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THE HUMAN
NERVOUS SYSTEM
SECOND EDITION
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THE HUMAN
NERVOUS SYSTEM
SECOND EDITION

Edited by

GEORGE PAXINOS
Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute
The University of New South Wales
Sydney, Australia

JÜRGEN K. MAI
Institute of Neuroanatomy
Heinrich-Heine University of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf, Germany

Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo
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Elsevier Academic Press


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Cover image: Figure 17.12, Panel A: illustrates the mixing of neurons that stain with
antiserum against ORX (brown) and with a digoxygenin-labeled probe for MCH mRNA
(blue) in the perifornical region of a rat. Although the two types of neurons cluster closely
with one another around the edge of the fornix, there is virtually no colocalization within
individual neurons. Modified from Elias, C.F., Saper, C.B., Maratos-Flier, E., Tritos, N.A.,
Lee, C., Kelly, J., Tatro, J.B., Hoffman, G.E., Ollmann, M.M., Barsh, G.S., Sakurai, T.,
Yanagisawa, M., and Elmquist, J.K. (1998b). Chemically defined projections linking the
mediobasal hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic area. J. Comp. Neurol. 402, 442–459.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2003107471

International Standard Book Number: 0-12-547626-4

For information on all Academic Press publications


visit our website at www.academicpress.com

Printed in Chile
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To Alexi and Benigna


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Contents

Contributors xiii 3. Fetal Development of the Central


Preface xvii Nervous System
JÜRGEN K. MAI AND KEN W. S. ASHWELL

Cerebral cortex 49
Deep Telencephalic Nuclei 57
I Diencephalon 69
Midbrain 76
EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT Cerebellum and Precerebellar Nuclei 78
Pons and Medulla 81
1. Brain Evolution Spinal Cord 84
GEORG F. STRIEDTER Acknowledgment 86
References 86
Historical Pattern of Vertebrate Brain Evolution 4
Developmental Mechanisms Underlying Brain
Evolution 9 4. Development of the Peripheral
Evolution of Uniquely Human Brains 13 Nervous System
Conclusions 16 KEN W. S. ASHWELL AND PHIL M. E. WAITE
References 16 Cranial Nerves 95
Somatic Peripheral Nervous System 102
2. Embryonic Development Automatic and Enteric Nervous System 104
of the Central References 107
Nervous System
FABIOLA MÜLLER AND RONAN O’RAHILLY

Developmental Stages and Ages 23


II
Areas with Special Inductive Influence 23 PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Neurulation 24 AND SPINAL CORD
Neurocytogenesis 26
Development of the Neural Plate and Groove 28 5. Peripheral Motor System
The Brain from 4 to 6 Postfertilizational Weeks 29
SIMON C. GANDEVIA AND DAVID BURKE
Some Individual Regions of the Brain 30
Ventricles, Choroid Plexuses, and Circumventricular Composition of Muscle Nerves 113
Organs 43 Muscle Receptors 115
The Cerebral Arteries 44 Features of Muscle 122
Measurements 44 Muscle Units and Motor Units 126
Summary 45 Acknowledgment 129
References 46 References 129

vii
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viii CONTENTS

6. Peripheral Autonomic Pathways Cranial Motor Nuclei 308


IAN GIBBINS Somatosensory System 309
Vestibular Nuclei 312
General Organization of Autonomic Pathways 134 Auditory System 312
Cranial Autonomic Pathways 138 Visual System 314
Sympathetic Pathways 152 Precerebellar Nuclei and Red Nucleus 314
Pelvic Autonomic Pathways 162 Conclusion 316
Enteric Plexuses 167 References 317
Adrenal Medulla and Paraganglia 170
Concluding Remarks 171
11. Cerebellum and Precerebellar Nuclei
Acknowledgments 171
JAN VOOGD
References 171
External Form, Development, and Subdivision of
7. Spinal Cord: Cyto- the Human Cerebellum 322
and Chemoarchitecture Cerebellar Nuclei 331
JEAN SCHOENEN AND RICHARD L. M. FAULL Cerebellar Peduncles: Topography of Pathways
from the Human Cerebellar Nuclei 336
Cyto- and Dendroarchitecture 190 Afferent Fiber Systems 355
Chemoarchitecture 209 The Vestibulocerebellum 374
Myeloarchitecture 224 Longitudinal Zonation of the Cerebellum 375
Acknowledgments 227 Acknowledgments 382
References 228 References 382

8. Spinal Cord: Connections


12. Periaqueductal Gray
JEAN SCHOENEN AND GUNNAR GRANT
PASCAL CARRIVE AND MICHAEL M. MORGAN
Propriospinal Pathways 233
External Boundaries of the Periaqueductal
Afferent Pathways 235
Gray 393
Efferent Pathways 243
Internal boundaries of the Periaqueductal
References 247
Gray 394
Chemoarchitecture of the Primate Periaqueductal
9. Spinal Cord in Relation to
Gray 400
the Peripheral Nervous System Connectivity of the Primate Periaqueductal
THOMAS CARLSTEDT, STAFFAN CULLHEIM Gray 405
AND MÅRTEN RISLING
Functional Aspects 413
The Spinal Cord-Spinal Nerve Root Junction 251 Conclusion 417
Developmental Aspects 254 References 418
Experimental Studies of the Transitional Region 255
Brachial and Lumbosacral Plexuses 259 13. Raphe Nuclei
References 262 JEAN-PIERRE HORNUNG

10. Organization of Human Brain Divisions of the Raphe Nuclei 425


Stem Nuclei Connectivity 430
Functional Considerations 436
YURI KOUTCHEROV, XU-FENG HUANG, GLENDA HALLIDAY
AND GEORGE PAXINOS
Acknowledgments 440
References 440
Autonomic Regulatory Centers 273
Reticular Formation 301 14. Substantia Nigra and Locus Coeruleus
Tegmental Nuclei 305
GLENDA HALLIDAY
Locus Coeruleus 306
Raphe Nuclei 307 Substantia Nigra 451
Ventral Mesencephalic Tegmentum and Locus Coeruleus and Subcoeruleus 458
Substantia Nigra 307 References 461
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CONTENTS ix

15. Lower Brain Stem Regulation of 19. Circumventricular Organs


Visceral, Cardiovascular, and MICHAEL J. MCKINLEY, IAIN J. CLARKE
AND BRIAN J. OLDFIELD
Respiratory Function
WILLIAM W. BLESSING Subfornical Organ 563
Vascular Organ of the Lamina Terminalis 569
Principles of Functional Neuroanatomical
Median Eminence and Neurohypophysis 573
Organization in the Brain Stem 465
Pineal Gland 577
Cadiovascular Function 466
Subcommissural Organ 580
Respiratory Function 470
Area Postrema 581
Salivation, Swallowing, and Gastrointestinal
Choroid Plexus 585
Function, Nausea, and Vomiting 473
References 586
Lower Brain Stem Regulation of Vomiting 475
Lower Brain Stem Regulation of
Hypothalamohypophyseal Secretion 475
Lower Brain Stem Regulation of Pelvic 20. Thalamus
Viscera 476 GERARD PERCHERON
References 477
General Considerations 592
Diencephalon 595
16. Reticular Formation: Thalamus 599
Eye Movements, Gaze, and Blinks Isothalamus. Constitution, Architecture,
JEAN A. BÜTTNER-ENNEVER and Function 600
AND ANJA K.E. HORN Regio Superior 604
Regio Medialis 608
Eye and Head Movements 480 Regio Posterior 611
Eyelid and Blink 497 Regio Basalis 614
References 503 Regio Geniculata 619
Regio Lateralis 620
Subregio Lateralis Arcuata. Nucleus
Ventralis Arcuatus. VArc 623
Subregio Caudalis. Lemniscal Territory 624
IV Subregio Lateralis Intermedia. Cerebellar
Territory 626
DIENCEPHALON, BASAL Subregio Lateralis Oralis. Pallidal
GANGLIA AND AMYGDALA Territory 630
Subregio Lateralis Rostralis.
17. Hypothalamus Nigral Territory 635
Allothalamus. Involucrum 647
CLIFFORD B. SAPER
Regio Centralis 651
Cytoarchitecture of the Human Thalamus 514 Thalamic Stereotaxy 657
Fiber Connections of the Hypothalamus 524 References 660
Functional Organization of the Hypothalamus 530
References 542
21. The Basal Ganglia
18. Hypophysis SUZANNE N. HABER AND
LUCIA STEFANEANU, GEORGE KONTOGEORGOS, MARTHA JOHNSON GDOWSKI
KALMAN KOVACS, AND EVA HORVATH
Topography, Cytoarchitecture, and Basic
Anatomy of the Hypophysis 551 Circuitry 677
Imaging of the Hypophysis 553 Functional Basal Ganglia Connections 706
Histology 554 Functional Considerations 715
Ultrastructure 556 Acknowledgments 717
References 561 References 719
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x CONTENTS

22. Amygdala 26. Motor Cortex


JOSE S. DE OLMOS MASSIMO MATELLI, GIUSEPPE LUPPINO,
STEFAN GEYER AND KARL ZILLES
Terminology 739
Description 741 Monkey Motor Cortex 975
Acknowledgments 857 Human Motor Cortex 985
References 860 Concluding Remarks 992
Acknowledgments 992
References 992

V 27. Architecture of the Human


CORTEX Cerebral Cortex
KARL ZILLES
23. Hippocampal Formation
RICARDO INSAUSTI AND DAVID G. AMARAL Principal Subdivisions of the Cerebral Cortex 997
Quantitative Aspects of the Cerebral Cortex 998
Gross Anatomical Features 872 Paleocortex 1000
Cytoarchitectonic Organization of the Archicortex 1003
Hippocampal Formation 880 Isocortex 1007
Hippocampal Connectivity 891 Cortical Maps of the Human Brain: Past,
Clinical Anatomy 901 Present, Future 1038
Functional Considerations—The Emergence Acknowledgments 1042
Of Neuroimaging 903 References 1042
Acknowledgments 906
References 906

24. Cingulate Gyrus


VI
BRENT A. VOGT, PATRICK R. HOF SYSTEMS
AND LESLIE J. VOGT
28. Somatosensory System
Surface Morphology 916
JON H. KAAS
Regional Morphology: Four Fundamental
Cingulate Subdivisions 919 Receptor Types and Afferent Pathways 1061
Functional Correlations of the Four Cingulate Relay Nuclei to Medulla and Upper
Regions 920 Spinal Cord 1069
Maps of Cingulate Areas 923 Somatosensory Regions of the Midbrain 1071
Cytology of Cingulate Areas 924 Somatosensory Thalamus 1071
Comparison of the Brodmann Areas with Recent Anterior Parietal Cortex 1074
Modifications Thereof 943 Posterior Parietal Cortex 1080
Cortical Differentiation in Posterior Somatosensory Cortex of the Medial Wall:
Cingulate Gyrus 943 The Supplementary Sensory Area and
The Future for Cingulocentric Hypotheses and Cingulate Cortex 1083
Research 946 Somatosensory Cortex of the Lateral
Dedication and Acknowledgments 947 (Sylvian) Sulcus 1084
References 947 Summary 1085
References 1086
25. The Frontal Cortex
MICHAEL PETRIDES AND DEEPAK N. PANDYA 29. Trigeminal Sensory System
PHIL M. E. WAITE AND KEN W. S. ASHWELL
Sulcal and Gyral Morphology of the
Frontal Cortex 951 Receptors and Their Innervation 1094
Architechtonic Organization 955 Trigeminal Nerves, Ganglion, and Root 1098
Corticocortical Connection Patterns 963 Brainstem Trigeminal Sensory Nuclei 1101
Acknowledgments 970 Thalamic Sites for Trigeminal Somatic
References 971 Sensations 1109
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CONTENTS xi

Cranial Somatosensory Cortex 1113 Conclusion 1233


References 1116 Acknowledgments 1233
References 1233
30. Pain System
WILLIAM D. WILLIS, JR. AND KARIN N. WESTLUND 34. Auditory System
JEAN K. MOORE AND FRED H. LINTHICUM, JR.
Nociceptors 1125
Pain Transmission Neurons and Pathways 1137 The Cochlea and Cochlear Nerve 1242
Descending Pain Modulatory Systems 1147 The Brain Stem Auditory System 1251
Brain Structures Involved in Pain Perception The Forebrain Auditory System 1264
and Integration 1150 The Descending Auditory System 1271
Summary and Conclusions 1157 References 1274
References 1158
35. Visual System
31. Gustatory System RAINER GOEBEL, LARS MUCKLI, AND DAE-SHIK KIM
THOMAS C. PRITCHARD AND RALPH NORGREN
Central Visual Pathway 1280
Gustatory Apparatus and peripheral Primary Visual Cortex 1286
Innervation 1171 Extrastriate Cortex 1293
The Central Nervous System 1173 Acknowledgments 1301
Further Gustatory Processing 1189 References 1301
Summary 1191
Acknowledgments 1191
References 1191
36. Emotional Motor System
GERT HOLSTEGE, LEONORA J. MOUTON,
AND NICOLAAS M. GERRITS
32. Olfaction Basic Motor System 1306
JOSEPH L. PRICE Somatic Motor System 1309
Olfactory Mucosa 1198 Emotional Motor System 1312
Olfactory Bulb 1200 Concluding Remarks 1323
Primary Olfactory Cortex 1201 References 1324
Olfactory Projections Beyond the Primary
Olfactory Cortex 1206 37. Cerebral Vascular System
References 1209
OSCAR U. SCREMIN

Anatomy of Cerebral Blood Vessels 1326


33. Vestibular System Anatomy of Spinal Cord Blood Vessels 1339
JEAN A. BÜTTNER-ENNEVER Vascular Innervation 1340
AND NICOLAAS M. GERRITS
Mapping Cerebral Function with Blood Flow 1341
Topography and Cytoarchitecture 1213 Global Responses of the Cerebral Circulation 1344
Connections 1221 References 1345
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Contributors

Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin.

David G. Amaral, (871), Center for Neuroscience, Martha Johnson Gdowski, (676), Department of Neuro-
University of California, Davis, California, USA biology and Anatomy, University of Rochester School
Ken W. S. Ashwell, (49, 95, 1093), Department of Anatomy, of Medicine, Rochester, New York, USA
School of Medical Sciences, The University of New Nicolaas M. Gerrits, (1212, 1306), Department of Anatomy,
South Wales, Sydney, Australia Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
William W. Blessing, (464), Departments of Physiology
Stefan Geyer, (973), C. and O. Vogt-Brain Research
and Medicine, Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders
Institute, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf,
University, Adelaide, Australia
Düsseldorf, Germany
Jean A. Büttner-Ennever, (479, 1212), Institute of Anatomy,
Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Ian Gibbins, (134), Department of Anatomy and
Germany Histology, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
David Burke, (113), College of Health Sciences, The Rainer Goebel, (1280), Department of Neurocognition,
University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Faculty of Psychology, Universiteit Maastricht,
Maastricht, The Netherlands
Thomas Carlstedt, (250), PNI-Unit, The Royal National
Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, United Kingdom, Gunnar Grant, (233), Department of Neuroscience,
and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Pascal Carrive, (393), Department of Anatomy, School Suzanne N. Haber, (676), Department of Pharmacol-
of Medical Sciences, The University of New South ogy and Physiology, University of Rochester School
Wales, Sydney, Australia of Medicine, Rochester, New York, USA
Iain J. Clarke, (562), Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical
Research, Melbourne, Australia Glenda Halliday, (267, 449), Prince of Wales Medical
Research Institute, The University of New South
Staffan Cullheim, (250), Department of Neuroscience, Wales, Sydney, Australia
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Patrick R. Hof, (915), Fishberg Research Center for
Jose DeOlmos, (739), Instituo de Investigacion Medica
Neurobiology, Department of Geriatrics and Adult
“Mercedes y Martin Ferreyra”, Cordoba, Argentina
Development, Mount Sinai School of Medicine,
Richard L. M. Faull, (190), Department of Anatomy New York, USA
with Radiology, Faculty of Medical and Health
Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, Gert G. Holstege, (1306), Department of Anatomy and
New Zealand Embryology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University
of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Simon C. Gandevia, (113), Prince of Wales Medical
Research Institute, The University of New South Anja K. E. Horn, (479), Institute of Anatomy, Ludwig-
Wales, Sydney, Australia Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany

xiii
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xiv CONTRIBUTORS

Jean-Pierre Hornung, (424), Institut de Biologie Fabiola Müller, (22), University of California School
Cellulaire et de Morphologie, University of Lausanne, of Medicine, Davis, California, USA
Lausanne, Switzerland Ralph E. Norgren, (1171), Department of Neural and
Eva Horvath, (551), Department of Laboratory Medicine Behavioral Sciences, Hershey Medical Center,
and Pathobiology, St. Michael’s Hospital, University Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine,
of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
Xu-Feng Huang, (267), Department of Biomedical Brian J. Oldfield, (562), Howard Florey Institute of
Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Experimental Physiology and Medicine, University
Australia of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Ricardo Insausti, (871), Department of Health Sciences, Ronan O’Rahilly, (22), University of California School
School of Medicine, University of Castilla-La Mancha, of Medicine, Davis, California, USA
Albacete, Spain Deepak Pandya, (950), Departments of Anatomy
Jon H. Kaas, (1059), Department of Psychology, and Neurobiology, Boston University School of
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, and Havard
Dae-Shik Kim, (1280), Center for Magnetic Resonance Neurological Unit, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston,
Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Massachusetts, USA
MN, USA George Paxinos, (267), Prince of Wales Medical Research
George Kontogeorgos, (551), Department of Pathology, Institute, The University of New South Wales, Sydney,
General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece Australia
Yuri Koutcherov, (267), Prince of Wales Medical Research Gerard Percheron, (592), Institut National de la Santé
Institute, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris, France
Australia Michael Petrides, (950), Montreal Neurological Institute,
Kalman Kovacs, (551), Department of Laboratory and Department of Psychology, McGill University,
Medicine and Pathobiology, St. Michael’s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Joseph L. Price, (1197) Department of Anatomy and
Fred H. Linthicum, Jr., (1241), Department of Histo- Neurobiology, Washington University School of
pathology, House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
California, USA Thomas C. Pritchard, (1171), Department of Neural
Giuseppe Luppino, (973), Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, and Behavioral Sciences, Hershey Medical Center,
Sezione di Fisiologia, Università Di Parma, Parma, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine,
Italy Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
Jürgen K. Mai, (49), Institute of Neuroanatomy, Heinrich- Mårten Risling, (250) Department of Neuroscience,
Heine University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and
Massimo Matelli, (973), Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Department of Defence Medicine, Swedish Defence
Sezione di Fisiologia, Università Di Parma, Parma, Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden
Italy Clifford B. Saper, (513), Harvard Medical School,
Michael J. McKinley, (562), Howard Florey Institute of Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess
Experimental Physiology and Medicine, University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Jean Schoenen, (190, 233), Department of Neuro-
Jean K. Moore, (1241), Department of Neuroanatomy, anatomy and Neurology, University of Liège, Liège,
House Ear Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA Belgium
Michael M. Morgan, (393), Department of Psychology, Oscar U. Scremin, (1325), Department of Veterans Affairs,
Washington State University, Vancouver, Washington, Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles,
USA California, USA
Leonora J. Mouton, (1306), Department of Anatomy and Lucia Stefaneanu, (551), Department of Laboratory
Embryology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Medicine and Pathobiology, St. Michael’s Hospital,
of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Lars Muckli, (1280), Department of Neurophysiology, Georg F. Striedter, (3), Department of Neurobiology
Max-Planck Institute of Brain Research, Frankfurt, and Behavior, University of California at Irvine,
Germany Irvine, California, USA
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CONTRIBUTORS xv

Brent A. Vogt, (915), Cingulum NeuroSciences Insti- Phil M. E. Waite, (95, 1093), Department of Anatomy,
tute, Manlius, New York, USA, and Department of School of Medical Science, The University of New
Neuroscience and Physiology, State University of South Wales, Sydney, Australia
New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, Karin N. Westlund, (1125), Department of Anatomy
New York, USA and Neurosciences, University of Texas Medical
Lesley J. Vogt, (915), Cingulum NeuroSciences Insti- Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
tute, Manlius, New York, USA, and Department of William D. Willis, Jr., (1125), Department of Anatomy
Neuroscience and Physiology, State University of and Neurosciences, The University of Texas
New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA
New York, USA
Karl Zilles, (973, 997), Institute of Medicine, Research
Jan Voogd, (321), Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus Center Jülich, and C. & O. Vogt-Institute of Brain
University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Research, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf,
Germany
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Preface

Neuroscience comprises increasingly diverse fields The present book gives an authoritative account of
ranging from molecular genetics to neurophilosophy. the structure of the human brain tempered by func-
The common thread between all these fields is the tional considerations. The task of describing all parts
structure of the human nervous system. Knowledge of the nervous system in the context of modern
on the structure, connections and function of the brain hypotheses of structural and functional organization
of experimental animals is readily available. On the would be overwhelming for a single individual. We
other hand the structure of the human brain was studied have, therefore, asked scientists with knowledge and
by the classical anatomists and their work is difficult affection for their research areas to contribute to this
to retrieve. With the current intense interest in the edited volume. We trust that the combined effort of
structure of the human brain engendered particularly contributors to The Human Nervous System 2e will do
by imaging studies, groups of scientists familiar with justice to the data and concepts available in our field
the classical works, but who are also versed in modern while stimulating the readers’ brains, arousing curiosity
neuroscience technologies, have commenced human and providing a framework for thinking.
brain studies.
George Paxinos and Jürgen K Mai
Sydney and Düsseldorf

xvii