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PLASMA MEMBRANE:

A protective barrier around the cell that regulates which materials can pass, making it semi-
permeable. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. Consisting of a phosphate group on the end also
called as “head” which is hydrophilic (water loving) due to it being polar and two side-by-side chains of
fatty acids that make up the lipid tails. The lipid tails are nonpolar and are hydrophobic (water fearing).
Phospholipids then are amphipathic molecules because it has both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic
region.

It is also composed of protein which can either be integral protein or peripheral protein. Integral protein
is a protein that is embedded in a membrane. A good example of one are Channel proteins which
selectively allows particular materials such as certain ions, to pass into or out of the cell.

Peripheral protein on the other hand are typically found on the inner or outer surface of the lipid which
performs a specific function for the cell. An example would be on intestinal cells, peripheral proteins on
the cell membrane of an intestinal cell acts as digestive enzymes.

NUCLEUS:

The largest and most prominent of cell’s organelles. It is considered as the control center of a
cell because it stores all the genetic information to synthesize protein. Together with the mitochondrion
these organelles are considered as a doubled membrane organelle.

I. Nucleolus: It creates RNA subunits through proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), It then
sends it out from the nuclear envelope where they combine into complete ribosomes.

Nuclear Envelope: two lipid bilayer which surrounds the nucleus.

Nuclear pores: where a two-way traffic of proteins and nucleic acid passes through between the
cytoplasm and the nucleus.

Cytoskeleton:

Helps the cell to maintain structural integrity, it is a group of fibrous protein that provide structural
support for the cell, but that’s not all it also functions for cell motility, reproduction and transportation
of substances within the cell

I. Microtubule:
composed of subunits of protein called tubulin, maintains cell shape and structure, help resist
compression of the cell as well as positioning the organelles within the cell.

Ex: Cilia and flagella, centrioles

II. Microfilament:

Thinner type of cytoskeleton, composed of actin. It constitutes a large component of muscle tissue and
along with myosin, is responsible for muscle contraction. Also creates the cleavage furrow during cell
division.
III. Intermediate Filament: Made up of long fibrous units of keratin that are wounded together like a
rope. It is Important for cell shape and structure but unlike microtubules which resists compression,
intermediate filament resists tension.