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Introduction To

Photography
History
Where did the name come from?

Jeff Wall, Scene from The


Invisible Man
(studio set, props)

Comes from 2 ancient Greek words:


– Photo = “light”
– Graph = “draw or write”
• Photography = light writing
Scientific Principles
Optics
– Camera obscura
= “darkroom”
Scientific Principles
Optics
– Camera obscura
= “darkroom”
Scientific Principles
Optics
– Camera obscura
= “darkroom”
– Leonardo da Vinci
used it as a Scientific
Tool to study
perspective

– Not permanent
Scientific Principles
Optics
– Camera obscura
= “darkroom”

– Leonardo da Vinci
used it as a Scientific
Tool to study
perspective

– Not permanent
Johannes Vermeer
THE MUSIC THE MUSIC LESSON
c. 1662-1664
oil on canvas
28 7/8 x 25 3/8 in.  (73.3 x 64.5 cm.)
Scientific Principles

Chemical
– Silver chloride turns
dark under exposure
Thomas Wedgwood Scientific
Principles
Important People
Photograms
used a process
depending on the
chemical action of
light on silver salts

Silhouettes not
permanent

turned black unless


stored in dark
Joseph Niepce Scientific
Principles
Important People
Heliography
Permanently
captured image of
camera obscura.
– Summer of
1826; 1st photograph
– 8 hours, bright
sunlight
Joseph Niépce
"View from the Window at Le Gras" (circa 1826)
Louis Daguerre Scientific
Principles
Daguerreotype Important People

– Partners with
Niepce
– photographic
metal plates
• faster (30 minutes
per photo)
• One photograph

First Daguerreotype, 1837


Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre,
Scientific
Daguerreotype Principles
Important People

drawbacks
– ruled out portraiture
(too long)
– the image was
laterally reversed (as
one sees oneself in a
mirror).
– it was very fragile.
– no copies
William Henry Fox Talbot Scientific
Principles
Calotype Print Important People
negative positive process

–A piece of paper was


brushed with weak salt
solution, dried, then brushed
with a weak silver nitrate
solution, dried, making silver
chloride in the paper.

–This made it sensitive to light.

–It was fixed in strong salt


solution - potassium iodide of
hypo.
Photographer:  Hugh Lyon Playfair 1786-1861
Frederick Scott Archer Scientific
Principles
Collodion Print Important People
(1851)
Wet glass plate
-Short exposures (2
seconds)
-Cheaper paper
-Sharper photos
-Needed large tent
-Difficult (wet plate)
Robert Szabo
TJ&Dave 2006
Richard Leach Maddox Scientific
Principles
Gelatin Dry Plate Important People

No longer
Wet
1871 chemicals could
be coated on a glass
plate in a gelatin
emulsion, instead of
wet collodion
George Eastman Scientific
Principles
Rolled Film Important People

Transparent
/gelatin backed
film (rather than
glass)
–portable
– cheap
– Still used in 35mm
photography today
Who did the first Scientific
color
photography?
Principles
Maxwell in Important People
1861

The Emir of Bukhara, 1911.


Prokudin-Gorskii http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/empire/
Scientific
Principles
Important People

Prokudin-Gorskii http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/empire/
Next?
Flash Photography
Digital Cameras

Above: One of the first


flash cameras
Right: Possibly the first
digital camera in 1975
Questions?