per hectare in 1963
to approximately 32 kg per hectare in 1990. Pelagic fisheries have also
experienced a recent decline, after the 1980’s (H&N Mpoano, 2010).

The decline has been attributed to improved fishing ability of the shore-based
fleets through an improvement of fishing gear (such as smaller mesh sizes on
nets) as well as the influence of foreign offshore fishing vessels. Research
undertaken by throughout the GCLME has indicated that overfishing is
becoming a serious issue (H&N Mpoano, 2010).

4.12.3 Freshwater Fishery (Asemdasuazo)

The assessment was conducted in the dry season so the water levels in the
ponds at Asemdasuazo (about 1.8km north east of Atuabo, within the Project
site) were very low and this limited the level of fishing activity. The quantity
of fish caught was therefore very low and not considered enough to be used in
a meaningful assessment of the pond’s fish stocks. The average size of the
pond however is about 2 ha in dimension, but the fishers claimed that the
seasonal areas of inundation cause the ponds to increase in size up to
approximately 20 ha.

Local community members reported that fishing activities in the freshwater


ponds takes an average of 2 hours. There are two forms of gear used in pond
fishing by fishermen from the Asemdasuazo community. One is a hand held
grab net used in the dry season, and the other is a trap/or a cylindrical basket
used mostly in the rainy season. Fish catch from two ponds close (south east)
to Asemdasuazo (referred to as Ehoho and Enupa, represented by W8) were
assessed in the study. The catch was higher form the pond in Enupa than the
pond in Ehoho in terms of both quantity and species variety.

4.13 PROTECTED AREAS

4.13.1 Objectives of Protected Areas

The protected areas have been set aside for biodiversity conservation and also
in some cases for tourism development. In the case of Ankasa and Bia, being
rainforest areas, they may also play a major role in the following contributing
to the maintenance of the rainfall and humidity necessary for agriculture in
surrounding areas; absorbing CO2 to make air safe for humans and mitigate
climate change. The trees act as giant nutrient pumps bringing scarce soil
nutrients to the surface to support the complex biodiversity. The reserves also
preserve representative vegetation for research and regulate stream flow
throughout the year to maintain water supplies (Ankasa protects four

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important watersheds including those of the Ansaka, Nini and Suhien Rivers)
and fishery cycles.

4.13.2 Designated and Protected Areas

Ghana has 18 wildlife protected areas that include 7 national parks, 6


resources reserves, 4 wildlife sanctuaries and 5 coastal Ramsar sites. The
Western Region holds two (2) of these protected areas namely, Ankasa and Bia
Conservation Areas. Each of these Conservation Areas is made up of two
reserves abutting each other. However, for management purposes they are
treated as a single entity and, therefore referred to as Conservation Areas.

The Ankasa reserve (approximately 509 km 2 (Jachmann, 2008), located


approximately 20 km to the north of the Project site, is designated as a
resource reserve, with the highest biodiversity in Ghana (Figure 4.20.). This
reserve includes approximately 800 floral species, including some a number of
endemic species and is considered to be globally important in terms of
biodiversity (World Bank 2006, Burgess et al, 2005, Allotey 2007). The Cape
Three Points Reserve is the last protected remnant of the primary coastal
forest that once extended along the major segments of the coastline of the Gulf
of Guinea (CRC-URI, 2010).

There are 40 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) designated by Birdlife International


within Ghana (Birdlife International, 2011); one of which, the Amansuri
wetland system, is located to the north and northwest of the Project site.

4.13.3 Ankasa Conservation Area

Ankasa Conservation Areas consist of two reserves ie Ankasa Resource Reserve


and Nini-Suhyien National Park. Together they occupy a land area of 509 km2
within three districts namely; Jomoro District Assembly, Nzema East District
Assembly and Amenfi-West District Assembly. The vegetation type is Wet
Evergreen Forest with over 800 species of vascular plants including some
endemic ones like the recently discovered Psychotria. It is considered the
most undisturbed representation of a wet evergreen high forest ecosystem in
Ghana.

Ankasa records at least nine primate species including Chimpanzees, Diana


monkey, Mangabey and the Geoffrey’s Pied Colobus, the white-naped
mangabey and three unconfirmed species which may include western
chimpanzee, the Roloway Diana monkey and the Western black-and-white
colobus. Ankasa still holds viable populations of charismatic mammals such
as the forest elephant, bongo and yellow backed duiker. Reptiles are also
fairly represented in Ankasa. Other rare mammals found in Ankasa are Giant
Forest Hog, Giant Pangolin, Water Chevrotain and Leopards. There are over
200 species of birds and 600 butterfly species.

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4.13.4 Amansuri Wetlands

The Amansuri wetland is the largest stand of intact swamp-forest in Ghana,


with large portions of the wetland still in a relatively pristine condition.
Although the wetland area is not considered a protected area in terms of
Ghanaian legislation, there are conservation efforts related to it for example,
the ACID Project (Amansuri Conservation and Integrated Development
Project), which aims to develop eco-tourism.

The wetland is classified as a blackwater area, and as such, the fauna on the
site is species-poor, but distinctive. The Ghana Wildlife Society (with funding
from the Dutch government) is involved in a process to designate the
Amansuri area as a certified Ramsar site (Birdlife International, 2012) and the
establishment of the area as a Community Nature Reserve. The area is used
by local communities such as the Nzulenso, a community living on stilt
houses within the Amansuri Lake. The Nzulenso community fishes within
the freshwater lagoon and this is regulated by well-enforced cultural practices
to ensure sustainability and pollution prevention (Birdlife International, 2012).

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5 SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE

This Chapter is structured to build up an understanding of the socio-economic


environment in which the Project is planned to take place. The relationship
between the Project and the different levels of this environment is two-way,
with the Project impacting on its host while simultaneously being impacted by
the structure and functioning of that host environment.

The Chapter is therefore presented in the following way:

Section Focus
5.1 Defining the Socio- Defining levels of the Study Area based on the areas of influence
economic Study Area
5.2 Institutional Context Summarising structures of governance and administration
interacting with the Project

5.3 Macro-Economic Presenting a short socio-economic and political history that


History of Ghana motivates current day planning relevant to the Project
5.4 The development Policy Highlighting aspects of development plans impacting on the
Context Study Area

5.5 Land Tenure System Summarising land access issues given the Project’s requirement
and Land Use for land and impact on current land owners and users

5.6 National, Regional and Presenting key socio-economic aspects relevant to the broader
District Socio-economic Project Area
Setting

5.7 National, Regional and Highlighting existing strengths and hurdles in the broader Project
District Utilities, Area
Infrastructure and services

5.8 The Local Socio- Presenting the key socio-economic and cultural setting which will
Economic and Cultural host the Project and on which the Project will impact most directly
Setting

5.9 Livelihood Practices Highlighting current livelihood activities which need to be


understood in developing alternative livelihood activities to
mitigate Project impacts in the Study Area

5.10 Community Lifestyle, Understanding the nature of community life and identity today in
Identity and Relationships order to ensure sensitive Project development and impact
mitigation where relevant

5.11 Utilities, Infrastructure Summarising the current setting into which the Project will be
and Services placed and on which the Project will have direct and indirect
impacts

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5.1 DEFINING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY AREA

The geographical focus of the socio-economic study area has been defined,
based on the location of the Project (1) and description of the Project
components (Chapter 3) as the vicinity of Atuabo, Ellembelle District, Western
Region of Ghana (Figure 5.1). Communities identified as directly affected in
this area are Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo (Figure 5.2). These three
towns, together with the physical footprint of the Project will hereafter be
referred to as the “Study Area”.

The Project is anticipated to impact particularly upon these towns (2), but also
on the wider region in general (Figure 5.3). This baseline chapter therefore
examines, briefly, the macro socio-economic environment, the regional and
district context and then looks in more detail at the way in which towns,
households and individuals, directly affected by the Project, currently exist.

(1) When commenting on issues likely to arise from the Project, the reader should note that all comments are based on the
premise of “if the Project is approved” or “if the Project goes ahead”. This decision is to be made by the developer based on
the financial feasibility of the Project and on the approval of the ESIA by the Ghanaian Government.
(2) Although Ghana uses the term “town” to describe settlements of 5000 or more inhabitants, this report refers to the three
directly impacted communities of Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo as towns, even though they are smaller in size than
the official definition.

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Figure 5.1 Contextual Map: Region, District and Study Area
Figure 5.2 Study Area Communities: Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo

Figure 5.3 Project Spheres of Influence

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5.2 INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT

This section of the Report presents aspects of Ghana’s institutional structures


that are of relevance to the Project as there will be a two-way relationship
between the Project and government institutions. On the one hand, the levels
of government outlined will have varying jurisdiction over the Project and on
the other hand the presence of the Project will impact on the operations of
some of these structures. Therefore an understanding and interaction between
the parties will be necessary throughout the Project’s lifecycle.

5.2.1 Formal and Traditional Administrative Structures

National

Ghana is a multi-party democracy with a President as head of state and head


of the government. Legislative power rests with the parliament and the
judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature.

The government administration in Ghana is made up of ten administrative


Regions subdivided into Metropolitan, Municipal and Districts areas, each
with an administrative assembly comprised of a combination of appointed
and elected officials.

Regional

The local government system, as defined under the Local Government Act 462
of 1993, is made up of the Regional Coordinating Council (RCC), four-tier
Metropolitan and three-tier Municipal/District Assemblies with
Urban/Town/Area/Zonal Councils Unit Committees. The RCC is the head
of the local government system and is the highest decision-making body. In
each Region, the RCC is made up of the following:

Regional Minister as Chairman and his deputies;


Presiding Member of each District assembly;
District Chief Executive of each District in the Region;
two Chiefs from the Regional House of Chiefs;
Regional Coordinating Director (Secretary to the RCC and the head of the
civil administration of the region); and
Regional Heads of decentralised ministries.

The RCCs are non-executive bodies responsible for monitoring, coordinating


and evaluating the performance of the District assemblies and any Agency of
the central government.

District

According to the Ellembelle Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP), the


various legal frameworks for local development in Ghana place the District

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Assembly in the centre to reinforce the government’s decentralisation process
and emphasis on participatory development.

The Ellembelle District Assembly (EDA) is therefore the highest


administrative and political body in the district, headed by the District Chief
Executive (DCE). An organisational chart of the EDA authorities is presented
in Figure 5.4. The Ellembelle District has an executive committee, which
formulates and executes policies of the Assembly through a number of sub-
committees including finance and administration, social services,
development planning, works, justice, security, health and sanitation.

The EDA, and specifically the District Planning Coordinating Unit, is


responsible for infrastructure, housing and development planning within the
Ellembelle District and will therefore have significant interaction with the
Project in the pre-construction and construction phases.

In addition, the District comprises ten Area Councils, which are essential to
local level development as they create an interface between the Assembly and
local communities. The Area Council is a sub-structure of the District
Assembly created for a number of settlements/villages which are grouped
together but whose individual populations are less than 5000. Area Councils
cover areas with predominantly rural populations and in some cases can be
identified with spheres of influence of a particular traditional authority.

The Project site falls within the Atuabo Area Council.


Table 5.1 shows the Ellembelle District Area Councils and the total population
figures for each Area Council.

Table 5.1 List of Area Councils and Population within Ellembelle District

Area Council Total Population


Asasetre 4,409
Kikam 6,020
Esiama 9,982
Nkroful 9,327
Awiebo 3,055
Atuabo (1) 3,753
Aiyinase 19, 634
Source: 2000 Population and Housing Census Western Region

As shown in
Table 5.1, the Atuabo Area Council has the second lowest population (2000
census)(2) and this is considered to have lowered development and service
delivery in the Project Area.

The Unit Committee is the last sub-structure in the local governance system. A
Unit is normally a settlement or a group of settlements with a population of

(1) Atuabo area council includes at least Eikwe; Sanzule; Krisan; Ngalekyi Atuabo; Anokyi and Asemdasuazo
2) Wherever possible data from the 2010 National census has been used. However, no data has been made available at the
Council or community level at the time of completing this report.

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between 500–1000 in the rural areas, and a higher population (1500) for the
urban areas. Each Unit is represented by a Unit Committee, which is made up
of elected members. In the project area, the Units coincide with the electoral
area. Each of the five (5) Unit Committees has five (5) members, in addition to
the Assembly Members. The Unit committees being in close touch with the
people play the important roles of revenue collection, organization of
communal labour, monitoring the implementation of self-help development
projects, educating the people on their rights, privileges, obligations and
responsibilities, as well as providing focal points for discussion of local
matters and making recommendations to the Assembly, among others. Each
Unit Committee has a Chairman who steers the affairs of the Committee.

The EDA was inaugurated only recently, in February 2008, and as such the
strategic development planning for the District is in its early phase. The
emergence of the oil and gas industry and related industrial activities will
require careful planning by affected Councils to facilitate development and to
prevent unplanned and un-coordinated growth with concomitant pressures
on existing infrastructure and services which could result in lowering
standards of living rather than an improvement.

Figure 5.4 Ellembelle District Organogram

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Source: Ellembelle Medium Term Development Plan (2010)

5.2.2 Traditional Authorities

Tradition plays an important role in society and is recognised at the national


level where the traditional system is managed through the Ministry of
Chieftaincy and Culture. The objective of the Ministry is to preserve, sustain
and integrate the regal, traditional and cultural values and practices.

At the local level, the paramount chiefs are the traditional heads of the people
and custodians of the land, and they carry great local influence. Traditional
structures, including the paramount chiefs, are intended to be politically
impartial as they are responsible for supporting every member of the
community, irrespective of their political affiliation.

Despite changes and challenges to the traditional structures, in most cases the
chiefs continue to wield considerable authority, respect and influence at the
local level, including quasi-judicial roles. Chiefs and their traditional councils
are often involved in disputes around family and property matters, including
land and they may mediate on issues such as theft and domestic conflicts. The
chief usually also takes on the role of encouraging communities to participate
in development activities in the area.

Traditional councils are composed of the elders who carry out the instructions
of the chief and safeguard traditional customs and knowledge about an area
for future generations.

The Ellembelle District has one Paramountcy, the Eastern Nzema Traditional
Council, which is headed by Awulae Amehere Kpanyinle II and is situated at
Atuabo. The three districts of Nzema East, Ellembelle and Jomoro constitute
the Nzema Manle Council (District House of Chiefs).

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Figure 5.5 Ellembelle District Traditional Leadership Organogram

Nzema Manle Council


(District House of Chiefs)

Nzema East Ellembelle Jomoro

Eastern Nzema Traditional Council

Paramount Chief
Awulae Amehere Kpanyinle II

5.3 MACRO-ECONOMIC HISTORY OF GHANA

This section presents a brief summary of this macro-economic history. This


will feed into the next section and contribute to better understanding of some
of today’s policies, where they come from and how they are shaping the socio-
economic and development planning that is affecting the broader region and
district in which the Project will take place.

In 1957, Ghana (1) gained independence, becoming the first sub-Saharan


African nation to become independent of European Colonialism.
International hopes for successful transition to independence under the first
president Kwame Nkrumah were high. However, Nkrumah’s government
was overthrown in 1966 over the following quarter century Ghana almost
became bankrupt, as a result of political turmoil, a number of military coups,
plummeting GDP and crippling national debt. Ghana along with many other
countries in Africa went through the "African economic crisis" in the early 80s,
which was characterised by a steep decline in the quality of life for an
increasingly large proportion of the population and a decline in the rate of
growth in all the sectors of the national economy.

By 1982, real per capita income had declined by more than 30 percent and the
overall balance of payments’ deficit widened. In response to this crisis, the
Ghanaian government agreed to implement the International Monetary
Fund’s (IMF) Economic Recovery Programme (ERP), which focused on
stabilisation, rehabilitation and liberalisation. This structural adjustment plan
resulted in the changing of many economic policies, and, according to the

(1) During colonial times, the British referred to Ghana as the "Gold Coast". Following independence, the name "Ghana"
was chosen to reflect the ancient Empire of Ghana which once extended throughout much of West Africa.

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Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Factbook, leading to the beginning of an
economic recovery.

In 1992 a new constitution restoring multi-party politics was promulgated and


since then there have been five successful multi-party elections thereby
confirming Ghana’s status as a stable democracy;; an important criteria for
foreign direct investment. A fourth democratic election is planned for 2012
and international interests remain high to see the re-enforcement of
democracy.

As a result of the economic challenges of the 1970s, 80s and 90s, Ghana
struggled for a long time with the huge foreign debt that had accumulated.
Thus, until recently, Ghana was regarded by the World Bank as “poor”, with a
per capita annual income of less than 1 USD per day. On 1 July 2011 the
World Bank reclassified Ghana from a low-income to lower middle-income
status country, due to increased revisions of GDP by analysts in response to
the recent discovery and production of oil in Ghana (World Bank, 2011). In
the Word Bank’s “Global Economic Prospects” report for 2012, Ghana is
positioned as the fastest growing economy in Sub-Saharan Africa for 2012,
with a forecast GDP growth of 13.4 percent (World Bank, 2012). To the
majority of Ghanaians this reclassification is, however, purely theoretical as
the anticipated socio-economic benefits of the new oil and gas industry are yet
to be felt on the ground.

5.3.1 The Development Policy Context

As detailed in Chapter 2 of the ESIA, a number of national to district


development policies exist that will influence the future of the broader Project
Area. These policies arise in response to Ghana’s history and are summarised
in Table 5.2.

Table 5.2 Development Policies Relevant to the Project

Policy Key Aspects


National Level Policy
The Coordinated Designed to address historical economic and social challenges
Programme of Economic that are seen to have hampered national development.
and Social Development Driven by a medium-term vision of shared growth through
Policies, 2010 – 2016 accelerated job creation, integrated industrial development
(Agenda for Shared and agricultural modernisation, via policy measures that the
government plans to pursue in order to “transform the
Growth and Accelerated
economy from its over-dependence on primary raw materials
Development for a Better
to a diversified economy.
Ghana) (Adopted June
Priority interventions include:
2011) Economic Development;
Social Development;
Science, Technology and Innovation ;
Infrastructure Development;
Spatial Development Zones;
Natural Resource Management;
Environmental Governance; and
Transparent and Accountable Governance.
Land Commission Provides guidelines for acquisitions of tracts of land larger

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Policy Key Aspects
Guidelines for Considering than 50 acres.
Large-Scale Land Highlights that most of the land users in rural areas (where
Transactions for the majority of large scale land acquisitions are occurring in
Agricultural and other Ghana) are smallholder farmers without registered title deeds
Purposes (Approved or interests on those lands.
February 2012) Emphasises that most of these farmers have only use rights to
the land and are thus vulnerable to negotiations undertaken
by a higher interest holder (like a chief or family head) over
the release of the land.
Emphasises the participation of all stakeholders in the process
of such transaction.
Regional Level Policy
Western Region Spatial Presents a spatial plan for the integration of social, economic
Development Framework and environmental development for the Region.
2013--33 (WRSDF) (Draft Zones the Region into three spatial zones.
April 2012) Identifies the Project Area within Zone 3: Coastal - Industrial
Districts.
Recognizes the discovery of oil and gas as a key driver of
development in the Region and the Study Area.
Already takes account a specialist oil and gas harbour with
associated supply facilities at Atuabo (Ellembelle) – this
Project.
Recognises that to maximise employment opportunities
requires long term strategic plans for training as well as wide
access to business procurement in institutional, structural and
future land use and infrastructure terms
District Level Policy
Ellembelle District The overarching goal is to:
Assembly Medium-Term co-ordinate social services and environmental
Development Plan 2010- sustainability;
2013 (Prepared November improve security and develop accessibility to production
2010) areas; and
strengthen local institution for equitable growth and
sustainable development.
Priority focus areas include:
macro-economic stability;
accelerated agricultural modernization and sustainable
natural resource management;
oil and gas development;
infrastructure, energy and human settlement;
enhanced competitiveness;
transparent governance; and
human development, productivity and employment.

When designing the Project and planning for impact mitigation and
maximisation of opportunities, Lonrho would benefit by engaging with the
agencies implementing these national, regional and district development
policies – particularly when identifying non-core activities, like corporate
social responsibility (CSR) projects that could partner with broader regional
and district programmes to ensure sustainability beyond the life of the Project.

5.4 LAND TENURE SYSTEM AND LAND USE

This section of the Report highlights issues of land tenure and access, which is
central to the Project, as the Project requires access to 2000 acres of land
currently under traditional tenure. Gaining title to the land, and the

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repercussions for affected land owners and users, will be a major socio-
economic impact of the Project and an appropriate understanding of tenure
and access issues is therefore significantly important.

According to Godwin Djokoto and Kyeretwie Opoku (2010), customary and


statutory land tenure can be described in terms of the way in which they are
managed because:

“Ghana’s land tenure system is usually characterised as one of legal


pluralism in which customary and statutory laws co-exist in a complex
mix, and range of institutions and regulations having authority over land
rights and multiple bodies through which disputes are resolved”.

Customary tenure is characterised by its essentially unwritten nature, based


on local practices and norms that are said to be negotiable and flexible and
vary dependent upon location. Such tenure is usually managed by a
traditional ruler (the paramount chief or local chiefs); a council of elders; or
family or lineage heads. Its principles stem from rights established through
first clearance of land, conquest or settlement (1).

In contrast, the State land tenure system is usually based on officially


documented statutes and regulations, formalised in a legal system that has, at
its roots, a history of colonial power. Such laws define acceptable behaviour
and processes, and present consequences for non-compliance to these.
Administration of this legal system usually rests with government structures
and individuals delegated with relevant authority. The basis of this system is
citizenship, constitutional rights and nation building and state-recognised
land rights are allocated and confirmed through the issue of titles or other
forms of ownership registration.

It is estimated that 80 percent of the land in Ghana is owned and governed by


traditional authorities (chiefs), while the government owns only 20 percent.
Under the 1992 Constitution, three distinct land tenure systems are
recognised:

Public land is owned by government, or has been acquired by the


government for public use (specifically for infrastructure development);

Stool (or skin) land is communal land held by traditional communities or


a grouping of communities, including stools, skins, and families. This type
of land is characterised by varying tenure and management systems; and

Private freehold land is not owned by government or traditional


authorities, but is held by families or groups who are members of the
community.

(1) Growing Forest Partnership, (2010). “Land Tenure In Ghana: Making A Case For Incorporation Of Customary Law In
Land Administration And Areas Of Intervention”. Commissioned By International Union For The Conservation Of Nature
And Growing Forest Partnership

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Due to the diversity of this land tenure system an individual can hold
multiple rights to one piece of land. There are three different forms of right to
land, namely use rights, control rights and transfer rights as described below:

Use Rights is the right to use the land (conferred either to “natives” or
“settlers”).

Control Rights are the right to make decisions on how the land should be
used and to benefit financially from the sale of the crops etc.

Transfer rights is the right to sell or mortgage the land; to convey the land
to others through intra-community re-allocations or to heirs; and to
reallocate use and control rights.

Under the traditional system, any person who wants to buy or lease land has
to request permission from the chief and follow the correct traditional
protocols. Family land can be bought or leased, and if leased, the family and
the lessee have to agree on the rent before the transaction is regarded as
complete. The same applies if the person who wants to buy the land, a selling
price must be agreed upon. Once this transaction is complete the buyer
becomes the legal owner of the land.

Land ownership is also determined by matrilineal (maternal) and patrilineal


(paternal) inheritance systems. In the Ellembelle District matralineality is the
dominant form and family land may be handed down through the female line
from mother to child but not from father to child. If a man owns family land
he is only able to pass the land on to his sisters’ heirs thereby keeping the
property within the family through the female line.

Chiefs remain the custodians of traditional lands but do not have absolute
control as land acquisition registration and revenue collection is done through
the Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands. In addition, there is a legal
obligation to distribute revenues from Stool Land (Article 267 of the
Constitution and Section eight of the Stool Lands Act 1994) as follows:

The first ten percent of the revenue accruing from Stool Lands shall be
paid to the Administrator of Stool Lands to cover administrative expenses.

The remaining revenue shall be disbursed in the following proportions by


the Administrator:
25 percent to the Stool through the traditional authority for the
maintenance of the Stool in keeping with its status;
20 percent to the traditional authority; and
55 percent to the District Assembly within the area of authority in
which the Stool Land is situated.

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5.4.1 Local Land Use, Rights and Entitlements

In Atuabo, all the land originally belonged to the chief but because it is not
acceptable for a chief to farm he “gives” access to the land to different families
and in return receives some form of rent; a percentage of the crop produced or
of crop sales, or a combination of both. In Atuabo and potentially in the other
communities, a number of residents believe that they “own” the land as it has
been worked by their families for generations. This is a perception of
ownership as discussions between the developer and the Lands Commission
have confirmed that all land in the Project area is stool land. The Awulae has
nevertheless acknowledged that this “confusion” around the perception of
ownership exists and has cautioned the various role-players in the Project on
this issue. Of significance for the Project is the potential vulnerability that this
situation creates for families or individuals with varying entitlements and
thus varying claims on compensation when losing access to land
(sharecroppers in particular). This will need to be clarified during further
compensation-related activities at the next stage of the Project process.

For newcomers to the area, the Awulae emphasised that land could be
accessed by following the appropriate traditional channels of the chiefs and
elders.

For the Project to go ahead it needs to gain access to the identified footprint.
Discussions are underway with the Awulae in this regard and a Memorandum
of Understanding (MOU) has been signed between the two parties. The MOU
confirms that the Stool would offer the land in return for an equity stake in the
Project. The GoG would provide a Government Guarantee on the provision
of the land, in the event of the Stool failing to meet its obligations. Based on
this arrangement the Stool would get revenues from dividend payments
based on its percentage shareholding in the Project and subject to the
dividend declaration approved by the Project’s Board of Directors.
Compensation for land users with no legal title would be agreed to through
the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) or Livelihood Restoration Plan (LRP) with
all affected individuals and families and settled separately.

5.5 NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND DISTRICT SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING

Before providing more detailed information about the socio-economic and


cultural environment of the Study Area, an overview of the National, Regional
and District environment is provided. The selection of this information has
been based on adding value to an understanding of the context in which the
Project and its proposed activities in the Study Area will take place.

An overview of a range of significant national statistics is presented in Table


5.3:

Table 5.3 Ghana Socio-Economic Indicators

Social/ Demographic

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Social/ Demographic
Population estimate (2010 Population and Housing 24,223,431
Census Provisional Results) 11,801,661 males (48.7 percent)
12,421,770 females (51.3 percent)
Age Structure (2011 estimate) 0-14 years: 36.5 percent
(male 4,568,273/ female 4,468,939)
15-64 years: 60 percent
(male 7,435,449/ female 7,436,204)
65 years and over : 3.6 percent
(male 399,737/ female 482,471)
Median age 21.4
Population growth rate (2012. estimate) 1.8 percent
Urban/ Rural population (2010) 51 percent urban
Rate of Urbanization (2010-15 estimate) 3.4 annual rate of change
Birth rate: (2012 estimate) 27 births/1,000 population
Death rate: (July 2012 estimate) 8.6 deaths/1,000 population
Infant mortality rate (2012 estimate) 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth (2010) 64
Total fertility rate: (2012 estimate) 3.4 children born/woman
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate (2009 estimate) 1.8 percent
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS (2009 260,000
estimate)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: (2009 estimate) 18,000
Literacy (1): (2012 estimate) 57.9 percent (down from 74.8 percent in
(Male/ female figures from 2000 National Census) 2003)
- males 66.4 percent
- females 49.8 percent
Primary School net enrolment ratio 76 percent
(2007-2009)
Economic
GDP - Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) (2) 74.8 billion USD
(2011 estimate)
GDP – real growth rate (2012) 13.5 percent

GDP – per capita PPP (3) 3,100 USD


(2011 estimate)
GDP – composition by sector (2011 estimate) agriculture: 28.3 percent
industry: 21 percent
services: 50.7 percent
Poverty Ratio(4) (2012) 28.5 percent

Unemployment (2000) 11 percent (down from 20 percent in


1997)
Investment - gross fixed (2011 estimate) 20.1 percent of GDP

Source: CIA World Factbook, Ghana; 2010 Population and Housing Census Provisional Results

(1) Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write.


(2) Purchasing Power Parity: An economic theory that estimates the amount of adjustment needed on the exchange rate
between countries in order for the exchange to be equivalent to each currency's purchasing power (Investopedia.com as
accessed 31 May 2012 at http://www.investopedia.com/term)
(3) The value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year divided by the average (or mid-
year) population for the same year.
(4) Poverty ration is the percentage of the population living below the poverty line – 1.50 USD /day. This is a significant
reduction from the 51.7 percent in the 1990s.

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5.5.1 Demographic Profile

According to the preliminary results of the National Population Census


(2010), Ghana currently has a population of 24,223,431, with the Western
Region comprising nine percent of the total population (2,325,597 people).
The Western Region has a population density of 97 people per km2, making it
the fifth most densely populated region in the country.

The population characteristics of the Ellembelle District and affected


communities are highlighted in Table 5.4.

Table 5.4 Population Distribution in Ellembelle District and Communities of the Study
Area

District Population Size Expected Population Size Rural/Urban Split


(2013)
Ellembelle 95,306 114,839 Majority rural
Anokyi 874 Not available All rural
Atuabo 1419 Not available All rural
Asemdasuazo 558 Not available All rural
Source: WRSDF: Zone 3: Coastal – Industrial Districts, 2012; SRC LRP Fieldwork 2012

Regional Population Growth

According to the provisional 2010 National Census, since 2000, the overall
population growth in Ghana has been 28.1 percent. The Western Region has
experienced a lower population growth rate (20.8 percent) which is 7.3 percent
below the national average. The decline in the growth rate may be attributed
to a decrease in the numbers of people migrating into the area and an increase
in the people migrating out of the area in search of employment (Johnson,
2010).

Further information about population percentage growth per region is


provided in Table 5.5.

Table 5.5 Population Growth by Region, 2000 – 2010

Region 2000 Percentage 2010 Percentage Percentage


Population share 2000 Population Increase share 2010
Ashanti 3,612,950 19.1 4,725,046 30.8 19.5
Brong Ahafo 1,815,408 9.6 2,282,128 25.7 9.4
Central 1,593,823 8.4 2,107,209 32.3 8.7
Eastern 2,106,696 11.1 2,596,013 23.2 10.7
Greater Accra 2,905,726 15.4 3,909,764 34.6 16.1
Northern 1,820,806 9.6 2,468,557 35.6 10.2
Upper East 920,089 4.9 1,031,478 12.1 4.3
Upper West 576,583 3.0 677,763 17.5 2.8
Volta 1,635,421 8.6 2,099,876 28.4 8.7
Western 1,924,577 10.2 2,325,597 20.8 9.6
Ghana 24,223,431 100.00 11,801,661 28.1 100.00
Source: 2010 Population and Housing Census Provisional Results

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Urban/ Rural Population Patterns

Overall, Ghana demonstrates a population shift towards the urban areas,


which is common amongst most African countries as people seek
opportunities and services which are more easily available in cities. Ghana
defines an urban area as having 5000 or more inhabitants. According to the
2000 National Census, the National and Western Region urban populations
were 43.9 percent and 36.3 percent respectively. That is significantly higher
than the 26.6 percent for Ellembelle District. Over the 16 years leading up to
2000 more than 39 percent of the District’s population migrated towards the
urban centres (Table 5.6). The ramifications of this population movement
suggest a potential long-term emptying of small communities in the District,
which in turn would lead to lower service provision in these areas
contributing to a cycle of even more migration and/or lower standards of
living for those remaining.

Table 5.6 Urban/ Rural Population Trend

Area 1960 (Percent) 1970 (Percent) 1984 (Percent) 2000 (Percent)


Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural
Ghana 23 77 29 71 32 68 43.9 56.1

Western 25 75 27 73 23 87 36.3 63.7


Region
Ellembelle 1.4 98.6 10.7 89.3 15 85 51.06 48.94
District
Source: Axim, 2000

According to the Ellembelle District Profile (EDP) this marked increase in the
urban population is due largely to an unequal distribution of socio-economic
resources. Skewed development planning activities have led to an over-
concentration of social amenities in the small number of urban centres. This is
a situation that the District is now consciously addressing by developing a
rural strategy of development that is also in line with the Regional and
National planning policies.

Population Age Distribution

The Ghanaian population is relatively young, with 36.5 percent aged between
0-14 years old and only 3.6 percent over the age of 65. The division of age
cohorts at National to District levels between 1984 and 2000 are shown in
Table 5.7.

Table 5.7 National to District Age Cohorts as a Percentage of the Population

Cohort Ghana Western Region Ellembelle District


Year 1984 2000 2000 2000
0 – 14 45 41.3 45 43
15 – 64 51 53.4 52 51

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Cohort Ghana Western Region Ellembelle District
Year 1984 2000 2000 2000
65+ 4 5.3 3 6
TOTAL 100 100 100 100
Source: Ellembelle District Profile (2012)

In the Western Region, the age-structure of all the districts depicts the same
pattern of a high proportion of persons between the ages of 0 and 14, but a
decrease in the populations as the age groups increase. (Modern Ghana, 2012).
Ellembelle District echoes this with 43 percent of the population aged between
0 – 14 years old, 51 percent between 15 and 64 and 6 percent above the age of
65. The 51 percent who fall into the economically active population is a
slightly lower figure than that of the regional and national population figures.
This could be as a result of migration out of the area in search of job
opportunities and highlights the skewed economic opportunities within the
region.

In Ellembelle the high proportion of youth, in conjunction with high


unemployment of those economically active individuals, has led to a relatively
high dependency ratio. This dependency places a heavy burden on the
economically active sector of the population in the district and contributes
significantly to high levels of poverty (2010 Population and Housing Census
Provisional Results) and to low standards of living in the area. Addressing
this situation is a focus of Ellembelle’s MTDP. The 51 percent economically
active Ellembelle population also suggests an available workforce for
increased economic development in the District; provided that people are
adequately skilled to access the opportunities.

On the top and bottom range of the age spectrum, the large proportion of
children resident in Ellembelle, as well as the higher than average population
over 65 (six percent compared to the National four percent), highlights the
need for sufficient health, education and recreational facilities to be
established in areas that are currently under-serviced.

Population Gender Distribution

There are more women than men in Ghana (51.3 percent females to 48.7
percent males) and in all regions except in the Western Region and Brong
Ahafo. Population gender distribution is presented in Table 5.8.

Table 5.8 Population by Region and Sex, 2010

Region Total Male Female


Ashanti 4,725,046 2,288,325 2,436,721
Brong Ahafo 2,282,128 1,161,537 1,120,591
Central 2,107,209 998,409 1,108,800
Eastern 2,596,013 1,252,688 1,343,325
Greater Accra 3,909,764 1,884,127 2,025,637
Northern 2,468,557 1,210,702 1,257,855
Upper East 1,031,478 497,139 534,339
Upper West 677,763 333,355 344,408

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Region Total Male Female
Volta 2,099,876 999,190 1,100,686
Western 2,325,597 1,176,189 1,149,408
Ghana 24,223,431 11,801,661 12,421,770
Source: 2010 Population and Housing Census Provisional Results

In contrast to national gender data, the Western region has 26, 781 more men
than women (50.6 percent men vs. 49.4 percent women) (2010 Population and
Housing Census Provisional Results). This is also reflected at the District level
with a fractionally higher male population of 71,673 as against 71,198 for
females (sex ratio of 1:0.7). This may be attributed to male in-migration due to
potential economic activities like fishing, farming, mining and recently small–
scale mining as well as the newly emerging oil and gas sector (EDP, 2012). If
it is the case that men are choosing to locate to or stay in the Western Region
and the Ellembelle District rather than migrating to other parts of Ghana then
this would complement the national, regional and district development
planning policies that have identified the development potential of the District
as part of a coastal – industrial zone (WRSDF, 2012).

It will be important that the Project takes cognisance of this trend and the
National Agenda’s drive towards industrialisation when considering
contractor tenders and employment policies. It is also useful for the Project to
see that various levels of government are planning to implement development
activities that will contribute to servicing the Project’s indirect needs as well as
improving local socio-economic conditions in which the Project will operate.

Ethnicity, Language and Religion

In Ghana, ethnicity is characterised by one’s language or mother tongue.


English is the official language of Ghana and the main medium of teaching at
schools from the fourth year of basic schooling. Akan is the dominant ethnic
group in the Region and represents 89 percent of Ellembelle’s population with
Twi and Fante being the dominant languages.

According to the Ellembelle District Profile, the Akonu ethnic group is


predominantly found in areas around the district capital, while the Nzema
ethnic group is predominantly found in areas around Atuabo. In the Study
Area Nzema is the dominant group and the major language spoken is Nzema;
other dialects like Evalue and Gwira, Fante and Twi are also widely spoken.

Nationally, Christianity is the main religion practiced by the majority of the


population, and this trend is reflected in the Western region where 81percent
of people are Christian, followed by Islam (8.5 percent). According to
Ellembelle’s District Profile, Christians constitute about 79 percent of the
population, while Muslims comprise eight percent, traditionalists three
percent and others ten percent.

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5.5.2 Migration Patterns

There is a significant amount of internal migration within the Western Region,


while inter-regional migration is relatively low. Internal migration occurs
primarily due to the limited employment opportunities in most districts
within the Region, with people migrating to areas with employment
opportunities such as Ahanta West and the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolitan
Assembly (STMA) (Modern Ghana, 2012). Job seekers also often migrate to
Takoradi, Tarkwa and Cote d’Ivoire (Ellembelle District Profile).

The Ellembelle District experiences a surge of in-/out-migration, which is


attributed to seasonal fishing activities, jobs seekers searching for employment
at the mines and small-scale miners (artisanal).

A similar migration trend exists across the Study Area, as people of


economically active age move to the cities and larger towns in search of
employment opportunities.

Since the early 1990s the United Nations High Commission for Refugees in
Ghana has set up two refugee camps in the Western Region and has hosted
displaced people from Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, Togo, Sierra Leone, Sudan, DRC,
Ethiopia, Eritrea and Chad as the Krisan camp in Sanzule, Ellembelle District.
This camp is currently home to over 1000 people. Ampain Refugee Camp was
opened in March 2011 in Jomoro District to host what was a growing
population of refugees fleeing post-election conflict in Cote d'Ivoire. The camp
was erected with 300 tents to house 3000 refugees. The numbers of refugees
entering the District has now stabilised.

5.5.3 The Economy

National Economy

An overview of Ghana’s national economy is provided in Box 5.1.

Box 5.1 Key Aspects of the National Economy

In 2011 the economy grew by 14.4 percent boosted by new oil production and a rebounding
construction sector.
Oil production is expected to plateau in 2012 (at least temporarily) and GDP growth is
anticipated to decelerate to 7.5 percent.
Monetary policy contained inflation within the target single digit range at 9 percent.
The fiscal deficit was reduced to 4.1 percent of GDP due to improved revenue collection, in
line with government’s objectives.
The 2011 current account deficit widened by 38 percent to 9.7 percent of GDP as a result of
higher import growth and significant increases in profit repatriation by extractive
industries. This is despite new oil export revenues.
2011 export receipts grew strongly (particularly in cocoa and gold) as did private
remittances totalling 2.4 billion USD.
Ghana exported 2.7 billion USD of crude oil (24 billion barrels) but imported 3.3 billion
USD oil products. The import amounts were similar but oil price increases had a significant
negative effect on the balance of payments.
Food inflation dropped from 4.8 percent to 4.3 percent over 2011 mainly as a result of
government intervention around fertiliser subsidies, irrigation, buffer stock management

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and seed improvement.
Tax revenues increased from 13.1 percent to 15.4 percent of GDP between 2010 and 2011.
This was due largely to improved tax administration, increased taxable import volumes
and modernised customs valuation at the country’s borders.
Oil tax revenue accounted for 1.2 percent of GDP and mining’s contribution increased from
0.9 percent (2010) to 1.5 percent (2011). This was mainly due to two companies paying
corporate taxes after the expiry of their capital allowances.
Non-tax revenue doubled to 1.9 percent of GDP from the sale of gold and oil-related
activities.
Source: World Bank website: Ghana: Country Brief (2011)

A summary of Ghana’s economic outlook data as presented by


AfricanEconomicOutlook.org, an organisation that draws on the expertise of
the AfDB, OECD, UNDP, UNECA and other African think tanks is included
in Box 5.2

Regional and District Economy

The Western Region has considerable natural resources, which give it


significant economic importance within the context of the national economy.
The Region is the highest contributor to the country’s GDP, at 55 percent
(Ghana Government Portal, 2012). It is the country’s largest producer of
cocoa, timber, rubber (including rubber processing) and coconut (Tullow
Jubilee EIA, 2009). In addition, the Region has a wide variety of minerals
including gold, bauxite, iron, diamonds and manganese.

The discovery of oil off the coast of the Western Region has already enhanced
its significance within the National economy and the exploitation of natural
gas and related industrial activities, including the current Project, will focus
development in the Ellembelle District as an industrial node.

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Box 5.2 Summary of Ghana’s Economic Outlook

“GDP growth in 2011 was driven by the industrial sector which grew by 36.2 percent, slightly
below the target of 37.2 percent. The strongest performance came from the mining and
quarrying sub-sector, which includes petroleum, which grew by 225.4 percent as compared
with 7 percent in 2010.

The service sector continues to be the leading contributor to GDP. It grew by 4.2 percent in 2011,
below the target of 9.9 percent and lower than the outturn of 6.1 percent in the previous year...

The agriculture sector expanded by 2.8 percent in 2011, below the targeted growth rate of 5.3
percent. The low growth rate of the sector is largely explained by the sharp decline in
reforestation activities, which led to a drastic contraction of the forestry and logging subsector
by 14 percent. All of the other sectors within this sub-group expanded: crops (5.4 percent),
livestock (5.1 percent) and fishing (1.7 percent). The high growth performance of the crops sub-
sector was largely due to the spectacular growth performance of the cocoa sub-sector which
grew by 14 percent...

Total revenue and grants for the first three-quarters grew by 46.5 percent mainly because of
improved performance of import duties, the value-added tax (VAT), petroleum and domestic
taxes. Oil revenue accruing to government per the petroleum purchase agreement with the
Ghana National Petroleum Company (GNPC), based on a total output of 24.78 million barrels,
is estimated at 337.33 USD million or 7 percent of GDP in 2011. Key challenges for the future
include the prudent management of oil revenues and the maintenance of a competitive non-oil
sector.

In accordance with the Petroleum Revenue Management Act (PRMA), which outlines the
provisions for the management of the petroleum revenue in Ghana, the government has
published the receipts for oil production and export. The 2012 budget announced how the
revenues accruing to government were allocated: 156.1 USD million was transferred to GNPC
as equity financing and carried interest and USD 112 million was transferred into the
Consolidated Fund as the annual budget-funding amount. Another 54.8 USD million went into
the Stabilisation Fund and 14.4 USD million was transferred into the Heritage Fund accounts.
For 2012, the government is projecting a total benchmark oil revenue of GHS 1.24 million (USD
745 million) based on a benchmark price of 90 USD per barrel.”

Source: African Economic Outlook, Ghana 2012

Agriculture

Currently, Ellembelle’s economic activities are dominated by agriculture


(including fishing) and agro-processing, which accounts for approximately 65
percent of the economically active population. Given the undulating
topography, mechanised systems of cultivation are unsuitable and most
activities are done on a small scale for family subsistence and trading. The
coconut sector has historically been a large contributor to the Ellembelle
District’s economy with coconut oil being produced and exported to Accra,
Kumasi, Tarkwa and Obuasi and further a field to Nigeria. In May 2012 the
districts of Jomoro, Nzema East and Ellembelle agreed on the establishment of
a common market for the sale of coconut to improve the profitability of the
business and to enhance the local economy while creating employment
opportunities (Akoto, 2012) Production declined significantly due to Saint
Paul’s Coconut disease which decimated almost half the plantations along the
south-eastern coast and this impacted severely on the livelihoods of people in

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the area over the past two decades. In 2000 a programme was implemented to
re-establish the sector through replanting hybrid coconut seedlings. The
Ellembelle District Chief Executive has stated that the GoG in collaboration
with Zoomlion-Ghana have been developing a hybrid coconut seedlings for
supply to coconut farmers for cultivation. It is hoped that this will bring some
relief to affected farmers and income to the Ellembelle District (EDP, 2012).

Livestock

Livestock production is undertaken on an insignificant scale in Ellembelle.


Pig production is most popular as the by-products from coconut oil
processing are easily accessible and cheap feed for the pigs. Currently, pig
rearing is done on a small and traditional basis. However the Ellembelle
District has identified the potential of large-scale pig husbandry to create
alternative employment opportunities (EDP, 2012).

Fisheries

Marine fishing is a key economic activity in Ellembelle and the district ranks
second in the country in this sector. During the major fishing season there is
an influx of people to the District and economic activities are high. In
contrast, during the off-season, unemployment rises and the economy
experiences a recession as a result of an exodus of non-residents, a lack of
income for individuals and an absence of purchasing power within
communities. This also affects the District Assembly’s revenue base.

Inland fish farming, although it exists, is under-developed in the District with


only a small number of ponds used (approximately 64) (EDP, 2012).

The seasonality of fishing is due, at least in part, to the low-cost low-


mechanised techniques that leave fishermen at the mercy of the elements. The
EDP highlights the need to introduce scientific methods and updated
technology to improve fishing catches.

In keeping with the District’s development policy, seasonality of fishing and


farming and related unemployment could be addressed by creating
opportunities for employment through promotion of small/medium scale,
labour-intensive, rural enterprises. These are potential areas for consideration
as alternative livelihood strategies for the Project’s LRP.1

(1) Rural Enterprise Prorammes (REP) exist in various parts of Ghana. For example, small-scale entrepreneurs in the
municipality of Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem have been assisted by the REP through the provision of tools including
welding machines, hairdressing equipment, electric sewing machines and vulcanizing machines to assist in developing the
sector and growing the local economy. In the Upper East Region of the country, Rural Technology Facilities have been
established to support the transfer of appropriate technology to farmers, agro-processors, metal-based artisans and other
micro and small entrepreneurs in the area and its adjoining districts. They will also offer apprenticeship training to
unemployed youth in viable artisanal trades.

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5.5.4 Education

The 1992 Constitution of Ghana prescribes that basic education shall be free,
compulsory and available to all. Basic education is comprised of primary
school (six years) and Junior High School (JHS) (three years). Secondary level
education is comprised of Senior High School (SHS) (three years) and tertiary
education (usually four years). Prior to attending basic education, children
are encouraged to attend two years of kindergarten, although there is no law
prescribing this.

Schools are predominantly run by the state, however there are also a number
that are private or run by faith-based organisations. Although government
basic education is freely available and is paid for via the State’s capitation
grant, there are a number of additional charges for which parents are
responsible including Parent Teacher Association (PTA) levies, uniforms,
exam printing fees and purchase of exercise books, notebooks and occasional
textbooks. Much concern has been expressed in the media over the past few
years about the exploitation of parents through the levy system. It is difficult
therefore to provide specific figures for the costs highlighted above but these
seem to vary between ¢30-90 for PTA levies and text books costing from
approximately ¢2 to ¢30 depending on the level of the text book
(Ghanaweb.com, 2012). In many families these fees, though limited, make
school attendance too expensive to manage so only approximately 76 percent
of primary school aged children are enrolled in primary schools.

Education Facilities

There are currently 1,320 primary schools in the Western Region, of which
1,240 are public and 80 are private. The Ministry of Education’s policy states
that there should be a basic school within five km of a community. Thus,
these schools are fairly evenly distributed across ten of the Region’s Districts.
Ellembelle District education facilities are presented in Table 5.9 and the
enrolment of pupils (by gender) in the District is shown in Table 5.10

Table 5.9 Educational Facilities in Ellembelle District

Facility Number in District


Pre-school 73
Primary school 74
JHS 45
SHS 4
Technical/Vocational 2
Special school (Eikwe) 1
Source: EDP, 2012.

Table 5.10 Ellembelle School Enrolment by Gender

Category of School Enrolment

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Category of School Enrolment
Boys Girls Total
Pre-school 3,383 3,450 6,833
Primary 7,158 6,589 13,744
JHS 2,532 2,100 4,632
Source: EDP, 2012.

There are 694 JHS and only 42 SHS in the Region. Approximately 40 percent
of these are found in Ahanta West. As a result some pupils have to travel up
to 30 km to reach the nearest SHS, provided they can get one of the limited
boarding spaces available. Many children, particularly those from the rural
areas, are therefore unable to access education especially SHS due to distance
and affordability.

In the Ellembelle District, there are 73 kindergartens, 74 primary schools, 45


JHS, two SHS and one tertiary institution.

Literacy

The current rate of literacy is approximately 57.9 percent (Ghana National


Census 2000). According to Regional information published on the Ghana
Government website, the level of literacy in the Western Region is 58.2
percent, with females (47.9 percent) recording a lower proportion compared to
males (68.0 percent). Nearly 64.3 percent of those currently in school are at
the primary level, while 21.3 percent are in JHS. This highlights a very high
attrition rate between primary and JHS levels. Several reasons could account
for this including the unavailability of JHS within many rural localities,
resulting in pupils having to travel ten kilometres or more to the nearest
school. Other important factors are affordability and poor infra-structural
facilities. Additional explanations for high drop-out rates highlight the
abundance of natural resources and fisheries in the Region, creating the
perception that it is easy for people to access employment without an
education. In the past, and to a lesser degree now, children were expected to
play a larger role in household economic activities, including agriculture and
fishing and so less priority was placed on education.

The socio-economic risks associated with the lack of accessible educational


facilities read in conjunction with the high level of illiteracy in the District
paints a challenging picture for the education and future of the 43 percent 0-14
age cohort in Ellembelle as well as for the planned development of the
District. The government has recognised the importance of this issue and the
focus on education is apparent in a number of National to District policies and
programmes.

In response to this, there have been a number of government and NGO-led


initiatives for the improvements in the educational system in Ghana. A
summary of these are presented in Box 5.3.

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Box 5.3 Educational Initiatives in Ghana

There have been notable improvements in the quality of education in Ghana due to a number of
government and NGO initiatives. Government initiatives include:

National Education Strategy Plan (2003 – 2015)


The National Education Strategy Plan (ESP), in conjunction with the Ghana Poverty Reduction
Strategy (GPRS) has increased spending in 53 districts, and recognised that a large number of
children remain out of school and that children living in hard to reach areas should be
supported through more innovative programmes. The ESP is also designed to target vulnerable
groups including children with special needs, children living in areas of extreme poverty, out of
school children and girls (Caseley-Hayford, 2004).

The Agenda for Shared Growth and Accelerated Development for a Better Ghana
The Agenda recognises education as a cornerstone of achieving a “better Ghana”, and strives to
improve education through the roll out of various initiatives such as increase in the capitation
grant, free uniforms, free exercise books, expansion of school feeding programme, full tuition
fees for teachers pursuing further studies, replacing schools under trees, revamping collapsed
science resource centres and a reduction in SHS duration to ensure that the needed classroom,
dormitory, library, dining and assembly halls are in place.

5.5.5 Health

The Ghanaian healthcare system is governed through the Ghana Ministry of


Health (MoH), which is divided in two: The Ghana Health Service (GHS) and
the Teaching Hospitals (TH). The MoH is responsible for policy formulation,
monitoring and evaluation, resource mobilisation and regulation of health
services delivery. The GHS oversees services and the TH oversees training of
health professionals.

Following extensive consultation internally and with international health


NGOs, the GoG established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in
2003. The mission of the NHIS is the following:

“to ensure equitable universal access for all residents of Ghana to an


acceptable quality of essential health services without out-of-pocket
payment being required at the point of service use” (Ghana Ministry of
Health. 2004).

Although the law now requires every Ghanaian resident to enrol in one of
three NHI schemes, with free membership for the elderly, most citizens
cannot afford to pay monthly for the scheme 1, as many people in Ghana are
unemployed (approximately 11 percent) or are involved in subsistence-based
activities. Thus the security of access to medicines and facilities continues to
be undermined.

(1) The National Health Insurance Council imposes a national minimum and maximum "annual premium" of ¢7 - ¢48
respectively that every consumer has to pay based on their economic status. The premium is paid to the District Mutual
Schemes.

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Health Care Facilities

The public health service is offered through a hierarchy of hospitals, health


centres, maternity homes and clinics including Community-based Health
Planning and Services (CHPS) compounds. There are primary, secondary and
tertiary facilities organised at community, sub-district, district, regional and
national levels. Community and sub-district levels provide primary care, with
district and regional hospitals providing secondary health care (Figure 5.6).

Approximately 90 percent of the population in the Region is within a five km


radius of a medical facility but, in 2000, the doctor patient ratio across the
Region was 1:18,500. In addition, one of the main challenges facing the
provision of medical services is the general lack of ambulances exacerbated by
poor road infrastructure.

Figure 5.6 Health Care System in Ghana

Traditional Healers and Practitioners

The use of traditional healers is common in Ghana and is also recognised by


the GHS as part of the CHPS. In most Districts there is a traditional healer
within a ten kilometre radius. The Department of Health offers basic training
to interested traditional healers such as first aid, safe delivery of babies,
identifying signs of anaemia and good hygiene for the mother and
midwife (Traditional Healer, April 2012).

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Common Illnesses and Associated Issues

The most common illness affecting Ghana’s population is malaria. Others are
mostly water-borne such as diarrhoea and typhoid. In addition, Acute
Respiratory Infection (ARI) colloquially referred to as “the cough” is common
in all communities.

In Ghana, malaria is reported to account for approximately 45 percent of all


hospital admissions and is the leading cause of death amongst young
children. As throughout Ghana, it is extremely common in the Western
Region, with large areas of stagnant water serving as permanent mosquito
breeding sites. According to the UN’s IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis,

“World Health Organisation studies show that sleeping under a bed net
is the best way to avoid malaria, but many families cannot afford to take
such a precaution. In the markets of Ghana, an insecticide-treated bed net
(ITN) can cost between US $6 and $13 – far beyond the budget of most
people in a country where nearly 80 percent of the population live on less
than $2 a day”1.

The Ghanaian government, in tackling malaria, is subsidising treated bed-nets


which are then sold for under 2 USD to malaria-vulnerable groups, like
pregnant women and mothers with children under age five. Thirty-five
percent of Ghana's population of 20 million people now sleep under treated
bed nets – a tenfold increase compared with 2002 figures. However this figure
is still 25 percent below the targeted 60 percent usage set by 44 African heads
of state in 2000.

There are several local and international organizations working alongside or


independently of government in anti-malarial programmes in the country. All
acknowledge the social and economic impacts of the disease and are working
to counter it through inside spraying of insecticides, the distribution of cheap
treated bed nets and educate people on the use of nets as well as other
precautionary measures.

Aside from malaria, low levels of sanitation in the Region and the District
result in high occurrence of related infections including diarrhoea, typhoid,
cholera, dysentery and gastritis.

The ten top causes of mortality for the Ellembelle District for 2011 are
presented in Table 5.11.

Table 5.11 Top ten causes of Outpatient Morbidity in Ellembelle District, 2011

Diagnosis Total Percent


1 Malaria 106935 36.5

(1) IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis website:


http://www.irinnews.org/InDepthMain.aspx?InDepthId=10&ReportId=57929&Country=Yes

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Diagnosis Total Percent
2 Other ARI 34927 11.9
3 Rheumatism and joint pains 21499 7.3
4 Diarrhoeal diseases 17685 6.0
5 Skin diseases & ulcers 17083 5.8
6 Pregnancy & related complications 5883 2.0
7 Intestinal worms 5704 1.9
8 Acute eye infection 3946 1.2
9 Sexually Transmitted Infections 3195 1.1
10 Gynaecological condition 2809 1.0
All others 75374 25.7
Total new cases 295040 100
Source: Ellembelle District Health Services Directorate, 2012

Infant and Maternal Health

There are significant challenges for women in the Western Region with
respect to pregnancy and associated complications and even maternal
morbidity. Long distances between where pregnant or birthing women live
and maternity health facilities, together with the poor transport infrastructure
and limited availability of vehicles in the District, exacerbate many of these
complications. As a result, the Regional Director implemented the PROMISE
(Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Excellence) as described below in
Box 5.4.

Box 5.4 The PROMISE Programme

In 2009 the Regional Health Director initiated the PROMISE programme to address maternal
and infant mortality. Stakeholder meetings were held with all stakeholders as the programme
was centered on community involvement. It was rolled out through 12 “Promise Drivers”,
through which every stakeholder was tasked to undertake particular health improvement
activities.

It is notable that from the time of implementation until the end of 2011 the
number of maternal deaths in the District dropped from 12 to six and then to
three (Ellembelle District Health Services Directorate, 2012). Though these
numbers are small the reality of a 75 percent reduction in maternal deaths is
significant.

HIV/ AIDS and other STIs

In 2010, Ghana’s HIV/AIDS infection rate was recorded as 1.7 percent, the
lowest rate in West Africa. The prevalence rate was reported to have dropped
from three percent in 2004 to 2.7 percent in 2005 and to 1.7 percent in 2010. In
2004 the government developed a National HIV/AIDS and other Sexually
Transmitted Infection (STI) Policy, as well as a National HIV/AIDS Strategic
Framework (2006 – 2010) and a five-year Strategic Plan of Work (2006 to 2010).

In spite of these policies and strategies and a declining National infection rate,
incidences of HIV/AIDS are said to be on the increase in the Region. During

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Project stakeholder engagement, medical professionals in the larger centres
and towns reported that HIV is becoming more prevalent. However the
stigma around HIV discourages people from testing and figures are therefore
under-reported. Health professionals said that HIV infection rates in women
are higher than in men. The causes were attributed to be multiple sexual
partners and trading sex for livelihoods, as well as an influx of infected
foreigners.

Most health centres do not test for HIV or supply Anti-retrovirals (ARVs) and
do not have trained HIV counselors. People are thus referred to the larger
hospitals for any HIV-related treatments. At larger hospitals ARVs, in the
form of injections, are reported to be widely available and highly subsidized
by government, costing only ¢ 5 per shot.

Prevalence of HIV/ AIDS in Ellembelle (1)


The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of 14.8 percent for the Ellembelle District at
the end of 2008 was more than four times the National average of 3.2 percent.
It is worth noting that these are conservative figures as they cover only the
cases reported at hospitals. With the limited access to medical facilities
coupled with the high illiteracy rate and the fear of stigmatisation, the real
extent of the problem may be under estimated. Table 5.12 below presents
figures from Eikwe and Axim hospitals, which are the two large hospitals
closest to the Ellembelle District communities.

Table 5.12 HIV Cases by Age Group, Ellembelle District

Age 2004 2005 2008


Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total

0 – 11 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0
months
1 – 4 years 1 0 1 1 4 5 4 8 12

5 – 15 4 7 11 4 7 11 10 13 23
years
16 – 45 125 134 259 83 143 226 359 319 678
years
46 – 60 10 20 30 17 16 33 46 49 95
years
60+ 20 52 72 2 4 6 8 14 22

TOTAL 160 213 373 107 176 283 427 403 830

Source: Regional Health Directorate: Western Region, Half Year Review, 2010

(1) HIV prevalence data has been collected by CRC in some of the communities in the Ellembelle District. While a
commitment was made by CRC to provide this information to the Project Team, the information was unfortunately not
made available, even after several requests. 2008 District information has therefore been used in this section of the Report
and no further analysis of the figures has been accessible.

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The risks of infection for Ellembelle District residents are heightened by their
close proximity to Cote d’Ivoire, which has a 3.4 percent HIV prevalence
(University of California, San Francisco, 2009). Risk are also increased due to
the regular interactions between individuals migrating in both directions
because of the seasonal influx of migrant fishermen and farm labourers into
the Ellembelle District and the migration to Cote d’Ivoire by local residents in
search of jobs and to sell agricultural produce.

Efforts by the Population Advocacy Team, at addressing the problem have so


far been limited to publicity campaigns, forums, seminars to sensitize various
target groups on responsible behaviour and safe sex. There is also a Ellembelle
District Aids Committee under the District Response Initiative. The activities
of NGOs like the Ransom Foundation and End-Time Restoration Ministry
have improved HIV/AIDS awareness through Voluntary Counselling and
Testing (VCT).

Lack of funding for HIV/AIDS Programmes in the District has constrained


efforts at addressing the challenge. However, as the problem threatens to
impact on District development planning and implementation, the Ellembelle
District Administration plans to approach its development partners and other
Agencies, as well as the Ghana Aids Response Project Fund (GARFUND) to
raise funds to address the issue.

It will be important for the Project to be aware of HIV/Aids programmes in


the area and to partner relevant groups in addressing the risks exacerbated by
the Project’s activities.

5.5.6 Vulnerable Groups and Human Trafficking

Understanding vulnerability in the Project environment requires an


awareness of groups who might be particularly vulnerable as a result of the
Project, or deemed vulnerable by Regional and District authorites. These
would include the elderly, children, women (particularly female-headed
households), disabled people, orphans etc. This will be discussed in Section
5.9.5, under the local socio-economic description. It is, however, also
important to highlight the risk of human trafficking which is considered
prevalent in Ghana and exacerbated by poverty and increased levels of
migration. Because of the relationship between ports and increased human
trafficking it is useful to get a better understanding of the potential risks
triggered by the Project in the context of current trafficking within Ghana.

Human trafficking is described by the United Nations Office on Drugs and


Crime (UNODC) as:

“an act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring or receiving


a person through a use of force, coercion, or other means, for the purpose
of exploiting them” (Central Press Newspaper, 29 April 2012).

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In Ghana, trafficking is prohibited by the Human Trafficking Act (Act 694 of
2005), Human Trafficking Amendment Act (2009) and the Draft Human
Trafficking Regulations of 2011 (Box 5.5 presents a definition of human
trafficking).

Box 5.5 Definition of Human Trafficking

The Ghanaian Human Trafficking Act (Act 694 of 2005) defines human trafficking as the
recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, trading or receipt of persons within and
across national borders by the use of threats, force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud,
deception the abuse of power or exploitation of vulnerability or giving or receiving payment
and benefits to achieve consent. Placement for sale, bonded placement, temporary placement
and placement as service where exploitation by another person is the motivating factor are also
considered trafficking.

Exploitation is defined as including prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, forced
labour or services, practices similar to slavery or the removal of organs.

Where children are trafficked, the consent of the child, parents or guardian of the child cannot
be used as a defence in prosecution under this Act.
Source: Human Trafficking Act

Trafficking is recognised as a problem within the Western Region. The


Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) conducts
sensitisation, radio sensitisation and the education of children about
trafficking and human rights. The Ministry of Women and Children
(MOWAC) has been operating education programs for several years, training
law enforcement, judiciary and prosecutors on human trafficking. The issue is
seen to be so significant that in March 2010 MOWAC launched the trafficking
database.

In spite of various legislative instruments and organisations working to


counter trafficking in Ghana, incidents in the country are high. The majority
of trafficked persons are children, and most of the trafficking is domestic.
However adults are also trafficked and Ghana is regarded as a key origin,
transit and destination country for internationally trafficked women and
children.

The majority of trafficked children originate from the poorer areas of Ghana in
the North, the Volta Region in the South, and Sekondi, Takoradi in the West
(ECPAT International, 2008: p 13), with poverty-stricken parents often selling
their children to traffickers for minimal amounts. According to Ghana’s
Regional News, factors that contribute to the practice of parents selling their
children as labourers include poverty, illiteracy, a culture of apprenticeship,
ignorance, unemployment, misplacement of priority and poor parenting
(Regional News of Thursday, 12 April 2012).

Drug trafficking is also on the increase in West Africa with growing


government and international concerns (VibeGhana.com, 2012). Trafficking of

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both drugs and humans is often linked to increased urbanisation and the
opening up of markets in previously undeveloped areas as well as being
linked particularly to the presence of ports or harbours. Although the nature
of the OST will mean that the port is not used commercially it is likely,
nevertheless, to draw people to the area whose intentions are not legal. In a
country where trafficking is known to be a problem the Project needs to be
cognisant of these risks both to its operations, employees and to the local
communities.

5.6 NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND DISTRICT UTILITIES, INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES

The following section presents the provision of infrastructure and services


with particular emphasis on areas of strength and difficulty, which may have
implications for the Project.

5.6.1 Water

There are three major sources of drinking water namely, piped (inside,
outside, tanker supply), well (well, borehole) and natural (spring, river,
stream, lakes, rainwater, dugout) within Ghana. In the Western Region, 32
percent of houses have access to treated piped water with 8.5 percent having
this available within their dwellings. The highly urbanised districts have
almost 100 percent availability of, or accessibility to, piped water. This is in
contrast to rural districts where over 60 percent of households use rivers,
streams, wells, spring or rainwater as their main source of water.

5.6.2 Sanitation

The District has an inadequate waste management system with limited waste
handling facilities and equipment. It has only two waste disposal sites for
both solid and liquid wastes at Aiyinase. Approximately 70 percent of
Ellembelle households do not have toilets. Where facilities do exist, the most
common types are Kumasi Ventilated-Improved Pit(1) (KVIP), pit latrine or
bucket/pan systems. Where no facilities exist, people make use of the
beaches, outlying bushes and gutters.

Ellembelle District has seen some improvement in water services over the
years with an increase in the number of facilities and coverage. Table 5.13
outlines the Ellembelle water and sanitation infrastructure improvement plan
for 2010 to 2013. The implementation of the plan is the responsibility of the
EDA.

(1) The KVIP is a twin-pit VIP latrine, which allows the contents of one pit to compost while the other pit is in use. By the
time the second pit is full, the contents of the first pit should be fully composted, and can therefore be removed manually
and spread.

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Table 5.13 Ellembelle District - 2010 Water and Sanitation Facilities and 2013
projections

2010/TOTAL 2013/TOTAL
Water
1.Hand-dug-well 105 189
2.Borehole 9 70
3.Pipe System 6 9
Toilet Facility
1.KVIP 43 79
2.VIP 426 1,040
3.WC 213 369
Source: EDP 2012

5.6.3 Waste Disposal

In the Western Region the most common way of disposing of household


waste is to dump it at specified dumping sites or in the absence of such sites,
ad hoc disposal on open land. Approximately 60 percent of all households in
all the Districts use a specified public dump while an additional 29 percent
use an unauthorised dumping sites. Only two percent of households within
Ellembelle District have their rubbish collected by a waste removal services,
Zoomlion and local authorities for disposal. Zoomlion and ZOIL operate as a
waste disposal and beach-clearing agent in parts of Ellembelle. Burning and
burying of waste accounts for about a tenth of household waste disposal.

5.6.4 Fuel Sources

Electricity and kerosene lamps are used as the main sources of lighting in the
Western Region, providing about 99 percent. In the urban areas, the majority
of households use electricity while in the rural districts kerosene lamps are the
main source of lighting. Rural households are also gradually gaining access to
electricity through work carried out by the Electricity Company of Ghana
(ECG). The Ellembelle Development Plan suggests that the low electricity
coverage in the District could be addressed through the presence of the ECG
in the District and by support from Central Government for a Rural
Electrification Programme.

Charcoal and fuel wood are the main sources of cooking fuel in the Region
(even for quite a sizeable number of urban dwellers), however liquid
petroleum gas (LPG) and coconut husks are also used in parts of the District.

5.6.5 Transport and Road Infrastructure

The Ghana Private Road Transport Union (GPRTU) and other transport
organisations provide transport services within the districts in the Region. In
small communities, private taxis and small buses owned by private
individuals are also operational. The road network in the Western Region is
limited and the conditions of the roads can be very poor, particularly in the
rainy season.

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Ellembelle District road network consists of 154 km of trunk roads, of which
64 km are metalled. The metalled trunks form part of the Trans-West Africa
Highway. The rest of the trunk roads are gravel or earth-surfaced. Apart
from the trunk roads there are smaller feeder roads, most of which are in poor
condition.

Ports/ Harbours

The Port of Takoradi is the closest port to the Project Area. It handles both
domestic and transit cargoes, approximately 600 vessels annually, which is 37
percent of the total national seaborne traffic. The Port of Takoradi also has a
fishing harbour located at Sekondi and there is a fishing harbour in Axim.
Other ship traffic in the area is associated with ports such as Abidjan (Côte
d’Ivoire) and Lagos (Nigeria).

Airport

The Takoradi Airport is a military airbase that allows civilian flights. It is the
only one in the Region. The airport has one runway, and there is at least one
scheduled domestic flight landing and taking off from the airport daily.
Airlines operating from Takoradi include Fly540 and City.

5.6.6 Telecommunications

Two main types of telephone systems are in operation in the country. These
are fixed line and mobile telephone systems. Other systems being operated
are wireless, radiotelephone and satellite communication systems.

Vodafone Ghana Telecom Company operates over 95 percent of the fixed line
telephones in the country. In the Western Region there are 0.3 telephones per
100 persons, which is below the national average of 0.7. Mobile telephone
operators MTN, Vodafone, Ghana operators of Vodafone, Tigo, Kasapa and
Zain, extensively cover the Western Region. The Region has the second
highest locality coverage by MTN, which is the largest mobile telephone
system in the country.

5.7 THE LOCAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL SETTING

Sections 5.2 to 5.6 have outlined the national, regional and district level
environments in which the current Project would be situated. This sets a
backdrop of the existing socio-economic conditions in the area as well as the
short/ medium-term planning frameworks (the Agenda for Shared Growth and
Accelerated Development; the Western Region Spatial Development Framework;
and the Ellembelle District Assembly Medium-Term Development Plan
highlighted in Table 5.2) with which authorities intend to increase
development and improve people’s quality of life.

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The following section of the Report describes the socio-economic and cultural
environment, as it currently exists, in the three towns most directly affected by
the proposed Project, Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo. The focus of the
description is to present information deemed most significant in relation to
the Project and to social planning that could take place around it. There are
large similarities amongst the communities and therefore in describing the
environment a general description will be given and any areas of important
difference will be drawn out as appropriate. Most of the information is based
on comments and descriptions provided by local residents during focus group
engagements, while other comments are based on observations and
extrapolations by the social research team.

Box 5.6 provides an overview of the key socio-economic and cultural


characteristics of the Study Area.

Box 5.6 Key Socio-economic and Cultural Characteristics of Study Area

All three communities have long histories of settlement in the area dating back over 600
years.
There are strong traditional structures operating in the Study Area with the Paramount
Chief (Awulae) based in Atuabo being respected and influential.
The three towns in the Study Area are relatively small with populations ranging from
about 500 – 1500. The population numbers are generally stable with seasonal migration for
fisheries.
There is a large cohort of 0-14 years old in the area with a very small percentage of
residents over the age of 64.
There are more women than men resident locally.
There are a mix of religions including Christianity, Islam and Traditional and religious
tolerance is high.
Nzema is the dominant language spoken in the Study Area. A small number of Fulane
speakers live in the area.
Towns are laid out in a linear fashion, which would allow for relatively easy service
provision and management.

5.7.1 History

According to the Paramount Chief, Awulae Amehere Kpanyinle II, in Atuabo,


the history of the Study Area dates back to the 13th Century when ancestors of
the current inhabitants migrated from the northern part of Ghana through the
Ashanti area, then through the Aowin and the Wassa areas before settling
along the coast, including in the Atuabo area. The Nzema area, which now
includes the lower Axim, Upper Axim, Nsein, Ajomoro and Gwira traditional
areas, stretched from the land between the Ankobra River in the east and the
Tano River/lagoon on the Ghana-Cote d’Ivoire border in the west. Since
these were pre-colonial times and no national borders existed, people/clans
moved fairly freely, inhibited only by the physical environment and conflict
with other groups over territories already settled. This explains why today
Nzema people are settled on both side of the Ghana-Cote d’Ivoire border, and
are still connected by kinship ties.

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In early times what today is Eastern Nzema (with Atuabo as capital) and
Western Nzema (with Beyin as capital) were united under the rule of King
Kaku Acka until 1800. However a set of complex circumstances, including the
abdication by one king to make way for another based on matrilineal
inheritance practices, the division of the kingdom into two smaller parts, a
failed attempt at reunification and resultant protracted clan and territorial
wars (including against colonial powers), has led to the current day makeup
of the area.

According to Anokyi elders, settlement in the Anokyi area began with the
arrival of a woman, Ebelamgbane Alonwabo (1) , her brother and their family
about 600 years ago. They were predominantly salt miners and so settled
about half a kilometre inland from where Anokyi is today. This location gave
them access to fresh water all year round (the marsh area and Lake Ayilela)
for their salt production. Later, a second group of people arrived and settled
in the area, farming the land and later attempting to claim the Anokyi land as
theirs. A dispute ensued and after a decision from the Awulae in Atuabo (in
the 1950s) the descendants of the original salt miners were granted title. A
descendant of the original woman who came to the area was declared Chief
and his name was Anokyi.

Establishing a sense of history in the Project area is useful in trying to


understand the communities’ sense of belonging and connection to their area.
One elder at an introductory meeting in the Atuabo Palace emphasised, “…no
one here knows where we came from – we don’t know. We are of this earth”. Pointing
to the oldest man in the meeting he said, “He was born from his mother here”.
This connection to “place” was evident in meetings with elders at Anokyi and
Asemdasuazo as well.

5.7.2 Local Authority Structures

Section 5.2 above laid out the administrative structures within the country for
both government and traditional institutions.

Traditional Leadership

The Nzema, who are the dominant ethnic group in the Study Area, are made
up of seven clans with the dog as the symbol of the royal clan. Awulae
Amehere Kpanyinle II is from this clan and is the Paramount Chief of Eastern
Nzema and all three towns in the Study Area fall within his stool.

The Paramount Chief of the Eastern Nzema Traditional Area exerts control
over the divisional and sub-chiefs (in the Study Area these are chiefs of the
communities of Anokyi and Asemdasuazo). The Queen Mother is mainly
responsible for selecting a new chief, and in the cases of both Anokyi and
Asemdasuazo the sitting sub-chiefs are relatively new to their roles. The

(1) The significance of noting the woman’s arrival is that, in a matrilineal society, she becomes the woman through whose
line inheritance is established

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traditional structure is hierarchical and inheritance is by matrilineal descent.
Each lineage forms a community signified by a stool and has possession of a
particular plot of land. A lineage is further divided into families. This
concept of family (although, as with all society, in an ongoing state of change)
is made up of a group of people who trace ancestry to one common female
ancestor and each family has a head (abusuapanyin).

Traditional identity in the Study Area, based on these lineages, is strong and
communities reflect a sense of unity as a result. However, there is also an
openness to outsiders as shown when refugees have sought shelter in the
towns. Although most community members in the Study Area emphasized
the limited influx of newcomers to the area, where this does occur any
homesteads or small communities settled by strangers fall under the
jurisdiction of the sub-divisional chiefs and are controlled by the town or
community heads (Adikro). This will be important to recognise when
significant numbers of people begin to migrate to the Study Area as a result of
the Project. The capacity of individual chiefs to manage such an influx may be
limited.

In each of the three towns there is a traditional council that assists the Chief to
administer his area of jurisdiction. The Council will normally be made up of
at least the Chief, the Queen Mother(1), various family heads and the linguist.
The Council is the supreme organisation of the stool and must approve all
decisions taken by the Chief. This traditional structure is used to deal with
family and land disputes and as well as with town development issues.

There is a strong sense of culture in the Study Area and the Awulae is held in
high esteem as a political leader and as the symbol of culture and identity of
the lineage structuring the community, including responsible for evoking the
goodwill of ancestors on behalf of the living subjects. Challenges to the chiefs
are not uncommon, particularly in more urban environments and amongst the
youth. Given the “absolutist” (Akrong, 2006) nature of the traditional
structure there is often little or no space to question decisions or leadership
styles and this sometimes results in suspicion and rumours of corruption –
particularly in situations where large developments are planned for an area.
However, during all engagements with community members in the Study
Area there were no suggestions of a challenge to the Awulae. Rather, people
emphasised a confidence in his leadership while highlighting the importance
of transparency in decisions taken around the Project, moving into the future.
Thus, while recognising and valuing existing traditional decision-making
structures, community members (both men and women) expressed their
expectation to be active participants in the Project and related planning
activities.

Awulae Amehere Kpanyinle II is passionate about the development of the area


at large and has robust opinions on the proposed Project as providing both

(1) The Queen Mother is not necessarily the biological mother of the Chief but is a member of the matrilineal line. Her role
in the system is to keep an eye on the social conditions of the community.

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opportunities and risks for his people. As cultural custodian he is concerned
about the impact that speedy development and the associated influx of
outsiders will have on the “small town mentality” in the area. However, he
believes that communities must begin to prepare for these changes so that
they can meet the newcomers “head on” and not be overtaken by them or the
changes. This, he believes requires timely preparation, particularly for the
school children who will need to compete with in-migrants on a level playing
field.

Similarly, regarding accommodating newcomers, the Awulae believes that the


towns can accommodate “as many people as can fit” and that people will be
welcome as long as they follow the appropriate procedures to access land or
accommodation for rent. This means that newcomers (employees or job
seekers and entrepreneurs) must approach the Chief and elders of the
community to be allocated land. The Awulae also emphasised the need for
traditional authorities to engage with Regional and District planning
authorities to prevent an uncontrolled and uncontrollable settlement situation
in which accommodation, drainage and sanitation and an appropriate
planning system would be developed to prevent the emergence of a squatter
settlement close to the communities. Discussion with the District Planning Co-
ordination Unit have highlighted the intention to develop Aiyinase as a
growth node in the immediate future and to allow for expanded settlement in
communities along the coastal dune system over time.

Local Administration

Even though mobilising people for development is the role of the traditional
leaders, this has been largely taken over by government structures through
the activity of District Assemblies and Unit Committees. The District
Assembly acts as the arm of government that develops and manages projects,
sometimes in collaboration with chiefs and their subjects. Mobilising subjects
for development and communal labour is increasingly becoming the work of
Assemblymen and members of the Unit Committees.

In Atuabo the Assemblyman, who represents the District Assembly on the


ground, assists in co-ordination of all three Study Area towns. He is an
elected representative and as a local resident is well connected to issues on the
ground. His responsibilities include educating local residents on government
policies and District Assembly programmes and projects, supervising and
advising the Unit Committee, lobbying for projects on behalf of his
community, and initiating and taking part in the communal and development
activities. He is also well connected to the Awulae and elders and this should
help to promote integrated planning and implementation in the Study Area.

Residents in all three towns perceive the structures of administration to be


open to favouritism. Therefore they need to be more vigorously transparent
in relation to the Project if benefits are to be fairly shared amongst the towns
and individuals and if conflicts resulting from perceptions, if not realities, are
to be avoided.

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5.7.3 Demographic Characteristics

Population

The 2010 National Population Census data was not yet available at the time of
completing this report, however information about the projected populations
from 2000 – 2012 was accessed from personal communications with the
Ellembelle District Assembly (2012). This information is presented in Table
5.14.

Table 5.14 Population of Affected Communities

Community Total Population Female Male


projected 2000 - 2012
Atuabo 1419 765 654
Anokyi 874 438 436
Asemdasuazo 558 292 226
Source: SRC LRP Fieldwork, June 2012

The towns in the study area are relatively small within the context of the
District and do not feature in the top 16 communities by population.
According to the “Characterisation of Coastal Communities” report of 2010, of
those 16 communities the smallest had a population of approximately 1800 in
2010. Atuabo is the largest of the three communities in the Study Area and
today has a population of 1,419 residents. Anokyi’s population is 874 and
Asemdasuazo is estimated at 558 (SRC LRP Fieldwork, June 2012).

Populations in all three towns are predominantly stable, limited to seasonal


influx at present, and residents say that they know everyone in the
community and would recognise newcomers. However, based on the
Western Region Strategic Development Framework as well as the Agenda
document, the population in the area is expected to grow dramatically as a
result of the Project and other developments planned in the area. Figures
from the WRSDF (Draft 1, 2012) estimate a ten-fold population growth in
Atuabo between 2012 and 2033 from the current population of 1882 to 16318 ie
a growth of 14436 people over 21 years. However, given the nature of project-
induced migrations worldwide it is conceivable that a large portion of this
growth would happen in a very short space of time as this and other projects
are initiated. The population growth would be the result of direct
employment of skilled labour, an influx of job seekers and entrepreneurs as
well as a small number of community members returning home in response to
development opportunities.

Age

It is not surprising, based on National statistics, with a median population age


of 21 and a life expectancy of 64, to report that all three communities seem to
exhibit predominantly young populations.

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The age distribution of the communities seem to mirror the District statistics,
suggesting that households comprise approximately 40 percent of children
under the age of 14 or elderly people over 64 (although this last cohort would
be a very small percentage). The remainder of the population in the three
towns would therefore be in the potentially economically active age group.
This highlights the opportunities for development involving residents in the
Study Area provided the level of skills required is locally available.

The definition of elderly in the communities underscores the relatively low


life expectancy. Of the nine Atuabo participants defining themselves as
elderly three were in their late fifties, four in their early to mid-sixties, one was
67 and one person was 74. In many countries people in their fifties or early
sixties would not be seen as elderly whereas in the context of a 64-year life
expectancy this perception is markedly different.

Figure 5.7 Atuabo Elderly Focus Group Meeting

All the participants in the “elderly” group were women, with the exception of
one man who joined the group late. This uneven gender balance between
elderly men and women was easily observable during the fieldwork and
various focus groups emphasised the fact that women live longer than their
male counterparts.

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Figure 5.8 Role of Elderly Women in the Family

At a Farmers & Agro-processors Meeting Atuabo Elderly Focus Group meeting

Community members perceive population growth in the Study Area to be the


result of high birth rates, as opposed to in-migration. Without current census
information this cannot be substantiated although at most meetings there
were several women actively participating while looking after infants or
young children. Beyond the reality of whether high birth rates are fact or not,
lies the communities’ perception of their continuing growth. This is
significant as an indicator of their sense of future, even against the current
reality of out-migration in search of what some residents called “greener
pastures”. The presence of the Project, and other proposed developments in
the area, gives validation to this optimism and many residents feel it will
bring back the young people who have migrated.

Gender

All three towns reported having more women than men in their communities,
and this is confirmed through the SRC LRP fieldwork undertaken in June 2012
(Table 5.14). The slight majority of participants at group meetings were
women, even when meetings were for the youth or farmers and coconut oil
producers. This is in contrast to most other towns in the District where men
outnumber women and was locally reported to be a result of men leaving the
Study Area in search of employment. Women are also said to seek work in
urban areas and even in Cote d’Ivoire but in smaller numbers, and generally if
they are unmarried.

The population figures swell during peak fishing season (July-October) when
migrants from the north of Ghana and even from Cote d’Ivoire come to work
in the area. These migrants are usually men.

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In mixed-gender focus group meetings (particularly with the youth and
farmers) women seemed at first hesitant but were soon confident and
sometimes outspoken in their opinions. On the whole male participants
comfortably accepted these expressions but there were occasional flare-ups
where stereotypic gender roles were verbally invoked to get younger women
to “know their place”. Older women tended to refer historic and quantifiable
questions to men, even if this meant leaving the meeting to go and source a
male response.

In youth meetings in Atuabo and Asemdasuazo participants agreed that


women have more income-earning opportunities as they do a greater variety
of jobs. However men are said to earn more income annually, much of this
during the fishing season. Both men and women believed that there would be
no problem if women were to get access to jobs or even if a woman had a job
and her husband did not. However, when pushed further, both genders
agreed that if the income discrepancy undermined the man’s ability to “look
after his family” or be the main breadwinner, this could create conflict within
families.

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Figure 5.9 Gender Representation at Mixed Interest Focus Groups

Anokyi Farmers and Agro-Processors Asemdasuazo Farmers and Agro-Processors

Atuabo Youth

Ethnicity and Language

All three towns are ethnically largely homogenous with the Nzema being by
far the dominant ethnic group. There are a small number of Fante,
particularly in Atuabo and Anokyi making up three and five percent of the
population respectively (1). The Fante are migrants whose origins are to the
northeast of Cape Coast and in Atuabo, are usually involved in cattle herding
on behalf of Nzema residents.

Nzema is the local language although many people understand Twi. The
ability to speak Twi, and to a larger degree English, is a sign of some level of
literacy. It is therefore older people, and women in particular, who would

(1) Integrated Coastal and Fisheries Governance Initiative for the Western Region of Ghana, Coastal Resources Centre,
University of Rhode Island. (2010). Report on Characterization of Coastal Communities and Shoreline Environments in the Western
Region of Ghana.

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only speak Nzema. The ability to speak Nzema is also emphasised as important
for cultural continuity and older community members felt the language could
be at risk if an influx of outsiders, speaking different languages, results in the
predominant use of Twi or English.

Religion

Prior to the arrival of Christianity in the area all residents practiced traditional
religions in which there is a supreme being who is not directly worshipped;
and lesser gods who are to be found in sacred places like rivers, trees or
mountains and who act as intermediaries between the supreme being and
society. Ancestors and other spirits are also recognised in traditional
religions.

In a focus group meeting with religious leaders/representatives in Atuabo as


well as in general conversations with other focus groups, it is clear that
Christianity is the primary religion practiced in the Study Area. Churches
include Catholic, Methodist and Sacred Action as the largest three, as well as
Pentecostal, Church of Christ and Jehovah’s Witnesses, the latter having the
smallest following. There are small numbers of Muslims in both Atuabo and
Anokyi but not in Asemdasuazo.

The Twelve Apostles, a syncretic denomination reconciling or fusing the


religious beliefs of Christianity and traditional practices, has a strong
following in all three communities. Although there is religious tolerance
across the communities, through conversation with local residents it became
clear that some stigmas exist around people who follow traditional belief
systems and to some degree the Twelve Apostles are seen in this light. People
reported that many traditional practices are looked down on as “uncivilised”,
“uneducated” or somehow shameful. However, if one interrogates this it
becomes clear that even those strongly following monotheistic religions
harbour some traditional beliefs. Practices like “outdooring(1)” (an infant-
naming ceremony that also invokes traditional belief systems around truth
and morality) as well as traditional weddings are steps taken before a child or
two adults enter the church for the Christian ceremony. In fact local priests
will not marry couples that are not already traditionally married.

All three communities welcome the in-migration of people with other


religious beliefs (particularly Christian groupings) as these are expected to
positively influence the local youth and swell membership numbers. People
are also aware that migrants from more urban areas may introduce various
social vices that would challenge religious adherence but, according to a
young religious leader, that the churches are strong enough to guide their
members through these “tests”.

(1) This is a practice in which an elder puts a small amount of salt on an infants lips and tells them “this is salt, don’t call it
pepper” and then does the same thing with pepper. It is part of a ritual that introduces an infant to truth and morality.

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5.7.4 Settlement Patterns

All three towns are laid out in a linear pattern, alongside the main road (Figure
5.10). Most of the shops are located along this, while some are located in the
small lanes between the houses (Figure 5.11). The space behind the houses
usually extends to the beach or bushes. In the case of Asemdasuazo, buildings
on both sides of the road stretch toward bush or field/plantation areas. The
majority of houses are built of local materials such as clay, cane/ bamboo/
raffia, or sandcrete blocks (for walls). The roof is usually made of palm fronds
or corrugated iron. Figure 5.12 shows typical houses found in the Study Area.
Asemdasuazo has noticeably more raffia-constructed houses and this may be
because the town is further from the shore and thus has less access to sand for
brick making. It may also be that there is less money available in the town for
building materials and a higher reliance on locally available natural materials.

All three towns have at least one school along the main road, and much of the
petty trading takes place on the pavements and verges of the road.

Figure 5.10 Town Layouts in the Study Area

Atuabo Anokyi

Asemdasuazo
Source: ERM, April 2012.

This “grid-style” layout of the town points to communities that are easier for
authorities to manage and service than if households were more widely
dispersed. The layout also fosters a sense of community that is sometimes
absent when families live more remotely and where homesteads are
integrated with agricultural lands. In Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo,

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besides very small areas for growing subsistence crops within a household’s
property, all agricultural activities happen outside of the town.

Conversations between the Project and the Awulae have anticipated town
growth where housing and structures expand to the north for Asemdasuazo
and in a westerly and easterly direction along the coastal dune system for both
Atuabo and Anokyi respectively. This consideration for growth takes the
Project’s footprint into account. Development planning between the District
Planning office, consultants focused on “oil for development” projects and
directly affected government agencies and chiefs is underway. This will
include the development of detailed Structure Plans and Local Plans for both
Jomoro and Ellembelle aimed at anticipating and managing growth and
development in the area resulting from oil and gas related projects. A large
influx of people to the area will put pressure on the existing facilities,
accommodation and service infrastructure, and planning would need to pre-
empt this influx if the process is to be managed and if a sprawling squatter
settlement pattern is to be avoided.

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Figure 5.11 Settlement Patterns and Trading Structures

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Figure 5.12 Housing in the Study Area

Brick housing Sisal housing (and brick adjacent on left)

Settlement along a main road

5.8 LIVELIHOOD PRACTICES

Household livelihood strategies in the Study Area can be understood as an


ongoing process of negotiation between demands for the household to engage
in cash-generating activities, and demands to engage in food-producing
activities, while maintaining the social relationships that also contribute to
sustainable livelihoods. A range of factors ultimately determines household
activities and priorities in relation to these two general types of demands.

In the Study Area, livelihood practices can be broadly divided into agriculture
and fisheries, natural resource use, petty trading and self-employment,
salaried employment and other livelihood strategies. It must be remembered,
though, that these activities overlap and are consciously used in conjunction
with one another to increase family strengths and survival mechanisms.
Changes to, or the loss of, one activity may have significant implications for

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livelihoods. Box 5.7 provides an overview of the key livelihood characteristics
of the Study Area.

Box 5.7 Key Aspects of the Livelihood Characteristics of the Study Area

Farming, fishing and fish mongering and agro-processing are the key livelihood activities
in all three towns.
Most communities report consuming small amounts of their produce for actual subsistence,
and selling the larger proportion for cash.
The absence of storage facilities necessitates the sale of excess produce – usually resulting
in lower prices based on seasonal supply and demand factors.
Agricultural activities rely on low-tech, manual operations with men involved in clearing
of land and women in planting and harvesting of produce.
Roles in fishing activities are divided along gender lines with men catching the fish and
women processing and selling. This is slightly different with inland “pond” fishing where
women participate as fishers.
Fishermen are finding it increasingly difficult to sustain themselves due to lower fish
catches and challenges associated with fisheries in the region.
Petty trading (small and sometimes informal businesses) is a significant supplementary
economic activity for many residents.
Although no communities spoke of periods of sustained hunger general levels of poverty
are high in the three towns and the involvement of all family members in labour activities,
children included, is common.
There are very few formal employment positions in the Study Area. Where these exist they
are in education, health, District Administration and street and beach cleaning.
Some women secure their livelihoods by using informal sexual relationships.

5.8.1 Agriculture and Fisheries

Anecdotal evidence given by participants in the focus group meetings in the


Study Area suggests that agricultural activities are by far the most important
contributors to livelihoods in each affected town. These include farming,
fishing and agro-processing (eg coconut oil production) and there are slight
variations in the dominance of one activity over another, depending on the
town’s location in relation to the sea, rivers and fertile land.

It’s important to note that this Chapter gives only estimates of the value of
some local produce and reports the farmers’ calculations of production per
unit (land, tree or fish). It does not quantify the value of farming activities to
the communities of Atuabo, Anokyi and Asemdasuazo. Understanding the
size of plots, catches, productivity and related financial values will be a core
component of the next phase of the study, the LRP planning process.

A seasonal calendar of agricultural activities was developed through the


participation of relevant focus groups in each town and is shown in Table.5.15.
This shows the months of heaviest rains, planting and harvesting activities for
different crops and seasonal fishing activities and understanding the timing of
activities so that loss of access to resources resulting from the Project can be
timed to create least vulnerability. For example, the timing of dredge
activities could take peak fishing season into account and ideally begin
thereafter.

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Table.5.15 Seasonal Calendar for Agricultural Activities

Seasonal Calendar (Atuabo, Asemdasuazo, Anokyi)

Months
Activity
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Dry season
(no planting,
Season resting)
Rainy
Season
Fishing
Fish Mongering
Pre- Soil
planting preparation
Cassava At As

Oil Palm
Pineapple
Ground
Planting Nuts At As
Palm Nuts
Maize At
Tomatoes As
Beans An At
Sugar Cane
Cassava
Oil Palm
Pineapple
Ground
Nuts As An
Palm Nuts
Harvesti (3yrs to
ng mature)
Maize At An
Tomatoes As As As As
Beans
Coconut
(5yrs to bear
fruit)
Note: At (Atuabo), An (Anokyi) and AS (Asemdasuaso),

Key General time


Peak time
Secondary/ minor season

Farming

Almost every household in the towns participates in small-scale and


subsistence agricultural activities(1). Roles are divided along gender lines with
men involved in clearing and preparation of fields and women involved in the
sowing of seeds and in harvesting produce. As confirmed by the fishermen in
each of the towns, the men who are involved in fishing are less available to

(1) As discussed above, the type of access or ownership of the land that an individual or family has will vary according to
the categories of land use and entitlements discussed in Section 1.6 and 1.11 above

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assist in the fields but do participate in agriculture during the low fishing
season.

Cultivation is done manually, mainly because of the cost of mechanisation


and the levels of technical agricultural knowledge in the Study Area. The
sizes of plots therefore reportedly depend on the strength of the individual or
family to work an area. As such, an older person, or a single woman, would
work a smaller piece of land and harvest less produce than a family working
together and this would suggest higher vulnerabilities around food security
for particular groups of people. In addition, some individuals (generally the
elderly or unwell) employ labourers for various activities that they cannot
undertake themselves. The cost of such employment, whether in cash or kind,
reduces the amount of produce or income available to the employer and may
increase vulnerability. At the same time, a farm labourer whose only access to
produce/food depends entirely on his/her employment status is extremely
vulnerable if access to land is taken away.

Soil fertility also plays a significant role in the type and quantity of produce
farmed. Asemdasuazo is seen to have the most fertile soil and higher
productivity in comparison to the more sandy soils of Atuabo and Anokyi,
which are closer to the shore.

Key to agricultural production in the area is rainfall levels, as there are no


irrigation systems in the fields and therefore production is directly dependent
upon the amount of rain in a season. The impact can have implications both
ways with too little rain resulting in low yields and too much rain, at the
wrong time of the harvesting cycle, resulting in crops rotting in the fields.

Crops(1)

The primary agricultural products are cassava, groundnuts, corn, tomatoes,


banana and plantain (FGD Women, Land-users, Leaders, April 2012). All are
used for family consumption as well as for sale. Most planting is done in
March-April before the rainy season in June and July and a second smaller
season of planting takes place in September-October. Cassava and
groundnuts, which are the most common crops, are generally intercropped on
one plot. Groundnuts take about three months to mature and are harvested
twice a year. Cassava takes about a year from planting to first harvesting and
is therefore farmed on a continually rotating basis. For commercial sale,
cassava is harvested when plants are young and tender (for fufu), while they
can be left to grow for over a year and still provide food for subsistence use
(cassava dough, gari and ground cassava flour, kokonte).

Farming is done using slash and burn agriculture and farmers reported
decreasing soil fertility. Some farmers manage to leave one of their plots
fallow and alternate their planting to allow for some soil recovery, but overall

(1) All information presented was gathered during focus group meetings with land-users (farmers, agro-producers and
fishermen) as well as elders and youth in the three affected towns

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fertility rates reportedly reduce as a result of the farming methods and land
pressure in the area.

Figure 5.13 Slash and Burn Agricultural Practice

Figure 5.14 Crops

Cassava in the field Produce traded

Farmers estimated that a cassava plot of 1 pole (1.25 acres/ 0.5 hectares)
produces 300 pieces of cassava, which can be sold at ¢900 (475 USD)(1). One
pole of maize can produce 800 cobs of corn, which if sold fresh for commercial
use costs ¢1.5 – 2 (1.10 USD) per cob. Older corn is dried and ground into
flour for home use.

On top of this staple produce, Asemdasuazo grows bananas and plantains, as


the soil conditions in the area allow for better growth than in the other two
towns. Asemdasuazo farmers also reported selling cassava to residents of
Anokyi and Atuabo, further supporting the perception that this town has
more fertile soils and better agricultural produce. Buyers from Atuabo and
Anokyi travel to Asemdasuazo by foot or occasionally by taxi as there is no
regular transport to the area.

Based on Regional and District data, one would initially expect that the
produce in the Study Area would primarily be used for household
consumption and the small surplus sold to generate income for the household.
However all three towns reported selling significant proportions of their

(1) An approximate exchange rate of ¢1 = 0.53 USD has been used for all calculations

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crops, cassava in particular. One woman in Atuabo said that a 2 acre (0.8
hectares) (FGD Women, Land-users, Leaders, April 2012) plot produced too
much cassava for subsistence consumption alone as “you can’t eat cassava
every day”. The applicability of this situation would depend on the size of a
family, the related home consumption and the value of other components of
its livelihood activities. An Asemdasuazo farmer explained that the small
population size in the town meant that there were more surpluses to sell to
Atuabo, Anokyi and other relatively larger towns.

The sale of their produce is made more difficult by the absence of storage
facilities, particularly cold storage that would allow farmers to manage the
supply of produce for sale. Currently, farmers in all three towns have surplus
produce at a similar time, flooding the local market and keeping prices low.
Transporting produce from the field home, or to the consumer/market is a
difficult operation. People usually carry their produce on their heads in open
buckets or bags and therefore someone’s strength will determine the efficiency
with which this job can be done. Some farmers reported selling produce
directly from their fields, which circumvents transporting it oneself. Poor
roads and limited private and public transport makes getting one’s produce to
market costly and time consuming (the closest large market being Aiyinase
approximately 30 km away). A farmer would need to take a substantial
amount of produce to make the costs of such a return trip worthwhile.

The communities’ perceptions that they have enough food for their own
consumption does point to a general sense of food security in the Study Area.
The sustainability of this security depends on continuing access to land and to
markets.

Figure 5.15 Transportation of crops from the Fields

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Agro-processing(1)

The major cash crops grown in the Study Area and used in agro-processing
are coconuts and oil palm and in addition in Asemdasuazo, raffia palms.
Many residents in all three towns are involved in growing and then
processing the coconuts and palm nuts into oil and in Asemdasuazo, in
tapping the raffia palm to make and sell gin.

There are large coconut plantations in the Study Area and coconut-oil
producers reported gaining access to plantations in two ways. Firstly, a
family can allocate land to one of its heirs to work or secondly, one could
approach the owner of a plantation and ask to work a portion of their land in
return for labour on the remainder of their plantation. It is also possible to
work with a plantation owner in the hope that one will be given a portion of
the land as “payment”. Agro-processing is one of the dominant livelihood
activities in the Study Area and the variations in these access arrangements
are important to understand in order to assess the vulnerabilities of different
types of owner/users in the event of a loss of access.

(1) Agro-processing: turning primary agricultural products into other commodities for market

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Figure 5.16 Coconut Trade

Coconut Plantation

Activities involved in Trading in Coconuts

Working a Coconut Plantation

The plantations in the Study Area are reported to be just under 100 years old.
This accounts for some of the lower yield that owners are experiencing. An
existing plantation requires regular maintenance, sometimes daily, to clear the
bush under the trees. Other produce, such as cassava and groundnuts are
often intercropped with the plantation trees. Harvesting of coconuts can be
done throughout the year and on average every second week. Coconut
farmers in the area do not climb the trees but rather harvest what has fallen.
A 15 acre (6 hectares) plot is said to yield approximately 4,000 – 5,000 coconuts
every two weeks. Peak coconut harvesting happens during the rainy season
where up to 7000 nuts can be collected in the same 15 acre plot.

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The nuts are gathered and the husks are cracked, the liquid thrown away. The
remaining contents (the actual nut) is put into sacks and transported either in
a push-type trolley or on someone’s head. Bulk buyers from as far as Nigeria,
drive to the plantations to collect the nuts. Each part of the coconut has a
financial value. 5,000 husks can be sold for ¢150 (79 USD) and they are used
as stuffing for mattresses and upholstery as well as to make mosquito coils.
They are also used domestically for fires.

Figure 5.17 Trade in un-processed coconuts with buyers from Nigeria

Different people are involved in different stages of the coconut agro-process


such that someone producing and selling coconut oil will buy the nuts and
take them to a mill for processing. The flesh (copra) of the nut is extracted and
then processed to make the coconut oil. Producers in the focus group
meetings, who said they are able to produce about 20 drums of coconut oil per
month, reported the following costs:

100 nuts = ¢12 (6.30 USD);

a buyer purchases 4000 nuts to make up one drum (45 gallons/ 170.3
litres) of coconut oil = ¢480 (253 USD);

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a buyer will usually buy 20 drums per month = ¢9600 (5062 USD);

a drum is sold for between ¢500-¢600 (263 – 316 USD); and

the cost of transporting the oil needs to be considered as part of the


buyers’ costs

There are a small number of processing mills in each town and the oil
produced is sold within the Study Area but is also exported to Takoradi and
even Accra. The oil producers reportedly prefer Nigerian buyers because of
the large quantities they purchase. Oil producers now operate on strictly cash
and carry basis.

As shown above, buying the nuts in quantities worth processing can be


expensive and the producers therefore have loan arrangements with two rural
banks (Lower Pra Rural Bank and Nzemanmanle Rural Bank). The loan
process involves the bank collecting an individual’s money about every two
days for three months. After this time the individual can apply for a loan of
double his/her savings amount and is given six months to pay off the loan in
instalments. An interest fee is added to the repayment cost.

Figure 5.18 Coconut Processing Steps

Grind the copra Extract the liquid

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Figure 5.19 Coconut Processing Steps cont

Leave to Stand Heat to allow oil to separate

Palm Nut Plantations

A palm nut tree takes four to six years to produce fruit and has a lifespan of
approximately 15-20 years. Producers in all three Study Area towns reported
using ladders to access the fruit, which is processed for oil, soup and as a
component of soap. One pole (1.25 acres/ 0.5 hectares) has approximately 60
trees on it each producing between three and ten bunches of nuts. The nuts
are sold in containers at between ¢6 (3.10 USD) and ¢10 (5.20 USD) each.
Specific details of plantation density will be confirmed as part of the LRP
agricultural asset survey being undertaken by SRC.

Raffia Palms

Raffia palms grow wild within the Study Area, predominantly in the northern
part. Asemdasuazo is the only town in the Area that uses the tree to produce
gin (Akpeteshie), which is then sold to the other two towns and much further
afield (Tarkwa and Accra among others).

Buyers come to Asemdasuazo and buy ten to 15 drums of gin at a time. These
are then transported by small truck. The brewers also transport their gin to
other areas to sell. For those involved in brewing it is their main income and
they have little involvement in other agricultural activities. The process of
distilling employs a number of people in Asemdasuazo. In one case a brewer
reported employing 10-20 youth and all brewers reported brewing everything
locally and using their own teams. Interestingly, no gin is sold or reportedly

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consumed in the town itself, although limited alcohol is consumed in
Asemdasuazo.

On average a tree can produce about 60 gallons (227.1 litres) of liquid.


Producers were not worried that this process would be unsustainable as they
reported trees self-seeding and taking about five years to mature. The
production of gin begins once five gallons (18.9 litres) of liquid have been
tapped. The five gallons are distilled into one gallon (3.8 litres) of gin which is
sold for about ¢14 (7.40 USD) and five gallons for ¢70 (37 USD).

Fishing and fish mongering

Probably the largest income-generating livelihood activity in Atuabo and


Anokyi is seasonal marine fishing and fish mongering. Activities are divided
entirely by gender, with men catching the fish and women processing and
selling the catch. In Asemdasuazo freshwater fishing is reportedly one of the
main income generators as well with some participation of women in the
actual fishing activities. There are a number of children who are also involved
in marine and freshwater fishing activities, sometimes to the exclusion of their
education.

The main fishing season starts, in general, towards the end of June, then peaks
during August and September and declines in October. A secondary fishing
season begins towards the end of November and peaks between late January
and March, declining towards the end of April. April to May is considered a
rest period and the fishermen use this time to mend nets, repair boats and
plan for future expeditions. Artisanal works such as carpentry and masonry
are done to supplement incomes during rest periods (April/May). Other
fishing-related activities include outboard motor repairs done by the local
mechanic and commercial drivers also work all year round, usually after
fishing.

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Figure 5.20 Fish mongering

Atuabo
Fishing methods employed in the Study Area are traditional artisanal (small
scale) methods, predominantly beach seining(1). Three main mesh sizes of nets
are used, 2 inches (5 cm), 1 (2.5 cm) and 1 7/8 inches (4.8 cm). The fishing
boats are not mechanised and require up to nine people per boat for paddling
and net casting. Migrant fishermen from Elimina and Axim are the only two
groups of fishermen in the area using mechanised boats and drift gill-nets
(watcha).

The traditional fishers fish within the vicinity of Atuabo. Participatory


mapping highlighted the net casting and tie-off sites on the beach, which has
been translated onto a spatial map (Figure 5.21 and Figure 5.22). In
comparison to farming activities that were reportedly done in families or
alone, local fishing is organised into companies/crews.

(1) This is fishing with a cast net anchored to the shore and taken by boat into the shallow waters (4–5 m deep). The fish
are surrounded by a wall of net encompassing a volume of water from the bottom to the surface; the net is dragged
through the water towards the shore, trapping the fish in the net until they can be scooped out.

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Figure 5.21 Atuabo Fishermen Mapping Net Casting and Tie-off Areas

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Figure 5.22 Atuabo Net Casting and Tie-off Areas
Fishermen reported five main canoe companies namely Yesu Mo Boys,
Jamaica Boys, London Boys, Obeyeyei Boys and Psalm 23 Boys. Each
company has a canoe that is operated by about nine fishers at a time, and a
land crew of between 25 and 70 fishers who aid in dragging the beach seine
net onshore. Fishermen in the boats spend about five to six hours fishing per
day and depending on the types of fish to be caught, they leave shore about
6am and return between 2 - 6pm. It is interesting to point out that the
Obeyeyei Boys company belongs to a fisherman from Asemdasuazo and he
employs young men from both towns on his crew. In the main though,
Asemdasuazo fishermen fish in the river, streams and ponds near their town.

The main species reported caught include sardines (eban), ekan, ebue (August –
December), kokoi (August), sukoe (December), Ahinmandi, Aluko, Ekanfla, kukule,
Tantamle (all year round), wawei (December), silverfish (march), tantra
(December), ebueaqua.

Fishermen reported that about 50 – 100 pans of fish (one pan weighing
approximately 50 kg) could be caught on a good day during peak season
(“when it’s raining from late May to end of June”). While some income
estimates seem extremely high, and the research team tried various
approaches to verify the information, Atuabo fishermen consistently reported
potential income per company on a “very good day” of between ¢20,000
(about 10,500 USD) to ¢60,000 (31,500 USD). However, there might be a four
or five such days in an entire season (approximately seven months of fishing)
and general catches are significantly lower. The entire company divides
income from a catch and the company owner will take approximately 50
percent of the value and the remainder will be shared between up to 70
fishers. If the reported amounts are accurate, this can be crudely estimated as
being appr