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nJ!cct ions by
Psycfwsynthesis 'Typ0Co9y



PsycFwsynthesis ?v[onographs
Copyright© 1983
Institute of Psychosynthesis, London

For information address
Institute of Psychosynthesis
Cambridge Gate Regents Park London NWl

ISSN 0309-4025

Printed in Great Britain

A compila tion of
unpublished writings by Roberto Assagioli
collated by
the Istituto di Psicosin tesi, Florence.

Translated from the I talian
"I Tipi Umani" by Carol Gochenour, USA

All right reserved
We welcome this as the s e c o nd b o o k in the Psy­
chosynthesis M onograph S eries1 as a c ontrib ution to our
c o ntinuing dialogue b e tw e e n practitioners who are work­
ing with and researching different models to understand
reality .
In training programmes at the I nstitute o f Psy­
chosynthesis, L ondon , we have had these writings availab l e
for s o m e time and wish to make t h e m availabl e t o a s wide a
fi e ld as possib l e . I n working with t h e m we have found them
significantly relevant as we search to create models for p er­
so nality integration and ways t o S e lf Realisation. W e know
that Rob erto Assagioli intended to write a m ore c o m p l e t e
manuscript than t h e s e notes c o nvey. Therefore, we have
always seen t h e m as n o t b e ing the final statement b u t as a
s tarting p oint, which serve and have served to stimulate
our thinking and developm ental work .
I n this way they admirab ly suit the M o nograph S erie s ,
w h i c h was initiated to give researchers a n d t h o s e w h o are
working with the idea of synthesis and goodwill in their
own fi elds the opportunity to pub lish their findings as they
develop. W e hope that the series will stimulate a creative
dialogue b e tween practitioners from different disciplines.
We are grateful to the I stituto di P sicosintesi, ·Flore n c e ,
for c ollating Rob erto Assagi oli's no tes and for making t h e
I talian version " I Tipi Umani" availab l e to us for p ub l ica­
tion; to Caro l G oc h enour for the mammoth task of its
translation and to Tony Kennedy and M arion Warr for
editing the E nglish version.

J oan I Evans Editor
1 The first i n the series was
"The Redemption of the Intangible
in Medicine"
Marco J de Vries, MD, PhD
Over the years, different psychol ogical movements have
attempted to 'type' or categorise humankind.

"A classification is most useful if it helps one to recognise and
understand differences of type that already exist within the
scheme ofnature. A classification based on artificial, arbitrary,
or superficial divisions will be of limited and practical value,
and may become an obstacle and a cause ofdiStortion in our per­
ception of reality." *

I n nature w e see that different forms are evolved to
express major arc h e types which in themselv e s are manifes­
tations of u niversal laws. The s e laws also apply to the ways
in which our personalities are organised as inter-dependent
and integral aspects of nature.
The c ont ext o u t o f which psychosy n th e sis m o dels are
b eing developed is that each Higher S elf h o lds a patt ern o f
certain a t tributes which guides t h e unfo lding and realisa­
tion o f each individual. The Higher S e l f is a c oherent p o i n t
o f focus w h i c h qualifies and differentiates u niversal
e n ergies as they individualise; the pers o nality is the field
through which these u niversal e nergies are o b j e ctified.
The p attern for each individual describ es the whole, is uni­
que and unfolds appropriat e ly - i. e . within time - and
qualitatively affe c ts the p erso nality's integration.
The map o f psychosynthesis types provides a context to
understand more spe cifically the differentiation o f these
maj or arch e types as they manife s t through the differen t
levels o f the p ersonality - through t h e mind, s haping o ne' s
p attern o f thinking; through the feelings, affe cting o n e ' s
e m o ti onal life; a n d t hrough the b ody, giving rise t o dif­
ferent forms o f physical expression.
The types s erve to bring these l evels into alignment and
to i ntegrate the p ersonality as a vehicle for the expression
o f the S elf. A lthough all pers o nalities resp o nd to the same
univ ersal or archetypal laws, each i ndividual path is p art­
icular. Each is a unique complex of highly differentiated
attrib utes or types which interweave, b alance and c ounter­
b alance and tog ether c o n tribu t e to the mosaic o f o ne's l ife .
The value i n u nderstanding the types is to s e e that they are
qualifying e nergies rather than definitive in obj ective
terms. E ac h has a distinctive note or c o l our which shap e
fro m within; they are principles o f l i mitation as well as
expansion e ndowing the individual with opportunities
along the path o f Self Realisatio n .
The k e y , I think, is n o t so m u c h t o determine what t h e
type s are, b u t how d o e s e a c h i ndividual respond to the
typ e s affe cting him. A s one trai n e e , whose mind was o f the
Creativ e-Artistic typ e said: " I t's such a relief to under­
stand the pattern o f my thinking. I have always experie n­
ced such c o nflict in b e i ng abl e to s e e two sides to every
argument, having to c h o o s e b e tw e e n o n e side or the
o th er. Now I realise that b y including b o th sides, there is
harmo ny and b e au ty i n my thinking rather than chaos and
confus io n . " A nd ano ther who saw that his fee lings w ere of
the D evo tio nal type, "I have always b e e n fiercely loyal,
b e e n driv e n to attach mys e l f to o ther p e op l e's ideas which
has c ol o ured my discrimination. It is helpful to s e e that
that o ne-po inted e mo tional e nergy can serve m e i n h old­
ing intuitive ideas which I glimpse , whilst I b uild or de­
termine the appropriate forms for their expression. I fee l I
have a greater degre e o f c h o i c e as to h o w I respond to the
fabric o f my life . "

J o an I Eva ns Editor

• "The Act of Will" R Assagioli -
Appendix 5, Differential Prychology.

Introduction 11

The Wi(( Type 17

The Love Type 25

The Active· Practica[ Type 38

The Creative· Artistic Type 50 ·

The Scientific Type 59

The Devotiona( · Idea(istic Type 68

The Or9anisationa[ Type 77
The practical i mportance o f the science o f human types
lies in its applicati o n to ourselves - the attempt to classify
ours e lv e s and o thers is an interesting and usefu l exercise
that should e nable us to refine our psychological perception.
How e ver, when we try to do this we disco v e r that, while it
is e asy t o identify some individuals, we b ec o m e doub tful
and c onfused ab o u t s o m e o th e r s o r, having o n c e c l assified
t h e m, we find w e need to r e consider our opinio n later.
The r e are s everal causes o f this problem and i t is valuabl e
to e x amine t h e m in order t o improve o u r understanding o f
t h e sub j e c t .
First, there are individuals who s e e m t o resist a l l
attempts a t classifica tion. T h e s e are sub-divided i n t o two
groups: one c o mposed o f l e ss w e l l- I ntegrated people who
co uld b e called apathe ti c i n the e xpression o f their latent
qualities, and another of more highly-developed individuals
who are many- sided and v ersatile and have reached a more
advanced s tage in the various aspec ts of their person­
S ec o ndly, a stage o f life or a particular experience can
c o nc eal a p erso n ' s fundamental type for a c ertain l e ngth o f
t i m e a n d c a n give the impression that he b�lo ngs t o
a n o ther. For e xampl e , a pers o n o f the mental type can fall
in love (even the most arid s c i e ntist is not insensitive to
lov e!) and this fac t can give the impression for a time that
he b el o ngs to the love type , thus causing an error in
our classification.
Finally, there is ano ther reas o n for error that is more
interesting b ecause it arises fro m a fundamental principle
o f our psychol ogical life and this principle is in its turn the
manifestation o f a natural law. It has to do with the exis­
tence of compensation and hypercompensation .
M edical science has discovered the existence o f the

Introduction 11
b ody's marvellous power o f s e l f-regulation and compen­
satory reaction which always t e nds to maintain or restore
harmony and equilibrium i n physical functions and s tates.
An example o f this can be seen i n the ingenious way i n
which the b ody, b y the dilation and contraction o f t h e
b l o o d vessels a n d through the process o f respiration, main­
tains a constant t e mp erature i n spite o f great variations
b etwe e n h o t and cold in the e xternal e nviro nment.
Ano ther exampl e is that o f the complicated reciprocal
influ e nce of the endocrine glands, whose well-regulated
p o larities result in a dynam ic equilibrium that makes
physical life possib l e .
T h e s a m e principl e i s active i n o ur psycho logical life i n
which i t tends to correct excesses a n d irregularities b y
aro using t h e e l em e n ts that are o pp os i te o r co mplementary
to the dominant o n e s . For several reasons, however, this
power o f s e l f-regulation and compensation doesn't always
functio n properly, e i th e r i n our physical or o ur psycho logi­
cal life. S o m e times i t is i nadequate ; at o ther times it
op erates t o e xcess, producing e xaggerated reactions or
what we call hyperco mp ensation. In fact, we o ften have the
tendency to over- es ti mate precisely the quali ty that w e
Two famous exampl e s o f hyperco mpensation are those
o f Nie tzche and Tolstoy. N i etzche originally had a s e nsi­
tive, p assio nate b u t rather weak nature and, i n his frantic
efforts to conqu er his l i mi tations, he o ver- e mp hasised the
value of p ower and of a stern and unyielding will, coming in
the e nd to justify crue l ty i t s e l f.
The case o f Tolstoy is at t h e opposite e xtrem e . B y
nature a man o f great vitality, Tolstoy was impulsive and
violent, with strong instincts and a great love o f b eauty and
physical well- b e i ng. He tried to master himself and in his
struggle against h is exub era n t nature, which w e may read
i n his diary - a human and p sycholo g ical docume n t of grea t

12 Psychosynthesis Typology
value - h e arrived at the g lorification o f non- resistance t o
evil and o f c e libacy a n d e ventually c a m e to an excessive
depreciation o f art and a t o tal condemnation o f modern
civilisatio n.
A part fro m these well-known examples we have many
cases, half amusing and half pathetic, of weak, timid and
uns u c c essful men who affe c t to possess Napoleonic
These hypercompe nsatio ns can o ften be o b s e rved in
o u tward b ehaviour and thus we are familiar with timid peo­
ple who b ehave arrogantly and aggressively in reactio n
against their inner natur e . L ess well k nown, p erhaps, are
p e o p l e o f the opposite kind who seem timid and irresolute
but who are essentially violent individuals. F e aring that
they cannot c o ntrol the explosiveness of their character,
they restrain and hide i t under a sub missiv e and acquies­
c e n t manner. A similar case is that o f the hyper- e mo tional
typ es who viole ntly repress their fee lings and assume a cold
and insensitive manne r.
A fter discovering the type t o which w e b elong, we must
face the probl e m , which is b oth pra c tical and spiritual, of
how to utilise the knowledg e we have acquired t o effe c t
o u r sel f-realisation.

The tasks that each psycho logical typ e must face can b e
synthetically indicated in the fo llowing terms:-

1. Expression. 2. Control. 3. Harmonisation.

E xpress ion
The first thing we must do is to a c c e p t within o urselves the
typ e to which we b elo ng. This does not mean that we
passively and unconsciously a c c e p t our own chara c t e r
without self- knowledge o r any attemp t to develop our­
selves, as we may o b s e rv e the mass o f people do, who l e t

In trodu ctio n 13
themselves b e blindly led b y what hap p e ns to them. I t is
rathe r a question o f a c o nscious and willing recogniti o n o f
the potentialities o f o u r type; o f what i t c a n teach u s , o f its
oppo rtunities and dange rs; and finally o f the kind of s er­
vice that it can p e r form in the world. I t is an o p e n and
enlightened a c c e p ta n c e , b ased on recognition of the fac t
that o nly through t h e wise use o f o u r actual qualities can
we fre e ourselves fro m their limitations. W e cannot attain
this end r e maining ignorant o f our typ e , disdaining it, o r
trying t o avoid it, a s s o many do, c onsciously o r u n c o n­
sciously imitating o ther types o r c o r r e cting its limitations
b y fo rce through hyp e rc o mp e nsation. Therefo r e , our
c h i e f task m u s t b e the expressio n a n d p e rfec tion o f our
type in the purest and most developed way possib l e .

The s e c o nd task we must fa c e is that o f c o n trolling and c or­
recting the exc essess o f the psycho l ogical type to which w e
b el o ng. W e all have t h e tendency to fol l ow t h e line o f least
resistance and s o to c ontinue to express and develop the
quality that is already active in us. This is agre e ab l e and
usefu l and an apparently p o si tive way of l iving. Neverthe­
less, if we indulge o urse lv e s too m u c h i n this way, i t will
produce an incr easing disharmony and a distorte d devel o p­
m ent. This in fac t frus trates t h e ultimate o b j e c t o f our
evolution whic h-is to pro d u c e whol e p erso na e with all their
facu l ties developed at all l ev els.
We can say e v e n m o r e . If one aspe ct of our b eing is
devel o p e d to e x cess, it c o m es to a p oi nt w h ere the e xpres­
sion o f its own qualities will be arrested. F or exam p l e , if a
s c i e ntific p erso n develops his type and m e ntal a ctivity
m o n o p olises his l ife, l eaving his e m otional nature s terile
and his physcia l b ody e xhausted, the result is that even his
m e n ta l a c tivity will diminish. A similar principle exists i n
all o ther psychological type s . I t is therefo r e essential t o

14 Psychosynthests Typology
control the prevailing quality and k e e p it within c ertain
limits. This is not an easy task; rather, i t is o ften disagree­
abl e and sometimes provokes rebe llion in the personality.
But life itself, with its limits and i ts inflexib l e demands,
o ften leads us to a more or l ess lasting and complete
control o f our psycho l ogical type . When this hap p e ns w e
nee d no t worry, b ec o me distressed or figh t against cir­
cumstances, as many tend to do. The rig h t attitude is a wise
accep tanc e b as e d on a knowle dg e o f l ife and on an under­
s tanding o f its justice and its b enign purp o s e . W e can thus
discipline ours elves in a g entler and more understanding

This third task, which o ften g o e s hand in hand with the pre­
c eding, consists in cultivating the s ti l l undeveloped
faculties in our present psychological make-up. This can
also b e unpleasant to our p ersonalities and can provoke
confl i cting reactions. This happens in individuals o f the
artistic typ e who are obliged to p erform practical work, or
else in s ensitiv e typ e s confine d to ugly surroundings, -and
so on. There is also a vital l esson to l e arn h ere, that the
s o o n er this task is willingly and c o nscientiously take n up,
the s ooner we will achieve fre e d o m fro m the difficulties of
the situation. When we have reached our o b j ec tive, in fact,
i t no longer has any reason t o exist.
There are many m e ans by which we can accomplish
these tasks o f the c o ntrol of our excesses and development
o f the e l ements that are lacking. I t is primarily a matter o f
the w i l l i n i t s varied asp e c ts o f: decision, one-pointedness, perst5-
tence and mastery.
T h e s e tasks c a n b e made easier b y active and profi tab l e
relationships w i t h individuals o f a different type . T h i s i s
o ften organise d b y life itself a n d m ore precise ly b y the law
of polarity that creates an a ttraction b e tw e e n opposites - ( a

Introduction 15
clear example of this fact is the attraction between the
sexes that has it most obvious example on the physical
level but also operates on other levels). For this reason,
friendship and contact between people of different types is
beneficial and fruitful. All of us should therefore seek the
company of people belonging to other types than our own
in our leisure time. For example, a person of the scientific
type ought to cultivate the friendship of artists and
become interested in their work; a practical man should
associate with people of the intellectual or artistic type in
his free time, - and so on. This is an easy and agreeable way
to develop our latent faculties and to correct the one­
sidedness and limitations of our own type.
Knowledge, understanding and the wise use of contrast­
ing elements are fundamental principles, not only in paint­
ing and music but also in the art of life. Every one of us can
and must fashion from the living material of his personali­
ty, whether it be silver, marble or gold, an object of beauty
through which he can adequately manifest his transper­
sonal Self.

16 Psychosynthesis Typology
The Wi(( Type
Before describing and discussing this type , we might do
well to examine briefly the specific essence of its quality in
order to understand it clearly . This is particularly impor ­
tant for the type we are now taking into consideration .
It is a rather surprising fact ,and a very significant one in
some respects , that the study and consideration of the will
has been generally neglected in contemporary psycho ­
logy .
The behaviourists , naturally , could never attribute any
importance to this internal power, as such a revelation
would be totally destructive of their myth that man is sim ­
ply the effect of his reflexes . Even psychoanalysis , with the
importance it gives to the interaction of instincts and fan­
tasy and to the central role of the unconscious, has left the
will little scope for action.1 Even Jung and Schmitz, who
represent a wiser and more progressive tendency, have
given little attention to the will.
To tell the truth, there has been a voluntaristic thread in
psychology. Wilhelm Wundt, the founder of experi­
mental psychology, believed in the voluntaristic doctrine
but his conception of the will was not well defined and did
not clearly distinguish between the will and other psy­
chological qualities and functions such as perception and
emotion. There have also been a limited number of studies
involving experimental research on the will that have pro­
duced very interesting and worthwhile results. The pio­
neers of this field have been Ach and Michotte whose
methods have been followed and refined over the past few
years by A veling in particular.
Aveling's conclusions, reached by sound and reliable
methods, are of great importance. The chief outcome of

1. However, we should remember (Leipz ig und Wien, F Denticke,
the notable exception of the dissi­ 1926-3 1) he brought to light, even if
dent psychoanalyst Otto Rank . In one-sidedly, the central importance
his book Tewik der Prychorma!yse of the will.

18 Psychosynthesis Typology
his research on the act of will is the scientific confirmation
of the direct, positive experience of the existence of the
Self as a living reality. This fact has far-reaching con­
sequences. It gives fresh support to the assertions of those
who, through the awakening of their inner awareness, have
had a direct experience of the Self. The reality of the Self,
once its existence and its primary place in the life of the
psyche is admitted, constitutes a central point around
which we can assemble and coordinate all other psy­
chological facts.
A second important result of this research is that the will
is the most direct expression of the Self. Thus, if we com­
pare the famous affirmation of Descartes, "I think,
therefore I am," with that of the Polish philosopher, Ciez­
kowsky, "I will, therefore I think and I am," the second
seems to have greater value.
The third result of this research is that the will is not an
effort: it is purpose, choice and decision . In other words it is a
power that directs, initiates and orients. Bearing in mind
these characteristics of the will, it is not difficult to identify
and understand the qualities exhibited in the correspond­
ing human type.
At the physical level, the will type is characterised by
prompt and decisive action , courage, the power to conquer , rule and
dominate both physical surroundings and other men, with a
tendency to competitiveness and even to violence and destruct­
In his emotional sphere, the will type is decidedly
introverted. He inhibits all displays of emotion and feeling,
since he regards them as obstacles and dangers to the
efficiency of his actions and the one-pointedness of his
aims. He does not stop at merely inhibiting the expression
of emotions; he often tends to suppress them totally. He
has little consideration for the feelings of others and for his
own as well. This habit, while it can lead to heroic acts and

The Will Type 19
great deeds of self-sacrifice, can easily produce insensitivi­
ty, ruthlessness and cruelty in people who are not well
integrated. At all events, this tends to limit the develop­
ment of psychic sensitivity, both of a good and a bad kind.
When his emotions are strongly involved, the will type
tends to be impatient, aggressive and easily irritated.
At the mental level, the will type often has clear vision ,
uncoloured and undistorted by emotions. When mature,
he has an open mind and a synthetic vision, and he con­
siders the broad view rather than the details. He has great
powers of concentration and a dynamic one-pointedness.
He expresses his combativeness, on the mental plane, in
the love of argument and criticism, and this is one of his
chief defects. He has a great capacity to hurt and this can be
as destructive as physical violence.
This propensity to criticise is very highly developed,
often to the extreme, in those people whose way of life
gives them no opportunity for vigorous external activity
which would help them to discharge their combative and
dynamic energies. These people use their energies in men­
tal criticism and verbal battles - for which there is never
any lack of opportunity! The tendency to criticise is
increased by the confidence and mental pride of this type
that never entertains any doubt about being right.
The will type has an acute sense of justice and a good
legal mind. He can be a good legislator and is able to inter­
pret existing laws fairly and apply them impartially. In
doing so, however, he is liable to be too rigid and formal,
lacking appreciation of the human element of the case and
judging the "crime" in the abstract. He often forgets to
take into consideration the psychology of the offender and
the circumstances in which he has lived and acted.
Concerning the intuition, we find an apparent con­
tradiction. The first impression is that the will type is lack­
ing in intuition; in fact, usually he doesn't understand

20 Psychosyntheszs Typology
o th er p e op l e . His ego c e ntrism, e mo tional isolation and
lack o f psychic sensitivity give him a very poor psych o logi_­
cal understanding. He is n o t interested in o thers as
psychic b e i ngs.
However, in the realm o f abstrac t reality, this typ e can
demo nstrate a swift and sure intuitive understanding of
principles, general laws and universal c o nne c tions.
B efore c o ns idering the characteris tics o f the p ersonality
and those o f the S e l f, I would like to explain how I dis­
tinguish b e tw e e n the two, b o th in this case and in the case
of the o ther six typ e s . I c o ns ider as characteristics of the
personality those that can be regarded as egocentric and
separative qualities which the human p ersonality has before
it c o m e into conscious co ntact with the Self and feels its
influenc e. On the other hand, the characteristics o f the Self
are those that p ossess a true transpers o nal quali ty and that
are expressed when the S e lf p ermeates the p erso nality
with its l ight, shining thro ugh and w orking i n i t to some
The most important p ersonal c haracteris tic o f the will
typ e is the will to power. This mani fests itself as ambition,
s e l f-affirmation, the desire to do minate o thers and to b e
the c e n tral figure o n stage. I t degenerates easily into
ego tism, s tubb ornness and obstinacy. In order to achieve
his goals, the p ers o n of this typ e can easily b ecome
arrogant and unscrupulous. Ano ther b asic characteristic,
b ecause o f the suppress i o n o f the e m o t i o ns, is isolation. He
has no need for o th ers and dis trusts them, so he k e eps
them at a dis tance. This is also b ecause he can have more
power over them i n this way.
This sort o f person is simple, well- defined and easily
rec ognis ed. Nevertheless, there are p eople dominated by
the will to power who are more c o mplicated and exhib i t puz­
zling b e haviour. When the will to power is held in c h e c k by
a physical inferiority o f some sort, by the opposition o f a

The Will Type 21
stronger person (particularly during childhood or adoles­
cence), or by great emotional sensitivity or need for affec­
tion, many things can happen. The most common is the
aggravation of the will to power which they then use to
excess, mercilessly and cruelly. This accounts for many
criminal acts. Another consequence is the conscious - or
more often unconscious - attempt to dominate through
indirect, deceitful and subtle means - for example,
through physical symptoms and neurotic behaviour. This
particular type is ably described by Alfred Adler.
The transpersonal qualities of this type are admirable
and exhibit much beauty and goodness; the personal ones
are aggressive and often harmful. The transpersonal will
manifests itself chiefly as moral courage and a readiness
and ability to assume responsibility, face dangers of all
kinds and risk one's own well-being, reputation and life
itself for a worthy cause.
Other qualities of the will type are: true self-reliance and
internal independence; steadiness; simplicity of purpose;
persistence; generosity, based on the lack of desire for
material things; breadth of vision, and impartiality. The
highest expression of the will type is the total surrender of
the individual will to the Cosmic Will, in an identification
with the rhythm of the Universe.
It is not difficult to recognise the most famous examples of
this type. Various mystics and historical personalities have
exemplified it. Zeus/Jupiter is a giant projection of beings
of this type. His heroic antagonist, Prometheus, is another
ideal model of it, and another is Hercules. The great rulers
and conquerors of history demonstrate its more or less
admirable traits in various proportions; we can name Alex­
ander the Great, Julius Caesar and Napoleon.
The study of psychological types is useful not only for
understanding the nature and behaviour of individuals, but
also those of larger groups - peoples, nations, civilisations

22 Psychosynthesis Typology
and cultures. The Spartans and ancient Romans charac­
terised this type in being conquerors, rulers and legislators;
the English do likewise, with their will and capacity to rule,
their "insularity" , self-control and suppression of emo­
tion. It is also evident both in the Germans and the Jews in
some respects. 2
ln philosophies and religions we find evidence of this
type; in the Old Testament, in Vedanta philosophy (par­
ticularly in the Advaita School) and in Zen Buddhism.
Among modern philosophers we can mention Nietzche,
Max Stirner and Julius Evola.
In architecture and sculpture we can cite the simplicity,
sobriety and austerity of the Doric style in Greece, which
gives an impression of restrained power.
In music, the genius of Wagner inspired and strongly
evoked the vibration of will and power by means of certain
themes such as that of Siegfried, the Ride of the Valkyries
and the heroic entrance of the gods into Valhalla.
If we list the principal functions of this type, we can dis­
cover the occupations and activities suited to him and in
which he will be successful. The principal functions are: to
dominate, lead, govern ,punzsh, combat,judge, destroy and conquer.
These indicate the corresponding vocations of leader,
king, emperor or president of a State; of legislator, military
man and generally fighter in every capacity down to the
prize-fighter; and finally that of the explorer. I would like
to add the vocation of surgeon also, because it requires the
will in terms of courage to assume responsibility, the need
for decision and speed, and because the surgeon often acts

2. The ancientJews (and those who characteristics of modern] ews that
are faithful to the original type) seem different and counter to these
were bellicose, separative, full of can be considered as over­
pride and considered themselves the compensations, deviations or deri­
elect; they had a true cult and an vations due to particular
acute sense of law; they cultivated circumstances and external
self-discipline and austerity. Some pressures.

The Will Type 23
as a benificent destroyer of sick limbs and organs. It is also
well known that surgeons generally follow their impulses
and have instinctively good timing, which are some other
characteristics of the will type.

The psychosynthetic tasks of this type are divided into
two groups:

1 Alignment, harmonisation, integration, unification .
2 Transmutation and sublimation.

1 Since this type is markedly independent and because his
great capacity to achieve positions of influence and
command make him truly dangerous, both alignment
and integration are absolutely essential for him. Fun­
damental equilibrium is indispensable to him, and is
attainable through the evocation of love. He needs in fact
to develop love, understanding, empathy and compas­
sion in such a way that he becomes capable of expressing
goodwill. Other qualities that the will type must cultivate
are sensitivity, intuition and the ability to cooperate with
rather than solely to dominate, compel and direct
others. He must abandon the solitude to which he is so
attached and descend from his ivory tower so that he
learns to live with his peers.
2 The task of sublimation, which every man endowed with
a strong will must face, is to transform his personal,
egotistical and separative will into a transpersonal will
directed towards the service of others. There is also a
greater sublimation, consisting of the submission of the
transpersonal will to the cosmic will. In reality this
absolute surrender, which appears as "death" to the per­
sonal will determines the true spiritual liberation of

24 Psychosynthesis Typology
The Love Type
Everybody is interested in Love. It is one of the most-used
words in the language, - probably the most frequently
used after "I" and "money". Nearly everybody either has
been or will be in love. Love-songs fill the air; thousands of
authors write love-stories which are read by millions. Peo­
ple love many kinds of things; sweets and children; the
opposite sex and their own country; flowers and paintings;
books and God.
It should be obvious that we know what love is. But if we
pause and really try to think about its meaning we soon dis­
cover, to our embarrassment and humiliation (if we are
honest with ourselves) that love is incomprehensible to us,
contradictory and mysterious; and if we ask ourselves to
make an exact and full definition of it, we are quite at a
This surprising and embarrassing discovery helps us to
understand the important psychological truth that experi­
ence and true knowledge are two very different things.
Usually, in order to know, we must experience. For exam­
ple, we can perceive a tree and in so doing we not only see it
but also have a sense of its beauty. But we remain ignorant
of its internal structure, the natural laws that made it grow
and the qualities of its wood.
In order to gain true knowledge we need to make a
sound and systematic inquiry and then an intelligent
assessment of the facts. In Natural Science, knowledge can
be acquired at second hand without direct personal
experience by looking at the results of research work car­
ried out by others. For example, when studying a treatise
on astronomy, we can gain a precise knowledge of the
chemical composition, size, weight and distance of stars we
have never seen.
In psychology, on the other hand, knowledge can only
be gained by direct, personal experience. This is because
only information about quantity and objective facts can be

26 Psychosynthesis Typology
conveyed by means of words and data; information about
quality and subjective impressions cannot be conveyed in
this way. Nevertheless, direct experience, however neces­
sary, does not provide a sufficient sense of meaning on its
own. It only gives us sensations and feelings; if these are to
be truly "known", they must be assimilated with the help
of the intellect. Beyond this process of simple assimilation,
synthetic knowledge, which brings true understanding,
further requires the intuition.
Because of this it should not surprise us that the
experience of being or having been passionately in love
does not provide us with a proper understanding of the
true nature of love. Such an understanding is very difficult
to gain because there are varied and contradictory ele­
ments in the various experiences of love. We find a mix­
ture of lust, greed and possessiveness on the one hand, and
of generosity, altruism and self-giving on the other; we find
instinct and intuition, active impulse and passive feeling,
body and soul, matter and spirit.
However, there is another fundamental characteristic or
quality that constitutes the essential nature of love
through which its various and contrasting elements can be
understood and, to some extent, reconciled.

If we examine the many varied manifestation·s of love,
we invariably find that they express the law of attraction, of
the tendency towards approach, contact, unification and
fusion. But this general - possibly universal - tendency
operates in various and sometimes conflicting ways.

1 Unification can be achieved by actively attracting to
ourselves the object or person we "love" and taking
possession of it. We do this in particular with the food
we like that we literally swallow and assimilate; but we
do the same with money and all kinds of material goods

The Love Type 27
and try to do likewise with our husbands and wives, our
children and friends. Fortunately for the objects of such
a voracious and absorbing love, we often do not succeed
in possessing them as we would like. In all too many
cases, however, we do succeed in possessing and turning
them into more or less consenting slaves and, in the case
of children, into real psychic invalids.
2 Unification can be the result of an opposite process: that
of surrendering and abandoning oneself to something
that we love and letting it possess and absorb us.
3 Unification can also be the result of a reciprocal attrac­
tion, leading to approach and contact. This attraction
can lead to the fusion of two or more beings who thus
form a greater whole.

This analysis gives us some idea of the structural and
functional aspects of love from an objective viewpoint and
can also be helpful in arranging its many aspects into a
coherent shape that reveals their relationship at various
levels of human life. Let us hold this in mind during our
description of the "love type", that is, of the man or
woman in whom love is a prevailing and controlling
On the physical level, the love type can exhibit strong
sexual impulses. I say "can" for it would be a great error to
presume that it is always so. In many cases the element of
love is directed towards physical objects such as money or
property of all kinds; or else it is expressed through the
mind or the emotions rather than the body. Because of this
there are many people of the love type who are very little
developed sexually. When studying the qualities of various
types it is important to remember that there can be people
who do not show any of a given type's apparently more
natural and obvious characteristics. In these cases, hasty
conclusions could make us commit many errors of

28 Psychosyntheszs Typology
The s exual i mp ulse o f the l ov e type - and, up to a point,
o f every i ndividual - c l e arly shows the two opposing
characteristics that " love" can have. Many individuals
desire and achieve sexual union for their own physical
pleasure, with little or no c o nsideration for their p artner.
This is the greatest e x treme o f ego tistical " love" . There is
o n the o ther hand an increasing number o f people who -
e ither b e cause they have developed their feelings o f love to
the highest level, or b e cause they have b e e n e nl ightened
b y a good s e xual educatio n - give the utmost c o nsidera­
tion to their partner' s pleasure in physical union, drawing
fro m this as much and e v e n more satisfaction than fro m
their own.
W e must add that a growing minority o f c ouples exists
who are inclined to s exual union, to a greater or less
exte nt, b y a s ense of s ocial and spiritual resp o nsib ility.
These c o uples provide the opp ortunity for new human
b ei ngs to come into the world, to live and make their c o n­
tribution to s o c i e ty . I n these cases we have the example o f
a n o b l e and disinteres ted love that h a s i t s origins in
spiritual and higher e m o t i o nal levels, expressed through
the act o f physical union.
A dis tinct charac teristic o f the normal love type is his
attach m e n t to material possessions. This attachment can
take the form o f a desire for the good things o f life such as a
fine car, a new refrigerator e t c . ; or, when i t is more pro­
nounced, of an intense y e arning for luxury and the b es t
and m o s t e x p e nsive goods. I n o ther cases, t h e desire for
possessions b ec o m e s specifi c and is direc ted towards par­
ticular classes o f o b j ects, as in the case of the b ib lio p hil e ,
t h e c ollec tor o f porcelain, sea-shells, stamps e t c . These
cases reveal another charac teristic of this typ e which is an
interest in little things and the ability to handle de tail.
On the physical l evel, the love type is often self-

The Love Type 29
indulgent and loves comfort. He is not very active and is
even rather lazy and passive and tends to follow the
The emotions, as we might expect, become the centre of
attention and of vital energy for the majority of those who
belong to the love type. Passionate and romantic love,
often mixed in varying proportions, tends to be their prin­
cipal interest in life. This kind of love is so well known and
has been so minutely described and skillfully analysed in so
many psychological novels and other books (such as De
!'Amour by Stendhal) that it is unnecessary to enlarge upon
the subject. Here we see the two opposing attitudes about
which we spoke before. At one extreme we find those
whose inner need is primarily to be in love, through pouring
out the abundance of their feelings upon someone else,
while the object of their love is really a secondary problem.
This is clear from the comparative ease with which these
individuals (we can consider them as a specific sub-type)
change the object of their love without much difficulty.
People of this type can be considered introverted in a sense
because their inner life is more important than the object
of their love. This is confirmed by the fact that they are
very interested in their feelings which they observe,
examine and analyse with surprising perception. Many
French and Russian novels contain very good descriptions
of this kind of individual.
At the opposite extreme are those who say, and honestly
believe, that they "love" their husbands, wives, children or
friends, whereas in reality they want to be loved by them.
This unconscious egotism- because that is what it really is
- is hidden beneath an impressive facade of feeling and
affection, and is the cause of a great deal of conflict that
leads to separation and divorce. For this reason it is of the
greatest importance for all of us to be clear on this point
and to submit ourselves to an honest and courageous

30 Psychosynthesis Typology
analysis. We must ask ourselves: "When I say or believe
that I love my family or friends, what are my true feelings,
attachments and motivations? Do I love them for what
they are, independently of myself, or do I demand and
insist upon their love for me? Do I want to give myself to
them or do I want to receive love from them without con­
sidering their vital needs, their feelings and their legitimate
This kind of analysis can lead to unpleasant and even dis­
turbing revelations but if we are courageous and honest
enough to confront them, they will enable us to clarify and
bring about a harmonious improvement in our relation­
ships, based upon the sure foundation of truth.
Except for the small minority who love disinterestedly,
emotional love implies or leads to attachment. This is a com­
mon characteristic of personal love and the cause of an
enormous amount of suffering and grief, the high price
that humanity pays for loving in this way. It should not sur­
prise us, because attachment leads to possessiveness and both
are principal causes of fear. Fear is itself the greatest cause
of human suffering, both directly through the dread of los­
ing what we possess and what we are attached to, and
indirectly through stupid and often cruel actions, born of a
desperate attempt to avoid the real or imaginary danger of
losing the "loved" one.
Another cause of fear that torments those who belong to
the love type is their extreme psychic sensitivity which ena­
bles them to resonate and identify with the feelings of
others and with the collective states of being and emotional
fluctuations that are experienced by all mankind. This ten­
dency to emotional identification also displays compassion
which they feel strongly for all those who suffer or are in
pain, including animals. According to the degree of
transpersonal development, this compassion varies from
an ineffective and sentimental pity to a great and wise corn-

The Love Type 31
passion that sees the true cause of suffering and helps to
eliminate it. I n tho s e who are ego c e n tric, on the o th er
hand, compassion degenerates into self-pity. This e mo tional
form of egotism is very widespread and is not limited to
tho se who b e lo ng to the love typ e who are, nevertheless,
more prone to it than most.
O n the m e ntal level, the love type shows traits that are
su rprising and contrary to what we might e x p e c t. This con­
firn1s the need to co nsider all the characteristics of a give n
typ e in all its asp e c ts and forms o f e xpression, no t o nly
tho se that seern to be (and up to a point really are) the more
natural side of this typ e .
Thus, while " love" e xpresses itself principally and mo st
naturally through the e mo tions, i t can also be seen o n the
mental level and, naturally, this is chiefly the case in thos e
who are m e ntally po larised. O n this level, t h e i mp ulse o f
" love" i s s e e n a s the desire for knowle dg e a n d informatio n.
This leads to an interest i n d e tails, in l earning and in the
co llection o f facts.
An i ndividual o f this kind can seem c o ld and insensitive.
In reality h e is likeable but in a rather negative way, for his
chief intere s ts lie i n m e ntal affairs and sub j e c ts.
The identification tendencies o f this type are ge nerally
revealed in their inclusive m e n talities or in their ability to
see all sides of a question, which produces b readth of vision
and equanimity but sometimes these are accompanied by
lack o f firmness and reso lution.
The most highly develo p e d repre s entatives o f the love
typ e are o ften intuitive and reveal a loving und ers tanding ,
an interest in psychology and a communion with the S e l f i n
o th ers. I n this las t c a s e , w e find a b e atifi c vision a n d a
universal love to which the true mystic passionately aspires
and which he so m e t i mes attains in ecs tatic union.
When th e mind is so developed as to be able to interpret
flashes o f intuition, a wise lbve app ears . When this m ental

32 Psychosyntheszs Typology
ab ility is lacking, the intuition is liab le to b e distorted and
to b ec o m e mixed with images and ideas that have little or
no meaning.
Summing up the various c haracteristics, we clearly see
the following ideas conce rning the love type: its individuals
are k ind and r e c e p tive; when they are not t o o sens i tive,
they are also s o c iable. I n fa c t , they are averse to and o ft e n
afraid of s o l i tude a n d thus o ft e n s e e k knowledg e , c o mpany
and so cial c o ntact. W h e n they are c o mp elled to be alone,
they a r e l iable to fall into a s ta t e o f discourage m e n t and
ine rtia. In o rder to express t h e mselves they need the
stimulus of i n t e raction with others; they realise themselves by
means ofrelationships. F o r this reason, they are easily influen­
ced b y others. They are o ft e n many- sided, changing their
inner states and p o in ts o f view like a chameleon, which can
be a p e r p e tual source o f surprise, c onfusion and even des­
p e ration fo r the simpler, more c o n c r e te o r rigid typ e , - fo r
examp l e , those i n whom the will, practical i n telligence o r
s c i entific and o rganising abili ty p redomina t e .
Those w h o b elong to the love t y p e can b e c onsidered
extroverted b e cause their p rincipal interest lies in their
vital relationships with o thers. But some are partly
introverted so that they are o ft e n v e ry interested in their
own fee l i ngs which they observe, describ e and analyse with
great skill. I n s o m e cases, this egotism and ego ' c e ntrism
b ec o m e so great that the object o f their feelings b e c o mes a
s e c o ndary c o n c e rn for t h e m , a m e re o ccas i o n for o c cupy­
ing themselves with t h e i r emo t i o ns.
W e must now distinguish b e tw e e n the active and passive
sub-types amo ng them, who are very different fro m and, i n
ce rtain respects, o p p o s i t e to e a c h o t h e r .
The active sub-type is characterised b y passionate " love" ,
b y desire and attachment that make him eager and e xpan­
sive in r e lationship to the desired o b j e c t , whether i t is a
person o r thing, which h e t h e n strives to cling to, j e alously

The Love Type 33
and possessively.
The passive sub-type, in contrast, is accommodating,
malleable, suggestible and credulous. He is compliant and
acquiescent and tends to agree with the last person who
spoke. He gives an impression of great weakness that is
sometimes genuine but in many cases is not a true lack of
strength. The ineffectiveness of this type of person is the
result of indecision, lack of concentration and a tendency
to verbosity, which lead to ineffectiveness and waste of
valuable energy and abilities.
The love type (and the passive love type in particular) is
often innocuous, good-natured and charming; his limita­
tions are agreeable and useful to others who can easily take
advantage of them; thus, he not only provokes no opposi­
tion b ut is often encouraged and approved of by others.
Very different effects, as we shall see, are produced by the
characteristics of the will type. Here, the defects and often
even the good qualities are unpleasant and disturbing and
can arouse antagonism.
The superconscious qualities of the love type are chiefly
those that express the various aspects of spiritual love.
These are, first, lovefor the universal Seif, or Supreme Reality,
and for its cosmic manifestation, for its progressive revela­
tion in Nature and Man; from this derives the search for the
Self, the transpersonal element hidden in all beings. Then
there is spiritual compassion and group consciousness, developed
through loving relationships and identification with others.
But there is a second group of superconscious qualities
which, although subtly connected with the first, differ
from them; these are the qualities associated with the
desire to know . The combination of psychic sensitivity,
intuition, loving relationships and identification with the
Self produces a full understanding of others, of their essential
nature, their needs, their aspirations and also an under­
standing of life generally. These signify wisdom in its

34 Psychosynthests Typology
broadest sense.
In some of the finest representatives of this type, it is the
quality of "love" that is most notable, while in others wis­
dom seems to prevail; but in reality, at the level of the Self,
these two aspects cannot be separated: the one necessarily
implies the other. The supreme examples of this can be
seen in the life and teachings of the two greatest represen­
tatives of this type known to man: Christ and Buddha.
In the life of Buddha, the chief incentive was the desire
to know, to discover the cause of suffering and to attain
truth, which culminated in his enlightenment. But it was his
love for his fellow creatures and compassion for their suf­
fering that made him wander throughout India for half a
century, tirelessly teaching the "Noble Way of Libera­
tion". In this teaching, love and understanding played a
greater part than most people recognise.
In the life of Christ, his love of God and of his disciples
and his compassion for the suffering of the masses are the
most important spiritual qualities; it is clear, however,
from the documents of the Gospel (probably incomplete)
how much wisdom permeated his love. His words and par­
ables reveal the most profound understanding of human
nature and teach in a simple and clear way the laws of
spiritual life.
The spiritual quality of love has been most vividly
revealed through the lives of the great religious leaders and
philosophers. The word "religion" itself etymologically
means "to connect" and "to unify" - essential functions of
the type under discussion. Naturally, in the historical
religions and institutions we find diverse characteristics of
other types as well because men of all kinds belonged to
them and contributed to their growth. For this reason we
can see how the mystics, who were of great importance in
medieval Christianity, probably belonged chiefly to the
devotional type, while the complicated structure and

The Love Type 35
minutely organised rituals of the Catholic and other
churches would be the consequences of the organisational
quality of some of their exponents.
In the great philosophers, especially those who have had
a spiritual quality, we find a high degree of wisdom as a
result of their thirst for knowledge. However, in some
modern philosophies that tend to be more concrete, we
find the influence of the scientific type as well.
Turning to art, we find that in music man has a marvellous
means of expressing the height of his feelings of love with
all its sweeping intensity and the richness and subtlety of
its variations and nuances. Music can be considered for the
most part a celebration of love, from the simplest love
songs of the primitives to the innumerable popular songs
of all nations; from the impassioned duets of opera to the
great hymns : For instance, in the climax of Tristan and
Isolde, Wagner tried to represent the complete fusion of
love that transcends the personal separation of death.
In the field of literature, lyrical poetry has been a means
by which lovers can find expression for their hopes and
fears, their joys and sorrows.
From all that we have discussed, the specific function of
the love type and the vocations in which it can best express
its qualities and talents should be evident. Obviously, its
functions are those of relating, uniting, fusing; of protect­
ing, nurturing, supporting; of understanding, teaching,
educating, illuminating.
The influence it extends is not rapid or dynamic in effect
(as is the case with the will type) but slow, penetrating and
diffusing; however, it can gradually prove to be of exten­
sive, profound and enduring scope. It is a calm radiation
that at first remains almost unobserved and arouses no
opposition but, precisely for this reason, it can be penet­
rating, durable and effective where a more impressive and
aggressive influence would fail because of the violent reac-

36 Psychosynthesis Typology
tion it provokes.
The vo cations and o ccupations i n which this typ e can
carry o u t i ts functions are many and varied. They include
psychol ogy, teaching, healing, nursing, social and human­
itarian s ervi c e . In a c ertain s e nse, the function of the
mother, whose chief characteristic is that o f pro tective
love, can be seen as b el o nging to this type .
The psychosynthetic tasks o f those who b el o ng t o this
typ e have b e e n i ndirec tly referred to i n the c o urse o f this
description. The c entral task is more difficult and this is to
attain non-attac hm ent, to eliminate fro m real love the e l e­
m e n ts o f greed and p ossessive ness and to love with internal
fre e d o m, at the same time allowi ng full lib erty for the
b eloved.
In order to acquire such a detachment, love must sub mit
to a complete transmutation and sublimatio n ; p ers onal
love must be purified o f i ts egoc e n tric e l e m e nts i n such a
way as to lib erate and reveal i ts true nature, that o f a b enefi­
c e n t radiation, of an altruism that is m erged into a greater
unity, a greater whole.
A no ther i mp ortant task o f the psychosynthesis o f these
typ e s is to dedicate themselves to the elimination o f their
weaknesses and limitations and to making them good with
the help o f the s trong will. G e n erally this essential human
quality is little developed i n the love type, a d e fec t that
o ften leads to serious c o nsequences. An uncontrolled love,
even the noblest, causes afflictions o f all kinds, while a lov­
ing p erso n who is also capab l e o f willing can achieve a
spiritual power o f great worth.

The Love Type 37
TlieActive Practica( Type

O ur description of this type will be a little briefer than that
of the previous types. This is not because it is less impor­
tant or has fewer representatives - on the contrary, they are
numerous, particularly in our time - but because it is sim­
pler and easier to un� erstand and less richly diversified, for
example, than the love type.
The f undamental quality characterising this type is
intelligent activity. This is the same intelligence that
modern physicists have discovered to be inherent even in
so-called inorganic matter and, more exactly, in the many
different manifestations of energy that make up the struc­
ture of what our senses perceive as solid substance. They
have discovered that all these vibrations, waves and quanta
of energy etc. are regulated by laws, logical connections
and mathematical formulae that demonstrate the necessity
of the existence of a greater Intelligence. This has been
stated clearly and convincingly by various physicists,
astronomers and mathematicians.
This Intelligence is even more clearly visible in the
functioning of organic s ubstances - of living bodies, veget­
able, animal or h uman - if we can observe them without
materialistic or behaviouristic prejudice. In the organic
world we find a continual demonstration everywhere of
subtle adaptations, skillful choices and the use of appro­
priate means for the attainment of specific ends.
The subtle functional coordination of various organisms,
their q uick adaptations, their defence mechanisms, and in
particular their capacity to grow and renew themselves
through the mysterious process of reproduction, demonst­
rates a marvellous intelligence which is different in kind
from the rigid, unchanging, stereotyped functioning of
our more complicated machines.
It is this same intelligence that man has demonstrated in
his gradual domination of nature from the first tools and
implements up to such developments as the telegraph,

The A ctive - Practical Type 39
radio and television; such developments as modern
chemistry and surgery and, unfortunately, such weapons as
machine-guns, bombs and nuclear arms.
From these considerations it follows naturally that men
and women in whom this specific quality predominates are
intensely practical. They have an innate ability to manipu­
late matter and bend it to many uses. They often have a
great manual ability and are clever and successful in con­
structing or repairing objects. They find themselves at ease
in the external world which for them is "real" and
Among the material objects that interest them there is
one which they tend to appreciate above any other and it is
therefore the goal of their strongest efforts - money. This
should not be surprising since it constitutes the most
obvious and tangible "value" and the means by which all
other material values are guaranteed. We generally find,
therefore, that the active type anxiously pursues activities
for gain and is concerned with prosperity and material suc­
cess. In this respect he can resemble the love type, but
close observation reveals an important difference between
the two; the love type wants money and other possessions
for its pleasure, comfort, security or other advantages; his
desire is to have these things without effort or worry, to
obtain them by inheritance, gift or luck. The active type is
chiefly interested in the process of making money, in the
game of managing it in business, banking etc. He appreciates
money as a symbol or touchstone as well, signifying his
ability, his success and his "social value" . The American
phrase, "This man is worth so many dollars" characterises
this attitude very simply.
In the emotional realm, the most distinctive traits of the
practical type are impulse and active desire. This type is
totally extroverted; all his emotions exhibit immediate
and lively reactions. Thus, he is often efficient, sometimes

40 Psychosynthesis Typology
gene rous , b u t also rash and impatient. To go slowly, to
wai t fo r the opportune mom ent , gives him probab ly m o r e
t r o u b l e t h a n anything e l s e .
I n the subj e c tive field, in the complexity of the life o f
fee l ing, i n matters t h a t r e q u i r e psychic sens itivity and i n
flights o f aesthetic imagination, the p ractical type t e nds to
b e o b tu s e , p e rp lexed o r s i mp ly uninterested. These func­
tions are gene rally dull o r undeveloped in him. The
" fe minine" asp e c t o f the psyche, changeab le and plas t i c , is
an imp e n e trab le mys t e ry to him; his p ractical mind sees no
meaning in it. The man who is ab le to manipulate things,
numb ers and o th e r men is b lunde ring and unsuccessful in
dealing psycho logically with women. F requently a success­
ful b usiness man who gives his wife all possible co mfo rts
and luxuries to satisfy her mate rial desires nevertheless
leaves her dyi ng o f hunger o n the e m o t i o nal and imagina­
tive levels and ends by asking himself ruefully and
rese ntfully why she is unsatisified, r e s tless o r neurotic, and
why - as o ft e n happens - she wishes to leave him.
I n the mental sphere this type p rese nts a curious c o n­
tradi c tion. H e is oft e n intellig e n t , mentally active, enter­
p rising and quick to find the right me thods b u t this is the
case o nly when dealing with p ractical o r concrete p rob­
lems. When he comes to philosop hical p roblems, general
ideas o r questio ns o f p rincipl e , he loses interest and
gene rally lets the argument drop as superficial, unp rac ti­
cal, too abstract and " g e tting nowhere" . S om e times h e
collects antiques o r o b j e ts d'ar t gene rally a s a hobby o r
b ecause it i s fashio nab l e and secures h i m a highe r so cial
position in his c o mmunity; rarely does he do it b ecause of
real appreciation o r g e nuine p leasure .
In the intuitive s p h e r e as well, the ac tive type rarely fe els
at ease. The so-called " intuition" o f the successful b usiness
man has l i ttle to do with the real intuition, which is
ass o ciated with transp e rso nal qualities and values, the p e r-

The Active - Practical Type 41
ception of meaning, loving understanding and the wisdom
of the Self.
This brief analysis gives us sufficient data to sketch a pic­
ture of the gifts and limitations of the practical type.
These gifts may be summarised as follows: skill in action,
efficiency, quickness, the capacity to manipulate, and
inventiveness. This type uses and gains mastery over the
"law of economy" and can obtain the maximum results
with the minimum effort and expense in time and
materials. This quality makes it possible for him to fulfil his
important function of contributing to the evolution of
humanity by utilising and improving all that exists in the
external world. We owe the practical realisation of human
ideas to him and, in general, the material expression of all
that is immaterial. The best of our present civilisation, its
wonderful progress and increase in the standard of living,
the eradication of a great deal of evil, the growth of man's
power over matter, are all owed for the most part to the
qualities of this type.
The limitations of this type are as clear as its qualities.
The basic defect is a tendency to have a materialistic
attitude that easily leads him to over-estimate the value of
material conquests and worldly success. Another limita­
tion is an excessive and unproductive "busyness" in the
form of breathless haste, hyper- activity, intense agitation
and aggressive and disagreeable interference. Many rep­
resentatives of this type seek to achieve their desired ends
indirectly by manipulating using deceitful means un­
scrupulously and exploiting the weaknessess of others.
This type, no less than others, can express the transper­
sonal values in his own way. The dominion over matter, the
knowledge and use of natural law, inventiveness and con­
structiveness are indeed transpersonal powers when used
disinterestedly, as they often are, for the greatest good of
the greatest number. The extensive improvement of living

42 Psychosynthesis Typology
co nditions, the spreading o f knowledge and the expansi o n
a n d refinement o f c o m munications are t h e nec essary
material base for world inter-relationship, c o o p eratio n
and unification, and are the inestimable gifts that this typ e ,
in association with t h e scientific typ e , has given and con­
tinues to give to humanity.
E xamples o f the active- p ractical typ e are well known.
W e will m e ntion o nly one, who is very typical indeed:
H e nry F ord. I n reading his autobiography, we cannot help
but admire his g e nius i n manipulati ng the " laws o f eco­
no my" i n h is automobile b usiness, b y finding mechanical
devices and little economies that p ermitted not only the
increase o f produc t i o n but the l owering of costs and the
increase o f profi t . ( I t could be claimed that F ord was a good
example o f the c o mb ination o f the active-practical and the
organisational types) .
C o l l e c tive examples - apart fro m the g eneral charac­
teris tics of modern c ivilisation - are o ffered by various
p e oples and nations, such as the Chinese in the past and the
French in modern times. If we s tudy the ancient Chinese
civilisation we n o t e its highly practical character (although
manifested in a way that might s e e m unusual to us and
would c ertainly not b e regarded as practical today! ) The
Chinese, o f all ancient p eo p l e s , had the greatest number of
inventions and pra c tical devices to their credit:- paper,
printing, and the compass, to name a few. They had the gift
o f a refined sense o f fo rm and their painting demo nstrated
a marvellous " artistic e c o no my" i n evoking e ntire land­
scapes with a few simple s trokes. S imilarly, their poe try
sugg e s ts in four or fiv e brief lines a sub tle state of mind
with exquisite shades of fee ling.
The French are the incarnation of the active- practical
typ e with their precise s e nse o f form and the exact struc­
ture of their languag e . Many French artists and p o e ts have
made a cult o f form, for example the " Parnassians" .

The A ctive - Practical Type 43
Another characteristic is their frugality and love of money.
(To be more exact, the French can be considered a com­
bination of the active- practical and the scientific types. )
A psychological analysis of the respective philosophies
of these cultures confirms our opinion. The philosophy of
Confucius, with its concrete and practical character and its
admirable worldly wisdom, belongs clearly to the active
type, and the same can be said of the positivistic tendency
of many modern French thinkers, from Auguste Compte
to Hyppolyte Taine.
The functions of the active-practical type can be con­
sidered as the following: to manifest, incarnate, produce, adapt
and invent. These functions can be performed in many
occupations, some of which have existed in all times as
they are the basic and necessary ones to sustain civilised
life; others are new and a specific product of our present
civilisation. These include the activities of manual workers
of all kinds, from the simple but fundamental occupation
of farmer to those of more skilled mechanics and crafts­
men; from the diligent activity of housewives to the sup­
reme skill of lace and tapestry makers. They include the
constructive activity of engineers, the work of merchants,
the aggressive persuasiveness of salesmen and the services
of social workers.

The psychosynthetic tasks encountered by the indi­
vidual of this type are:

1 Overcoming his innate limitations by the deliberate
cultivation of qualities of other types, particularly those
of the love and creative types; the recognition of the
intangible world, psychological qualities, and beauty;
the development of higher feelings and the art of con­
templation, which enables him to plumb the depths and
scale the heights of emotion, thought and the transper-

44 Psychosynthesis Typology
sonal life, rather than superficially rushing in all
This will help him to control and eliminate the
excesses of " busyness" . He must learn the value and art
- however difficult and unpleasant for him - of rest,
calm, relaxation and silence .
2 Unifying the practical and transpersonal aspects of his
nature. This can be done by raising his activity above its
normal material level, infusing it with new meaning and
higher value.
This objective can be expressed in various ways
according to the mental and emotional nature of each
one's personal experience. Let us refer to several exam­
ples of it so that we can recognise it under its various

Christians speak of " offering one's actions to God" or
" working for his greater glory" . The Indians have called it
" working without attachment to the personal fruits of
action" and " karma yoga" , that is, a transpersonal realisa­
tion and union with the Supreme Being, attained through
the detached and altruistic fulfilment of one's duty. A more
philosophic and objective way of expressing the same
reality is " to work for the greatest good of the greatest
number" and the term used most frequently today is " ser­
vice" . But this word should not be understood in the
shallow, vague sense in which it has come to be used. It
does not refer to any kind of socially useful activity
(although this is a step in the right direction for those who
cannot, or do not wish, to do more) but implies the " con­
secration" of the whole of the personal life, including the
physical functions.
Such a consecration or " sacralisation" requires a deter­
mined internal attitude. First of all, it presupposes spiritual
freedom, that is, liberation from all kinds of attachments,

The A ctive - Practical Type 45
including antagonism, blame, aversion and ill will, which
are forms of negative attachment that bind and imprison no
less than attachment in its positive form. The spiritually
awakened individual is inwardly supreme over all his
activity and is capable of choosing, directing and regulat­
ing it instead of being totally involved in it and governed by
it. Thus, consciously and willingly, he is grounded in a
higher meaning and value, dedicating it to transpersonal
purposes and harmonising it with the greater tide of world
evolution and with the good of all. This is not a vague
attitude of devotion but a very precise process, a trans­
mutation of one's own way of living and working that
brings revolutionary results. These results are evident
when applied to three vital areas of personal life: sex, food
and money.
The consecration of sex and the personal life has been
briefly described under the love type. It is based on the
recognition of the sacredness of this function which, over
generations, has perpetuated physcial life.
The consecration of food is based on the consciousness
of the same fact: that its true end is to develop and sustain
the physical instrument that is necessary to the Self for the
realisation of its purposes. It is also based on the recogni­
tion of the fact that food is principally derived from living
creatures, vegetable or animal, and that these "inferior"
kingdoms of nature belong to the same universe as ours
and when they are sacrificed to our needs we must conse­
quently treat them with respect and gratitude. 3
When we eat we must eliminate the attitudes of greedi­
ness, fussiness and thoughtless haste, replacing them with
gratitude and appreciation of the taste and the beauty of
the form through which nature's life is offered for our con­
sumption. This habit should particularly help to eliminate
the tendency to swallow without chewing which the active
type, with his haste and impatience, so easily adopts.

46 Psychosynthesis Typology
B esides, a fe eling o f j o y is a digestive tonic and a gre a t help
in the proper assimilation o f fo od.
F inally , turning to money, if we examine o urselves with
the courage o us ho n e s ty that is the essential c o ndition of a
true spiritual life , we notic e that the m ere thought o f i t
aro uses profound a n d intens e s ensatio ns in us, a tumult o f
obscure e m o ti o ns and passionate reactions that touch our
p erso nalities in some very s ensitive places.
I n shedding light o n all this chaos we should l e t all that
e merges out of the dep ths of the unc o nscious rise to the
surface and eliminate all " c e nsure" o f it. A turb ul e n t flo o d
may then app ear in which c urrents o f fear, desire , greed
and attachment and feelings o f guilt, e nvy and res e ntment
are intermingled.
The foundati o n o f the correc t individual use o f money is
in the re nunciation o f the idea o f p ossession itself as a per­
sona! right. L egal possession of property is something that
has its psychological or practical j us tifications, given the
average level o f moral development o f humanity. The
desire to po ssess is a primordial urge which we have to take
into account; we cannot kill i t or repress i t violently. But
fro m a higher p ersp ective, prop erty assumes a very dif­
ferent asp e c t and m eaning . I t is no longer a p ersonal right
but a responsibility.
From the spiritual p o i n t o f view, a p erso n can c o nsider
himself o nly as a s teward, administrator or " trustee" of

3 . These c o n siderati o ns can raise orieJ1tr1tio11 m i g h t be towards the
the q uest i o n whether the k i l l i ng o f g radual reduc t i o n of animal food,
a n i m als i s j us t i fied o r n o t . S uch a and slaug h ter i ng the a n i mals in such
p ro blem can n o t be adequate l y a way as to i n flict the least possible
treated i n a b rief and paren thetical pai n . What is m o re i m p o r tant,
man ner because it raises several however, is that the en t i re way of
i m p o r ta n t issues. O ne can o n l y say treating a n i m a l s sho uld become
that a to tal ren u nciation of animal m o re co nsiderate and hu mane so
food is very d i fficult to p ractise, that they can be co m p e nsated fo r
p a r t icularly in no r thern cl i mates. O n the i r sac ri fices to man kind by o u r
the o ther hand, the general k i nd and tho ugh tful a t ten t i o n .

The A ctive - Practical Type 47
material goods that in one way or another he might have
the right to possess. These goods are for him a true and
proper " test" to which he submits; a spiritual, moral and
social responsibility, arduous indeed to bear with dignity.
It is good to observe that while " sacralisation" of all his
various functions and his work is the waypar excellence of the
active-practical type, this should be practised by all the
types, as all of us function through a body and are active in
the external world. Thus the right way of developing the
various activities concerns each one of us.
Particular attention must be given to this fact by those
who lack the qualities of the active type and who conse­
quently need to develop them. For those who are
excessively introverted, this is a necessary form of training,
a way to complete their personalities. The "sacralisation"
of their activity will help them immensely to appreciate
practical work, to perform it gladly and willingly (some­
thing very difficult for this type of person), seeing it in a
new light, appreciating it in a new way through the
transpersonal meaning and value that begins to permeate
To obtain these results, of course, love and goodwill are
necessary. As Verlaine has put it:
" La vie humble, aux traveaux ennuyeux et faciles
Est une oeuvre de choix qui vaut beaucoup d'amour" .
It is worthwhile because a generous attitude of love and
understanding transfigures everyday life and transforms
the annoying and monotonous routine of small daily acts
into joyful radiance.
With the help of this consecration, which is essentially
within reach of us all, the entire character of our civilisa­
tion could be changed, and out of a " worldly" and
materialistic way of life it can evolve a sacred one, as hap­
pened in several ancient civilisations at their peak. This can
now happen on a higher turn of the spiral and with a much

48 Psychosynthesis Typology
g r e a t e r range o f application b ecause it can include all th e
technical p rogress which is the p rincipal charac t e ristic o f
o u r age.
While this way o f living is within reach of all, as we have
said, there will still be a fu ndamental diffe r e nc e in this re­
s p e c t b e tween the various typ es, fo r their motives fo r
a c t i o n are always diffe r e n t . I n o th e rs, the stimulus to b e
active, t o wo rk, and t o find exp ression i n the e x t ernal
world is not primary and s p o ntaneo u s ; this stimulus is
possessed by o r, even b e t t e r , it possesses the ac tive- p ractical
typ e . So, fo r the will typ e , the impelling stimulus to act is
amb i ti o n ; fo r the love typ e , it is love fo r his family, p ro­
pe rty or c o untry; fo r the idealistic typ e it is devotion to
some ideal e t c . This fac t should be well understood in
order to k now o thers truly and to avoid the error o f seeing
all those who work ac tively and c easelessly as belo nging
only to the active typ e . What c o nstitutes the fundame ntal
basis o f this qualitative classification is the power of deep
mot/vatiom that indicate the esse n tial nature o r " keynote"
of the individual and not the e x te rnal manifestatio ns o f
these mo tives, which c a n b e d e t e rmined a n d conditioned
by v e ry dive rse fac t o rs. The same type of ac tivity can b e
ind u c e d b y many mo tives, while the same motive can
create c o mpl e tely diffe r e nt channels fo r its expression.

The A ctive - Practical Type 49
The Creative ·Artistic Type
The creative- artistic type is more difficult than others to
describe and recognise as it is less clearly defined and has
many aspects that seem contradictory. Yet it is a true and
proper type that has its own characteristic psychological
To avoid misunderstandings, we should explain im­
mediately that the word "artistic" does not mean that all
artists, and only artists, belong to this type. Many people
are creative in various modes and possess some traits of the
artistic type without being in any way "artistic" , while
there are artists who can belong to other psychological
types in certain respects. This is because of the important
fact that mixed types can and do exist. One person can
possess essentially, in the depth of his being, the quality of
a certain type while his external personality can demonst­
rate the traits of another type.
The characteristic of the creative- artistic type is harmony.
When harmony is achieved, the result is the manifestation
of beauty . But in the human world harmony is not pre­
existent; it is the result of a hard and often protracted and
painful conflict; it is the goal reached through intense
effort to shape, refine, blend and fuse many elements pre­
viously unconnected or in conflict with each other; it is the
deep and complex task of creating order out of chaos.
Therefore, while the essential nature of this type when it is
fully realised is harmony, peace, union and beauty, it is
more commonly and obviously seen in the form of unsatis­
fied ambitions, internal and external conflicts, struggles
with intractable material and rebellious forces, and oscilla­
tions between polarities.
The last phrase displays the great problem of polarity,
the mystery of duality and unity, which can be regarded as
the central mystery of all life in the universe. I cannot ade­
quately deal with this very important subject here so I will
indicate only certain points that have a direct relationship

The Creative - A rtistic Type 51
to the topic under review.

The problem we face when there are two opposing for­
ces, qualities or beings can be resolved in three chief

1 Control by a third element, either central or superior,
resulting in equlibrium and in following the "noble mid­
dle path".
2 Synthesis through an intimate fusion of two opposite
elements. The simplest example of this is the electric
spark in which two charges of static electricity, one posi­
tive and one negative, join and lose themselves. Other
examples are certain chemical combinations such as
those of acids and alkalines that produce salts; and the
fusion of two sexual cells in conception.
3 The creation of a third quality or entity through the
reciprocal action and union (often temporary and par­
tial) of the opposing elements. An example of this is the
temporary union of a male and female body (as distinct
from the fusion of sexual cells) from which comes the
conception and birth of a new organism.

All forms of human creation are the result of this last
process. For example, a work of art or a machine is the pro­
duct of the reciprocal action between an idea, image or
model and some sort of material or substance that is
fashioned according to the pattern of this model.
The problem of opposites concerns us all; but for the
type we are now considering the problem is a fundamental
issue that constitutes the central theme of his life and his
principal function, as will be seen in the analysis that
A t the physical level, the individuals of the creative­
artistic type demonstrate a fine appreciation of beauty and

52 Psychosynthesis Typology
an excellent s e nse o f c o l o u r and, in c o nsequenc e , much
good tas t e . Their love fo r physical b ea u ty and the ir desire
to create t e nds to intensify their sexual desires and
impulses. The manifesta tions of these impulses are generally
refined; the expressio n of instinct is c o mbined with a fas­
cination with b ea u ty and aesthetic qualities. This typ e
tends to make a refined a r t o f s exual love, and so o f all
o th e r life p r o c esses.
The e m o tio nal life o f this typ e is v e ry ac tive and o ft e n
leads to a l a c k of equilib r i u m . These individuals are v e ry
changeab l e ; they oft e n swing b e tween extremes of op ti­
mism and p essimism, times of v i tality and uncontrolled
happ iness alte rnating with o thers o f discouragement and
despair. These flu c t uations b e co me exagg e rated in their
imaginati o n , which is particularly vivid, and c olours, dis­
torts and transfo rms reality, sometimes even to such an
e x t e n t that the i r fantasy obli terates reality comple tely4•
In this r e s p e c t they can be c o nsidered as illtroverted a t the
emo tional level. It is also true, however, that they are
extremely sensitive to i m p r essions fro m the exte rnal
world and to the influence o f o th e r p e o p l e . They are very
much influenced b y the environment in which they live
and are easily disturb ed b y dis c o rd, ugliness and vulgarity.
They are caught up i n the " delicadeza" that is a charac t eris­
tic trait o f the S ou t h A me ricans, partic ularly the B razil­
The artistic types are o ften s e nsitive to sub tle psychic
impressions; they are sub j e c t to telepathic p he nomena,
p re c ogni tio n e tc . This s e nsi tivity b elo ngs not o nly to the
creative- artistic typ e . The love type , with its marked rec ep­
tivity, o ft e n p ossesses it and the same holds fo r the more
mystical p eo p l e o f the devo tional type. But those who

4. C f H. Keyserl i ng, So11th A mericr111 ( B o l l ingen Fo undation, New
/ Vhlitr1tio11 1 , C h . VIII York, 1 9 5 9 )

The Creative - A rtistic Type 53
belong to the will, practical, scientific and organisational
types, who are more positive and objective, generally lack
this sensitivity. From this point of view the artistic types
seem to be passive extroverts. The contradiction is only
apparent for the two characteristics are the result of dif­
ferent causes which do not exclude each other at all; an
active imagination can coexist very well with an acute sen­
sitivity. This example clearly demonstrates how we must
avoid the use of fixed rules or rigid, simplistic classifica­
tions in the psychological field.
At the mental level also we find the apparent contradic­
tion described at the beginning of this chapter. The chief
mental tendency is to harmonise, include, unify and per­
fect, but the contrast between the beauty of the ideal and
the prevailing conditions that prevent its realisation in the
world easily rouses their instinct to combat the stupidity
and blindness of those responsible for this inadequacy.
In the more developed representatives of the creative
type the intuition is very active and is used principally to
gain an understanding of the true meaning that underlies
outward appearances and events. The creative type adopts
consciously or unconsciously as his motto the profoundly
intuitive affirmation of Goethe that "all that is transitory is
but a symbol", and is always searching for the meaning hid­
den in everything he perceives.
The personality of this type is many-sided, varied and
volatile and therefore often inscrutable and elusive. No
static picture or snapshot can capture him; we need an
entire film to catch the images of his variable characteris­
tics in their quick succession.
One of the most conspicuous variations of this type is
the alternation of periods of passivity and inertia with
times of feverish activity. This appears to be the result of a
lack of discipline and self-control in many cases. But there
is often a partial justification for this apparent disorder and

54 Psychosynthests Typology
lack o f o rganisation, particularly in the case of creative art­
ists, thinkers and inventors. D uring the p e riod o f o u tward
passivity an ac tive internal p r ep a ra t i o n can be seen wo rk­
ing, a t r u e unc o ns c i o us g e s tatio n, fo l l owed in t i m e by a
t o r r e n t o f inspiration when the interior c reation comes to
light; the p o e m or essay is written, the s o ng composed, the
new invention devised. In such cases the individual has
consciously fo l l o wed an inte rnal rhy thm, a hidden dis­
c i p l i n e , and has b e e n c o ns trained to obey it.
C reato rs of this type can be c o nsidered as ins tru ments of
their unconscious o r s u p e rc o ns c i o us psycho l og ical activi­
ty , to which they are almost c o mp le t e ly s u b j e c t , b e i ng una­
b l e to e x e rcise any real c o n t r o l over it. This raises a much
disp u t ed ques tio n, whether such c o n t r o l can b e attempted
and achieved o r not. Many artis ts have desired to o b tain it
and some have s u c c e e d e d , demonstrating that it is poss­
ib l e . I w i l l p o i n t o u t o n e , M a u r i c e Mae terl inck. H is writ­
ings , p articularly the admirab l e La Sagesse et fa Dest/n ee , were
the fru i t o f l o ng and d e e p refl e c t i o n and of an awakened
intuition that e x p ressed its e l f in a p re c i s e artistic s ty l e , rich
with l u m i no us analogies and synthetic c larity. Neve r the­
l e s s , Maeterli nck had the hab i t o f writing his b o oks in p e r­
fe c t ly regulated rhythm, b eginning e v e ry mo rning at the
same time, ending aft e r two ho urs of easy and p r o l ific c o m­
p o s i tion and aft e r fi nishing he dedicated the remainder of
the day to his garde n , his b e es, his bicycling and other
In addition, e x te rnal p ressures can i n many cases p ro­
vide a strong e n ough s t i m u l us to awaken do rmant o r idle
creativity, forcing inspiration and " b irth" . An amusing
e xamp l e c a n b e s e e n in Rossini. This c o mposer was rather
lazy and loved good fo od so much that in the latter p art o f
h i s l i fe he w a s more vain a b o u t h i s ab i l i ty a s a c o o k than
ab o u t his musical genius. O n c e , he had pro mised to c o m­
p o s e the music o f an o p e ra fo r a c e rtain dead l i n e . The

The Creative - A rtistic Type SS
imp resario therefo re made all the p reparations fo r its p ro­
duction, including the anno uncement to the public. B u t
the date neared and Rossini had given h i m o nly a part o f the
music and was unresp o nsive to his u rgent pl eas. Then h e
reso rted t o drastic m e asu res; h e shut Rossini up i n his
room and did not l e t him have his meals until he had han­
ded over a given numb e r o f pag e s . Rossini fumed and p ro­
tested, b u t ended by surrende ring and in s u c h a state o f
mind quickly composed s o m e o f h i s most b rilliant a n d
h u m o r o u s arias, throwing the manuscript pages down
from the window as soon as they were c o mp l e ted. B eneath,
three men copied t h e m fu riously s o that they could b e
reh earsed b y the waiti ng o rches tra.
The p ro b l e m o f discipline or s p o ntaneity in creativ e
activity i s c e r tainly a very difficult one a n d c a n n o t b e ade­
quately dealt with h e r e . I shall therefo r e c o nfine myself to
affirming that it seems right to expect that each p e rs o n , as
his psychosy nthesis p ro c e e d s , will b ec o me more and m o r e
ab l e to regulate a n d c o nt r o l h i s c reative p ow e rs a n d that,
thanks to a b e tt e r knowledge of psycho- s p i ritual laws and
techniques, and a d e e p e r u n d e rs tanding o f the inne r cycles
o f e n e rgy, he will acquire a greater capaci ty to l iv e
rhythmically rather than chaotically and to e x p r e s s himself
in a steady flow o f c r e ativity.
The a l t e r nations b e tw e e n ac tivity and passivity ab o u t
which we have s p o k e n are found to s o m e e x t e n t among t h e
o t h e r types s i n c e they are a g e n e ral charac t e r is tic o f h uman
as well as u nive rsal life .
The p e rs o nality o f t h e c r e ative-artistic typ e i s u s ually
imaginativ e , dreamy and imp ractical; h e tends t o evade the
harsh reality of fac ts and fab ricates a fantasy wo rld fo r h im­
s e l f in which to live. O ften these p e o p l e a r e e x t ravagant
with no sense o f the value o f m o ne y or possessions; they
tend to b e capricious and tho ughtless. When c i r c u ms tan­
ces stir them to action, they wake up for a while, fo rmulate

56 Psychosynthesis Typology
s i n ce r e g o o d intentio ns and b egin to work towards them.
But their resolution quickly wanes and all too s o o n they
fle e o n c e more into their dream-wo rld.
Men with t h e so- called " artistic" t e mp erament c on­
stitute a p r o b l e m and are a cause of indignation fo r c ertain
p ractical and well- balanced women who - through one o f
t h e fre q u e n t ironies o f life - h a v e tied their o w n destinies t o
o n e o f t h e m , ignorant o f w h a t t h e y are up against . F r o m a n
o b j e ctive a n d reas o nab le p o i n t o f view these w o m e n c e r­
tainly are right, espe cially when these " artistic" p eople
fo r g e t to pay the b ills and n e v e r have e nough cash when
they n e e d it. These p ractical w o m e n , however, often do
n o t s u c c e e d in appreciating the qualities o f refinement,
v e rsatility , g e ne rosity and idealism that these " artistic"
t e m p e ra m e nts o ft e n p ossess; and in particular they do not
p e r c eive that these p e o p l e are also p robl ems to them­
selves. U nd e r t h e s u r fa c e o f an apparent irresponsibility
they are torn by s e rious c onflicts and real suffe ring.
Natu rally, i t is very diffi c u l t to treat them fai rly for they
need to be faced with a s ensible c o mb ination o f fi rmness,
unde rstanding and sympathy. I n a c e r tain sense, the situa­
tion is the revers e of that of the b usinessman and his sensi­
tive and emoti onal s p o u s e . In this case, the " artistic"
temperament d e mo ns trates " fe minine" psychological
chara c t e ristics while the p ractical demonstrates " mas­
culine" qualities and limitations.
The trans p e rso nal qualities o f the c reative type are:
intuition, deep human u nderstanding, so lidarity, an acute
p e rc e p t i o n o f c o ntras ts that produces a subtle sense o f
h u m o u r , a n d a " divine discontent" t h a t e v e r drives h im t o
grow, evolve a n d p e rfe c t himself a n d c r e a t e fo rms o f e v e r
g r e a t e r b ea u ty and refineme n t . His m o t t o c o uld b e " search
unceasingly" . When he is awakened spiritually, an indi··
vidual of this type has the great gifts of illu mination and
true spi ritual inspiration. H e s u c ce eds in p e rc eiving the

The Creative - A rtistic Type 57
unity unde rlying the mul tiplicity o f forms and in revealing
the d e e p e r meaning o f all o u tward appearances and sym­
bols: o f all fragments o f the great cosmic manifestation.
Examples of the creative-artistic typ e are easily b rought
to mind: S hakespear e , who with the magic touch of his
creative g enius transformed all the p e o p l e and situatio ns
tha t he fo und in histo ry or fab l e , p e r m eating them. with
new, delightful vitality and giving them intense dramatic
expression; L e o nardo da Vinci, with his e xtrao rdinary
ab ility to fuse subtle and mysterious meanings in the p o r­
traits and landscapes he painted; and many other individuals
of less e r cali b r e fou nd in the same fields.
Pe rhaps the most complete and exact p i c ture o f the
artistic typ e in his subtlest and most delicate characteris­
tics is c o n tained in the Journal Intime of F rede ric A m i e l,
while s o m e o f its ext r em e qualities a r e depicted in Marius
the Epicurean b y Wal t e r Pater.
A m o ng the cultu ral p e riods that b es t expressed the
charac t e r istics o f this typ e , two are the most i m p o r tant:
the G olden Age o f A n c i e n t G re e c e and the I talian
Renaissan c e . A n o th e r p e riod, l ess impo rtant but p e rhaps
more interesting psychologically b ecause more varied in
expression, was the " S turm und D rang" o f G e rman
Ro manticism.

58 Psychosynthesis Typology
The Scientific Type
There is a something about the scientific type that dis­
tinguishes it from all the others. This quality is such that,
when it is genuinely and wholly expressed, it is seen to be
essentially modern and definitely a product of Western
civilisation since the Renaissance.
This does not mean that Europe created this type and
that no one belonged to it before that time or in any other
place; but. in ancient times and in other civilisations, the
sharp distinctions and divisions of the various branches of
knowledge did not exist. The ancients pursued the search
for truth with a no less passionate interest than we do, but
they did it with their whole being, combining the use of all
their faculties: intuition and intelligence, devotion and
imagination. There were no lines of demarcation - not to
speak of conflicts - that divided religion, philosophy,
science and art from one another. In our modern culture,
initiated in the 1 5 th century, these four human fields of
interest ceased to be associated with each other, develop­
ing more and more into separate branches of knowledge,
and, when they happened to confront one another, great
conflicts emerged. A particular antagonism developed be­
tween religion and science. It is enough for us to remember
the Church's condemnation of Galileo because he dared to
assert that the earth moved in space and the recent con­
troversies that raged up to a few decades ago about the
teaching of the theory of Evolution in schools.
This development produced a well-delineated and one­
pointed psychological type: the man whose ideal and
whose chief task is the disinterested search for concrete
and objective knowledge. This man does not worry himself
with metaphysics, the ultimate nature of being, or the
meaning of existence. He is not interested in moral,
aesthetic or any other type of values. He is only interested in
the appearance of things, in the way these are perceived by
our five senses, directly or through our instruments of

60 Psychosynthesis Typology
o b se rvati o n , in their interactions and changes and in the
laws that govern them . If we b ear this in mind it will be easy
to define the particula r c haracte ristics that the scientific
typ e p resents in his various aspe c t s .
H e i s a s fully a l e r t to a n d a c u tely interested in t h e exter­
nal wo rld as the active- pra c tical type b u t the mo tivations
that aro use each o n e ' s interest are completely different.
The mo tivation o f the active type is to make g o o d use o f
things, while t h e s c i e ntific type is interested in pheno mena
per se, in k nowing the structure and function o f the cosmic
m e c hanism b o th in its b road sweep and in its tiny
I n his e mo tions, the scie ntific typ e seems to be cold,
insensitive and even inhuman and cruel. O ften he shows a
c u rious inability to feel and exp ress h u man sentiment o r
tenderness, a n d in having s u c h a lack o f eleme ntary sen­
sitivity he exhibits the indifference and co ldness o f the
vivis e c t o r . H owever, if we study him m o re carefully, we
find that in many cases this is due to the fac t that all his
capacity fo r fe eli ng and devo tion, all his love - and it can b e
great - are directed towards impersonal obj ects. H e passion­
ately loves the truth; h e desires k nowledge above all and is
strenuously attached to ideas and theories. B ecause o f this,
he reverses the p r o c esses that exist in most ·me n and
women. In these, the mind is coloured o r distorted by
emo tional reactions and p erso nal feelings, while in the
scie ntific typ e the e mo ti o ns and feelings are imper­
so nalised and directed towards p urely intellec tual e nds.
The me ntal realm is obviously the natural environment
o f the scientific typ e . H is tireless mind is always on the
alert, investigating, posing ques tions, so lving p rob lems,
searching, p robing, experimenting, proving and discover­
ing. H e has a great cap acity for pro l o nged attention and
mental concentration, tireless perseverance in his research,
meticul o us a c c u racy, and an admirab le ability to sift data,

The Scientific Type 61
discover laws and conc eive theories fo r classifying facts
into coherent systems.
G e n e rally, the scientific type is not intuitive o r e l s e his
intuition is suffocated in the excessive ac tivity o f the mind;
b u t in a few o f the most g i fted r e p r e s e n ta tives o f s c i e n­
c e , the intuition is alive and active, revealing the great laws
o f na t u r e , the fundan1 e ntal p rinciples o f thought and th e
univ e rsal ideas that u nd e rl i e the mate rial wo rld.
The defe c ts o f this typ e , expressed in a p e rs o nality
do minated b y the c o n c r e t e mind, are a materialistic
o u tlook and an analytical approach that together lead him
into the illu sion and absurd p r e s umption that he has the
power to know the living o rganism b y dissec ting a d ead
b o dy. In addition, we often find d e s t ru c tive c ri ticism, men­
tal p ride , ar rogance , an exaggerated and p edantic c o nc e n­
tration o n d e tails and a marked lack o f psychological
understanding in him that can s e e m i nc redible in an
intelligent human b e ing.
When he is a spiri tually awak ened p e rs o n -when the
light of the Self ill un1inates the s c i e ntifi c mind -the p i c t u r e
i s c o mple tely diffe r e n t . T h e n the p re- e mine nt qualities are
a true humility b o r n o f an unders tanding o f the mys t e ry of
life , an unders tanding that g rows in s t e p with the advances
in human knowledg e ; an a b s o l u t e h o n e s ty and a m e n tal
o p e n ness that mak e s him ready to his e rr o r s , to give
up a t h e o ry when a fac t invalidates it; an almost s u p e rhu­
man ob j e c tivity and i m p a r tiality; a noble disinteres t ed­
ness, and an inte rnal and e x t e rnal inde p e nd e n c e that leads
him to d e tach himself fro m idols, par tisanship, and e x t e r­
nal autho rity. H e is c o u rage o u s , d e tached and almost
ascetic and knows how to sacrifice himse lf. He can dedicate
his life , as the Curies did, to the disco v e ry and p ro d u c t i o n
o f a n e w a n d p re c i o u s che mical e l e m e n t , sub mitting to all
so rts o f physical dis c o mfo r t and fatigue in the fac e o f sce p­
ticism and g e n e ral h o s tility fro m the world. While the

62 Psychosynthesis Typology
maj o ri ty a r e engaged i n the feverish search fo r worldly suc­
cess and riches, an a s t r o n o m e r can dedicate his l i fe to
measuring the distances and the charac teristics of the stars
in space.
I t is not nec essary to give individual examples of the
s c i e n t ific typ e b e cause a l l true s c i e nt i s ts b el o ng to i t by
d e fi n i ti o n . H ow e v e r , we should r e m e mb e r that many
p e o p l e who do not have s c i e n t i fi c c a r e e rs can s t i l l b e lo ng
to it fr om a psychological p o i n t of view. M o re o v e r , i t is
easy to fi nd the s c i e n t i fic typ e not only in its p u r e state b u t
i n c o mb ination with o t h e r characte r is tics a l s o . I w i l l refe r
t o o nly o n e great man who was no t a s c i entist b u t who
d e mo nstrated some of the c ha ra c t e ristics of the s c i e ntific
typ e in its highest degree and finest asp e c t s : I mmanu el
Kant. In his two principal b o o k s , the Critiq/{e of P/{re Ret7So11
and the Critiq/{e of Practical R et7SO!l , we are given an inte rest­
ing demons trati on of how the d is c r i minating power o f the
mind can turn inward u p o n i tself to indicate c l early i ts own
fie l d of action and to o u tl i n e i ts exact limits as a separate
and independent o rgan of knowledg e . In this resp e c t Kant
e ffec ted a useful c l a r i fica t i o n . A nd yet the mind does not
need to fu nction in s u c h a separate and indep endent way ;
a s we have shown, i ts fu nction can rather b e to i n t e r p r e t
and then co mmunicate knowl edge d i r e c tly · a cquired
through the intuition.
A n o t h e r philosopher who b e l o ngs to this typ e , a l though
ar riving at quite diffe r e n t c o nclusions from Kant, was Des­
ca r t e s . H is insistence u p o n c l e a r distinctions, definitions
and methodical i nves tigation of truth demonst rates the
true charac ter o f the F r ench mind. The F rench culture is
also an expression of the type under consideration and par­
t i cul a rly the F r ench language with i ts logical and rathe r
rigid s t ru c t u r e and i ts capacity fo r clear, p r e c i s e , almost
c rystalline e x p r ession. This quality means that the lan­
guage is p e rfe c t l y adapted to communica ting the dis-

The Scientific Type 63
cove ries and results o f scienti fic research with ease and
accu racy.
The o c c upations suitab l e to this type can be divided into
two classes: those directed to the c onquest o f new
knowledge, and those whose o b j e c t is to c o nvey and dis­
trib u t e e xisting knowledg e . To the first b el o ng the true
scie ntists and s o m e types o f philosop h e rs; to the se co nd ,
th e p ro fessors o f s ci ence and philosophy and many
teac h e rs in the strict sense o f the w o rd , as opposed to
educators whose aim is to b uild charac t e r .
The essential function o f the scientific typ e is firstly to
describ e p h e n o me na obj ectively as they are p e r c e iv e d
direc tly t h r o u g h o u r five s e ns e s , and indi r e c t ly through
ins truments; to record their transfo rmatio ns through
o b s e rvatio n and experiment and the l aws that govern
them; and finally to find o u t and show how man can use this
knowledge fo r the mas t e ry o f all these pheno mena fo r the
maxi m u m good o r fo r utilising all fo rces and e n e rgies i n
t h e universe to the maxi m u m . W e must a l s o n o t e that
when we sp eak of s ci ence o u r minds g o spontaneously to
the natural sciences - physics, c h e mistry, o r mathematics.
But there a r e other sciences such as philo logy i n which the
sp i r i t o f inquiry and the fa c u l ty o f analysis and c lassifica­
tion have as wide a field o f action.
I t is interesting to n o t e that, in o rd e r to o b tain scie ntific
knowledge, the mind must p e rfo r m two diffe r e nt and e v e n
oppos i ng functions; first o f all, i t must analyse and
the re fo r e distinguish and discriminate b e tw e e n the various
impressions o f the exte rnal w o r l d , divide o b j e c ts into their
c o nstituent parts and aim to arrive at their smallest and
simplest e l e m e nts. T h e most obvious examples o f this p ro­
cess are chemical analysis and anatomy. The latter takes
into c o ns id e ration an e x t e m e ly c o mplicated o rganism and
diss e c ts it, first separating its p rincipal o rgans, the n
separating the various tiss u e s and p arts that c o nstitute

64 Psychosynthesis Typology
each o rgan and finally s t u dying the single cell o f which
each tissue is c o m p o sed, t h r o ugh a microscope.
I n the s e c o nd place, the mind must fu lfil a c o o rdinating
and synthetic function, reassembling impressions and facts
o n c e more into a c o h e r e n t who le. The fi rst and simplest o f
t h e s e synthe tic fun c t i o ns is a c c o mplished u nc o nscio usly i n
e v e ry m o m e n t o f life . F r o m the o b s e rvations o f a c ertain
numb e r o f dogs, fo r e xample, we abstract all the charac­
teris tics that these have i n c o mmon in order to arrive at the
general c o n c e p t of " dog" . B y means o f a similar process
e x t e nded to o th e r animals we fo r m the even more gene ral
c o n c e p ts of " quadru p e d " , " mam mal" and " animal" .
S i milarly, fro m the o b s e rvation o f a s u c c ession of facts,
c o n c e p ts and laws , the s c i e ntific mind c o nstructs theories
that aim to clarify o r, a t l east, p u t into relatio nship large
groups o f pheno mena and events and more and more
e x t e nsive aspects of reality , until it fi nally reaches a global
synthesis. The scie ntific mind gene rally stops there, think­
ing i t has reached the u l t i mate level. But there is a step
fur t h e r that the mind, o r p e rhaps the mind in c o o p e ration
with the intuition, can g o . This is the p rocess o f moving
fro m s u b s idiary laws to the higher laws of I n telligence of
the Universal Mind; fro m the facts o f c reation to the c rea­
tive p rinciples fro m which they o rigina t e ; o r , to use the
orie ntal exp ressio n , fro m the " field of consio usness" and
fro m k nowledge to the thinker himself; in a word, fro m
matter to spirit.
W e have, o n a diffe re n t level, a strict analogy to the
Platonic scale o f b eauty whose s t e p s the c reative-artistic
typ e ascends fro m the b eauty o f material o b j e c ts to the
principles and o rigins o f harmony and b eauty itself. In the
case o f science, the s tairway scales the h e ig h ts o f know­
ledge and truth, p r o c e eding fro m the c o n c r e t e appearance
of p h e no me na through the various degrees o f c o ncepts
and ideas to laws and p rinciples and, finally, to the truth o f

The Scientific Type 65
reality itself.
The o ccupations b y means o f which the scientific type
can ful fil his essential fun c ti o ns are those o f the scientist
and philosopher. The passionate way in which these
people fac e the mystery that surrounds them, their tireless
and ingenious efforts to resolve o n e e nigma aft e r another,
c o nstitute one o f the most fascinating asp e c ts o f h u man
history. In s o me cases the c o mb ined interest o f an adven­
ture and a p r o b l e m to b e s o lved make this a fascinating
dete c tive story. It is an analogy that has b e e n illustrated
well in P r o fessor A S E ddington' s b o o k Stars and Atoms. In
recounting the histo ry o f the variable star Algol, Eddington
says that it is really a detec tive s t o ry that could be entitled
" The M issing W o rd and the M is leading Clue" , and the his­
to ry of the c o mpanio n s tar, S irius, could be e n titled " Th e
M eaningless M essage" .
N o t all those who b el ong to the s c i entific typ e , h o wever ,
have t h e ability , oppo rtunity o r desire to b e co m e true
scientists and philosophe rs . Nevertheless, they have a
more humble b u t valuab le and n e cessary o ccupatio n avail­
ab le fo r their skills : that o f sp reading existing knowledge
through teaching in various kinds o f schools, fro m the
ele mentary to the university , and also through its dis­
s e mination in the writing , fr o m the m o r e p opular articles
in j o urnals to b ib liographic research and c o mp rehensive
text- b o o k s . O th e r o c c upations that o ffer a b ro ad field o f
activity fo r this type a r e the technical and p ractical applica­
tio ns o f the sciences. B ecause o f this, many d o c to rs, sur­
g e o ns, engineers and inventors b el o ng to this type .
The first a n d most dir e c t psychosynthetic task o f t h e
scientific typ e is that o f c o n t r o l l ing a n d subli mating his
desire fo r k nowledge. Such a powerful desire, whic h o ft e n
gets lost in a sea o f infinite and u ni mp o r tant details o r
degene rates i n t o i d l e o r harmfu l c u ri o s i ty , can b e applied
to the ful filment o f the imp o r tant fun c tio n o f revealing. As

66 Psychosynthesis Typology
with every tendency, i t is a matter of raising the level o f
expression and poss essing t h e n e c essary c o n c e ntration,
p e rsistence and spiritual dedication.
Then t h e r e is the task o f c r e a ti ng a fru itful relationship
b e tw e e n this t e ndency and the o th e r h u man qualities. The
most impo rtant o f these relationships is that b e tween the
intellect and love , b e tw e e n the two p rinciples called Logos
and E ros by the G re e ks . A p u re ly o b j e ctive c onsciousness
tends to b e cold, sterile and inhuman and, what is even wor­
s e , le nds itself to b eing applied, either i ndividually o r
c o ll e c tively, to ego tistical and destructive ends. The
ap pallingly cruel weap o ns devised and widely used in the
recent wars are the dreadful result o f applied knowledge
u n t e m p ered b y l o v e , c o mpassio n and go odwill. On th e
o t h e r hand, i n describ i ng the love typ e we have seen the
unfo r t u nate c onsequences o f b lind love without intel­
ligence. The m utual c o n t r o l and b alance of intellect and
love and their right c o o p e ra t i o n are therefo r e esse ntial for
b o t h a harmonious individual l i fe and for right action in
relation t o others. The same h olds true for the life of the
group, s u c h as a co mmunity or natio n, b o th inside their
own b o u ndaries and in relation to o t h e r g roups. The scien­
tific type needs to i n t egrate with the qualities that are
develo p ed in the love and c reative types. The ·sc i e ntifi c
mind, p re o c cu p ied w i t h quantitative m e asures and obj ec­
tive relationships, must cultivate the appreciation o f sub­
j e c tive qualities, the unde r s tanding o f man' s · internal
exp e riences, and the c ommand o f the intuition and syn­
thesis. O nly this c o mb ination p ro vides a complete and
inclusive k nowledge and can e nable us to come to an iden­
tification with the t r u th that makes us free.

The Scientific Type 67
The Devotional· Idea(istic Type
The specitic psychological quality o t the idealistic typ e and
the p r i nc ipal s o u r c e o f i ts various and s o me ti mes apparen­
tly con t radictory charac teristics, is devotion to an zdea!. I n
o r d e r to s tudy this typ e b e t t e r , w e can study i ts two asp e c ts
separately - that is, the ideal i tself and the devotion inspired
b y it.
The ideal is o ften c o n c r e t e , rep resented by a " p er­
so nality" that is o r seems to be ( s ub j e c tively, these are the
same) endowed with great and admirable qualities. A n
" ideal" p e rs o nality c a n b e o f all k i nds and calib res. A t the
highest level we find the quintessential ideal incarnated i n
C h r i s t a n d B uddha; a l i t tle lowe r , t h e r e are geniuses and
h e r o e s , ab o u t whom Carlyle has written so eloquently;
then, descending to successive levels, athletes, movie stars
and even " g reat" c r i minals.
The o th e r class o f ideals is impersonal. Its essence is an
idea, great or small, t r u e o r false , that the i magination and
emo t i o ns o f i ts admir e rs have developed into a living,
dynamic ideal that must be realis ed at all c o s ts. It can be a
religious ideal, such as c o m mu ning with G o d o r converting
the " savages" ; it can be one of the many p o litical
ideologies for which men fight and s truggle so violently;
and i t can also be an intellectual ideal, such as a philosophi­
cal or theo logical c o n c e p t .
All t h e s e ideals, b o t h p e rs o nal and impe rsonal ( o r the
c o mb ination o f b o th, as fo r example when a p erso n
b ecomes the symb o l of a cause o r ideology) , evoke in some
way a particular inte rnal r e s p o nse and exert a spec ific fas­
cination, p roducing a devotional attitude. S uch devo tion is
oft e n called love, b ut in reality i t has a tone and a quality
decidedly diffe r e n t fro m that o f love, a fact that justi fies
and even requires the u s e o f diffe r e n t t e r ms to desc rib e it.
D e v o t i o n can be considered as a fo rm o f love, but it has a
specific dynamic and aggressive quality. I t imp lies a
" reach ing o u t" towards an aspiration. I t presupposes a

The Devotional Idealistic Type 69
fe el ing o f admiration that can turn i n to veneration. B u t
devotion, apart fro m i t s striving towards t h e h e ights, o ften
pre s e n ts at the same time an opposite movement o f de­
scent - that is, the impulse to materialise the ideal. I f this
ideal is a p e rson, devotion to him takes the form o f a c o m­
pulsive nec essity to transfo rm o neself into his i mage , to
b ec o m e an exponent, v o i c e or replica o f this ideal i n the
world. In the M iddle Ages, fo r instanc e, many spiritually­
inclined p e op l e were humbly and c o u rageo usly dedicated
to " th e imitation o f Christ. "
W h e n the idealistic type is dedicated t o a theory o r co n­
c e p t , he thinks it his duty to p ersuade o th e rs to adopt it.
The same tendency to e x p r ess and realise the ideal is found
in the devotees of all k inds o f schemes, cults, " isms" and
ideologies. This trait produces well-defined c haracteristics
in its e x p o nents that vary acco rd i ng to the diffe r e n t levels
o f their b eing. The devotional typ e o ft e n has a severe and
asc e tic attitude to his b ody that, in many mystical devot e e s
a n d religious p eo p l e , is transfo r m e d into a hatred o f it a s an
o b s tacle and an enemy to their s p i ri tual ambitions. C o ns e­
que ntly, they discipline and mo rtify i t in the most drastic
manner, a t times to the e x t e n t of c o m p l e t e i m molation.
O th e r kinds o f devotees who i n t h e o ry do n o t condemn the
b ody, also do n o t h esitate to impose g reat p rivati o ns upon
themselves whenever they see fit fo r the realisation o f their
b eloved ideals.
As we can easily imag i n e , the devotio nal type is i n t e nsely
e m o ti o nal. H is fe elings are o ft e n passionate and e xtrava­
gant. H e loves a p e rs o n or an i deal up to the p o i nt o f
v e n eration a n d o p p os e s , and o ft e n hates, w i t h equal for c e
whateve r is s e t against it. In this way he t e nds to
e xaggerate o r , as the F re n c h say, be "plus royaliste que le
roi. " H is hate and hostility may n o t e v e n b e shared b y the
p e rso n whose cause h e has e mb raced, who p ro b ab ly has a
more balanced and serene attitude. The devotee' s excessive

70 Psychosynthesis Typology
zeal can b e harmful to this p e rs o n , who may find himself i n
some difficulty , trying to k e e p his well- intentioned b u t
impe tuous follower within fi rm limits.
When the fe elings o f the devotio n al type are directed
towards a high e r and imp e r s o nal ideal, they usually take
the fo r m o f a b u rning idealism and mystical love that wafts
him towards union with the ideal.
I n the mental field, this type tends to exhibit more
limitations than good qualities b e cause his intelligence is
very o ften dominated and activated b y his strong passions;
he the refo r e easily b e comes narrow- minded, intolerant
and c ritical. H is views are uncompro mis ing and rigid, and
whenever he adopts an opinion o r theory, i t is very difficult
to change his mind. In s p i t e o f this, when h e does change
his op inions and attitudes, he j umps to the opposite
extreme. When his idol fails to match up to his excessive
e x p e c tations or when his favourite theory is harshly
rep udiated, he changes his vi ews c o m p l etely; pulling his
idol down fro m the p e d e s ta l on which he had him, he
smashes him to p i e c e s . Then h e takes up an exactly
o p p osite position to the one he had b efo re, with the same
passi o n and rigidity. He can thus transfo r m himself fro m
religious o rthodoxy to c o mp l e t e atheism, o r from a
dogmatic materialist to a fe rvent s p i r itualist. H owever, i n
a l l h i s e x c e sses a n d with all h i s limits, the devotio nal typ e
always exhib its a n admirab le sincerity. N o ego tistical c o n­
sideration nor any danger p e rsuades him to make c o m­
p r o mises with himself o r with others, o r to stay silent. H e is
always a b rave " truth teller" o r s u p p o r t e r o f what h e
regards a s - and whi c h is, there fo r e , sub j e ctively - his
The p e rs o na l i ty o f the devo t i o nal- idealistic type is o ften
lop-sided and difficult to deal with. H e generally lacks a
sense o f p ro p o r tion and humour; he has a tend e ncy to b e
u t o p ian o r maniacal and, i n h is a t t e m p ts t o imp o s e his

The Devotional Idealistic Type 71
point of view o n others, h e is a meddl e r and a b usybody, at
times b o rdering o n violence and c ru elty. A terrifying
example o f this extreme is that o f the inquis i tors who t o r­
tured and b urned h e r e tics with the aim o f saving t h e i r
Some of the more spiritually developed examples o f the
devotional type are v e ry intuitive, such as those who follow
the path o f pure mysticism and who achieve some degree
o f union with the S e l f, with its c o ns equent expansion o f
c o ns c iousness a n d an i n tu itive p e rc e p t i o n o f real ity.
A t i ts highest l evel, the good qualities of this typ e are as
remarkable as the limitations of i ts less develo p e d rep­
rese ntatives. B esides sinc e r i ty, w e find l oyalty, v e n e ration,
self-sacrifi c e , e ndurance and a lack o f fear, amo ng others.
Many great saints, apostles, martyrs and religious heroes
are highly developed e xamples o f this typ e .
I t would b e helpful to p o i n t o u t o n e o t h e r distinc tion
and qualification. For s o m e o f the psychological types we
are c o nsidering, we can distinguish an a c tive and a passive
sub- typ e , and this is particularly true fo r the devotional­
idealistic typ e . There is a well- defined sub- typ e that has a
gene rally passive attitude with a distinctly fe minine psy­
c h o logy and attrib utes. This can be c learly s e e n in those
o rthodox mystics who fel t a love fo r God and e xpressed i t
in t e r m s o f t h e mystical marriage o f the soul w i t h Christ.
The same atti tude is exhib ited in many devoted fo llowers
who gather round any d o m i na n t p e rs o nali ty.
'The ac tive sub- type p re s ents an entirely diffe re n t p i c­
tu r e . H e d e mo nstrates the d e fe c ts and virtues o f masculine
c o mb ativeness and aggressiveness; he was the knight­
e rrant o f the past, always ready to do b attle fo r a j us t
W e do not need to give typical e xamples o f historical
individuals b e cause they are easy to re cognise, b u t it may
be interes ting to c o nsider two very i m p o rtant r e p r e s e nta-

72 Psychosynthesis Typology
tives b riefly. O ne is Paul o f Tarsus. The complete reversal
of his feelings and actions as a result of his conve rsion, his
ardent devotion to Christ, his militant apostolic z eal, his
unshakeab l e cou rag e , his p ro found sincerity that at times
amounted to intolerance, and his intense, austere s tyle are
all characteristics o f the typ e under examination.
The second example is not a histo rical p e rso nage but a
literary character. When a character typ e is b rought to life
b y a literary genius i t is m o r e true and real in a s e ns e that
any histo rical individual and displays the essence of the
synthesis of many e xamples taken from real l ife. This is the
case o f D o n Q uix o t e . C e rv a ntes' fascinating romance, with
its touches of humour and p athos, enables us to unde rs­
tand and sympathise with this typ e and is at the same time a
true description of the idealist par excellence.
There are two histo rical religions in which the devotio nal
typ e has found complete exp ression in all its many asp ects
and at all i ts levels. These are Christianity and I slam.
Through the c e n turies these two religions fought each
other b lo o dily, p articularly a t the time o f the C rusades and
in S pain - a fac t that c o nfirms their resemblance and p ro­
ves that the law " li k e repels like" is true, even in the psy­
chological field.
In architecture, the Go thic s tyle is an expression o f the
aspiration o f the human soul towards G o d. I ts s oaring,
slender spires seem truly to be p e t rified s treams o f p rayer
and hymns o f p rais e . In p ainting, the e cs tatic saints and
celeb rant angels o f F ra A ngelico are a very different
manifestation o f the same quality .
The devotio nal- idealistic typ e contrib utes dynamically
to the spiritual deve l o p m e n t and p rogress of h u manity. I ts
essential function is to elevate inner experience through
b u rning idealism to the summit o f c o nscio usness, where it
can visualise the b e au ty o f great transp e rsonal p rincip les;
the n , to imbue these p rinciples with its love, devotion and

The Devotional Idealt5tic Type 73
e nthusiasm, making a living ideal; and finally to sustain this
ideal at all costs , sacrificing everything fo r it, living and
even dying for it.
In his s o c ial surro undings the idealistic type is generally
a disturb ing element b u t can act as a leaven; he has the use­
ful function o f exciting and s tirring i ndividuals and c o m­
munities to new action when they have b ec o me dull and
c o mp lacent, awakening the m to resp o nsibility and duty,
leading them o n and making them work. N e v e r the less, this
typ e , e s p ecially the a c tive sub - ty p e , is intensely individual­
istic. O ften he is like this o n the p erso nal level and when h e
ide ntifies himself with or i s absorb ed i n t o a group - such a s
a s e c t , party o r natio n - h i s infl u e n c e in t h e group te nds t o
make i t s e parative and exclusive as well.
The occupations i n which this type usually e xp resses
its e lf are o f two class e s , co rres p o nding to the sub- type s
refe rred to above. W e find the introvert o r " fe minine"
sub-type in monastic life, e ither in c o nv e n ts or mo nas­
teries, where it is give n to mystical vis i o ns and conte mp la­
tion. We find the active sub-type among p riests , o rators
and aggressive and p i o n e e ring leaders in all the diverse
fields o f human ac tivity.
There are particular psychosynthe tic tasks which the
devotional- idealistic type must fac e and i t is o ften very dif­
ficult for him b o th to unde rstand them and to carry
them out.
I n the first p la c e , the idealistic type p r e s e nts himself as,
and in a c e rtain sens e is, psycho logi cally integrated. H e
exhib i ts n o duality, no co nflicts o r inte rnal c o mp lications;
his mind, feelings and actions a r e c o o rdinated and directed
towards a s i ngle goal.
The s e cond reason is that b o th his me thods and his
m o t ivations o ft e n s e e m to b e g o o d ; he is since rely d e vo t e d
to s o m e o ne o r s o m e th i ng a nd s e e k s h o nestly to r e alise his
i de a l w i th great s el f- de nial. T hus he fi rmly and intensely

74 Psychosynthesis Typology
b elieves himself to b e right and c o nseque ntly does n o t s e e
the necessity to s t o p a n d i m p rove himself O n t h e c o ntrary,
he devotes himself e n tirely to changing and improving
exte rnal c o nditions and other p e o p l e .
In s p i t e o f a l l t h e i r qualities, the idealis t ic typ es o ften
cause trouble and the results o f their effo rts o ften show
them to b e destructive o r , a t least, u nadap tab le, disco rdant
and therefo re useless. The reason fo r this is that their syn­
thesis is too limi ted, i n c o m p l e t e and dispropo rtionate ; it
excludes some of the vital and necessary asp e c ts o f human
natu re and lacks b readth and true c o m p r e he nsiveness. F o r
example, o n e thing that i s diffi c u l t fo r them to u nderstand
and which they tend to deny indignantly is that their devo­
tion tends to be devoid o f true love. A n acc u rate analysis
reveals that what they " love" is o ften their sub j ective
image o f the ideal, whether i t is a p e rson, and idea o r s o m e
kind o f p hilanthropic w o r k , a s t h e s e are refl e c te d in t h e i r
minds a n d n o t a s t h e y are in reality. T h i s is p roved by t h e i r
inte rnal r eaction a n d b ehaviour in c e rtain situations -fo r
e xample, when the p e rs o n they v e n e rate d o e s n o t satisfy
their e x p ec tations o r when they discover gaps and limita­
tions in their ideal.
This is rath e r diffe r e nt fro m the love type , and it offers
us a clear way to distinguish o n e fr o m the other in spite o f
t h e i r s u p e rficial rese mb lance. W h e n t h e l o v e typ e dis­
covers the p e rs o n he loves has previously u nsuspected
defects, or b ehaves b adly, he is aggrieved by the knowledge
but has no reaction agains t the p e rs o n . He te nds to excuse
him and defend him, and immediately p r o c e e ds to love
him with greater intensity than b efo re. The devotiona l
typ e reacts with resentment in a similar situation. W h e n
t h e idealised p e rs o n fails to l i v e up to the p eak o f hzs exp ec­
tations - which are o ften u nr e aso nab le and unattainab le -
he fe els p e rs onally o ffended and d o e s n o t wish to fo rgive o r
help h i m ; his instinct i s t o turn agains t t h e cause o f his dis-

The Devotional Idealzstic Type 75
illus ionment. ( I t is true that we sometimes fi nd a mixed
attitude and reaction in the same individual ; this is due to
the existence o f mixed typ e s , and to the fact that the c o m­
b inati on of the love and devotional types is, fo rtunately,
not unusual . )
F ro m a l l this we c a n plainly s e e what t h e devotional type
would have to do to achieve harmony and true synthesis
and to use his great s t re ng ths and qualities fo r good p u r­
p o s e s . His first task is to transfo r m his devotion into real
love, or at least to p ermeate it with love and wisdo m, so
that he can be released fro m his exclusiv e attitude and his
exc essive c o mbativeness. I n addition, he should b ec o m e
more imperso nal a n d o b j e ctive i n o r d e r to a c c e p t the truth
that there are many ideals that are intrinsically wo rthy. H e
must d evelop an inclusive view o f t h e m all, i n the right p ro­
po rtion, a view that can gradually take the place o f his
images and concepts o f only one favourite ideal. This requires
a g radual m e n tal o p e ning, acqui ring a c ertain measure of
the true s c i e n tific spirit and partic u larly the develo p m e n t
o f t h a t inclusive love a n d ability to s e e the e l e me nt o f truth
exis ting in all the many diffe r e nt and c o ntrasting p oints o f
v i e w , which is the b asis o f t r u e wisdo m. Such an e xpansio n
includes t h e devel o p m e n t o f tolerance and intellec tual
hu mility b o th in c o mp arison to others and, even m o r e , in
relation to the g reat u nive rsal mys t e ry, o f which even the
most o r iginal and talented minds can g rasp merely an
infinitesi mal fraction.
A n o th er way fo r development and expansion o f this
typ e is the sub limation o f desire and amb i ti o n and their
dedication to higher o b j e c tives, ideals and means. This
direction, in c o mparison to the o n e p reviously mentioned,
is r e latively easy for this typ e to follow b e cause in a s e nse i t
i s h i s line o f l e a s t resistance o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , the natural
and spo ntaneous way fo r i n n e r g rowth, his s p e c i fic " as c e n t
towards the S elf. "

76 Psychosynthesis Typology
The Or9anisationa( Type
This type is particularly interesting b e cause i ts r e p r e s en ta­
tives are rapidly growing in numb e rs and b e cause they are
increasingly making their mark o n c o n t e m p o rary civili�
satio n.
I n general, we can say that the great changes that are
now o c c u r ring in human l i fe and the grave crises that have
swept o v e r humanity are largely due to the waning o f ideals
that used to arouse the devotion o f the majo rity in the past,
and to the appearance o f p e op l e in many fields o f ac tivity
who b el o ng to this typ e and have c omple tely diffe r e n t
p o ints o f v i e w a n d b eliefs ab o u t the purpose o f life a n d h o w
it should b e lived.
The o rganisational type e x presses himself ab ove all in
action and he is a tho roughly o b j e ctive type . Thus, we can
understand his nature and his particular quality m o r e b y
o b serving his mode o f action than b y analysis o f his inne r
life . H is dominant no te can b e expressed as " th e o rdered
activity o f the group" or, " ob j ec tive manifestation through
o rganised activity" . H is characteristics are clear and easy to
understand altho ugh we must analyse them accurately in
order to distinguish them fro m similar qualities in o t h e r
typ es.
W e might say that the o rganisatio nal type has his aim
and his focus o f p ractical inte rest o nly on the m e n tal and
physical l evels and therefo r e b el o ngs to the thought­
sensation type in Jung' s classification. H is m e n tal activ i ty
is e x e rcised in projecting, accurately and in de tail, and i n
thinking o u t a n d outlining p re c i s e , e lab o rate models o f
what he intends to manifest. A t the physical l e v e l , h e
achieves h i s pu rposes b y o rganis i ng t h e c o o p e ration and
work o f the group that is n e cessary to accomplish th e
desired e nd, and b y asse mb ling and o rde ring adequate
mate r ials fo r it.
When i t is fully e xp ressed, the o rganisatio nal type
d e m o ns trates will and p u r p o s e , a clear mind, c o ns tructive

78 Psychosynthesis Typology
act1v1ty and p ractical ability. These qualities make him
similar to o th e r typ e s . H e could b e co nfused with them, or
s e e m to be a mixture o f th e m with no dis tinctive charac­
teristics o f his own. His will resembles that of the will type ,
his clear mind the scie ntifi c typ e , h i s c o nstructive ac tivity
the p ractical typ e ; and yet he is diffe rent from any o f them.
The will type is p rinc ipally interested in p utting o n a dis­
play o f his power, o r in dynami c ally and infle xib le dire ct­
ing himself and o thers towards a p recise goal. The
o rganisatio nal typ e , however, uses his will p r e c isely, slowly
and p e rsiste ntly in order to mate rialise his o r ano the r ' s
p l a n gradually. I n c o m m o n with t h e scienti fic typ e , he has a
clear, exac t mind b u t, while the fo rmer uses i t largely with
the p urpose o f disc overing and k nowing, he uses it with the
p u r p o s e o f doing - o f attaining tangible results .
H e is, in a c e r tain s e nse, a creator b ecause new el ements
are b o rn through his ac tivity, b u t his method o f work ing is
quite different from that of the c r eative- artistic type . The
difference can be expressed in the two words: to c reate,
and to c o nstruct. True c reation is a vital and mysterious
p r o c ess, initiated o u tside the o r dinary field o f c o ns c i o us­
ness. To c o nstruct, however, c o nsists of conscio usly
gathering materials, gene rally b el o nging to so- called
ino rganic matter, and ass emb l i ng them into an 'ob j e c tive
structure. The creative typ e is gene rally a channel o r voice
fo r his superconscious, a r e c eiver o f insp iration fro m the
realms o f the intuition o r the i magination, while the
o rganisational type initiates his ac tivity himself with clear
awareness and delib e ration, and carries i t o u t methodically
to a c o nclusion.
The ac tive- p ractical typ e is plastic, adap tab le and even a
little dishonest and meddling; the o rganisational typ e
tends ins tead t o b e rigid and fo rmalistic. The fo rmer tends
to be independent and p re fers to work alo ne; the latter
p r e fe rs to work with o r through o thers, assigning them

The Organisational Type 79
tasks. The active type is exclusively interested in results
and success and is quick to use whatever method seems to
be effective. The organisational type tends instead to b e
interested above all in organisation for its own sake, which
can become so important in his eyes that it can make him
almost forget his object. The active type works in an active,
aggressive, often disorderly manner; the organisational
type works calmly at the centre, projecting future activity
and registering and coordinating the results of previous
Another way of looking at the different attitudes of
various types is by observing their reactions when confron­
ted by a factor such as the law. The will type loves the law
and is always ready to punish those who infringe it. The
scientific type is simply interested in discovering the exisit­
ing laws of nature. The organisational type is interested in
formulating laws with punctilious care, or in using them
carefully for constructive ends. The active type seeks
either to extract the maximum benefit from laws, or to
dodge them skillfully. The creative type generally takes
exception to those laws that he is aware of while uncon­
sciously continuing his creative activity according to
unknown laws that he does not fully understand.
If we try to define more exactly the dominant quality by
which the organisational type succeeds in achieving his
purposes, we find that this is discipline. This is not only an
external but an internal discipline by which an uncoor­
dinated individual, carried hither and thither by his
irrational, contradictory impulses, dissipating his time and
energy in too many unrelated interests, gradually becomes
an integrated person. Such an integration implies that all
his psychic functions are operating harmoniously and are
regulated by a central, directing power towards well­
defined ends.
Discipline is not only a characteristic of the organisational

80 Psychosyntheszs Typology
typ e ; the will and the idealistic typ e s o t t e n manit est i t e v e n
mo re e n e rge tically. I n them, however, discipline assu m e s a
diffe r e n t tonality o r character. The discipline of the will
typ e is hard, imp lacab le and even cruel b o th when he
applies i t to himself and when h e imposes it on o thers; b u t
h is s o l e a i m i s t o achieve t h e willed result, with t h e max­
imum s p e e d and c o mp et e n c e and at whatever cost. The
disc ipline that the idealistic type i mp o s e s o n himself o r
o th ers c a n b e j ust a s rigid a n d aus t e r e , b ut i t has an asc etic
charac ter and p ur p o s e . His aim is to eliminate real o r
i maginary fau l ts o r " sins" a n d to p u rify t h e p e rson, r e nd e r­
ing him, p res umably, m o r e a c c e p tab l e to and b eloved b y
G o d ; i n a w o rd , to s a v e h i s s o u l . The dis cipline of t h e
o rganisatio nal typ e i s gene rally m o r e mode rate a n d resp ec­
tab le in c o mp ariso n with the o thers. His goal is to
eliminate l oss and waste of time, e n e rgy and materials , to
avoid fri c t i o n and es tab lish in the e nd more p roductive
c o o p e ration.
From what has been said i t is clear that while dis cipline is
one o f the characteristics o r qualities of the will and ideal is­
tic typ e s , it is in fact the c e n t ral and specific means b y
which t h e o rganisatio nal typ e o p e rates and with which h e
reaches h i s goals. A l l h i s o rganisation and h i s order s e e m to
be the p r o du c t o f b o th e x te rnal and internal discipline.
W h e n the o rganism o r o rganisation has grown to maturity
and functions s moo thly, this discipline ceases to b e exer­
cised from the o u tside and no visib le pressure to reinfo rce
it can b e noticed; but discipline is t h e r e , intrinsically, in the
fo r m of tradition, hab it o r custom. This is demonstrated in
the fac t that when tradition declines, o r when some new
factor o r situatio n c o m pels a change in hab i t, the o rganisa­
tion can fall to p i e c es u nless new infusions of discipline and
order save it.
The limitations of the o rganisational typ e , when it is
undevelo p e d and lacking in s c o p e , lie in the great i m p o r-

The Organisational Type 81
tance attached to fo rmality, that makes i t altog e t h e r t o o
pedantic a n d m e t i culous. H e t e nds to b e c o mple tely ruled
b y hab i t which h e fo llows w i th c o mplacent obstinacy, since
he is o ft e n p ro ud and o v e r-sure of himself. Therefo r e , he
tends to be e m o t i o nally arid and lacks tact in his relations
with o thers. H i s overvaluat i o n of c e r e mony and form
makes him rigid and b ig o t e d i n religion as well. But in c o n­
trast to the devotional type , h e has neither fanaticism nor
apostolic z eal.
W e can see the o u tward and visib l e signs o f this type ' s
fo rmalistic tendencies in t h e p o mpous rites o f t h e great
churches o f the E as t and W e s t , i n the Masonic symbols and
fun c ti o ns and in the extre mely r e fined and elab o ra t e
c e r e m o nials o f the C h i n e s e a n d , to a c e rtain e xt e nt , o f the
Japanese. A significant e xample o f a rite o f this s o r t is t h e
tea c e r e m o ny of Japan, particularly among the Zen
B uddhists. 5
The same quality existed in the r e fined and s o m e times
ridiculous c e r e mo ny o f the F re n c h royal c o u r t a t V e r­
sailles, where t h e n o b i l i ty c o nsidered i t a great honour to
be p r e s e n t and offe r s o m e small s ervice when the k i ng
awo k e and did his " toilette" .
A c t ually, in the p r e s e n t p e ri o d o f transition to a new and
diffe r e n t kind of civilisation, the same quality takes a v e ry
diffe r e n t form fro m those m e n t i o n e d above and, a t first
glanc e , i t s eems to have v e ry little i n c o mmon with them.
The manifestations are the regimentation o f individual and
c o ll e c tive life , and a rapid and growing t e ndency to s tan­
dardisation i n i ndus try, b usiness and o th e r areas o f so cial
life . There are cases where a certain o riginal quality has, in
diffe r e n t times , places and c i r c u ms tances, such diffe r e n t
e x p ressions t h a t t h e y s e e m to h a v e no c o n n e c ti o n w i t h o n e

5 . A very good description o f this book Zen andJapanese Culture..
rite is contained i n D T S u z u k i ' s

82 Psychosynthesis Typology
another; y e t a d e e p e r analys i s p r o v e s that they all a r i s e
fro m a c o mmon s o u r c e .
I t is valuable t o re cognise the m o d e r n and co ntem­
po rary manife s tati ons o f the organisational type b e cause i t
helps u s t o understand t h e i r s igni ficance and goals much
b e tter and the r e fore to avoid wo rrying ab out them or
regarding them negatively as s o many a r e do ing today. Two
clas s e s of p e ople are particularly inclined to take this
attitude; the fir s t includes the m a j o ri ty of the middle class
and the o l d , who find i t diffi c u l t to adap t to a rapidly chang­
ing world. They tend to r e s i s t , ac tively or passively, the ten­
dency to pr ogress and are always think ing o r talki ng with
nostalgic regret ab o u t the good old times when life was
e as i e r , when p e o p l e were more c o ns iderate and r e s p e c tful,
when s p i r i tual and material valu es were stab l e and s e c u r e .
W h i l e we c a n a n d s h o u l d sympathise w i t h t h e m up to a c e r­
tain p o int, b e cause t h e i r difficulties are real, w e should b y
n o m eans allow their sterile regre ts and negative o p i nions
to overwhelm u s .
T h e o t h e r ( a n d mo re easily d e fi n e d) c l a s s of p e ople w h o
gene rally t a k e a p o s i t i o n o f p r o t e s t a n d e v e n open warfare
agains t the growing tendency towards mass organisation i s
c o mp o s ed o f idealis t i c typ es w h o , as m u c h b e cause of t h e i r
qualities as th e i r limitations, adh e re s tubbo rnly to t h e
ideals t h e y h o l d d e a r . These i d e a l s , of c o u r s e , are expressed
through fo rms that they themse lves or o th e r s like them
have fo rmulated; they are incapable of rec ognising the
same spirit in another fo rm and do not unde rstand that a
different road can lead to the same goal. The diffi culty is
augmented b y the fac t that the more developed of the
idealistic typ es tend to be extremely individuali s t i c and
the r e fo r e find thems elves in d i r e c t opp osition to move­
m e n t towards o rganisati o nal c o op eration.
The s i tuation i s made even m o r e difficult by the fac t that
the fi rst e fforts of a new typ e o f civilisation, culture and or

The Organisational Type 83
movement to create new forms are inevitably crude,
clumsy or almost barbaric. In the technical field this is
obvious. It is enough to remember the first automobiles or
how the first gramophone sounded. The same holds true in
all other fields of human activity, and so it is unjust to com­
pare the past epoch's most mature manifestations with the
first awkward, blind gropings and the impatient exaggera­
tions of a completely new way of life.
One of the difficult problems, that might even be con­
sidered the central problem of future humanity, is to estab­
lish a harmonious rapport between the freedom and
responsibility of the individual, particularly in expressing
his ideas and ideals, and the increasing tendency to
integrate the individual into groups of ever widening
dimensions. The interdependence of each upon all, not
only on a local, provincial or national scale but on a con­
tinental and planetary scale, immensely enlarges the radius
of action and the influence of each individual. On the other
hand, these new dimensions necessarily impose increasing
limitations and restrictions on us. It is likely that there will
be a good many more or less violent swings between
individualism and group-centred organisation before a
solution is found and - more to the point - before any com­
promise is generally accepted and followed.
The personal qualities of the organisationai type,
besides the propensity for order, are: attention to detail,
accuracy, patience, perseverance, courtesy and, at the
mental level, clear thought and objectivity.
The occupations available to this type have a very broad
sphere of action and an almost fantastic variety. They
include the highest priest at the head of a magnificent
religious procession and the nurse who feels the pulse and
takes the temperature of a patient at regular hours,
transcribing them in order on a chart and supervising all
the doctor's prescriptions for him. There is the cham-

84 Psychosynthesis Typology
b e rlain o f the c o u r t , p ro foundly interested in intricate que­
stions o f p r e c e d e nc e , and the tough fo o tball coach who
imposes regular e x e rcises o n the team. There is the
e ne rgetic c o mmander o f an army who , with his o rganising
ab ility, makes fresh b read and hot c o ffee availab le to
soldi e rs in the fro n t line , and the r e fined philo logist who
patiently tries to harness the living b o dy o f a language i n a
structure o f synthetic and grammatical rules, b u t having to
ac c e p t a large numb e r o f e x c e p tions. Then there is the
archivist, intent on r e c o rding and p r e c is ely o rd e ring the
fev e rish ac tivity of his c o m pany in innume rab le mul­
ticoloured filing cabinets; the individual who inven ts the
rules o f a new card game - and many o th ers.

A d e e p e r under s tanding o f this typ e and his invaluab le
co ntrib u t i o n to the p rogress o f h umanity through the c e n­
turies, particularly at the p re s e n t t i m e , can b e reached
through a k nowledge o f his p r inciple fun c t io n. W e can
exp ress this as the establishment of right relationships. This
expression has a d e e p e r meaning and a b roader range than
i t might s e e m at fir s t glan c e . To e s tab lish right r e lations
among o b j ects o r living c reatures that at first are n o t i n
relationship to e a c h o th e r , o r are i n u nsatisfac t o ry o r dis­
co rdant r e lationship , is b o th the b asis and c o nsequence o f
any p ro c ess o f synthesis. S u c h a function o f regulation and
c o o rdinatio n can b e found in all examples o f life , b oth
human and n o n- human, and s e e ms to be o n e o f the funda­
m e n tal p r o cesses of the unive r s e . I n co nsidering the
asp e c ts that are closer and more relevant to us, we s e e that
the estab lishment o f right relationships seems to o p e rate
in two p rincip al directions:

1 H o rizo ntally, with the harmonious c o ordinati o n o f a
growing numb e r o f units, m o r e o r less similar to each
other, and functio ning o n the same level o f existence.

The Organisational Type 85
This includes all the prob lems o f interrelationships and
so cial c o o p e ration among men and groups o f men.
2 Ve rtically, with the harmonious recip rocal action b e­
twe e n parts and fo rces e xisting o n various levels such
as, fo r exampl e , the b o dy, the emo tional nature, the
mind and the transpe rsonal S elf.

B u t there is a third impo rtant direction i n which right
relations may be established and this is i n the dimension of
time. The t i mely alternatio n b e tween ac tivity and passivi­
ty , tension and relaxation, and the right succession of
various activ i ties directed towards a g oal are essential to
the life of organisms, in the life o f each individual, and in
every type o f human o rganisation. This " vi tal rhythm" , as
it is rightly called, requires a p r o found unders tanding of
ti m e , o f nature and o f the fun c t i o ns o f cycles.
This distinction b e tween the various levels or directions
o f relationships should not be c o nsidered absolute; in life ' s
reality, successful adaptation requires right relations i n
various direc tions b u t o ft e n o n e o f t h e m p r e vails o v e r t h e
o th e rs. This will b ec o me clear i f w e a p p l y it to psy­
chosynthesis. The psychosynthesis o f an individual is
above all a p e rs o nal nec essity and a b ase fo r all his s o c ial
co ntacts. A man divided in h i mself necessarily carries his
inner c o nflict and p o o r adap tation into all his relationships
with o thers.
The isolated individual is o nly an abstraction. F r o m the
beginning o f life, everyone has vital relationships with
other human b e ings and the refo re i n p ractice has to deal
with his inner p rob l e ms c o n t i nually in relation to o thers.
Usually it happens unc o ns c i o usly, b lindly and in an undis­
ciplined manner, with all the disastrous c o nsequences o f
unhappiness a n d divisions i n family life , c o n fl i c t b e twee n
classes, and war amo ng nations.
One of the aspects of the s c i en c e of right relations is the

86 Psychosynthesis Typology
reciprocal infl u e n c e b e tw e e n the S e l f, the psyche ( under­
stood as the whole of all s ub j e c tive p r o c esses) and the
b o dy . This includes various asp e c ts o f psychology, the
study o f p ro b l e ms connected with the psychological
origins o f diseases and the p ractice o f psycho therapy. All
these functions should n o t be c o nsidered as b e l o nging
exclusively to the o rganisatio nal typ e , b ut it c e r tainly has
an innate ability and ample p ossibilities fo r achieving them
in all the fields mentioned.
The psychosynth e tic tasks o f the o rganisatio nal typ e are
very clear. I n order to avoid the dang e r of b e coming too
identified with the formal asp e c t of all his activity, thus
b e c o ming its p risoner, he should c o nstantly try to remain
c o nscious o f the vital asp e c t . He should above all remem­
b e r the goal o f all organise d ac tivity. The o rganisatio n
sho uld always b e directed to se rve the p u r p o s e . I n other
words, the organisational typ e sho uld always b e clearly
aware o f the diffe r e n c e b e tw e e n a living organism and a
dead organisation - that is, an o rganisation that has
b ec o m e an e nd in itself.
In order to neu tralise the e ffe cts of his te ndency to b e
t o o p ractical and o b j e ctive a n d t o over- emphasise concrete
and visib le results - which then have to b e sublimated - h e
s h o u ld actively c u l tivate t h e qualities of t h e love and
idealistic typ es. He should act so that his motive should
always be loving se rvice and the true good o f all and his
methods be fre e fro m o ffi c i o usness and rigidity. H is ideal
of coo rdinati o n and synthesis, which he is inclined to dis­
play in the exte rnal world and on a vast scale, sho uld b e
applied fi rst o f all b y himself t o himself, t o the c o mpletio n
of his own psychosynthesis, e ither p e rso nal o r trans p e r­
so nal. I f he does so, his o rganisatio nal ab ility can b e o f
g r e a t h e l p a n d he can achieve h i s g o a l w i t h greater ease
than individuals b elonging to other types. A t the same
time he will learn very useful lessons that can then b e

The Organisational Type 87
applied to great advantage in his work. I n effe c t , he can
c o n tinually find interesting analogi es b e tween these two
One o f the tasks of the o rganisatio nal typ e is to under­
stand the valu e and p u r p ose o f h is qualities. This can help
him avoid e x p r essing them in a m eaningless o r too matter­
o f- fac t way and e nab l e him to apply them to the i m p o r tant
and exciting tasks that we have r e fe r red to.
Another psychosynth e ti c task fo r this typ e is that o f
expansion a n d s ub limation so that fro m h i s small and
limited o rganising activi ty he can widen his s c o p e and fi eld
of action to include the p rinciple o f relationship in the
great work o f r e o rganisation and r e c o nstruction that is
taki ng p la c e in e v e ry field o f human activity and in e v e ry
co untry as a p re p a ration fo r the new e ra. As h e is capable o f
understanding a n d a p p r e ciating such tasks, a n d therefo r e
o f c o o p e rating with t h e m b e tte r than others, he c a n take
full advantage o f this o p p o rtunity. The joy of b el o nging to
a group o f p i o n e e rs fo r true wo rld u n i ty, peace and har­
monious c o o p e ration can b e his, o n c e h e decides to o ffe r
himself and his abilities to achieve this s p l e ndid goal.

88 Psychosynthesis Typology