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A2314VI
Europaisches Patentamt

(19) European Patent Office 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111

Office europeen des brevets (11) EP 0 720 805 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.7: H04Q 7/22
of the grant of the patent:
14.11.2001 Bulletin 2001/46 (86) International application number:
PCT/Fl93/00385
(21) Application number: 93920866.6
(87) International publication number:
(22) Date of filing: 24.09.1993 WO 95/08899 (30.03.1995 Gazette 1995/14)

(54) SOFT HANDOFF IN A CELLULAR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

SANFTES WEITERREICHEN IN EINEM ZELLULAREN KOMMUNIKATIONSSYSTEM
TRANSFERT PROGRESSIF DANS UN SYSTEME DE TELECOMMUNICATIONS CELLULAIRE

(84) Designated Contracting States: (74) Representative: Akras, Tapio Juhani et al
AT BE CH DE DK ES FR GB GR IE IT LI LU MC NL Oy Keister Ab,
PTSE lso Roobertinkatu 23,
P.O. Box 148
(43) Date of publication of application: 00121 Helsinki (Fl)
10.07.1996 Bulletin 1996/28
(56) References cited:
(73) Proprietor: Nokia Networks Oy WO-A-92/22966 WO-A-93/06663
02150 Espoo (Fl) US-A- 4 696 052

(72) Inventor: MUSZYNSKI, Peter
FIN-00390 Helsinki (Fl)

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N Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give
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notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in
0
a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art.
a. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
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Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP O 720 805 81 2

Description frame structure may be derived and adapted from the
frame structure used for the radio signals which is typi-
Field of the invention cally defined by the voice coding process.
[0006] The just mentioned framed user communica-
[0001] The present invention relates to cellular tele- 5 tion signals comprise digitized voice signals and control
communications systems. More specifically, the present information (also referred to as signaling). The MSC per-
invention relates to a novel and improved handoff be- forms multiplexing and conversion operations on the
tween a mobile station and base stations within a cellu- just mentioned tributaries and relays the voice signal to
lar telecommunications system. the other communication user within the Public
10 Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The MSC also in-
Background of the Invention terprets, reacts upon, and generates signaling informa-
tion, thus controlling the overall communication link be-
[0002] The use of code division multiple access (CD- tween the system users. These communications link
MA) modulation is but one of several techniques ena- control functions comprise the management of general
bling digital communications among a number of mobile 15 call related events such as call setup or tear down as
users utilizing a common part of the radio spectrum, as well as CDMA radio link related events such as the de-
is the case for cellular telecommunications systems. terioration of the CDMA radio link quality and subse-
[0003] Other well-known radio access techniques are quent handoff initiation.
time division multiple access (TOMA) and frequency di- [0007] If CDMA is deployed within the typical medium
vision access (FDMA). The concept of soft handoff to 20 to large sized cells of land mobile telecommunications
which the present invention is closely related, is indeed systems then the average time delay spread of the mul-
applicable to all three of the mentioned multiple access tipath radio propagation environment is usually larger
techniques and will result, if applied instead of the con- than the chip duration of the OS-CDMA signal. This forc-
ventional hard handoff schemes, in increased system es CDMA to operate in an asynchronous mode with the
capacity and fewer dropped calls. However, soft handoff 25 consequence that the orthogonality of the spread spec-
is mandatory for CDMA, as the use of conventional hard trum multiple access user signals cannot be achieved
hand off would result in a very poor system performance. by means of orthogonal spreading codes alone. There-
For these reasons, the embodiment of the present in- fore, the communications suffer from system self-in-
vention is presented for a CDMA cellular telecommuni- duced interference not only among signals originating
cations system, however, it should be understood that 30 from different cells but in addition to that also consider-
the present invention is not limited to CDMA. ably within a single cell (referred to as CDMA intra-cell
[0004] An exemplary application of CDMA to cellular interference) . For such CDMA cellular systems it is
telecommunications systems has been substantially de- therefore an important overall system design objective
scribed in "On the System Design Aspects of Code Di- to minimize any excessive CDMA interference among
vision Multiple Access (CDMA) Applied to Digital Cellu- 35 the communicating users and complementary, to cap-
lar and Personal Communications Networks", Allen Sal- ture and utilize as much energy from a desired CDMA
masi and Klein S. Gilhousen, presented atthe 41 st IEEE user signal as possible. This system design require-
Vehicular Technology Conference on May 19-22, 1991 ment, although a generic requirement applicable to any
in St. Louis, MO multiple access method within cellular telecommunica-
[0005] In the just mentioned publication a direct-se- 40 tions systems, is less stringent for FDMA and TOMA
quence CDMA (OS-CDMA, or shortly, CDMA in the fol- based systems in which intra-cell interference is avoid-
lowing) technique is described in which a number of user ed by the intrinsic properties of the respective multiple
mobile stations (MSs) communicate via CDMA radio access method and inter-cell interference is limited by
spread spectrum signals with base stations (BSs, also means of pre-planned cellular frequency re-use
referred to as cell sites) in the uplink (mobile station to 45 schemes. Thus, CDMA unlike FDMA or TOMA operates
base station) and downlink (base station to mobile sta- in a strictly interference lirited manner. Nevertheless,
tion) direction. The base stations convert these CDMA soft handoff will reduce tne inter-cell interference of a
radio signals originating from, respectively terminating TOMA system and therefore also improve the system
at, the user's MS into a form appropriate for the use in capacity, however, the gain will be less than for a CDMA
conjunction with terrestrial telecommunications trans- 50 system. In the following, the invention is exemplified for
mission equipment such as the commonly deployed the case of a CDMA cellular telecommunications sys-
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) circuit facilities. The tem.
base stations further relay these user signals in the up- [0008] Several methods implementing the just men-
link and downlink direction to the mobile switching cent- tioned CDMA system design objective can be readily
er (MSC, also referred to as mobile exchanges or mobile 55 identified for the above referenced exemplary embodi-
telephone switching office (MTSO)) for further process- ment of a CDMA cellular telecommunications system.
ing. Usually the user information signals are transferred For example, the described closed loop MS transmit
on these terrestrial links in a digital, framed format. This power control method has the objective to continuously

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equalize the received qualities of all uplink CDMA sig- and the MSC as well as the second BS can obtain the
nals within a single BS againstthe background of rapidly required resources for the soft handoff transition. Sub-
changing radio propagation channels undergoing fast sequently, the MS will be instructed by the MSC via the
and slow fading processes. Forth is purpose, the BS es- first BS by means of signaling to enter the soft handoff
timates periodically the received Eb/No, indicative of the 5 state and to commence signal diversity combining on
signal quality from each MS CDMA uplink communica- the downlink.
tion and subsequently transmits an appropriate power [0013] Moreover, the MSC initiates the additional re-
control command on the downlink communication chan- lay of the user signals via the second BS and commenc-
nel to the MS which in turn sets the CDMA transmitter es diversity combining of the user signal in the uplink
power accordingly. Ideally, all MS CDMA uplink signals 10 direction. Both participating BSs invoke autonomously
are received at the BS with the same quality and in ad- the previously mentioned closed loop power control
dition to that, minimum strength necessary in order to method. The MS sets its CDMA transmit power to the
maintain the communication link subject to a predeter- minimum of the two commanded power levels in order
mined quality threshold. to reduce excessive CDMA interference with the other
[0009] Another embodiment of the previously men- 15 communication links.
tioned system design objective is the method of mobile [0014] Finally, when the MS is firmly established with-
assisted soft handoff in conjunction with signal diversity in the area of the second BS and the pilot signal received
combining during an active CDMA communication from the first BS has weakened sufficiently according to
which will be summarized in the following and to which predetermined thresholds made available to the MS it
the present invention is closely related. 20 will report this condition to the MSC which in turn de-
[001 O] Mobile assisted soft handoff in conjunction cides to terminate the soft handoff with signal diversity
with signal diversity combining comprises the method of combining and will use subsequently only the second
relaying the user communication signals on the trans- BS for maintaining the CDMA communications.
mission segment between MS and MSC synchronously [0015] This process of soft handoff with signal diver-
via a first and a second BS in the uplink and downlink 25 sity combining may be repeated as the MS moves within
direction and performing signal diversity reception at the the service area of the CDMA cellular telecommunica-
MS and MSC in order to enhance the user signal quality. tions system and as the measured CDMA signal
This method is invoked by the MSC when a MS com- strength indications suggest.
municating initially with only a first BS has moved into [0016] An essential criteria for a proper soft handoff
the overlapping coverage areas of this first BS and a 30 with signal diversity combining is that diversity signals
second BS and has reported the availability of a suffi- received via different routes have a sufficiently small
ciently strong signal from this second BS to the MSC. phase difference. In prior art CDMA systems, synchro-
At no time instant during soft handoff in conjunction with nized base stations are utilized and therefore the radio
signal diversity combining does the MS interrupt its com- link does normally not cause problems in view of the di-
munications with the MSC. The MSC typically deploys 35 versity combining. The differential delay times for radio
post-detection/decoding, selective combining of the dig- signals traversing between a MS and two different, syn-
itally encoded speech frames. chronized BSs are typically in the order of a few micro-
[0011] In order to enable the reporting assistance of seconds. However, the diversity signals are further re-
the MS during soft handoff initiation all BSs may transmit layed via differentterrestrial transmission systems using
a CDMA downlink reference signal, referred to as pilot 40 possibly different routes between the base stations and
signal. MSs, when roaming throughout the service area the controlling mobile exchange MSC, whereby the
of the CDMA cellular telecommunications system peri- transmission delays may differ considerably on each
odically demodulate the pilot signals of the various link. Delay differentials in the order of a few milliseconds
neighboring BSs during an ongoing communication with may be encountered in practice. This situation may
a first BS and derive a corresponding pilot signal quality 45 cause problems, especially in the downlink direction: as-
indication. Again, the measured pilot Eb/No may serve suming that the BSs and the MSC use different timing
as a signal quality criteria. This indication determines a sources, then the mobile exchange MSC will have no or
ranked list of candidate BSs for handoff and is transmit- not sufficiently precise information about the radio tim-
ted in form of signaling information to the MSC. It should ing at the base stations at call setup and will start send-
be understood that also the first BS may perform con- 50 ing user information frames at an arbitrary or default
tinuously CDMA uplink signal quality measurements phase with regard to the BS timing. However, a small
and based upon these observations may give a soft delay in the frame arrival at the BS may cause the radio
handoff request indication to the MSC. transmission of that frame to be delayed to the next
[0012] Usually, soft handoff in conjunction with signal forthcoming radio frame boundary, about 20 ms later.
diversity combining is initiated by the MSC if the MS re- 55 This is an intolerable situation considering speech delay
ports that the pilot signal quality of a second BS in ad- requirements and the required synchronism during soft
dition to that of the first BS is sufficiently good according handoff with diversity combining.
to predetermined thresholds made available to the MS [0017] Prior art cellular telecommunications systems,

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such as e.g. the GSM system, do address the problem transmitting a second transmission of said user
of frame phase alignment between user information ra- communication frames in the uplink and downlink
dio frames and the corresponding terrestrial frames. In- direction between the controlling mobile exchange
deed, for the GSM system, an adaptive time alignment and said second base station on a second digital
procedure is specified for the user information frames 5 transmission connection,
with the objective to minimize speech frame buffering second buffering of said downlink user communica-
delays. This procedure works, even if the BS and the tion frames in said second base station prior to a
MSC are timed independently. However, the mentioned radio transmission from said second base station to
procedure does not support frame time alignment for said mobile station, characterized by further steps
more than one participating BS, as is required during 10 of
soft handoff and covered by the present invention. first sending of time alignment requests with regard
[0018] From WO 93/06663 a method for soft handoff to said user communication frames, from said first
using data packet timing alignment is known. The base station to said controlling mobile exchange,
frames transmitted from the exchange to the base sta- said time alignment requests being intended for a
tions are time advanced according to the transmission 15 first controlling of the delay of said first buffering at
delay in an equal amount for every base station. The said first base station,
delay is then compensated for by buffering the frame in second sending of time alignment requests with re-
the base stations. gard to said user communication frames, from said
second base station to said controlling mobile ex-
Summary of the Present Invention 20 change, said time alignment requests being intend-
ed for a second controlling of the delay of said sec-
[0019] It is an object of the present invention to pro- ond buffering at said second base station,
vide a method and apparatus to synchronize the trans- third buffering of downlink communication signals
mission of the user signals between the participating from said other system user at said controlling mo-
BSs and MS during a soft handoff with signal diversity 25 bile exchange,
combining with the objective to enable reliable signal di- processing of said buffered downlink communica-
versity combining within the MS, even if different timing tion signals from said other system user at said con-
sources are used for the BSs and the MSCs, respec- trolling mobile exchange, said processing resulting
tively. in said downlink user communication frames,
[0020] It is a further object to minimize buffering de- 30 fourth buffering of said processed downlink user
lays of user speech signals in the downlink direction dur- communication frames in said controlling mobile
ing soft handoff. exchange prior to said first downlink transmission
[0021] One aspect of the invention is, a method for from said controlling mobile exchange to said first
soft handoff in a cellular telecommunications system in base station, the frame time alignment of said first
which a user mobile station relays user communication 35 downlink transmission being responsive to said first
radio signals via at least one of a plurality of base sta- time alignment requests,
tions and in which said base stations further relay said fifth buffering of said processed downlink user com-
user communication signals to and from a controlling munication frames in said controlling mobile ex-
mobile exchange connected to another system user, change prior to said second downlink transmission
said further relay of user communication signals being 40 from said controlling mobile exchange to said sec-
performed by using digital frames carried on digital ond base station, the frame time alignment of said
transmission connections in the uplink and downlink di- second downlink transmission being responsive to
rection, the method for soft handoff comprising the steps said second time alignment requests.
of
45 [0022] Another aspect of the invention is a cellular tel-
initiating a soft handoff with diversity combining so ecommunications system comprising
as to cause said controlling mobile exchange to
communicate concurrently with said mobile station a plurality of mobile exchanges,
via a first base station and a second base station, a plurality of base stations, and
transmitting a first transmission of said user com- 50 a user mobile station relaying user communication
munication frames in the uplink and downlink direc- radio signals via at least one of said base stations,
tion between the controlling mobile exchange and said one of the base stations further relaying said
said first base station on' a first digital transmission user communication signals to and from a control-
connection, ling mobile exchange connected to another system
first buffering of said downlink user communication 55 user, and said relay of user information being per-
frames in said first base station prior to a radio trans- formed by using digital frames carried on digital
mission from said first base station to said mobile transmission connections in uplink and downlink di-
station, rections,

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means for initiating a soft handoff with diversity ing responsive to said second time alignment re-
combining so as to cause said controlling mobile ex- quests.
change to communicate concurrently with said mo-
bile station via a first base station and a second [0023] The basic idea of the invention is to compen-
base station, 5 sate the differential delay between two or more terres-
first transmission means for transmitting said user trial routes to two or more base stations during soft
communication frames in the uplink and downlink handoff. To that purpose, a novel time alignment (TA)
direction between the controlling mobile 'exchange procedure is employed. The base stations act as mas-
and said first base station on a first digital transmis- ters in the TA procedure and are therefore provided with
sion connection, 10 an accurate timing reference. There should therefore be
first buffering means for buffering said downlink us- no long term drift between the timing of the base sta-
er communication frames in said first base station tions, although this condition is not essential for the
prior to a radio transmission from said first base sta- proper operation of the TA procedure of the present in-
tion to said mobile station, vention. The time alignment of the user information
second transmitting means for transmitting user 15 frames between the radio link and the terrestrial trans-
communication frames in the uplink and downlink mission links for the uplink direction (from a mobile sta-
direction between the controlling mobile exchange tion to an exchange) is considered to be performed in-
and said second base station on a second digital ternally in the base station participating in a soft handoff.
transmission connection, In the inventive TA procedure, each of the base stations
second buffering means for buffering said downlink 20 participating in a soft handoff sends independently time
user communication frames in said second base alignment requests to the mobile exchange to thereby
station prior to a radio transmission from said sec- control the frame timing of the corresponding downlink
ond base station to said mobile station, character- transmission with the objective to enable reliable signal
ized in that said system further comprises diversity combining within the MS. The mobile exchange
first sending means for sending time alignment re- 25 buffers the frames for each downlink separately and per-
quests with regard to said user communication forms the time alignment, thereby taking into account
frames, from said first base station to said control- the TA requests from all BTSs participating in the soft
ling mobile exchange, said time alignment requests handoff with the further objective to minimize the overall
being intended for a first controlling of the delay of buffering delays in case of speech communications.
said first buffering means at said first base station, 30
second sending means for sending time alignment Brief description of the drawings
requests with regard to said user communication
frames, from said second base station to said con- [0024] The features and advantages of the present in-
trolling mobile exchange, said time alignment re- vention will become more apparentfrom the detailed de-
quests being intended for a second controlling of 35 scription set forth below when taken in conjunction with
the delay of said second buffering means at said the drawings:
second base station,
third buffering means for buffering downlink com- Figure 1 is a schematic overview of an exemplary
munication signals from said other system user at CDMA cellular telecommunications system in ac-
said controlling mobile exchange, 40 cordance with the present invention;
processing means for processing said buffered Figure 2 is a block diagram showing a preferred em-
downlink communication signals from said other bodiment mobile switching center for use within a
system user at said controlling mobile exchange, CDMA cellular telecommunications system;
said processing resulting in said downlink user Figure 3 is a block diagram showing a preferred em-
communication frames, 45 bodiment base station for use within a CDMA cel-
fourth buffering means for buffering said processed lular telecommunications system.
downlink user communication frames in said con-
trolling mobile exchange prior to said first downlink Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments
transmission from said controlling mobile exchange
to said first base station, the frame time alignment 50 [0025] Figure 1 shows an exemplary embodiment of
of said first downlink transmission being responsive a CDMA cellular telecommunications system to which
to said first time alignment requests, the present invention relates. The system illustrated in
fifth buffering means for buffering said processed Figure 1 improves the prior art CDMA soft handoff and
downlink user communication frames in said con- macrodiversity signal combining techniques, as sub-
trolling mobile exchange prior to said second down- 55 stantially described in "On the System Design Aspects
link transmission from said controlling mobile ex- of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Applied to
change to said second base station, the frame time Digital Cellular and Personal Communications Net-
alignment of said second downlink transmission be- works", Allen Salmasi and Klein S. Gilhousen, present-

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ed at the 41st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference transmission links 124, 126 between the BSs and the
on May 19-22, 1991 in St. Louis, MO. MSC. These frames are subsequently referred to as
[0026] Figure 2 shows an exemplary embodiment of transcoder & combiner frames. In addition to this user
a MSC used in a CDMA cellular telecommunications information, transcoder & combiner frames may also
system to which the present invention relates. 5 contain information supplied by the BSs which is rele-
[0027] Digital links (120,122,124,126) connect the vant to the signal quality as used for the signal diversity
mobile exchange MSC with the public switched tele- combining within the MSC in the uplink direction. More-
phone network PSTN, other mobile exchanges MSC over, the transcoder & combiner frames contain digital
and base stations BS, respectively. These digital links signals (in the following referred to as "time alignment
carry the user information such as voice and, addition- 10 request" signals) supplied by the BSs and the MSC
ally, signaling information. The preferred embodiment of which are relevant for synchronizing the simultaneous
the present invention assumes that the signaling infor- links 124, 126 between BSs and the MSC during a soft
mation is of packetized type and is multiplexed together handoff with signal diversity combining. The transcoder
with the user information onto one and the same phys- & combiner frames also have some spare capacity
ical transmission facility. T1 transmission facilities to- 15 (spare bitfields) which are used in case the transmission
gether with Signaling System No 7 may serve as an ex- of downlink transcoder & combiner frames needs to be
emplary embodiment of such a digital link arrangement. speeded up during the synchronization procedure of the
[0028] The user information stream is switched present invention.
among the mentioned entities by means of a digital [0031] These transcoder & combiner frames arriving
switch 112. The corresponding signaling information is 20 and leaving on the circuits 130, 132, 134 are buffered in
transmitted, received and relayed by a packet switch the digital memory 104 for the uplink and downlink di-
114. Packet switch 114 is also connected to a MSC con- rection, respectively. Digital processor 102 reads and
trol processor 11 Owhich acts as a signaling information writes cyclically the transcoder & combiner frames from
source and sink, respectively. MSC control processor and to digital memory 104. In the uplink direction, a sig-
11 O interprets and reacts upon signaling messages ad- 25 nal quality indication attached to the transcoder & com-
dressed to it and may also solicit signaling messages to biner frames arriving from circuits 130, 132 into the
other entities, whenever appropriate. MSC control proc- memory 104 is inspected and processor 102 performs
essor 11 O also controls the connection arrangements the diversity selection based on these indications. The
within the digital switch 112 in accordance with the call association of the multiple transcoder & combiner
status. Moreover, MSC control processor 11 O allocates 30 frames arriving during a soft handoff with diversity com-
and de-allocates transcoder & combiner equipment 100 bining is thereby not a problem in the preferred embod-
during call setup and tear down from a corresponding iment which assumes that the transcoder & combiner
resource pool (only one piece of this transcoder & com- frame duration is large (20 ms) compared to the maxi-
biner equipment 100 is shown in the figure). The timing mum expected differential delay between the multiple
of the MSC may be derived from the timing present on 35 uplink transmissions(< 5 ms). Thus, associated (i.e. to
the PCM transmission facilities connected to the PSTN, be combined/selected) frames are characterized by ar-
such as the link 120. riving within this short delay window on the multiple up-
[0029] Transcoder & combiner equipment 100 is links.
needed in order to convert between the typically u-law [0032] In the downlink direction, voice samples from
encoded voice as used in the PSTN and the low rate 40 the other system user, arriving from circuit 134 into the
digital voice coding such as CELP used on the radio memory 104 are transcoded and packed into transcoder
links. In addition to the transcoding function, transcoder & combiner frames by processor 102. During a soft
& combiner equipment 100 also implements the signal handoff these transcoder & combiner frames are buff-
diversity combing in the uplink direction and signal du- ered for each downlink connection separately in mem-
plication in the downlink direction. Moreover, transcoder 45 ory 104. Processor 102 in conjunction with memory 104,
& combiner equipment 100 synchronizes during soft also advances or delays the transmission times (or
handoff with signal diversity combining the information frame boundaries) of transcoder & combiner frames ac-
flows to and from the participating BSs, transmitted on cording to the above mentioned time alignment request
the digital links 124, 126 and switched through digital signals received from the BSs in the uplink direction, in
switch 112 via circuits 130, 132 with the information flow 50 order to maintain downlink synchronization of the links
to and from the PSTN, switched through the digital link 124, 126 during a soft handoff with signal diversity com-
120, digital switch 112 and circuit 134 (only 2-branch BS bining.
diversity is depicted in Figure 2). [0033] Transcoder & combiner equipment 100 by
[0030] In the preferred embodiment of the present in- means of the digital processor 102 also extracts, re-
vention, the user communication signals, comprising 55 spective inserts the user signaling information from, re-
digitized voice or data, multiplexed together with the sig- spective into the transcoder & combiner frames and of-
naling information related to this connection, are carried fers, respective receives this signaling information to
in a digital, framed format suitable for the terrestrial MSC control processor 11 O via a circuit 140. By these

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means, MSC control processor 11 O receives MS sign- so contain information supplied by the de-interleaver &
aling information such as pilot strength measurement channel decoder 206 and provided to the digital proc-
reports. Thus, MSC control processor 11 O possesses essor 212 which is indicative of the signal quality of the
the necessary information to initiate and terminate inter- CDMA radio frames as received from the uplink CDMA
MSC or intra-MSC soft handoffs, as well as control 5 radio link 230 and which is used for the signal diversity
handoffs. Furthermore, by these means MSC control combining within the MSC in the uplink direction. More-
processor 110 can issue the appropriate handoff com- over, the transcoder & combiner frames contain time
mands to the MS via circuits 140, 130, 132 and links alignment request signals supplied by the digital proc-
124, 126 as well as via the digital packet switch 114 and essor 212 which are relevant for synchronizing the dig-
link 122 to other MSCs, should this be required. 10 ital link 232 between the BS and the MSC during a soft
[0034] Figure 3 shows an exemplary embodiment of handoff with signal diversity combining.
a BS used in a CDMA cellular telecommunications sys- [0041] As noted above, the present invention relates
tem to which the present invention relates. to soft handoff and macrodiversity signal combining
[0035] Block 200 shows the apparatus required to techniques. Within a cellular telecommunications sys-
support a single CDMA communication within a BS, re- 15 tern of the present invention soft handoff with signal di-
ferred to as CDMA channel equipment (only one is versity combining can be performed even in the case
shown). that the involved BSs are connected to two different
[0036] In the uplink direction the CDMA user commu- MSCs, in the following referred to as inter-MSC soft
nication signals are received from the digital CDMA ra- handoff with signal diversity combining. These MSCs
dio link 230, demodulated by the CDMA demodulator 20 are assumed to be connected either permanently, or on
202, de-interleaved and channel decoded by the de-in- a circuit switched basis via digital links for the transmis-
terleaver & decoder 206, converted into transcoder & sion of user traffic signals and inter-MSC handoff sign-
combiner frames and buffered for the terrestrial trans- aling information Inter-MSC handoff is described more
mission within digital memory 210 and finally transmit- detailed in WO 95/08897.
ted on the digital link 232 towards the MSC. 25 [0042] The cellular telecommunications system of the
[0037] In the downlink direction, the transcoder & present invention further assumes the use of the mobile
combiner frames are received from the MSC via digital assisted soft handoff method as previously described
link 232, buffered and converted into a presentation ap- for prior art CDMA systems, including the transmission
propriate for the BS within digital memory 210, channel of CDMA pilot signals by all BSs as a downlink signal
encoded and interleaved by encoder & interleaver 208, 30 strength reference signal, appropriate CDMA pilot sig-
CDMA modulated by the CDMA modulator 204 and fi- nal strength measurement and processing equipment
nally transmitted on the digital radio link 230. within the MS and signaling means between the MS and
[0038] In the preferred embodiment of the present in- the controlling MSC in order to communicate handoff
vention the BS possesses a network independenttiming trigger conditions and handoff initiation, respective ter-
source 220 which provides a reference signal of high 35 mination commands based upon the pilot signal
accuracy as required for efficient CDMA operation and strength measurements performed by the MS.
utilized by the CDMA channel equipment 200. Such a [0043] Synchronization of transcoder & combiner
timing source may be derived e.g. from the GPS satellit frames between base stations (BSs) and mobile ex-
signal and can be provided globally to each BS thus en- change (MSC) during soft handoff
abling a network of mutually synchronized BSs. 40 [0044] In the following it is assumed that MS 30 orig-
[0039] The BS further comprises a BS control proc- inates the communications on a first BS 24 connected
essor 222. The BS control processor 222 receives and to MSC 14 which provides access to the PSTN and other
transmits signaling information from and to digital link MSCs 10,12.
232 connected to the MSC. The BS control processor [0045] In the preferred embodiment the time align-
222 performs the resource management of the BS, such 45 ment procedure for a the first base station, i.e. BS 24,
as the allocation and de-allocation of CDMA channel is a two-state procedure. First, a procedure of "Initial
equipment for user connections (calls). The BS control Time Alignment" is performed by BS 24 and MSC 14
processor 222 thus responds to CDMA channel assign- during the beginning of the call with the objective to es-
ment requests related to a call setup as well as to CDMA tablish a rough phase synchronism for the transcoder &
channel assignment requests related to soft handoff re- 50 combiner frame timing. BS 24 tries to minimize the buff-
quests from the MSC. ering time of transcoder &combiner frames within mem-
[0040] Digital processor 212 in conjunction with the ory 21 O.
buffer memory 210 performs the packing and unpacking [0046] In the initial state, the transmission of trans-
of the BS internal representation of the CDMA user com- coder & combiner frames (or simple: frames in the fol-
munications signal to and from transcoder & combiner 55 lowing) in the downlink direction is only delayed by MSC
frames in the uplink, respective downlink direction. In 14 as commanded by the BS 24. The transcoder & com-
the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the biner equipment 100 is able to adjust the nominal time
previously mentioned transcoder & combiner frames al- for transmitting the frames (nominal frame boundary) by

7
13 EP O 720 805 81 14

multiples of a predetermined step size, 125 us. When match of the transcoder and combiner frames.
receiving the first uplink frame during the call initiation, [0051] A soft handoff will be initiated by MSC 14 when
the transcoder & combiner equipment 100 shall start MS 30 communicating initially only with the first BS 24
sending downlink frames towards the BS 24 with arbi- has moved into the overlapping coverage areas of BS
trary or default phase related to the uplink frame phase. 5 24 and a neighboring BS 26 and has reported the avail-
The processor 212 of the BS 24 calculates the required ability of a sufficiently strong signal from BS 26 to MSC
timing adjustment and returns an uplink frame including 14. In the soft handoff in conjunction with signal diversity
the number of steps by which the frames in the downlink combining the user communication signals are relayed
direction should be delayed. The number of steps may on transmission segments 84,74 and 86,76 between
be a binary number in a dedicated field ("TA request" 10 MS 30 and MSC 14 synchronously via BS 24 and BS
field) of the uplink transcoder& combinerframes. When 26, respectively, in uplink and downlink direction. MSC
receiving this information, the transcoder & combiner 14 and MS 30 perform signal diversity reception in order
equipment 100 processes this data and sets a field ("TA to enhance the user signal quality.
response" field) in the next downlink frame as ordered [0052] Terrestrial transmission segments 74 and 76
and delays the subsequent frame accordingly. When a 15 between MSC 14 and BS 24 and BS 26, respectively,
frame is delayed due to timing adjustments, the equip- may use different routes and different transmission sys-
ment 100 shall fill the gap between the frames with ap- tems, and therefore the occurring transmission delays
propriate number of bits, e.g. binary "1 ".After having ad- may differ.
justed the timing, the equipment 100 shall receive a pre- [0053] Thus, according to the present invention a dif-
determined number of transcoder & combiner uplink 20 ferential transmission delay between BSs 24 and 26 is
frames before a new adjustment is made. This in order taken into account by the inventive time alignment pro-
to avoid oscillation in the regulation. cedure. Towards this end, the downlink signals from the
[0047] The transcoder and combiner equipment 100 other system user arriving via circuit 134 into memory
shall change from the "Initial Time Alignment" state to 104 are still transcoded only once, however, the result-
the "Static Time Alignment" state when it has performed 25 ing downlink transcoder & combiner frames are read out
a predetermined number of subsequent timing adjust- twice and independently from memory 104 for transmis-
ments which are less than a further predetermined sion towards circuits 130,132.
threshold. In the "Static Time Alignment State" the [0054] The time alignment between MSC 14 and BS
achieved frame phase synchronism is maintained and 24 is assumed to be already in the "Static Time Align-
a potential drift between the timing of BS 24 and MSC 30 ment" state, as discussed above. Since only the small
14 during the ongoing call is compensated. Moreover, (compared to the frame duration) differential delay be-
in the case of a soft handoff the frame time alignment tween the two BSs needs to be compensated, the new
towards the newly joining BS is performed within the transmission circuit 86 of BS 26 goes directly into the
"Static Time Alignment State". "Static Time Alignment" state. Both BS 24 and 26 will
[0048] In the Static Time Alignment state, the trans- 35 independently send timing alignment requests to MSC
coder & combiner equipment 100 performs timing ad- 14 in order to control their own buffer delays as in the
justments in single steps of predetermined duration, e. case of a single BS connection. MSC 14, however, takes
g. 250 µs. The transmission timing of the frame bound- into account time alignment requests from both BSs 24
ary may be either delayed, advanced or not changed. and 26. For example, assuming that the downlink frame
When receiving an time alignment request from the BS 40 boundary timing of BS 26 is "earlier" than that of BS 24,
24, equipment 100 skips or repeats (duplicates) two processor 102 will duplicate sufficiently many PCM
PCM speech samples from the other system users speech samples from the other system users downlink
downlink speech communications within memory 104 speech communications within memory 104 and there-
and advances or delays the transcoding of them into a by advance the transcoding of them into a subsequent
subsequent downlink frame for buffering in memory 104 45 downlink frame, so as to fulfill the request of the "earlier"
for transmission. This is done in order to avoid further BS 26. As another example, assuming that the downlink
buffering delays of the downlink speech signal within frame boundary timing of BS 26 is "later" than that of BS
memory 104. 24, processor 102 will delay the readout of frames to-
[0049] After having adjusted the timing, the equip- wards BS 26 accordingly, but will not change the time
ment 100 shall receive at least a predetermined number 50 instants for the transcoding of the other system users
of uplink frames before a new adjustment is made. downlink speech communications. In this case, no ac-
[0050] It should be understood that in this condition tion takes place with regard to BS 24. As a further ex-
the downlink frame buffering delays in memories 104 ample, assuming that the "earlier" BS during a soft
and 210 are minimized to system inherent limits. Only handoff requests a delay and would remain the earlier
unavoidable, small guard times due to processing de- 55 BS even after the delay is performed, processor 102 will
lays and the large delay caused by the speech trans- skip accordingly PCM samples within memory 104, de-
coding process itself (20 ms) are present. However, lay the transcoding of them into a subsequent downlink
there are no additional delays caused by a phase mis- frame, and delay the readout of frames towards this ear-

8
15 EP O 720 805 81

lier BS accordingly. base stations further relay said user communication
[0055] It should be understood that this inventive pro- signals to and from a controlling mobile exchange
cedure for user frame TA during soft handoff is optimal connected to another system user, said further relay
in the sense that the end-to-end delay between MS and of user communication signals being performed by
MSC communications compared to the single link con- 5 using digital frames carried on digital transmission
figuration is increased only by the differential delay be- connections in the uplink and downlink direction,
tween the two MSC - BS transmission sections. the method for soft handoff comprising the steps of
[0056] It should be also understood that this inventive
procedure for user frame TA during soft handoff is fur- initiating a soft handoff with diversity combining
ther optimal in the sense that the downlink frame buff- 10 so as to cause said controlling mobile ex-
ering delays in memories 104 and 210 are minimized to change to communicate concurrently with said
system inherent limits. Only unavoidable, small guard mobile station via a first base station and a sec-
times due to processing delays and the large delay ond base station,
caused by the speech transcoding process itself (20 ms) transmitting a first transmission of said user
are present in addition to the differential delay on the 15 communication frames in the uplink and down-
two MSC - BS transmission segments. However, there link direction between the controlling mobile ex-
are no additional delays caused by a phase mismatch change and said first base station on a first dig-
of the transcoder and combiner frames during soft hand- ital transmission connection,
off. first buffering of said downlink user communi-
[0057] No other frame TA scheme can deliver a better 20 cation frames in said first base station prior to
performance with regard to buffer delay minimization a radio transmission from said first base station
and consequently MS - MSC end-to-end delay minimi- to said mobile station,
zation during soft handoff, than what the inventive TA transmitting a second transmission of said user
procedure offers. communication frames in the uplink and down-
[0058] The above procedure is primarily beneficial for 25 link direction between the controlling mobile ex-
speech communications as it minimizes the speech de- change and said second base station on a sec-
lay perceived by the system users. The same procedure ond digital transmission connection,
can be performed also for data communications in the second buffering of said downlink user commu-
uplink and downlink direction. However, the target is nication frames in said second base station pri-
here not to minimize the buffering delay of the frame 30 or to a radio transmission from said second
transmission but rather to provide a phase reference by base station to said mobile station, character-
one BTS, typically the first BS 24 assigned during the ized by further steps of
soft handoff and to provide a system and method for re- first sending of time alignment requests with re-
liable diversity combining. gard to said user communication frames, from
[0059] It should be also understood that more than 35 said first base station to said controlling mobile
two BSs can participate during a soft handoff with signal exchange, said time alignment requests being
diversity combining. The handoff may also be a inter- intended for a first controlling of the delay of
MSC soft handoff. said first buffering at said first base station,
[0060] It should be also understood that the method second sending of time alignment requests with
of the present invention can be readily applied to a TD- 40 regard to said user communication frames,
MAcellulartelecommunications system. In a TOMA cel- from said second base station to said control-
lular telecommunications system radio links 80, 82, 84, ling mobile exchange, said time alignment re-
86 of figure 1; would be embodied as TOMA radio links quests being intended for a second controlling
in which several timeslots are used to provide commu- of the delay of said second buffering at said
nication channels to the system users. During soft hand- 45 second base station,
off two (or more) timeslots could be used to provide the third buffering of downlink communication sig-
concurrent radio channels used by the MS and BSs in- nals from said other system user at said con-
volved in the handoff. All the other mentioned charac- trolling mobile exchange,
teristics of the present invention remain the same for processing of said buffered downlink commu-
TOMA cellular telecommunications system. 50 nication signals from said other system user at
said controlling mobile exchange, said
processing resulting in said downlink user com-
Claims munication frames,
fourth buffering of said processed downlink us-
1. A method for soft handoff in a cellular telecommu- 55 er communication frames in said controlling
nications system in which a user mobile station re- mobile exchange prior to said first downlink
lays user communication radio signals via at least transmission from said controlling mobile ex-
one of a plurality of base stations and in which said change to said first base station, the frame time

9
17 EP O 720 805 81 18

alignment of said first downlink transmission of said user communication frames on said first dig-
being responsive to said first time alignment re- ital transmission connection and said second trans-
quests, mission of said user communication frames on said
fifth buffering of said processed downlink user second digital transmission connection.
communication frames in said controlling mo- 5
bile exchange prior to said second downlink 5. A method according to claims 1, 2 or 4, wherein the
transmission from said controlling mobile ex- combined first buffering delay, comprising the de-
change to said second base station, the frame lays of said first buffering, said forth buffering and
time alignment of said second downlink trans- said third buffering, is jointly minimized together
mission being responsive to said second time 10 with the combined second buffering delay, compris-
alignment requests. ing the delays of said second buffering, said fifth
buffering and said third buffering, by means of said
2. A method according to claim 1 , wherein first and said second time alignment requests and
said processing of said downlink communication
said first time alignment request, respectively 15 signals.
said second time alignment request, is indica-
tive of an advance or a delay in said first,re- 6. A method according to claims 1, 2, 4 or 5, wherein
spectively said second, downlink transmissions the combined first buffering delay, comprising the
of said downlink communication frames relative delays of said first buffering, said forth buffering and
to the setting in effect, said advance or delay 20 said third buffering, is jointly minimized together
indication being according to threshold values, with the combined second buffering delay, compris-
said first controlling of the delay of said first ing the delays of said second buffering, said fifth
buffering and said second controlling of the de- buffering and said third buffering, and wherein the
lay of said second buffering mean minimizing difference between said first combined buffering de-
said first and said second buffering delay, 25 lay and said second combined buffering delay cor-
said third buffering of said downlink communi- responds to the differential time delay of said first
cation signals from said other system user at transmission of said user communication frames on
said controlling mobile exchange further com- said first digital transmission connection and said
prising the step of storing said downlink com- second transmission of said user communication
munication signals of said other system user in 30 frames on said second digital transmission connec-
the form of digital code words into a digital buff- tion.
er memory,
said processing of said buffered downlink com- 7. A method according to claims 1,2,4,5 or 6 wherein
munication signals further comprising the steps the user communication radio signals relayed be-
of 35 tween said mobile station and said first and said
manipulating the contents of said digital buffer second base station are CDMA spread spectrum
memory responsive to said first and said sec- modulated.
ond time alignment requests, and
transcoding said manipulated contents of said 8. A method according to claims 1,2,4,5 or 6 wherein
digital buffer memory into said downlink user 40 said user communication radio signals relayed be-
communications signals. tween said mobile station and said first and said
second base station are TOMA modulated.
3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the step of
manipulating the contents of said digital buffer 9. A cellular telecommunications system comprising
memory comprises one of the following steps 45
a plurality of mobile exchanges,
adding digital code words into said digital buffer second sending means for sending time align-
memory, ment requests with regard to said user commu-
deleting digital code words from said digital nication frames, from said second base station
buffer memory, 50 to said controlling mobile exchange, said time
leaving the content of said digital buffer mem- alignment requests being intended for a second
ory unchanged. controlling of the delay of said second buffering
means at said second base station,
4. A method according to claims 1 or 2 characterized third buffering means for buffering downlink
in that said forth and said fifth buffering of said proc- 55 communication signals from said other system
essed downlink user communication frames in said user at said controlling mobile exchange,
controlling mobile exchange is used to compensate processing means for processing said buffered
the differential time delay of said first transmission downlink communication signals from said oth-

10
EP O 720 805 81 20

er system user at said controlling mobile ex- buffer memory,
change, said processing resulting in said down- leaving the content of said digital buffer mem-
link user communication frames, ory unchanged.
forth buffering means for buffering said proc-
essed downlink user communication frames in 5 12. A system according to claims 9or10 characterized
said controlling mobile exchange prior to said in that said forth and said fifth buffering means for
first downlink transmission from said controlling processing downlink user communication frames in
mobile exchange to said first base station, the said controlling mobile exchange is used to com-
frame time alignment of said first downlink pensate the differential time delay of said first trans-
transmission being responsive to said first time 10 mission means transmitting said user communica-
alignment requests, tion frames on said first digital transmission connec-
fifth buffering means for buffering said proc- tion and said second transmission means transmit-
essed downlink user communication frames in ting said user communication frames on said sec-
said controlling mobile exchange prior to said ond digital transmission connection.
second downlink transmission from said con- 15
trolling mobile exchange to said second base 13. A system according to claims 9, 10 or 12
station, the frame time alignment of said sec-
ond downlink transmission being responsive to a plurality of base stations, and
said second time alignment requests. a user mobile station relaying user communi-
20 cation radio signals via at least one of said base
10. A system according to claim 9 wherein stations, said one of the base stations further
relaying said user communication signals to
said first time alignment request, respectively and from a controlling mobile exchange con-
said second time alignment request, is indica- nected to another system user, and said relay
tive of an advance or a delay in said first, re- 25 of user communication being performed by us-
spectively said second, downlink transmissions ing digital frames carried on digital transmis-
of said downlink communication frames relative sion connections in uplink and downlink direc-
to the setting in effect, said advance or delay tions,
indication being according to threshold values, means for initiating a soft handoff with diversity
said first and said second sending means for 30 combining so as to cause said controlling mo-
said first controlling of the delay of said first bile exchange communicate concurrently with
buffering means and said second controlling of said mobile station via a first base station and
the delay of said second buffering means min- a second base station,
imize the delays of said first and second buff- first transmission means for transmitting said
ering means, 35 user communication frames in the uplink and
said third buffering means further comprising downlink direction between the controlling mo-
means for storing said downlink communica- bile exchange and said first base station on a
tion signals of said other system user in the first digital transmission connection,
form of digital code words into a digital buffer first buffering means for buffering said downlink
memory, 40 user communication frames in said first base
said processing means for processing said station prior to a radio transmission from said
buffered downlink communication signals fur- first base station to said mobile station,
ther comprising second transmitting means for transmitting us-
means for manipulating the contents of said er communication frames in the uplink and
digital buffer memory responsive to said first 45 downlink direction between the controlling mo-
and second time alignment requests, and bile exchange and said second base station on
means for transcoding said manipulated con- a second digital transmission connection,
tents of said digital buffer memory into said second buffering means for buffering said
downlink user communications signals. downlink user communication frames in said
50 second base station prior to a radio transmis-
11. A system according to claim 10, wherein said sion from said second base station to said mo-
means for manipulating the contents of said digital bile station, characterized in that said system
buffer memory comprises one of the following func- further comprises
tions first sending means for sending time alignment
55 requests with regard to said user communica-
adding digital code words into said digital buffer tion frames, from said first base station to said
memory, controlling mobile exchange, said time align-
deleting digital code words from said digital ment requests being intended for a first control-

11
21 EP O 720 805 81 22

ling of the delay of said first buffering means at lnitiieren eines sanften Weiterreichens mit Di-
said first base station, versity-Combining, um so die steuernde Mobil-
vermittlung zu veranlassen, mit der Mobilstati-
characterized in that the combined first buffering on gleichzeitig Ober eine erste Basisstation und
delay of said first buffering means, said forth buff- 5 eine zweite Basisstation zu kommunizieren,
ering means and said third buffering means is jointly Ubertragen einer ersten Ubertragung der Be-
minimized together with the combined second buff- nutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen, in der Uplink-
ering delay of said second buffering means, said und Downlink-Richtung zwischen der steuern-
fifth buffering menas and said third buffering means den Mobilvermittlung und der ersten Basissta-
by said first and said second time alignment re- 10 tion auf einer ersten digitalen Ubertragungsver-
quests and said processing of said downlink com- bindung,
munication signals. erstes Zwischenspeichern der Downlink-Be-
nutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen in der ersten
14. A system according to claims 9, 10, 12 or 13 char· Basisstation vor einer FunkObertragung von
acterized in that the combined first buffering delay 15 der ersten Basisstation zu der Mobilstation,
of said first buffering means, said forth buffering Ubertragen einer zweiten Ubertragung der Be-
means and said third buffering means is jointly min- nutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen in der Uplink-
imized together with the combined second buffering und Downlink-Richtung zwischen der steuern-
delay of said second buffering means, said fifth buff- den Mobilvermittlung und der zweiten Basissta-
ering means and said third buffering means, and in 20 tion auf einer zweiten digitalen Ubertragungs-
that the difference between said first combined verbindung,
buffering delay and said second combined buffering zweites Zwischenspeichern der Downlink-Be-
delay corresponds to the differential time delay of nutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen in der zweiten
said first transmission of said user communication Basisstation vor einer FunkObertragung von
frames on said first digital transmission connection 25 der zweiten Basisstation zu der Mobilstation,
and said second transmission of said user commu-
nication frames on said second digital transmission gekennzeichnet durch die weiteren Schritte
connection.
erstes Senden von Zeitsynchronisieranforde-
15. A system according to claims 9, 10, 12, 13 or 14 30 rungen mit Bezug auf die Benutzer-Kommun-
wherein the user communication radio signals re- kations-Rahmen, von der ersten Basisstation
layed between said mobile station and said first and zu der steuernden Mobilvermittlung, wobei die
said second base station are CDMA spread spec- Zeitsynchronisieranforderungen tor eine erste
trum modulated. Steuerung der Verzogerung des ersten Zwi-
35 schenspeicherns bei der ersten Basisstation
16. A system according to claims 9, 10, 12, 13 or 14, vorgesehen sind,
wherein said user communication radio signals re- zweites Senden von Zeitsynchronisieranforde-
layed between said mobile station and said first and rungen mit Bezug auf die Benutzer-Kommun-
second base station are TOMA modulated. kationsrahmen, von der zweiten Basisstation
40 zu der steuernden Mobilvermittlung, wobei die
Zeitsynchronisieranforderungen tor eine zwei-
Patentanspruche te Steuerung der Verzogerung des zweiten
Zwischenspeicherns bei der zweiten Basissta-
1. Verfahren zum sanften Weiterreichen in einem zel- tion vorgesehen sind,
lularen Telekommunikationssystem, in dem eine 45 drittes Zwischenspeichern von Downlink-Kom-
Benutzer-Mobilstation Benutzer-Kommunikations- munikationssignalen von dem anderen Sy-
funksignale Ober zumindest eine einer Vielzahl von stembenutzer bei der steuernden Mobilvermitt-
Basisstationen weiterleitet und in dem die Basissta- lung,
tionen weiterhin die Benutzer-Kommunikationssi- Verarbeiten der zwischengespeicherten Down-
gnale zu und von einer steuernden Mobilvermitt- 50 link-Kommunikationssignale von dem anderen
lung weiterleiten, welche an einen anderen System- Systembenutzer bei der steuernden Mobilver-
benutzer angeschlossen ist, wobei die weiterhin er- mittlung, wobei die Verarbeitung zu den Down-
folgende Weiterleitung von Benutzer-Kommunika- link-Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen toh rt,
tionssignalen unter Verwendung von digitalen Rah- viertes Zwischenspeichern der verarbeiteten
men durchgetohrt wird, welche auf digitalen Uber- 55 Downlink-Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen
tragungsverbindungen in der Uplink- und Downlink- in der steuernden Mobilvermittlung vor der er-
Richtung getragen werden, wobei das Verfahren sten Downlink-Ubertragung von der steuern-
zum sanften Weiterreichen die Schritte aufweist: den Mobilvermittlung zu der ersten Basisstati-

12
23 EP O 720 805 81 24

on, wobei die Rahmen-Zeitsynchronisierung len Zwischenspeichers.
der ersten Downlink-Ubertragung auf die er-
sten Zeitsynchronisieranforderungen anspre- 4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch ge-
chend ist, kennzeichnet, dass
fGnftes Zwischenspeichern der verarbeiteten 5 das vierte und das fGnfte Zwischenspeichern
Downlink-Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen der verarbeiteten Downlink-Benutzer-Kommunika-
in der steuernden Mobilvermittlung vor der tionsrahmen in der steuernden Mobilvermittlung
zweiten Downlink-Ubertragung von der steu- verwendet wird, um die differentielle Zeitverzoge-
ernden Mobilvermittlung zu der zweiten Basis- rung der ersten Ubertragung der Benutzer-Kommu-
station, wobei die Rahmen-Zeitsynchronisie- 10 nikationsrahmen auf der ersten digitalen Ubertra-
rung der zweiten Downlink-Ubertragung auf die gungsverbindung und der zweiten Ubertragung der
zweiten Zeitsynch ronisieranforderu ngen an- Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen auf der zweiten
sprechend ist. digitalen Ubertragungsverbindung zu kompensie-
ren.
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei 15
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, 2 oder 4, wobei die
die erste Zeitsynchronisieranforderung, bzw. kombinierte erste Zwischenspeicherungsverzoge-
die zweite Zeitsynchronisieranforderung, ein rung, die die Verzogerungen des ersten Zwischen-
Voreilen oder eine Verzogerung bei den ersten speicherns, des vierten Zwischenspeicherns und
bzw. den zweiten Downlink-Ubertragungen der 20 des dritten Zwischenspeicherns umfasst, gemein-
Downlink-Kommunikationsrahmen bezogen sam zusammen mit der kombinierten zweiten Zwi-
auf die wirksame Einstellung anzeigt, wobei die schenspeicherungsverzogerung minimiert wird,
Anzeige des Voreilens oder der Verzogerung welche die Verzogerungen des zweiten Zwischen-
entsprechend Schwellenwerten erfolgt, speicherns, des fGnften Zwischenspeicherns und
die erste Steuerung der Verzogerung der er- 25 des dritten Zwischenspeicherns umfasst, wobei
sten Zwischenspeicherung und die zweite dies anhand der ersten und der zweiten Zeitsyn-
Steuerung der Verzogerung der zweiten Zwi- chronisieranforderungen und der Verarbeitung der
schenspeicherung eine Minimierung derersten Downlink-Kommunikationssignale erfolgt.
und zweiten Zwischenspeicherungsverzoge-
rung bedeuten, 30 6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, 2, 4 oder 5, wobei die
das dritte Zwischenspeichern der Downlink- kombinierte erste Zwischenspeicherungsverzi:ige-
Kommunikationssignale von dem anderen Sy- rung, die die Verzogerungen des ersten Zwischen-
stembenutzer bei der steuernden Mobilvermitt- speicherns, des vierten Zwischenspeicherns und
lung zudem den Schritt des Speicherns der des dritten Zwischenspeicherns umfasst, gemein-
Downlink-Kommunikationssignale des ande- 35 sam zusammen mit der kombinierten zweiten Zwi-
ren Systembenutzers in der Form von digitalen schenspeicherungsverzogerung minimiert wird,
Codeworten in einem digitalen Zwischenspei- welche die Verzogerungen des zweiten Zwischen-
cher aufweist, speicherns, des fGnften Zwischenspeicherns und
und wobei die Verarbeitung der zwischenge- des dritten Zwischenspeicherns umfasst, und wo-
speicherten Downlink-Kommunikationssignale 40 bei die Differenz zwischen der ersten kombinierten
zudem die Schritte aufweist Zwischenspeicherungsverzogerung und der zwei-
Manipulieren der lnhalte des digitalen Zwi- ten kombinierten Zwischenspeicherungsverzoge-
schenspeichers im Ansprechen auf die ersten rung der differentiellen Zeitverzogerung der ersten
und zweiten Zeitsynchronisieranforderungen, Ubertragung der Benutzer-Kommunikationsrah-
und 45 men auf der ersten digitalen Ubertragungsverbin-
Umcodieren der manipulierten lnhalte des digi- dung und der zweiten Ubertragung der Benutzer-
talen Zwischenspeichers in die Downlink-Be- Kommunikationsrahmen auf der zweiten digitalen
nutzer-Kommunikationssignale. Ubertragungsverbindung entspricht.

3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei der Schritt des 50 7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, 2, 4, 5 oder 6, wobei
Manipulierens der lnhalte des digitalen Zwischen- die Benutzer-Kommunikationsfunksignale, die zwi-
speichers einen der folgenden Schritte aufweist schen der Mobilstation und der ersten und der zwei-
ten Basisstation weitergeleitet werden, CDMA-
HinzufGgen digitaler Codeworte in den digitalen Spreizspektrum-moduliert sind.
Zwischenspeicher, 55
Loschen digitaler Codeworte aus dem digitalen 8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, 2, 4, 5 oder 6, wobei
Zwischenspeicher, die Benutzer-Kommunikationsfunksignale, die zwi-
unverandertes Belassen des In halts des digita- schen der Mobilstation und der ersten und der zwei-

13
25 EP O 720 805 81 26

ten Basisstation weitergeleitet werden, TDMA-mo- tungen bei der ersten Basisstation vorgesehen
duliert sind. sind,
zweite Sendeeinrichtungen zum Senden von
9. Zellulares Telekommunikationssystem, mit Zeitsynchronisieranforderungen mit Bezug auf
5 die Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen, von der
einer Vielzahl von Mobilvermittlungen, zweiten Basisstation zu der steuernden Mobil-
einer Vielzahl von Basisstationen, und vermittlung, wobei die Zeitsynchronisieranfor-
einer Benutzer-Mobilstation, die Benutzer- derungen tor eine zweite Steuerung der Verzo-
Kommunikationsfunksignale Ober zumindest gerung der zweiten Zwischenspeichereinrich-
eine der Basisstationen weiterleitet, wobei die 10 tungen an der zweiten Basisstation vorgese-
eine der Basisstationen weiterhin die Benutzer- hen sind,
Kommunikationssignale zu und von einer steu- dritte Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen zur Zwi-
ernden Mobilvermittlung weiterleitet, welche an schenspeicherung von Downlink-Kommunika-
einen anderen Systembenutzer angeschlos- tionssignalen von dem anderen Systembenut-
sen ist, und die Weiterleitung von Benutzer- 15 zer an der steuernden Mobilvermittlung,
Kommunikation unter Verwendung digitaler Verarbeitungseinrichtungen zur Verarbeitung
Rahmen erfolgt, die auf digitalen Ubertra- der zwischengespeicherten Downlink-Kommu-
gungsverbindungen in Uplink- und Downlink- nikationssignale von dem anderen Systembe-
Richtungen getragen werden, nutzer an der steuernden Mobilvermittlung, wo-
Einrichtungen zum lnitiieren eines sanften Wei- 20 bei die Verarbeitung zu den Downlink-Benut-
terreichens mit Diversity-Combining, um die zer-Kommunikationsrahmen tohrt,
steuernde Mobilvermittlung zu veranlassen, vierte Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen zur Zwi-
gleichzeitig mit der Mobilstation Ober eine erste schenspeicherung derverarbeiteten Downlink-
Basisstation und eine zweite Basisstation zu Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen in der steu-
kommunizieren, 25 ernden Mobilvermittlung vor der ersten Down-
ersten Ubertragungseinrichtungen zum Uber- link-Ubertragung von der steuernden Mobilver-
tragen der Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen mittlung zu der ersten Basisstation, wobei die
in der Uplink- und Downlink-Richtung zwischen Rahmen-Zeitsynchronisation der ersten Down-
der steuernden Mobilvermittlung und der er- link-Ubertragung auf die ersten Zeitsynchroni-
sten Basisstation auf einer ersten digitalen 30 sieranforderungen ansprechend ist,
Ubertragungsverbindung, tonfte Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen zur Zwi-
ersten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen zur schenspeicherung derverarbeiteten Downlink-
Zwischenspeicherung der Downlink-Benutzer- Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen in der steu-
Kommunikationsrahmen in der ersten Basis- ernden Mobilvermittlung vor der zweiten Down-
station vor einer FunkObertragung von der er- 35 link-Ubertragung von der steuernden Mobilver-
sten Basisstation zu der Mobilstation, mittlung zu der zweiten Basisstation, wobei die
zweiten Ubertragungseinrichtungen zum Uber- Rahmen-Zeitsynchronisierung der zweiten
tragen von Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen Downlink-Ubertragung auf die zweiten Zeitsyn-
in der Uplink- und Downlink-Richtung zwischen chronisieranforderungen ansprechend ist.
der steuernden Mobilvermittlung und der zwei- 40
ten Basisstation auf einer zweiten digitalen 10. System nach Anspruch 9, wobei
Ubertragungsverbindung,
zweiten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen zur die erste Zeitsynchronisieranforderung, bzw.
Zwischenspeicherung der Downlink-Benutzer- die zweite Zeitsynchronisieranforderung, ein
Kommunikationsrahmen in der zweiten Basis- 45 Voreilen oder eine Verzogerung in den ersten,
station vor einer FunkObertragung von der bzw. den zweiten, Downlink-Ubertragungen
zweiten Basisstation zu der Mobilstation, der Downlink-Kommunikationsrahmen bezo-
gen auf die wirksame Einstellung anzeigt, wo-
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das System zu- bei die Anzeige des Voreilens oder der Verzo-
dem aufweist 50 gerung entsprechend Schwellenwerten erfolgt,
die ersten und die zweiten Sendeeinrichtungen
erste Sendeeinrichtungen zum Senden von tor das erste Steuern der Verzogerung der er-
Zeitsynchronisieranforderungen mit Bezug auf sten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen und das
die Benutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen, von der zweite Steuern der Verzogerung der zweiten
ersten Basisstation zu der steuernden Mobil- 55 Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen die Verzoge-
vermittlung, wobei die Zeitsynchronisieranfor- rungen der ersten und zweiten Zwischenspei-
derungen tor eine erste Steuerung der Verzo- chereinrichtungen minimieren,
gerung der ersten Zwischenspeichereinrich- die dritten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen zu-

14
27 EP O 720 805 81 28

dem Mittel zum Speichern der Downlink-Kom- gekennzeichnet, dass
munikationssignale des anderen Systembe- die kombinierte erste Zwischenspeicherungs-
nutzers in der Form digitaler Codeworte in ei- verzogerung der ersten Zwischenspeichereinrich-
nem digitalen Zwischenspeicher aufweist, tungen, der vierten Zwischenspeichereinrichtun-
die Verarbeitungseinrichtungen zum Verarbei- 5 gen und der dritten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen
ten der zwischengespeicherten Downlink- gemeinsam zusammen mit der kombinierten zwei-
Kommunikationssignale zudem ten Zwischenspeicherungsverzogerung der zwei-
Mittel zur Manipulation der lnhalte des digitalen ten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen, der fOnften
Zwischenspeichers im Ansprechen auf die er- Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen und der dritten
sten und zweiten Zeitsynchrenisieranforderun- 10 Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen minimiert wird,
gen, und und dass die Differenz zwischen der ersten kombi-
Mittel zur Umkodierung der manipulierten ln- nierten Zwischenspeicherungsverzogerung und
halte des digitalen Zwischenspeichers in den der zweiten kombinierten Zwischenspeicherungs-
Downlink-Benutzer-Kommunikationssignalen verzogerung der differentiellen Zeitverzogerung der
aufweist. 15 ersten Ubertragung der Benutzer-Kommunikati-
onsrahmen auf der ersten digitalen Ubertragungs-
11. System nach Anspruch 10, wobei verbindung und der zweiten Ubertragung der Be-
die Mittel zur Manipulation der lnhalte des digitalen nutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen auf der zweiten di-
Zwischenspeichers eine der folgenden Funktionen gitalen Ubertragungsverbindung entspricht.
umfassen 20
15. System nach Anspruch 9, 1o, 12, 13 oder 14, wobei
HinzufOgen digitaler Codeworte in den digitalen die Benutzer-Kommunikationsfunksignale, die zwi-
Zwischenspeicher, schen der Mobilstation und der ersten und der zwei-
Loschen digitaler Codeworte aus dem digitalen ten Basisstation weitergeleitet werden, CDMA-
Zwischenspeicher, 25 Spreizspektrum-moduliert sind.
unverandertes Belassen des In halts des digita-
len Zwischenspeichers. 16. System nach Anspruch 9, 10, 12, 13 oder 14, wobei
die Benutzer-Kommunikations-funksignale, die
12. System nach Anspruch 9 oder 1o, dadurch ge- zwischen der Mobilstation und der ersten und der
kennzeichnet, dass 30 zweiten Basisstation weitergeleitet werden, TDMA-
die vierten und die fOnften Zwischenspeicher- moduliert sind.
einrichtungen zur Verarbeitung von Downlink-Be-
nutzer-Kommunikationsrahmen in der steuernden
Mobilvermittlung verwendet werden, um die diffe- Revendications
rentielle Zeitverzogerung der ersten Ubertragungs- 35
einrichtungen, die die Benutzer-Kommunikations- 1. Precede pour relais transparent dans un systeme
rahmen auf der ersten digitalen Ubertragungsver- de telecommunication cellulaire dans lequel une
bindung Obertragen und der zweiten Ubertragungs- station mobile d'usager relaie des signaux radioe-
einrichtungen, die die Benutzer-Kommunikations- lectriques de communication d'usagers par l'inter-
rahmen auf der zweiten digitalen Ubertragungsver- 40 mediaire d'au moins une station de base parmi une
bindung Obertragen, zu kompensieren. pluralite de stations de base, et dans lequel lesdites
stations de base relaient en outre lesdits signaux
13. System nach Anspruch 9, 1ooder12, dadurch ge- de communication d'usagers vers et depuis un cen-
kennzeichnet, dass a
tral mobile de commande connecte un autre usa-
die kombinierte erste Zwischenspeicherungs- 45 ger du systeme, ledit autre relais de signaux de
verzogerung der ersten Zwischenspeichereinrich- communication d'usagers etant execute en utilisant
tungen, der vierten Zwischenspeichereinrichtun- des trames numeriques acheminees lors de con-
gen und der dritten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen nexions de transmissions numeriques en liaison
gemeinsam zusammen mit der kombinierten zwei- montante et descendante, le precede pour relais
ten Zwischenspeicherungsverzogerung der zwei- 50 transparent comprenant les etapes consistant a:
ten Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen, der fOnften
Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen und der dritten declencher un relais transparent avec combi-
Zwischenspeichereinrichtungen durch die ersten naison de diversite de fai;:on a amener Iedit cen-
und die zweiten Zeitsynchrenisieranforderungen a
tral mobile de commande communiquer si-
und die Verarbeitung der Downlink-Kommunikati- 55 multanement avec ladite station mobile par l'in-
onssignale minimiert wird. termediaire d'une premiere station de base et
d'une seconde station de base,
14. System nach Anspruch 9, 10, 12oder13, dadurch realiser une premiere transmission desdites

15
29 EP O 720 805 81 30

trames de communication d'usagers dans la di- premiere transmission en liaison descendante
rection montante et descendante entre le cen- depuis ledit central mobile de commande vers
tral mobile de comm an de et ladite premiere sta- ladite premiere station de base, le reglage de
tion de base lors d'une premiere connexion de temporisation de trames de ladite premiere
transmission numerique, 5 transmission en liaison descendante se faisant
effectuer une premiere mise en memoire tam- en reponse auxdites premieres demandes de
pon desdites trames de communication d'usa- reglage de temporisation,
gers en liaison descendante dans ladite pre- effectuer dans ledit central mobile de comman-
miere station de base avant une transmission de une cinquieme mise en memoire tampon
radioelectrique depuis ladite premiere station 10 desdites trames de communication d'usagers
de base vers ladite station mobile, en liaison descendante traitees avant ladite se-
realiser une seconde transmission desdites tra- conde transmission en liaison descendante de-
mes de communication d'usagers en liaison puis ledit central mobile de commande vers la-
montante et descendante entre le central mo- dite seconde station de base, le reglage de
bile de commande et ladite seconde station de 15 temporisation de trames de ladite seconde
base lors d'une seconde connexion de trans- transmission en liaison descendante se faisant
mission numerique, en reponse auxdites secondes demandes de
realiser une seconde mise en memo ire tampon reglage de temporisation.
desdites trames de communication d'usagers
en liaison descendante dans ladite seconde 20 2. Precede selon la revendication 1, dans lequel
station de base avant une transmission radioe-
lectrique depuis ladite seconde station de base ladite premiere demande de reglage de tempo-
vers ladite station mobile, le precede etant ca- risation, ou respectivement ladite seconde de-
racterise en outre par les etapes consistant a: mande de reglage de temporisation, indique
realiser un premier envoi de demandes de re- 25 une avance ou un retard dans ladite premiere
glage de temporisation concern ant lesdites tra- ou respectivement ladite seconde transmission
mes de communication d'usagers, depuis ladi- en liaison descendante desdites trames de
te premiere station de base vers ledit central communication en liaison descendante par
mobile de commande, lesdites demandes de rapport au reglage en vigueur, ladite indication
a
reglage de temporisation etant destinees une 30 d'avance OU de retard etant faite en fonction de
premiere commande du retard de ladite pre- valeurs de seuils,
miere mise en memoire tampon dans ladite ladite premiere commande du retard de ladite
premiere station de base, premiere mise en memoire tampon et ladite se-
effectuer un deuxieme envoi de demandes de conde commande du retard de ladite seconde
reglage de temporisation concernant lesdites 35 mise en memoire tampon signifient une limita-
tram es de communication d'usagers, depuis la- tion du retard desdites premiere et seconde mi-
dite seconde station de base vers led it central ses en memoire tampon,
mobile de commande, lesdites demandes de ladite treisieme mise en memoire tampon des-
a
reglage de temporisation etant destinees une dits signaux de communication en liaison des-
seconde commande du retard de ladite secon- 40 cendante envoyes par ledit autre usager du
demise en memo ire tampon dans ladite secon- systeme dans ledit central mobile de comman-
de station de base, de comprenant en outre l'etape consistant a
effectuer une treisieme mise en memoire tam- stocker dans une memoire tampon numerique
pon de signaux de communication en liaison lesdits signaux de communication en liaison
descendante envoyes par ledit autre usager du 45 descendante dudit autre usager du systeme
systeme dans ledit central mobile de comman- a
sous la forme de mots codage numerique,
de, ledittraitement desdits signaux de communica-
traiter lesdits signaux de communication en tion en liaison descendante en memoire tam-
liaison descendante en memoire tampon en- pon comprenant en outre les etapes consistant
voyes par ledit autre usager du systeme dans 50 a
ledit central mobile de commande, ledit traite- manipuler le contenu de ladite memoire tam-
ment ayant pour consequence lesdites trames pon numerique en reponse auxdites premiere
de communication d'usagers en liaison des- et seconde demandes de reglage de tempori-
cendante; sation, et
effectuer dans ledit central mobile de comman- 55 transcoder led it contenu manipule de ladite me-
de une quatrieme mise en memoire tampon mo ire tampon numerique dans lesdits signaux
desdites trames de communication d'usagers de communication d'usagers en liaison des-
en liaison descendante traitees avant ladite cendante.

16
31 EP O 720 805 81 32

3. Precede selon la revendication 2, dans lequel l'eta- nication d'usagers Iors de ladite seconde connexion
pe de manipulation du contenu de ladite memoire de transmission numerique.
tampon numerique comporte l'une des etapes sui-
vantes, consistant a: 7. Precede selon la revendication 1, 2, 4, 5 ou 6, dans
5 lequel les signaux radioelectriques de communica-
a
ajouter des mots codage numerique dans la- tion d'usagers relayes entre ladite station mobile et
dite memoire tampon numerique, ladite premiere et ladite seconde stations de base
supprimer des mots a codage numerique de la- sont soumis a une modulation a etalement de spec-
dite memoire tampon numerique, tre avec acces multiple par difference de code.
laisser inchange le contenu de ladite memoire 10
tampon numerique. 8. Precede selon la revendication 1, 2, 4, 5 ou 6, dans
lequel lesdits signaux radioelectriques de commu-
4. Precede selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caracterise nication d'usagers relayes entre ladite station mo-
en ce que ladite quatrieme et ladite cinquieme mi- bile et ladite premiere et ladite seconde stations de
ses en memoire tampon desdites trames de com- 15 base sont soumis a une modulation a AMRC.
munication d'usagers en liaison descendante trai-
tees dans ledit central mobile de commande ser- 9. Systeme de communication cellulaire, comprenant:
a
vent compenser la difference de retard de ladite
premiere transmission desdites trames de commu- une pluralite de centraux mobiles,
nication d'usagers lors de ladite premiere con- 20 une pluralite de stations de stations de base, et
nexion de transmission numerique et ladite secon- une station mobile d'usager relayant des si-
de transmission de trames de communication gnaux radioelectriques de communication
d'usagers lors de ladite seconde connexion de d'usagers via au moins l'une desdites stations
transmission numerique. de base, cette premiere station de base re-
25 layant en outre lesdits signaux de communica-
5. Precede selon la revendication 1, 2 ou 4, dans le- tion d'usagers vers et depuis un central mobile
quel le premier retard combine demise en memo ire de commande connecte a un autre usager du
tampon, constitue par les retards de ladite premiere systeme, et ledit relais de communication
mise en memo ire tampon, de ladite quatrieme mise d'usagers etant effectue en utilisant des trames
en memoire tampon et de ladite treisieme mise en 30 numeriques acheminees lors de connexions de
memoire tampon est conjointement limite avec le transmission numerique en liaisons montante
second retard combine de mise en memoire tam- et descendante,
pon, comportant les retards de ladite seconde mise un moyen pour declencher un relais transpa-
en memoire tampon, de ladite cinquieme mise en rent avec combinaison de diversite afin d'ame-
memoire tampon et de ladite treisieme mise en me- 35 ner ledit central mobile de commande a com-
moire tampon, a l'aide desdites premiere et secon- muniquer simultanement avec ladite station
de demandes de reglage de temporisation et dud it mobile par l'intermediaire d'une premiere sta-
traitement desdits signaux de communication en tion de base et d'une seconde station de base,
liaison descendante. un premier moyen de transmission pour trans-
40 mettre lesdites trames de communication
6. Precede selon la revendication 1, 2, 4 ou 5, dans d'usagers en liaisons montante et descendante
lequel le premier retard combine de mise en me- entre le central mobile de commande et ladite
moire tampon, compose des retards de ladite pre- premiere station de base lors d'une premiere
miere mise en memoire tampon, de ladite quatrie- connexion de transmission numerique,
me mise en memoire tampon et de ladite treisieme 45 un premier moyen demise en memoire tampon
mise en memoire tampon, est conjointement limite pour mettre en memoire tampon lesdites tra-
avec le second retard combine demise en memo ire mes de communication d'usagers en liaison
tampon, compose des retards de laditeseconde mi- descendante dans ladite premiere station de
se en memoire tampon, de ladite cinquieme mise base avant une transmission radioelectrique
en memoire tampon et de ladite treisieme mise en 50 entre ladite premiere station de base et ladite
memoire tampon, et dans lequel la difference entre station mobile,
ledit premier retard combine de mise en memoire un second moyen de transmission pour trans-
tampon et ledit second retard combine de mise en mettre des trames de communication d'usa-
memoire tampon correspond a la difference de re- gers en liaisons montante et descendante entre
tard de ladite premiere transmission desdites tra- 55 le central mobile de commande et ladite secon-
mes de communication d'usagers lors de la premie- de station de base lors d'une seconde con-
re connexion de transmission numerique et ladite nexion de transmission numerique,
seconde transmission desdites trames de commu- un second moyen demise en memoire tampon

17
33 EP O 720 805 81 34

pour mettre en memoire tampon lesdites tra- demandes de reglage de temporisation.
mes de communication d'usagers en liaison
descendante dans ladite seconde station de 10. Systeme selon la revendication 9, dans lequel
base avant une transmission radioelectrique
entre ladite seconde station de base et ladite 5 ladite premiere demande de reglage de tempo-
station mobile, ledit systeme etant en outre ca- risation, ou respectivement ladite seconde de-
racterise en ce qu'il comprend: mande de reglage de temporisation, indique
un premier moyen d'envoi pour envoyer des une avance ou un retard dans ladite premiere
demandes de reglage de temporisation concer- ou respectivement ladite seconde transmission
nant lesdites trames de communication d'usa- 10 en liaison descendante desdites trames de
gers, depuis ladite premiere station de base communication en liaison descendante par
vers Iedit central mobile de comm an de, lesdites rapport au reglage en vigueur, ladite indication
demandes de reglage de temporisation etant d'avance ou de retard dependant de valeurs de
a
destinees une premiere commande du retard seuil,
dudit premier moyen demise en memoire tam- 15 lesdits premier et second moyens d'envoi pour
pon dans ladite premiere station de base, ladite premiere commande du retard dudit pre-
un second moyen d'envoi pour envoyer des de- mier moyen demise en memoire tampon et la-
mandes de reglage de temporisation concer- dite seconde commande du retard dudit se-
nant lesdites trames de communication d'usa- cond moyen de mise en memoire tampon limi-
gers, depuis ladite seconde station de base 20 tent les retards desdits premier et second
vers Iedit central mobile de comm an de, lesdites moyens demise en memoire tampon,
demandes de reglage de temporisation etant ledittroisieme moyen demise en memo ire tam-
a
destinees une seconde commande du retard pon comprenant en outre un moyen pour stoc-
dudit second moyen demise en memoire tam- ker lesdits signaux de communication en
pon dans ladite seconde station de base, 25 liaison descendante dudit autre utilisateur du
un troisieme moyen de mise en memoire tam- a
systeme sous la forme de mots codage nu-
pon pour mettre en memoire tampon des si- merique dans une memoire tampon numeri-
gnaux de communication en liaison descen- que,
dante envoyes par ledit autre usager du syste- Iedit moyen de traitement pour traiter lesdits si-
me dans led it central mobile de commande, 30 gn aux de communication en liaison descen-
un moyen de traitement pour traiter lesdits si- dante en memo ire tampon comportant en outre
gnaux de communication en liaison descen- un moyen pour manipuler le contenu de ladite
dante en memoire tampon envoyes par ledit memo ire tampon numerique en reponse auxdi-
autre usager du systeme dans Iedit central mo- tes premiere et seconde demandes de reglage
bile de commande, ledit traitement ayant pour 35 de temporisation, et
resultat lesdites trames de communication un moyen pour transcoder ledit contenu mani-
d'usagers en liaison descendante, pule de ladite memoire tampon numerique
un quatrieme moyen demise en memoire tam- dans lesdits signaux de communication d'usa-
pon pour mettre en memoire tampon lesdites gers en liaison descendante.
trames de communication d'usagers en liaison 40
descendante traitees dans ledit central mobile 11. Systeme selon la revendication 10, dans lequel Iedit
de commande avant ladite premiere transmis- moyen pour manipuler le contenu de ladite memo ire
sion en liaison descendante dudit central mo- tampon numerique comporte l'une des fonctions
bile de commande vers ladite premiere station suivantes, consistant a
de base, le reglage de temporisation de trames 45
de ladite premiere transmission en liaison des- a
ajouter des mots code numerique dans ladite
cendante se faisant en reponse auxdites pre- memoire tampon numerique,
mieres demandes de reg Iage de temporisation' a
supprimer des mots code numerique de ladite
un cinquieme moyen demise en memoire tam- memoire tampon numerique,
pon pour mettre en memoire tampon lesdites 50 laisser inchange le contenu de ladite memoire
trames de communication d'usagers en liaison tampon numerique.
descendante traitees dans ledit central mobile
de commande avant ladite seconde transmis- 12. Systeme selon la revendication 9 ou 10,
sion en liaison descendante dudit central mo- caracterise en ce que lesdits quatrieme et
a
bile de commande ladite seconde station de 55 cinquieme moyens de mise en memoire tampon
base, le reglage de temporisation de trames de pour traiter des trames de communication d'usa-
ladite seconde transmission en liaison descen- gers en liaison descendante dans ledit central mo-
dante se faisant en reponse auxdites secondes a
bile de commande servent compenser la differen-

18
35 EP O 720 805 81 36

ce de retard dudit premier moyen de transmission
transmettant lesdites trames de communication
d'usagers lors de ladite premiere connexion de
transmission numerique et ledit second moyen de
transmission transmettant lesdites trames de com- 5
munication d'usagers lors de ladite seconde con-
nexion de transmission numerique.

13. Systeme selon la revendication 9, 1O ou 12,
caracterise en ce que le premier retard com- 10
bine de mise en memoire tampon dudit premier
moyen demise en memoire tampon, dudit quatrie-
me moyen demise en memo ire tampon et dudittroi-
sieme moyen demise en memoire tampon est con-
jointement limite avec le second retard combine de 15
mise en memoire tampon dudit second moyen de
mise en memoire tampon, dudit cinquieme moyen
de mise en memoire tampon et dudit troisieme
moyen de mise en memoire tampon par lesdites
premiere et seconde demandes de reglage de tern- 20
porisation et ledit traitement desdits signaux de
communication en liaison descendante.

14. Systeme selon la revendication 9, 10, 12 ou 13,
caracterise en ce que le premier retard com- 25
bine de mise en memoire tampon dudit premier
moyen demise en memoire tampon, dudit quatrie-
me moyen demise en memo ire tampon et dudittroi-
sieme moyen demise en memoire tampon est con-
jointement limite avec le second retard combine de 30
mise en memoire tampon dudit second moyen de
mise en memoire tampon, dudit cinquieme moyen
de mise en memoire tampon et dudit troisieme
moyen demise en memoire tampon, et en ce que
la difference entre le premier retard combine de mi- 35
seen memoire tampon et ledit second retard com-
bine de mise en memoire tampon correspond la a
difference de retard de ladite premiere transmission
desdites trames de communication d'usagers lors
de ladite premiere connexion de transmission nu- 40
merique et ladite seconde transmission desdites
trames de communication d'usagers lors de ladite
seconde connexion de transmission numerique.

15. Systeme selon la revendication 9, 10, 12, 13 ou 14, 45
dans lequel les signaux radioelectriques de com-
munication d'usagers relayes entre ladite station
mobile et lesdites premiere et seconde stations de
a a
base sont soumis une modulation etalement de
spectre avec acces multiple par difference de code. 50

16. Systeme selon la revendication 9, 10, 12, 13 ou 14,
dans lequel lesdits signaux radioelectriques de
communication d'usagers relayes entre ladite sta-
tion mobile et lesdites premiere et seconde stations 55
a
de base sont soumis une modulation AMRT.a

19
EP O 720 805 81

MSC

10

12
50
MSC MSC 14

~
~6
~EJ
BS
22
BS
24
BS
26
BS

Fig. 1

20
EP O 720 805 81

TO/FROM
TO/FROM OTHER TO/FROM
PSTN MSC BASE STATIONS

DIGITAL DIGITAL DIGITAL DIGITAL
120 LINK 122 124
LINK LINK LINK 126

, 14
I '.

_____.._
DIGITAL .'
!

SWITCH I

I ..------..,132

1'1
II
112
134

TRANSCODER & COMBINER

DIGITAL
MEMORY
1-----------J 104

MSC
~
100 102
DIGITAL ··--···· .. ·r· -~
I
i CONTROL
PROCESSOR ) l PROCESSOR
140

110

Fig. 2

21
EP 0 720 805 81

TO/FROM
MOBILE STATION
230
DIGITAL
RADIO
LINK
200
202 'f 204

I CDMA
EMOOULATO
[_.
··-
CDMA
MODULATOR

TIMING
----·---·--·-··-·;·-··-- ··- SOURCE
'
'

206 208
DE· ENCODER
INTER LEAVER
DECODER INTERLEAVER
222

BS
____.. ·-- ----·--
_ ..., CONTROL
'
' PROCESSOR
212

DIGITAL DIGITAL
MEMORY i.----.i PROCESSOR - ....... ----- · ····- ... ······ · ·

,.----·-·--------·---,,,.. ~-----·---··-

DIGITAL
LINK 232

TO/FROM
MSC

Fig. 3

22
19/04 '02 11:21 FAX 358 9 1807 593 NOKIA CORP TRADE!IARKSTR
- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _J_ - - @001

EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANl>AlIDS JNSTITUTE
page 1of19

ANNEXl

IPR 1NFORMA1 ION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

IPR Halder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nakia Corpor,ron

Sign11tory

Name: Harri Honkasal
Position: Director of IP ., Smndards _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Department: IPR _ _ _~l-------------------------------
Address: Keilalahdentie ! - 4, FJN-02150 ESPOO, P.0.Box 226, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FlNLAND _

Tel.: +358 718008QJO - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
+ 358718034· 96 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

h:m:i.honkasal @nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance wilh the ET .I IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSithat,

with reference t' !he technical proposal identified"'' UMTS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IL is my belief that the Jl'R : listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to became, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

Tho SIGNATORY has Jlo .ificd ETSI that k is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IP s may b0 considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its APFILIATES hereby declarn Uiat they arc prepared to granl irrevocable licenses under
the Jl'Rs on terms and cor~ltlons which are ill accOrdance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the CJ(ter ·that lhc IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The constn1ction, validity nd perfotmance of !his DECLARATION shall be govemed by the laws ofFrnnce.
~
Place, Date: Signature~

11

Bspoa, Finland, 19 April 2002_:!--
(Signed for und 011 behalf of lh~ SIGNATORY)

Plca!le reru1'n chis form duly signed ro;
ETSI Direcror General. Karl Heinz Rosenbrook

ETSI - 650, route do> Luoiolos - F·06921 Sophia Antipolis Ccdcx - FRANCE
Foy +~~ rm4g~ Ii'\ 4716
\

E7S«( »>' EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE

ElJrcpenn PatenL TS 25.401, TR 25,931,
page 13 ()f 19
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TR 25,990

TS 25.401, TR25,931,
United SLIIILes 619458 5850607
TR 25.990 'z
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....
0

'-'
出願番号等
特許出願人 発明の名称 備考(出願国名)
REGISTRATION NO./
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
ノキアテレコミュニカ セルラー遠隔通信システムのソフトハンドオフ方法 特許-3154493 Applied in Australia, European Patent
シオンスオサケユキチ Office, Finland, Norway, United States
ュア *1.00 of America
ノキアテレコミュニカ セルラー遠隔通信システムの交換機間ソフトハンドオフ方 特表平 9-505948 Applied in Australia, Norway,
シオンスオサケユキチ 法 Netherlands, Italy, United States of
ュア *1.00 America, France, Finland, Spain,
European Patent Office, Switzerland,
Austria, Germany, United Kingdom
ノキアテレコミュニカ TDMA移動通信システムにおけるデータ送信方法 特表平 10-511818 Applied in United States of America,
シオンスオサケユキチ Finland, Hong Kong, Italy,
ュア *1.00 Korea(South), France, Singapore,
Austria, Finland, Spain, European
Patent Office, Germany, China,
Switzerland, Canada, Australia, United
Kingdom
ノキアテレコミュニカ TDMA移動通信システムにおけるデータ送信方法 特表平 10-509566 Applied in Korea(South), United States
シオンスオサケユキチ of America, China, Singapore, Hong
ュア *1.00 Kong, Finland, European Patent
Office, Canada, Australia
ノキアテレコミュニカ パケット無線システム、及びパケット無線ネットワークに 特表平 10-512409 Applied in Finland, United States of
シオンスオサケユキチ おいてデータパケットをプロトコルとは独立してルート指 America, Singapore, Norway, Hong
ュア *1.00 定する方法 Kong, European Patent Office, China,
Canada, Australia
ノキアネットワークス 電気通信システムにおける測定報告 特表2002-504792 Applied in Canada, China, European
オサケユイチア *1.00 Patent Office, Finland, Japan, United
States of America, WO
ノ キ ア ネ ッ ト ワ ー ク ス テレコミュニケーションネットワークにおける情報転送ク 特表2002-501717 Applied in Australia, China, European
オサケユキチュア *1.00 オリティの保証 Patent Office, Finland, Norway, United
States of America, WO
ノキアネットワークス 移動通信システム用のアクセス制御方法 特表 2001-508276 Applied in Canada, China, European
オサケユキチュア *1.00 Patent Office, Finland, Hong Kong,
Japan, United States of America, WO,
South Africa
ノキアネットワークス 無線システムのパケット交換データ伝送 特表 2002-523934 Applied in Australia, China, European
オサケユキチュア *1.00 Patent Office, Finland, Japan, Norway,
United States of America, WO

42
2
A2390VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US005805301A
United States Patent r191 [11] Patent Number: 5,805,301
Rasanen [45] Date of Patent: Sep. 8, 1998

[54] FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION IN A MOBILE 4-196967 7/1992 Japan ............................... H04N 1/32
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 9-172427 6/1997 Japan ................................ H04J 4/00
94/05114 of 0000 WIPO.
[75] Inventor: Juba Rasanen, Espoo, Finland 95/15644 6/1995 WIPO .
WO 95/31878 11/1995 WIPO .............................. H04Q 7/22
[73] Assignee: Nokia Telecommunications Oy, Espoo, WO 96/18248 6/1996 WIPO .............................. H04B 7/26
Finland
OTHER PUBLICAfIONS
[21] Appl. No.: 732,467
CCITT Blue Book: V 110, "Data Communication over the
[22] PCT Filed: Mar. 6, 1996 Telephone Network", Sep. 1992.
[86] PCT No.: PCT/FI9 6/0013 6 CCITT Blue Book: V 24, "Data Communication over the
Telephone Network", Mar. 1993.
§ 371 Date: Nov. 5, 1996
Patent Abstract of Japan, vol. 16, No. 530, E-1287,Shigeru
§ 102(e) Date: Nov. 5, 1996 Mikami, 16 Jul. 1992.
[87] PCT Pub. No.: W096/27975
Primary Examiner---Kim Yen Vu
PCT Pub. Date: Sep. 12, 1996 Assistant Examiner---Kimberly A. Williams
Attorney, A.gent, or Firm-IP Group of Pillsbury Madison &
[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Sutro LLP
Mar. 6, 1995 [FI] Finland .................................... 951020
[57] ABSTRACT
6
[51] Int. CI. ..................................................... H04N 1/333
A digital mobile communication system comprises a mobile
[52] U.S. CI........................... 358/425; 358/435; 370/536;
station(MS) with a facsimile adapter(2), a first telefax
455/450; 455/509
terminal(!) connected to the adapter, a mobile network(BSS,
[58] Field of Search ..................................... 358/409, 412,
MSC), an interworking unit(32) with a second facsimile
358/425, 435; 370/465, 468, 536; 455/426,
adapter(33). A high-speed transparent rate-adapted facsimile
450, 455, 509, 517; H04N 1/333
connection is set up between the telefax terminals. The
number of parallel traffic channels( chO-chn) allocated to the
[56] References Cited
high-speed data connection is such that the maximum data
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS rate of the data connection is higher than the allowed
maximum 10 data rate of the telefax terminals(l,10). The
4,805,167 2il989 Leslie et al. .............................. 370/84
telefax terminals may negotiate the facsimile data rate. The
5,050,004 9/1991 Morton, Jr.............................. 358/405
5,278,827 1/1994 Pound ....................................... 370/84
second facsimile adapter(33) monitors the negotiation and
5,335,225 8il994 Brax .......................................... 370/84 selects, on the basis of the negotiated facsimile data rate, the
5,583,851 12/1996 Kato et al. .............................. 370/468 most effective channel coding available for the data con-
nection.
FOREIGN PAfENT DOCUMENTS
334 669 9/1989 European Pat. Off.. 7 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

MS BSS MSC
Radio l/F 9
2 33
,-, /-\ l\o/F ) p
cha ' ' '
TE2
I
s
I ,_,I I I 2w T
N ,,1
N
31 chn 10
~

00

r.FJ.
("C

9 ~
2 ....exi
8 ~
MSC/IWF \C
p \C
(Xi
Fax 1 Fax s

~
TE2 Adapt MS BSS :Adapt T
2w N
1 6 BA 10 r.FJ.

3
=-
("C
("C

"""'"
~

FIG. 1 0
~
N
~

00

~
=
......
~

=
......
MS BSS MSC
Radio J/F 9
2
,-, /-\ p
r.FJ.
("C

cha I \ \ ~
I
s
..
....exi
\ I
\ I T ~

I
N '-' \,/
N
\C
\C
(Xi
1
31 chn 32 10

r.FJ.
=-
("C
("C

V110 """'"
N
0
~
N

FIG. 2
5,805,301
1 2
FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION IN A MOBILE through the adapters 2 and S at the ends of the GSM data
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM link. The T.30 protocol is only manipulated when it is
necessary to avoid problems resulting from the differences
This application is the national phase of international between the PSTN and GSM systems. For example in a
application PCT/FI96/00136, filed Mar. 6, 1996 which des- 5 GSM facsimile call, the user data rate which is determined
ignated the U.S. by the GSM network during the call set-up (on the basis of
information received from the mobile station or from the
HELD OF THE INVENTION subscriber data) is the allowed maximum data rate during
The invention relates to facsimile transmission in mobile the call. However, the telefax terminals may negotiate the
communication systems. 10 actual facsimile data rate during the call according to the
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION ITU-T Recommendation T.30. This actual data rate may
vary between 2.4 Kbps and the allowed maximum data rate.
ITU-T Recommendation T.30 defines procedures for The facsimile adapter SA of the network termination moni-
document facsimile transmission in the public switched tors the negotiation, and if the data rate agreed on is too high,
telephone network. The facsimile terminal<> according to this 15 the facsimile adapter SA intervenes in the negotiation.
recommendation are called Group 3 Facsimile terminals. A However, the telefax terminals typically begin negotiating
characteristic of the Group 3 facsimile terminals is that they for a lower data rate when the connection quality is too low.
are able to negotiate, in the beginning of a call, the facsimile In such a case, the facsimile adapter SA monitors the
data rate that is most suitable for the connection quality. The negotiation and adapts the GSM traffic channel to the
facsimile data rate can be renegotiated during the call if the 20 negotiated facsimile rate with a Channel Mode Modify
connection quality changes. The data rates generally used procedure (CMM). Decreasing the data rate also results in
for the Facsimile Group 3 are presently 2.4, 4.8, 7.2, 9.6, better and more effective channel coding. The GSM system
12.0 and 14.4 Kbps. The new Facsimile Group 3 data rates utilizes convolutional coding the efficiency of which can be
that will be supported by data modems in the near future indicated with a convolutional code ratio X;Y which means
include 16.6, 19.2, 21.6, 24.0, 26.4 Kbps, etc. in steps of 2.4 25 that in the channel coding X data bits are represented by Y
Kbps up to 38.4 Kbps, or higher. code bits. In a full-rate GSM traffic channel, the convolu-
The present telefax terminals have been designed for fixed tional code ratios of 'h, 1/3 and V6 are valid at the user data
telephone networks and they employ a modem interface and rates of 9.6 Kbps, 4.8 Kbps and 2.4 Kbps, respectively.
a two-wire connection (modem connection) via a telephone The GSM system cannot presently support the facsimile
network. Thus all signalling between telefax terminals has 30 services higher than 9.6 Kbps, however.
taken place over a modem connection. It has not been
necessary for the telephone network to monitor for example An arrangement by means of which higher facsimile data
the facsimile data rate negotiated by the telefax terminals or rates (12 Kbps, 14.4 Kbps, etc.) can also be supported is
to respond to the data rate by modifying the characteristics disclosed in a co-pending patent application of the
of the modem connection. Applicant, W095/31878 (unpublished on the filing elate of
35
the present application). In this arrangement, two or more
In a digital cellular radio network, the telefax terminal is
parallel traffic channels (subchannels) are allocated for one
located at a mobile station, whereupon the facsimile con-
high-speed data connection over the radio path. The high-
nection must be established through a radio link between the
rate data signal is divided in the transmitter into these
mobile station and the fixed radio network. For example in
parallel subchannels for the transmission over the radio path,
the Recommendation 03.45, version 4.4.0, of the Pan- 40
to be restored in the receiver. This approach enables the
European mobile system GSM (Global System for Mobile
supply of data transmission services wherein the transmis-
Communications), the technical implementation of the ser-
sion rate is as high as eight-fold compared to the conven-
vice supporting the terminal equipments of Facsimile Group
tional transmission rate, depending on the number of the
3 is determined by using transparent telecommunication
traffic channels allocated. For example in the GSM system,
services of the GSM system. One full-rate GSM traffic 45
the total user data rate of 19.2 Kbps is obtained by two
channel can support the facsimile data rates of 2.4, 4.8, 7.2
parallel 9.6 Kbps subchannels, each channel being rate-
and 9 .6 Kbps. The equipment configuration according to the
adaptecl in the same manner as in the existing transparent 9 .6
recommendation is illustrated in FIG. 1. A telefax terminal
Kbps bearer services of the GSM system. Correspondingly,
1 is connected with a normal two-wire modem connection to
the user rate of 24 Kbps can be transmitted on three parallel
a facsimile adapter 2 which adapts the signals of the modem 50
traffic channels.
connection to a rate-adapted V.110 data connection. The
V.110 connection is established via a radio interface between When the Facsimile Group 3 service is applied to such
a mobile station MS 3 and a base station system BSS 6 to a high-speed data transmission service, the problem is how to
mobile services switching centre MSC and further to an utilize the ability of the Group 3 facsimile terminals to
interworking function (IWF) S located at the MSC. The 55
renegotiate the facsimile data rate to correspond to the
interworking function S contains another facsimile adapter quality of the traffic channel and to simultaneously provide
SA which adapts the aforementioned data link to a conven- the user with the highest possible facsimile data rate.
tional two-wire modem connection which is established for
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
example via the public telephone network (PSTN) 9 to
another telefax terminal 10. As an alternative to the con- 60 An obj eel of the present invention is to eliminate this
figuration of FIG. 1, the telefax terminal 1 and the facsimile problem.
adapter 2 may be integrated into a GSM telefax terminal A first aspect of the invention is a method for facsimile
which provides an analog output. From the point of view of transmission in a digital mobile communication network, the
the mobile station MS, the GSM telefax terminal is as the method comprising steps of initiating facsimile call set-up,
facsimile adapter 2. 65 establishing a transparent rate-adapted data connection
The idea of the GSM Recommendation 03.45 is to allow between a facsimile adapter of a mobile station, connected
the T.30 protocol to pass transparently, whenever possible, to the first telefax terminal, and a facsimile adapter in an
5,805,301
3 4
interworking unit, selecting preliminary data rate and chan- FIG. 1 illustrates the equipment configuration according
nel coding for the data connection, establishing an end-to- to the GSM recommendations for facsimile transmission,
end facsimile connection between the first and the second FIG. 2 illustrates the network architecture according to
telefax terminal transparently through the facsimile adapters the invention, supporting multichannel facsimile transmis-
and the data connection, negotiating the facsimile data rate 5 sion in the GSM system.
for the facsimile connection by signalling between the
telefax terminals, changing the data rate and the channel PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF TIIE
coding of the data connection depending on the negotiated INVENTION
facsimile data rate. The method is characterized by further
steps of The present invention may be applied to high-speed data
10 transmission in digital TDMA-type mobile communication
allocating parallel traffic channels for said data
connection, when the maximum data rate allowed for systems, such as the Pan-European digital mobile commu-
the telefax terminals on said data connection is higher nication system GSM, DCS1800 (Digital Communication
than the maximum data rate of an individual traffic System), the mobile communication system according to the
channel, EWTIA Interim Standard IS/41.3, etc. The invention will
15 be illustrated below by using as an example a GSM-type
selecting the number of said allocated traffic channels so
that the maximum data rate of the data connection is mobile system, without being restricted thereto, however.
higher than the maximum data rate allowed for the The basic structural components of the GSM system will be
telefax terminals, introduced very briefly below '"ith reference to FIG. 1,
selecting the most effective channel coding available, without describing their characteristics or the other elements
enabled by the extra transmission capacity of the data 20 of the system. For a more detailed description of the GSM
connection, for each facsimile data rate negotiated by system, reference is made to the GSM recommendations and
the telefax terminals. to "The GSM System for Mobile Communications" by M.
A second aspect of the invention is a mobile system Mouly and M. Pautet (Palaiseau, France, 1992, ISBN:2-
comprising a mobile station, a facsimile adapter in the 9507190-07-7).
mobile station, a first telefax terminal connected to the 25
A mobile services switching centre MSC controls the
adapter, a mobile network, an interworking unit in the
switching of incoming and outgoing calls. It performs simi-
mobile network, a facsimile adapter in the interworking unit,
lar functions as the exchange of the PSTN. Further, it also
the mobile network being able to set up a facsimile connec-
tion between the first telefax terminal and the second telefax performs, together with the network subscriber registers,
terminal via the facsimile adapter of the mobile station and functions, such as location management, that are only char-
30
the facsimile adapter of the network termination in such a acteristic of mobile telephone traffic. Mobile stations MS are
way that between the facsimile adapters there is a transpar- connected to the MSC via base station systems BSS. A base
ent rate-adapted data connection and the mobile network is station system BSS consists of a base station controller BSC
able to change the channel coding in said data connection and base stations BTS, which are not shown in FIG. 1.
according to the facsimile data rate negotiated by the telefax The GSM system is a time division multiple access
35
terminals. The system is characterized in that (TDMA) type system wherein the communication on the
the mobile network is arranged to allocate for said data radio path is time divisional and occurs in successive TDMA
link a number of parallel traffic channels (chO-chn) frames each of which consists of several time slots. A short
when the maximum data rate allowed for the telefax information packet is transmitted in each time slot in the
terminals on said data connection is higher than the form of a radio-frequency burst that has a limited duration
40
data rate of an individual traffic channel, said number of and that consists of a number of modulated bits. The time
the traffic channels being such that the maximum data slots are primarily used for conveying control and traffic
rate of the data connection is higher than said maxi- channels. The traffic channels are used for transferring
mum data rate allowed for the telefax terminals, speech or data. The control channels are for signalling
the mobile network is arranged to select the most effective between a base station and mobile stations.
channel coding available, enabled by the extra trans- 45
A data link formed by one traffic channel is a V.110
mission capacity of the data connection, for each fac-
rate-adapted, UDI-coded digital 9 .6/4.8/2.4 Kbps full-
simile data rate negotiated by the telefax terminals.
duplex connection that is adapted to V.24 interfaces. The
In the invention, the number of parallel traffic channels
V.110 connection is a digital transmission channel that was
allocated to a high-speed facsimile call requiring multichan-
originally developed for ISDN (Integrated Services Data
nel data connection is higher than the number of traffic 50
Network) technology, that is adapted to the V.24 interface,
channels necessary according to the maximum data rate of
and that also provides the possibility of transmitting V.24
the call. In other words, the maximum number of the traffic
statuses (control signals). The CCITT recommendation for a
channels may be higher than what is necessary in ideal
V.110 rate-adapted connection is disclosed in the CCITT
conditions, and the maximum data rate of the traffic channel
Blue Book: V.110. The CCITT recommendation for a V.24
capacity available to the facsimile call may therefore be 55
interface is disclosed in the CCITT Blue Book: V.24.
higher than the highest facsimile data rate supported by the
telefax terminals. The extra traffic channel capacity enables Furthermore, the traffic channel uses channel coding
changing the channel coding on a multichannel data con- which aims at decreasing the effect of transmission errors.
nection to more effective one with a smaller decrease in the The GSM system utilizes convolutional coding the effi-
facsimile data rate in comparison to a case in which only the 60
ciency of which can be detected with a convolutional code
required minimum number of traffic channels is allocated to ratio X/Y, which means that in the channel coding X data
the facsimile call. bits are represented by Y code bits. On the full-rate GSM
traffic channel, the convolutional code ratios of Yz, 1/i and V6
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TIIE DRAWINGS are valid at the user data rates of 9.6 Kbps, 4.8 Kbps and 2.4
In the following, the invention will be described by means 65 Kbps, respectively.
of preferred embodiments with reference to the accompa- The GSM Recommendation 03.45, version 4.4.0 deter-
nying drawings, in which mines the technical implementation of the service support-
5,805,301
5 6
ing the terminal equipments of Facsimile Group 3 by When the Group 3 facsimile service is applied to the
utilizing the transparent telecommunication services of the multichannel high-speed data link of FIG. 2, the problem is
GSM system. The equipment configuration and the opera- how to fully utilize the ability of Group 3 facsimile terminals
tion according to the invention were described above in to renegotiate the facsimile data rate to correspond to the
connection with FIG. 1. However, this recommendation 5 quality of the traffic channel and to simultaneously provide
relates to Group 3 facsimile service occurring only on one the user with the highest possible facsimile data rate.
traffic channel, wherefore the highest possible facsimile data The invention allows the mobile network to allocate,
rate is 9.6 Kbps. during call set-up, more parallel traffic channels than what
The Applicant's co-pending patent applications W095/ would be necessary on the basis of the maximum data rate
31878 and PCT/Fl95/00673 disclose a method wherein two 10
of the facsimile c~ll to a facsimile call requiring a multi-
or more time slots are allocated from a TOMA frame to a channel high-speed data link. In other words, the maximum
mobile station MS which requires data transmission with a number of the traffic channels may be higher than what is
higher rate than that supported by one traffic channel. The necessary in ideal conditions, and the maximum data rate of
maximum user data rate of a multichannel data connection the traffic channel capacity available to the facsimile call
is the number of the parallel traffic channels multiplied by may therefore be higher than the highest facsimile data rate
15
the user data rate 9.6 Kbps of one traffic channel. For supported by the telefax terminals. The extra traffic channel
example the user rate of 19.2 Kbps can therefore be provided capacity enables changing the channel coding on a multi-
with a minimum of two 9.6 Kbps traffic channels. This channel data connection to more effective one with a smaller
procedure is set forth in the present application as an decrease in the facsimile data rate than when the required
exemplary manner of carrying out high-speed data minimum number of traffic channels are used.
transmission, based on several parallel traffic channels, in a 20 In the following, a facsimile call according to the inven-
radio system. As regards the details of this procedure, tion will be described in the system of FIG. 2.
reference is made to the aforementioned patent applications. The mobile services switching centre MSC receives a
It should be noted, however, that the only matter essential facsimile call from a telefax terminal 10 from the public
for the invention is that a multichannel connection can be telephone network PSJN. The MSC performs a subscriber
established, and the present invention relates only to opti- 25 data inquiry into the Visitor Location Register VLR (not
mizing the channel coding and the data rate when such a shown) and initiates the call set-up to the mobile station MS
multichannel connection is used for facsimile transmission. according to the GSM Specifications. The MSC obtains,
FIG. 2 illustrates the GSM network architecture which from the subscriber data or from the mobile station MS,
implements a Group 3 facsimile service utilizing several information of the maximum data rate allowed for the
parallel traffic channels. A telefax terminal 1 is connected 30 telefax terminal 1 in a GSM facsimile call. The MSC detects
with a normal two-wire modem connection to a facsimile that this allowed maximum data rate exceeds the maximum
adapter 2 by means of which the signals of the modem data rate of an individual GSM traffic channel, wherefore a
connection are adapted to a rate-adapted data connection. A multichannel data connection is required. The MSC deter-
V.110 connection is formed via a radio interface between a mines the minimum number of parallel traffic channels that
mobile station MS and a base station system BSS to the 35 is needed on the data connection to support the aforemen-
mobile services switching centre MSC and further to an tioned maximum data rate, but if required, it allocates one or
interworking function 32 (IWF) situated in the MSC. The several additional traffic channels for the data connection in
interworking function 32 contains a second facsimile such a way that the maximum data rate of the data link is
adapter 33 which adapts the aforementioned data connection significantly higher than the allowed maximum data rate of
to a conventional two-wire modem connection which is 40 the telefax terminal 1. The magnitude of the additional traffic
established, for example, via the PSJN to another telefax channel capacity is selected in such a way that effective
terminal 10. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, channel coding can be changed to the data connection with
the facsimile adapters are adapters according to the GSM as small a decrease as possible in the total data rate of the
Recommendation 03.45 comprising a modem unit which data link. In principle, this would be best obtained by
provides a standard modem connection towards the telefax 45 immediately utilizing a large number of traffic channels each
terminal 1 and correspondingly towards the PSTN or the of which would have a low data rate and an effective channel
ISON (3.1 kHz audio) or to another or the same GSM coding, e.g. 4.8 Kbps and the convolutional code ratio of Yz.
network. However, this approach would take up too many traffic
In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a rate- channels, and therefore the amount of the additional traffic
adaptecl data connection is set up between a terminal adapter 50 channel capacity is a compromi5e between these two crite-
31 in the mobile station and an interworking function IWF ria. The traffic load of the communication system may also
32 in the fixed network by utilizing two or more parallel restrict the amount of the additional traffic channel capacity
GSM traffic channels chO to chn. In the mobile station, the available or prevent the allocation of extra traffic channels
terminal adapter 31 operates as a divider dividing a high- altogether.
speecl facsimile signal from the facsimile adapter 2 to 55 When a multichannel GSM data connection has been
parallel traffic channels chO to chn, and as a combiner established and the facsimile adapters 2 and 32, 33 have
combining the low-speed signal fragments received from the been connected to the data connection, the MSC sets up an
parallel traffic channels chO to chn into a high-speed fac- encl-to-end connection between the telefax terminals 1 and
simile signal which is supplied to the facsimile adapter 2. 10. According to the principles of the GSM Recommenda-
Correspondingly, at the opposite end of the multichannel 60 tion 03.45, the T.30 protocol signalling is transmitted
data connection the interworking function 32 operates as a transparently, whenever possible, through the adapters 2 and
divider dividing a high-speed facsimile signal from the 33 at the ends of the GSM data connection. The T.30
modem unit of the facsimile adapter 33 to the parallel traffic protocol is only manipulated when it is necessary to avoid
channel5 chO to chn, and as a combiner combining the problems resulting from the differences between the PSTN
low-speed signal fragments received from the parallel traffic 65 and GSM systems. Therefore, the facsimile adapter 33
channels chO to chn into a high-speed facsimile signal which monitors the signalling between the telefax terminals 1 and
is supplied to the modem unit of the facsimile adapter 33. 10.
5,805,301
7 8
After call set-up, the telefax terminals negotiate the actual Therefore channel coding FEC=Vi is used in the beginning
facsimile data rate according to the ITU-TRecommendation of the call. If the quality of the traffic channels proves to be
T.30. A similar negotiation can be repeated, if necessary, too low for facsimile transmission, the telefax terminals 1
later during the call. This actual data rate may vary between and 10 begin negotiating for a lower facsimile data rate. The
2.4 Kbps and the allowed maximum data rate. The facsimile 5 next highest rate is 12 Kbps which still requires the use of
adapter 33 of the network termination monitors the nego- the channel coding FEC=Yi, wherefore the adapter 33 does
tiation and if a facsimile data rate exceeding the allowed not change the channel coding. The quality of the traffic
maximum data rate is agreed on, the facsimile adapter 33 channel is still poor, and the telefax terminals 1 and 10 start
intervenes in the negotiation. If the negotiated facsimile data renegotiating for the next highest rate, which is 9 .6 Kbps. At
rate is acceptable, the facsimile adapter initiates a Channel the rate of 9.6 Kbps, it is possible to use more effective
10
Mode Modify (CMM) procedure for adapting channel cod- channel coding FEC= 1/J with two traffic channel-;, wherefore
ing to the actual facsimile data rate, if necessary. The telefax the adapter 33 starts the CMM procedure for changing the
terminals typically begin negotiating for a rate decrease channel coding FEC= 1/J to both of the parallel traffic chan-
when the quality of the transmission is too low. nels.
Correspondingly, the aim of the negotiation can also be a
facsimile rate higher than the present one. 15 EXAMPLE 2.
The facsimile adapter 33 calculates the optimum Assume that the allowed maximum data rate is 19.2 Kbps.
conditions, i.e. decision values, for changing the channel The minimum requirement would then be two parallel traffic
coding on traffic channels of a multichannel data link. The channel-;, but the MSC allocates three traffic channel-;, i.e.
calculation is based on the actual number of available traffic one extra traffic channel, according to the principles of the
channel-; and the maximum data rates of traffic channels with 20 invention. The facsimile adapter 33 determines the follow-
different channel codings. ing maximum data rates and convolutional code ratios FEC
For this calculation, the facsimile adapter 33 has infor- for the different channel codings:
mation of the allowed maximum data rate of the facsimile 3*9. 6=28.8 Kbps, FEC='h
call and the number of the parallel full-rate traffic channels
allocated to the call. The adapter 33 calculates a theoretical 25 3*4.8=14.4 Kbps, FEC=\/3
maximum data rate for each available channel coding with 3*2.4=7.2 Kbps, FEC=\16.
the aforementioned number of the allocated parallel traffic
channel-;. In order to determine the optimum conditions for Therefore, channel coding FEC=Vi is used in the begin-
changing channel coding when the telefax terminals 1 and ning of the call. If the quality of the traffic channel proves to
10 negotiate a lower facsimile data rate, the adapter 33 30 be too poor for facsimile transmission, the telefax terminals
compares the facsimile data rate negotiated by the telefax 1 and 10 start negotiating for a lower facsimile data rate. The
terminals with the maximum data rates of different channel next highest rate is 16.8 Kbps which still uses the channel
codings. coding FEC=Vi, wherefore the adapter 33 does not change
If the negotiated facsimile data rate is lower than the the channel coding. The quality of the traffic channel is still
present data rate and equal to or lower than the maximum 35
poor and the telefax terminals 1 and 10 start renegotiating
data rate of the channel coding that is more effective than the for the next highest rate, which is 14.4 Kbps. At the rate of
present one, the adapter 33 starts the CMM procedure in 14.4 Kbps, it is possible to use more efficient channel coding
order to change the channel coding to more effective one. FEC=~"i with three traffic channel-;, wherefore the adapter 33
If the negotiated facsimile data rate is higher than the starts the CMM procedure for changing the channel coding
present data rate and higher than the maximum data rate of 40
to all parallel traffic channels.
the present channel coding, the adapter starts the CMM In both examples, the poor quality of the traffic channel
procedure in order to change the channel coding to less may result in new rate negotiations and the use of the
effective one. channel coding FEC=V6. On the other hand, improvement in
If the negotiated facsimile data rate is lower than the the quality of the traffic channel may lead to negotiations for
maximum data rate of the present channel coding but higher 45
increasing the rate. In such a case, the adapter 33 does not
than the maximum data rate of the next more effective allow the facsimile data rate to be increased beyond the
channel coding, the adapter 33 retains the present channel maximum data rate, i.e. 14.4 or 19.2 Kbps, determined
coding. during the call set-up, even though the traffic channel
capacity were higher.
If the negotiated facsimile data rate is higher than the Even though the invention is described above with refer-
maximum data rate of the next more efficient channel coding 50
ence to certain embodiments, it should be understood that
but lower than or equal to the maximum data rate of the
the description is intended to be only exemplary and it may
present channel coding, the adapter 33 retains the present
channel coding. be varied and modified without deviating from the spirit and
scope of the invention defined in the appended claims.
Two examples will be described below.
55
I claim:
EXAMPLE 1. 1. A method for facsimile transmission in a digital mobile
communication network, the method comprising steps of
Assume that the allowed maximum data rate is 14.4 Kbps. initiating facsimile call set-up,
A minimum number of traffic channels, i.e. two parallel 9.6 establishing a transparent rate-adapted data connection
Kbps traffic channels, are allocated to the call. The facsimile between a facsimile adapter of a mobile station, con-
60
adapter 33 determines the following maximum data rates
nected to the first telefax terminal, and a facsimile
and convolutional code ratios FEC to the different channel
codings: adapter in an interworking unit,
selecting preliminary data rate and channel coding for a
2*9.6=19.2 Kbps, FEC=lh data connection,
65 establishing an end-to-end facsimile connection between
2*4.8=9.6 Kbps, FE~Y3
the first and the second telefax terminal transparently
2*2.~4.8 Kbps, FEC=Y6. through the facsimile adapters and the data connection,
5,805,301
9 10
negotiating the facsimile data rate for a facsimile connec- mobile station and the facsimile adapter (33) of the inter
tion by signalling between the telefax terminals, working unit in such a way that between the facsimile
changing a data rate and the channel coding of the data adapters there is a transparent rate-adapted data connection
connection depending on the negotiated facsimile data (V.llOnd the mobile network is able to change the channel
rate, 5 coding used in said data connection according to a facsimile
characterized by further steps of data rate negotiated by the telefax terminals, characterized in
that
allocating parallel traffic channels for said data
connection, when the maximum data rate allowed for the mobile network (MSC) is arranged to allocate for said
the telefax terminals on said data connection is higher data connection (V.110) a number of parallel traffic
10 channels (chO-chn) when the maximum data rate
than the maximum data rate of an individual traffic
allowed for the telefax terminals on said data connec-
channel,
tion is higher than a data rate of an individual traffic
selecting the number of said allocated traffic channels so channel, said number of the traffic channels being such
that a maximum data rate of the data connection is that the maximum data rate of the data connection is
higher than the maximum data rate allowed for the 15 higher than said maximum data rate allowed for the
telefax terminals, telefax terminals,
selecting the most effective channel coding available, the mobile network is arranged to select the most effective
enabled by the extra transmission capacity of the data channel coding available, enabled by the extra trans-
connection, for each facsimile data rate negotiated by mission capacity of the data connection, for each fac-
the telefax terminals. 20
simile data rate negotiated by the telefax terminals.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized by 5. A system according to claim 4, characterized in that the
selecting channel coding for the negotiated facsimile data mobile network is arranged to select the channel coding for
rate, based on said number of the available traffic the negotiated facsimile data rate on the basis of said number
channels and the maximum data rates of the traffic of traffic channels and the maximum data rates of the traffic
channels with different channel codings. 25
channels with different channel codings.
3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized by 6. A system according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that
calculating a maximum data rate for each available chan- the mobile network calculates a maximum data rate for
nel coding when said number of parallel traffic chan- each available channel coding when said number of
nels are used, parallel traffic channels are used,
30
comparing the facsimile data rate negotiated by the tele- the mobile network compares the facsimile data rate
fax terminals with the maximum data rates of said negotiated by the telefax terminals with the maximum
different channel codings, data rates of the different channel codings,
changing the channel coding to more effective one if the the mobile network changes the channel coding to more
negotiated facsimile data rate is lower than the present 35 effective one if the negotiated facsimile data rate is
data rate and equal to or lower than the maximum data lower than the present data rate and equal to or lower
rate of said more effective channel coding, than the maximum data rate of said more effective
changing the channel coding to less effective one if the channel coding,
negotiated facsimile data rate is higher than the present the mobile network changes the channel coding to less
data rate and higher than the maximum data rate of the 40 effective one if the negotiated facsimile data rate is
present channel coding, higher than the present data rate and higher than the
maintaining the present channel coding if the negotiated maximum data rate of the present channel coding,
facsimile data rate is lower than the maximum data rate the mobile network maintains the present channel coding
of the present channel coding but higher than the if the negotiated facsimile data rate is lower than the
maximum data rate of the next more efficient channel 45 maximum data rate of the present channel coding but
coding, higher than the maximum data rate of the next more
maintaining the present channel coding if the negotiated effective channel coding,
facsimile data rate is higher than the maximum data the mobile network maintains the present channel coding
rate of the next more efficient channel coding but lower if the negotiated facsimile data rate is higher than the
50
than or equal to the maximum data rate of the present maximum data rate of the next more efficient channel
channel coding. coding but lower than or equal to the maximum data
4. A mobile system comprising a mobile station (MS), a rate of the present channel coding.
facsimile adapter (2) in the mobile station, a first telefax 7. A system according to claim 4, 5 characterized in that
terminal (1) connected to the adapter, a mobile network the unit of the mobile network monitoring the negotiation of
55
(BSS, MSC), an interworking unit (32) in the mobile the telefax terminals and changing the channel coding of the
network, a facsimile adapter (33) in the interworking unit, data link is the facsimile adapter (33) of the interworking
the mobile network being able to set up a facsimile connec- unit.
tion between the first telefax terminal (1) and a second
telefax terminal (10) via the facsimile adapter (2) of the * * * * *
.NOl<IA~ 1(1)
MOBILE PHONES W/.
c}\~6 \ \ ».;
(I.
0

ETSI Director General TELEFAX: +33-4-93 65 47 16 x\;·~-·.
ETSI Secreteriat Pages: total 14
F- 06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex
C6nfirrnation by mail
France

o4.{
IPR LICENSING DECLARATION
/'lo~ -1:

This declaration (the DECLARATION) is given on 28th of November, 1997 by NOKIA
MOBILE PHONES of Finland to the EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS
STANDARDS INSTITUTE of Sophia Antipolis France (ETSI).

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs, listed in Annex
A (the IPRs) and has informed ETSI that it believes that the IPRs may be considered
ESSENTIAL to the standards designated in Annex A

The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to
grant irrevocable licences under these IPRs on terms and conditions which are in
accordance with Clause 6. 1 of the ETSI Interim IPR Policy, in respect of the
designated standards, to the extent that the IPRs are and remain ESSENTIAL.

The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed
by the laws of France.

ETS
______
1
-~DEC.97-02B0S1
,_

Signed for and behalf of the SIGNATORY ENT.RY .ACHOl!i mfll --.--·l. B"'>MllK!l :
'""t!l~CW'<l~ '.I-fl :::M:-
~EAllllriC!ms.-cr.oa
r A$
Heikki Huttunen · :C;_1p1M
BY j-.'. :
'!::es
'
Position Vice President, R&D •QP
·-· : ......................... -
~

Intellectual Property .M & $ :
-~.T"""~_: ----'

Signature

D Nokia Mobile Phones 00 Nokia Mobile Phones D Nokia Mobile Phones D Nokia Mobile Phones
Metsanneidonkuja 6 Nakolankatu 8 Vattuniemenkatu 19 Tutkijantie 4
P.O. Box 47 P.O. Box 86 P.O. Box 141 P.O. Box 50
FIN-02131 ESPOO FIN-24101 SALO FIN-00211 HELSINKI FIN-90571 OULU
FINLAND FINLAND FINLAND FINLAND
IPR Notification Annex A

Facsimile Transmission In A Mobile
i
Nokia Communication System Norway NO 964687 NO 9604687 GSM 03.45
iAT BE CH
 DE DKES
FRGB GR
,

I lE IT LI LU
'Facsimile Transmission In A Mobile MC NL PT
Nokia Communication System EPC EP 96904119 EP 759247 ,SE .GSM 03.45
Data Transmission System With
Nokia Sliding-Window Data Flow Control Finland FI952256 FI 98174 FI 'GSM 04.22
Data Transmission System With
Nokia Sliding-Window Data Flow Control ' PCT/FI96/00260 WO 9636154 GSM 04.22
Data Transmission System With
Nokia Sliding-Window Data Flow Control Australia AU 56506/96 AU 9656506 GSM 04.22
AT BE CH
DE DK ES
FR GB GR
, lE IT LI LU
Data Transmission System With I MC NL PT
Nokia Sliding-Window Data Flow Control EPC EP 96913557 EP 788702 SE GSM 04.22
Method for locking to the user's card' DE
Nokia in a portable radio telephone Germany 88306554.2 3889800.4 GSM 02.22
,

IMethod for locking to the user's card
Nokia in a portable radio telephone Denmark 4219/88 DK 169158 GSM 02.22
NL,BE,ES,
Method for locking to the user's card AT,GR,LU,
Nokia in a portable radio telephone EPC 88306554.2 EP 0301740 CH,LI. GSM 02.22
Method for locking to the user's card
Nokia in a portable radio telephone Finland 873309 FI 77550 GSM 02.22
Method for locking to the user's card ,

Nokia in a portable radio telephone France 88306554.2 FR 0301740 GSM 02.22
Method for locking to the user's card
Nokia in a portable radio telephone Great Britain 88306554.2 GB 0301740 GSM 02.22

Page 4
03/04 '00 MA 15:5B FAX +:158 9 511 38349 NTC/IPR DllPART!IENT @001

NOKIA Fax

Nokia Corporation Date: 3.4,2000
Pages: 1+17

From: Mika U. Anttila
Address: P.O. Box 226, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, Finland
Fax: +356 9 1807 496

To: Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock
Company: ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Cc to:
03/04 '00 llA 15; 5.6 FAX +358 9 511 38349 NTC/IPR DEPART!lENT t;1] 002

EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of2

ANNEX!

IPR INFORMATION AND DECLARATION STATEMENT

IPR Holder/Organisation
/1/o.t'.14 ?oll7&P.A -11 "Al
Legal Na111e: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Na1ne:
PositiQn:
Department:
Address:

Tel.:
Fax:
E~mail:

IPR inforn1ation statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy 1 Article 4.1, I hereby infonn ETSI that,

with reference to the tcchrica] proposal identified as __().oi __-r__Ji__4__S:_Jlf
_U ______
and/or
in relation to Work Item N o . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
and/or
\vith rcforunce to ETST Stands.rd No. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

lt is my belief that the IP Rs listed ln Annex 2 are_, or arc Jikely to becorno, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR declaration statenient

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has infom1ed ETSI
that it believes thnt the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby di;o:clan:: that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licences under
the lPRs on terms and conditions \vhich are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSl lPR Policy1 in respect of the
ST.i\NDARD 1 to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and pe1fom1ancc of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Pla~i:i. Date: Signature!

µ~
(Signet;i fQi- illld on beh~lf of the SIGNATORY)

Please retuin this fortn duly signed to'.
DIRECTOR GENERAJ.. - Kal'l He.in;>.: Rosenbrook

ETSI - 650 1 rout" des Luciolcs - "P-06921 Sophia. Antipolis Cedex FR.A.NCE
K

Fax. +33 (OJ 4 93 6> 47 16
o
Title ADIl Patent # o
long Kono
D( SE r;:
"-
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DE, DK,ES,
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IPT, SE
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Page 8 of 12
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Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US006295286Bl

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,295,286 Bl
Rajala (45) Date of Patent: Sep.25,2001

(54) METHOD FOR INDICATING A MULTI-SLOT FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
CHANNEL IN A TDMA RADIO SYSTEM
EP 0 399 611 11/1990 (EP) .
EP 0605 312
(75) Inventor: Jussi Rajala, Espoo (FI)
Al 7 /1994 (EP) .
WO 94/08431 4/1994 (WO) .
(73) Assignee: Nokia Mobile Phones Limited, Espoo WO 94/10767 5/1994 (WO) .
(FI) WO 95/12931 5/1995 (WO) .
WO 95/31878 11/1995 (WO) .
(*) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 * cited by examiner
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.
(21) Appl. No.: 08/836,969 Primary Examiner-Chau Nguyen
Assistant Examiner--0 Trinh
(22) PCT Filed: Nov. 24, 1995 (74) Attorney, A.gent, or Firm-Perman & Green, LLP
(86) PCT No.: PCT/FI95/00651 (57) ABSTRACT
§ 371 Date: Aug. 4, 1997 The invention relates to a method for indicating a multi-slot
channel in signalling received over a radio terminal in a
§ 102(e) Date: Aug. 4, 1997
TDMA radio system without increasing the amount of
(87) PCT Pub. No.: W096/17447 signalling compared to normal signalling used for assigning
one slot to the channel and for defining the channel in other
PCT Pub. Date: Jun. 6, 1996 respects. In the inventive method, an element describing the
(30) Foreign Application Priority Data channel of a normal signalling message is transformed into
a code, which identifies the channel as a multi-slot channel
Nov. 25, 1994 (FI) ...................................................... 945540 and sets the number of successive slots to be included in the
(51) 7
Int. Cl. ........................................................ H04J 3/00 multi-slot channel. The element indicating the normal
timeslot for the channel is used to indicate the first timeslot
(52) U.S. Cl ............................................................... 370/337
to be included in the multi-slot channel. In the GSM system,
(58) Field of Search ..................................... 370/347, 337,
the preferred embodiment of the method replaces the 5-bit
370/311, 442, 336, 341, 345
element (CH1) of a channel description information element
defining the channel type and the subchannel with a code,
(56) References Cited
whose two first bits (bit values 1 and 1) identify the channel
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS as a multi-slot channel, and three remaining bits set the
number of timeslots. The first timeslot is indicated with the
5,239,545 * 8/1993 Buchholz ............................. 370/348 element (1N) indicating the timeslot number.
5,257,257 10/1993 Chen et al. ............................ 370/18
5,515,379 * 5/1996 Crisler et al. ........................ 370/347
5,577,024 * 11/1996 Malkamaki et al. ................. 370/337 5 Claims, 1 Drawing Sheet

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CDIEI OCTET 1

CHT l TN OCTET 2
TSC H=1 MAIO
t------------ - - - - - - - I------------< OCTET 3
TSC H=O ARFCN
MAIO HSN
~-----------------------------~ OCTET 4
ARFCN
~

rJJ

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CDIEI OCTET 1
CHT TN OCTET 2
TSC H=1 MAIO
~------------------~----------- OCTET 3
TSC H=O ARFCN
MAIO HSN
~-----------------------------~ OCTET 4
ARFCN

FIG.1
US 6,295,286 Bl
1 2
METHOD FOR INDICATING A MULTI-SLOT present invention is set out, this signalling involves trans-
CHANNEL IN A TDMA RADIO SYSTEM mitting a message or a message element describing the
channel to the radio terminal. This message element,
BACKGROUND OF TIIE INVENTION referred to as the Channel Description Information Element
1. Field of the Invention 5 in GSM, defines the channel parameters, such as the channel
The invention relates to indicating a multi-slot channel in type and the timeslot used. Thus, in the case mentioned
above, two half-speed traffic channels (TCH!H) being simul-
a TDMA radio system, in which the radio channel normally
taneously assigned in GSM, signalling comprises
consists of one timeslot in frames made up of several
transmitting, to each channel, an information element
successive timeslots.
10 describing the respective channel. When several timeslots
2. Description of the Prior Art are to be connected, signalling by assigning each timeslot
In TDMA radio systems, such as many current digital separately as though it would be a separate channel naturally
cellular mobile communication systems, the radio channel is involves a great inconvenience. Thus, the purpose of the
normally assigned to one timeslot in frames transmitted at invention is to provide a method for indicating a multi-slot
radio frequency, made up of several successive timeslots. 15 channel which does not increase the amount of signalling
Current TDMA mobile communication systems and their compared to the signalling required for describing a channel
radio terminals have been devised so as to enable traffic using one timeslot. The essence of the method of the
channels and control channels of various types to be formed invention is that the required number of successive timeslots
in them. For instance in a GSM system, channels of various in a frame are assigned to a multi-slot channel.
types, such as a traffic channel and an associated control 20
channel, may share the capacity of the same timeslot. Some SUMMARY OF TIIE INVENTION
systems already allow more than one channel to be allocated
To achieve the above purpose of the inventive method for
at the same time. The GSM system also allows simultaneous
assignment of two "half rate" traffic channels. As new indicating a multi-slot channel in signalling received over a
services have been developed, it has turned out that, in order radio terminal in a TDMA structure, in which a radio
25
to achieve higher transmission capacity on a radio channel, channel usually consists of one timeslot in successive frames
TDMA radio systems and their radio terminals should sent at radio frequency and made up of several successive
preferably be designed to allow multi-slot channels to be timeslots, and in which. in order to allocate a radio channel,
readily formed and used. The present invention is specifi- a message i'i signalled to the radio terminal, the message
cally concerned with accomplishing this potential improve- containing one element describing the said one timeslot and
30
ment. at least one second element describing the channel, the
method is characterised in that, to assign a multi-slot
EP patent specification A2 399 611 discloses a solution
channel, at least one or any element of the message describ-
relating to the improvement indicated above, describing a
ing the channel i'i replaced with a code. which identifies the
system for rapidly assigning several duplex speech channels channel as a multi-slot channel and sets the number of
to a radio terminal with a view to gain higher data speed in 35
successive timeslots to be included in the multi-slot channel,
data message transmission from the radio terminal. The
the element indicating one timeslot in the message being
basic idea of the system described is that the terminal keeps
used to indicate the first timeslot among the successive
record of the use and the quality of the duplex speech
timeslots to be included in the multi-slot channel.
channels. and whenever necessary, any additional speech
channels required are directly assigned for data message 40
The invention is applicable for instance to a channel
transmission on the basis of the data in this record. The radio description information element relating to GSM channel
terminal may also utilize data provided by the base station assignment signalling, in which the element defining the
and the system control unit about the availability of the channel type and the subchannel is replaced with a code, in
speech channels, and in this conjunction, the paging or which the first numbers identify the channel as a multi-slot
speech forming message provided by the base station may channel, and the last numbers define the number of timeslots
45
include data about the number of duplex speech channels to be included. Thus, the timeslot number included in the
required and/or about the numerals of the suggested chan- same octet of the information element indicates the first
nels. However, this system basically does not allow for timeslot of the multi-slot channel.
assignment of successive physical channels. The configura- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TIIE DRAWINGS
tion of this specification is characterised by including special 50
provisions for swiftly making several speech channels avail- The invention will be described in detail below with
able for rapid data transmission. The specification mentions reference to one embodiment and to FIG. 1 in the accom-
signalling only in passing, stating that guidance data about panying drawing, which is a schematic view of a channel
the number of channels required and suggestions for chan- description information element used in GSM signalling.
nels to be assigned can be signalled to the radio terminal, the 55 The message element included whenever necessary in the
general impression being that this is also extra signalling for signalling to a radio terminal provides the parameters of the
additional data transmission, apart from normal operation. In channel to be formed.
contrast. the purpose of the present invention is specifically
to provide for signalling in the assignment of a multi-slot DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
channel without increasing or complicating the signalling 60
PREFERRED EMBODIMENT(S)
compared to normal operation. FIG. 1 illustrates four 8-bit octets included in the infor-
mation element mentioned above. Bits 8 ... 1 are indicated
OBJECT OF TIIE INVENTION at the upper edge of the figure and octets 1 ... 4 at the right
The procedure of forming a channel between a radio edge of the figure. The element CDIEI (Channel Description
terminal in a TDMA radio system and the base station 65 Information Element Identifier) formed by bits 7 ... 1 in
serving it usually requires a large amount of signalling. In octet 1 is an identifier informing the radio terminal that the
the GSM system, in which the preferred embodiment of the message element concerned, contained in the signalling
US 6,295,286 Bl
3 4
message consisting of optional message elements, is a radio systems operating on the TOMA principle offer similar
channel description information element. In terms of the or other embodiments of the inventive method for assigning
embodiment of the invention described here, a substantial a multi-slot channel within the scope of the accompanying
part of the information element consists of a second octet. in claims.
which the element CHT (Channel Type and TOMA Offset) 5
formed by bits 8 . . . 4 defines the channel type and the What is claimed is:
subchannel and the element TN (Timeslot Number) formed 1. A method for indicating a multi-slot channel, in sig-
by the bits 3 ... 1 indicates the timeslot number. As can be nalling coming to a radio terminal in a TOMA radio system,
seen in the presentation of octets 3 and 4, the content of the wherein the radio channel is normally formed of one
information element may vary. Octet 3 starts with a Training 10 timeslot in successive frames sent at radio frequency and
Sequence Code TSC. and its bit 5 determines whether made up of several successive timeslots, and in which, in
frequency hopping (H=l) is to be used or not (H=O). When order to assign a radio channel, a message is signalled to the
frequency hopping is applied, the element MAIO (Mobile radio terminal, the message containing a first element indi-
Allocation Index Offset), which continues into the following cating one timeslot and at least one second element describ-
octet will set the point from which frequency hopping starts, 15 ing the channel, comprising the steps of:
and the end element HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) of replacing, in order to assign a multi-slot channel, at least
octet 4 indicates the hopping sequence number. If frequency one second element of the message describing the
hopping is not being used, bits 4 and 3 in octet 3 will be in channel with a coder, which identifies the channel as a
reserve and the elementARFCN (Absolute Radio Frequency multi-slot channel and defines a number of timeslots to
Channel Number) covering the end of octet 3 and octet 4 20 be included in the multi-slot channel, and
will indicate the radio frequency to be used by providing its using said first element indicating one timeslot in the
number. message to indicate a certain timeslot among said
The element CHT formed by bits 8 ... 4 in octet 2 will number of timeslots to be included in the multi-slot
be discussed below. A number of examples of the meanings channel.
of its code and the code used for assigning the multi-slot 25 2. A method as claimed in claim 1 for indicating a
channel will be given below. multi-slot channel, wherein said second element describing
the channel is an element defining the channel type.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 for indicating a
Bits
multi-slot channel, wherein the TOMA system is a GSM
30 system, and
87654
the message signalled to the radio terminal in order to
00001 TCH/F + ACCHs
OOOlT TCH/H + ACCHs assign a radio channel, further comprises a channel
OOlTI SDCCH/4 + SACCH/C4 or CECH (SDCCH/4) description information element signalled to the radio
OlTIT SDCCH/8 + SACCH/CS or CECH (SDCCH/8) terminal, said channel description information element
llnnn Multi-slot channel 35
containing said first element indicating one timeslot
and one of said second elements describing the channel
TCH/F and TCH;H denote a full rate respectively a half type and the subchannel, wherein said first element is
rate traffic channel, ACCH denotes associated control chan- a (TN) element and said second element is a (CHT)
nels in general, SOCCH stands for a stand-alone dedicated 40 element, and
control channel, SACCH for a slow associated control the element (CHT) is replaced with a code, which iden-
channel, and CBCH for a cell broadcast channel. The bits tifies the channel as a multi-slot channel and sets the
marked T indicate the subchannel number coded in binary. number of successive timeslots to be included in the
In this embodiment of the invention, the multi-slot chan- multi-slot channel, and
nel is identified at the beginning of element CHT by means 45 the element (TN) indicating one timeslot is used to
of bit combination 11, so far not allocated for any other use indicate the first timeslot among the successive
in GSM specification. The three remaining bits in element timeslots to be included in the multi-slot channel.
CHT, marked n above, serve to form a binary code indicat- 4. A method as claimed in claim 3 for indicating a
ing the number of timeslots included in the multi-slot multi-slot channel, wherein said channel description infor-
channel. Three bits can be used to indicate eight different 50 mation element comprises bits and among the five bits
values, which is enough to define any potential multi-slot included in the element (CH1) describing the channel type
channels in a GSM system in which a frame contains eight and the subchannel, the two first bits are used to identify the
timeslots. channel as a multi-slot channel, and the three last ones are
The embodiment currently regarded as optimal has been used to set the number of successive timeslots to be included
described above with reference to a GSM system. Other 55 in the multi-slot channel.
embodiments are of course conceivable in a GSM system, in 5. A method as claimed in claim 4 for indicating a
which a multi-slot channel can be assigned to a radio multi-slot channel, wherein the first two bits identifying the
terminal without extra signalling as compared to normal channel as a multi-slot channel are 11.
assignment and definition of a channel using one single
timeslot. Those skilled in the art will understand that other * * * * *
03/04 '00 MA 15:5B FAX +:158 9 511 38349 NTC/IPR DllPART!IENT @001

NOKIA Fax

Nokia Corporation Date: 3.4,2000
Pages: 1+17

From: Mika U. Anttila
Address: P.O. Box 226, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, Finland
Fax: +356 9 1807 496

To: Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock
Company: ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Cc to:
03/04 '00 llA 15; 5.6 FAX +358 9 511 38349 NTC/IPR DEPART!lENT t;1] 002

EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of2

ANNEX!

IPR INFORMATION AND DECLARATION STATEMENT

IPR Holder/Organisation
/1/o.t'.14 ?oll7&P.A -11 "Al
Legal Na111e: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Na1ne:
PositiQn:
Department:
Address:

Tel.:
Fax:
E~mail:

IPR inforn1ation statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy 1 Article 4.1, I hereby infonn ETSI that,

with reference to the tcchrica] proposal identified as __().oi __-r__Ji__4__S:_Jlf
_U ______
and/or
in relation to Work Item N o . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
and/or
\vith rcforunce to ETST Stands.rd No. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

lt is my belief that the IP Rs listed ln Annex 2 are_, or arc Jikely to becorno, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR declaration statenient

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has infom1ed ETSI
that it believes thnt the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby di;o:clan:: that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licences under
the lPRs on terms and conditions \vhich are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSl lPR Policy1 in respect of the
ST.i\NDARD 1 to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and pe1fom1ancc of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Pla~i:i. Date: Signature!

µ~
(Signet;i fQi- illld on beh~lf of the SIGNATORY)

Please retuin this fortn duly signed to'.
DIRECTOR GENERAJ.. - Kal'l He.in;>.: Rosenbrook

ETSI - 650 1 rout" des Luciolcs - "P-06921 Sophia. Antipolis Cedex FR.A.NCE
K

Fax. +33 (OJ 4 93 6> 47 16
o ·
Proiect Company Title Country lication # Patent /I Countries o

,
ex:Finland 971269
I
,
I>< Hong Kong 98100351,6
, ()( Japan 8·511420
c/ Korea South 701980
rx' 9701460-9 39174
fl{ USA 081817963
DZ USA 8676023 +
GSM Nokia
Networks
DATA TRANSMISSION METHOD IN A TDMA MOBILE
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
1'< Finland 944488 96558 '"'
'"
'"
",: Australia 35240/95 696802
II! Canada 2200307
,), China 95195967
EPO 95932032 AT, BE,CH,

\' . DE, OK, ES,
FR, GI3, GR,
IE,IT,LU,
MG, NL, PT,
SE
'IX Finland 971270
y Hon" Konq 98100325,5
y Japan 8·511421
I'( Korea South 701981
<>(' Singapore 9701451·8 39164
'>I' USA 08/817331
"< USA CPA 081817331
GSM Nokia A METHOD FOR INDICATING A MULTI·SLOT CHANNEL IN A TDMA Finland 9£5540 99076 
Mobile
Phones
RADIO SYSTEM
\(
IV Austria A1926/95
D( Australia 39849195 695635
t( China 95197341.X
'< Germanv 19543253,3
d Spain P9502237 9502237
,X France 9513774
ex Great Britain 9522534,8 2295525

Page 4 of 12
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US006970441Bl

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,970,441 Bl
Pirhonen et al. (45) Date of Patent: Nov. 29, 2005

(54) DATA TRANSMISSION METHOD 5,430,724 A 7/1995 Fall
5,432,800 A * 7/1995 Kuroda et al. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 371/37. 7
(75) Inventors: Riku Pirhonen, Irving, TX (US); 5,438,590 A 8/1995 Tzukerman
Pekka Ranta, Nummela (FI); Jyri 5,475,686 A * 12/1995 Bach et al. ................... 370/84
5,483,531 A 1/1996 Jouin
Suvanen, Helsinki (FI)
5,563,895 A * 10/1996 Malkamaki et al. .......... 371/32
5,648,967 A * 7/1997 Schulz ....................... 370/328
(73) A5signee: Nokia Telecommunications Oy, Espoo
5,668,820 A * 9/1997 Ramesh et al. ............ 371/43.1
(FI) 5,815,809 A * 9/1998 Ward et al. ................. 455/428
6,597,917 Bl* 7/2003 Meuronen ................... 455/466
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. EP 660 558 A2 6/1995

(21) Appl. No.: 09/066,359 OTHER PUBLICATIONS

(22) PCT Filed: Oct. 31, 1996 Lee, "New Rate-Compatible Punctured Convolutional
Codes for Viterbi Decoding", IEEE Transactions on Com-
PCT/Fl96/00585 munications, vol. 42, No. 12, Dec. 1994, pp. 3073-3079.
(86) PCT No.:
Yasuda, et al, "High Rate Punctured Convolutional Codes
§ 371 (c)(l), for Soft Deceision Viterbi Decoding", IEEE Transactions on
Communications, vol. Com-32, No. 3, Mar. 1984, pp. 315-
(2), (4) Date: Aug. 18, 1998
319.
(87) PCT Pub. No.: W097/16899 * cited by examiner
PCT Pub. Date: May 9, 1997 Primary Examiner-Man U. Phan
Assistant Examiner-Toan Nguyen
(30) Foreign Application Priority Data (74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw
Pittman LLP
Oct. 31, 1995 (FI) ...................................... 955206
(57) ABSTRACT
(51) Int. CI.7 ............................................... H04B 7/216
(52) U.S. CI. ....................................... 370/335; 714/786 The invention relates to a data transfer method in a digital
(58) Field of Search ................................ 370/320, 324, cellular radio network, the method comprising channel cod-
370/335,341,342,441,468,470,472,474, ing the information to be transferred for transmission. In
370/477,503,505,506,509,510,512,350, order to implement a data rate of 14.4 kbit/s in GSM type of
370/443, 476; 714/786, 789, 790, 798 cellular radio systems by employing one time slot only for
data transmission, the channel coding according to the
(56) References Cited method of the invention comprises grouping bits to be
transmitted in blocks having the minimum size of 288 bits,
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS carrying out convolutional coding for the blocks with a code
rate of 1/z by using GSM convolutional coding polynomes,
4,520,480 A * 5/1985 Kawai ........................ 370/100
and puncturing the bits obtained by deleting bits from each
4,972,411 A * 11/1990 Fushimi et al. ............. 370/522
5,029,331 A 7/1991 Heichler
block so that blocks containing no more than 456 bits will
5,208,816 A * 5/1993 Seshardi et al. .............. 371/43 be obtained.
5,377,192 A * 12/1994 Goodings et al. .......... 370/95.3
5,383,219 A 1/1995 Wheatley, III 15 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets

,a< > a
202 204

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U.S. Patent Nov. 29, 2005 Sheet 2 of 8 US 6,970,441 Bl

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U.S. Patent Nov. 29, 2005 Sheet 3 of 8 US 6,970,441 Bl

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U.S. Patent Nov. 29, 2005 Sheet 4 of 8 US 6,970,441 Bl

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US 6,970,441 Bl
1 2
DATA TRANSMISSION METHOD no more than 9.6 kbit/s or 4.8 kbit/s to use, depending on
whether a TCH/F9.6 or a TCH/F4.8 service is in question. At
This application is the national phase of international this moment, the user has no access to a higher data rate in
application PCT/F196/00585 filed Oct. 31, 1996 which GSM type of networks, even though high demands exist for
designated the U.S. this with data services becoming more common.
There are several apparatuses requiring higher data rates,
FIELD OF THE INVENTION because the data rates in fixed data networks have been
higher. A typical data rate employed in fixed telephone
The present invention relates to a data transmission networks is 14.4 kbit/s, which e.g. ITU V.32 bis and V.34
method in a digital cellular radio network, the method 10 modems and telefax terminals of group 3 may use.
comprising the step of channel coding the information to be In the GSM type of networks, the aim is to implement
transferred for transmission. higher data rates in the near future, and currently it is known
to apply a so-called multi-slot technique for this purpose.
PRIOR ART This means that more than one time-slot could be assigned
15 to users, with the natural result of an increased user data rate.
Requirements set for data transmission methods are con- Utilizing many time-slots is technically complicated to
tinuously increasing. This particularly concerns wireless implement, particularly in mobile stations, and especially if
data transmission systems, such as cellular communication the number of time-slots exceeds two.
systems of which ever more versatile services are required,
such as various kinds of data services. 20 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INVENTION
Conventionally, wireless data transmission systems have
only been used for speech transmission. An increase in the It is an object of the present invention to implement a data
number of various kinds of services to be transferred means, rate of 14.4 kbit/s in cellular radio systems of the GSM type
as far as wireless services in particular are concerned, that so that only one time-slot is used for transmitting user data.
the system must be able to transmit signals with different 25 This object is achieved by a method of the type set forth
capacities over the radio path. Consequently, an efficient in the introduction, characterized in that channel coding
operation is required of the data transmission system in an comprises grouping bits to be transmitted in blocks having
environment where transmissions of a multitude of service the minimum size of 288 bits, carrying out convolutional
types are transferred. coding for said block5 with a code rate of 1/z by using GSM
Data transmission on a radio channel with a limited 30 convolutional coding polynomes, and puncturing the bits
bandwidth is a kind of compromise between bit error rate, obtained by deleting bits from each block so that blocks
indicating transmission quality, and a net user data through- containing no more than 456 bits will be obtained.
put. The bit error rate may be decreased by increasing The method according to the invention provides a multi-
channel coding which adds redundancy, i.e. information less tude of advantages. By the method of the invention, a
important from the point of view of the user, to the infor- 35 desired data rate may be achieved without any large-scale
mation to be transmitted. If the number of bits to be modifications to existing networks. As the user needs one
transmitted in a time unit is restricted, the net user data time-slot only, the resources and capacity of the network are
throughput is reduced with redundancy. used efficiently.
For example in the GSM system, the data rate of a full rate In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the infor-
channel is 22.8 kbit/s on the radio path. The coding methods 40 mation to be transmitted is transcoded by combining two
used reduce the data rate to 12 kbit/s and 6 kbit/s, which subsequent transcoding frames into one frame, and by using
correspond to user data rates of 9.6 kbit/s and 4.8 kbit/s, i.e. some of the bits that would in case of individual frames be
the services TCH/F9.6 and TCH/F4.8. The output data to be used for synchronizing the latter frame for transferring the
transmitted over the radio path is transferred forward from information to be transmitted in this case. In a second
base stations to base station controllers and the center, and 45 preferred embodiment of the invention, the information to
the input data, in turn, from the center to a base station be transmitted is transcoded so that when generating the
controller and further to a base station for transmission over transcoding frame, comprising a group of data octets, the
the radio path. On such fixed transmission links, transmis- first bit of each data octet is used for transferring the
sion errors are much less probable than on the radio path, information to be transmitted.
and that is why there is usually no need to employ a 50
particular error-correcting coding on them. To minimize DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
transmission costs, it is beneficial to perform rate adaptation
to the lowest data rate employed by the system, for example
In the following, the invention will be described in more
to 16 kbit/s in the case of TCH/F9.6. FIG. 1 illustrates a
detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in
TRAU frame which is important from the point of view of 55 which
implementing the rate adaptation, i.e. the frame in which the
FIG. 1 illustrates a conventional TRAU frame described
user data is transmitted on the fixed connections between a
above,
base station and a TRAU (Transcoder/Rate Adaptation
Unit). The frame comprises 40 octets. Synchronization bits FIG. 2 illustrates a cellular radio system to which the
are marked with S, bits assigned to user data with D, and 60 method according to the invention may be applied,
control and spare bits have been left white. FIGS. 3a-3c illustrate alternative locations for the
Apart from the intentional redundancy described above, transcoding unit,
present-day GSM data services have spare data in the user FIGS. 4a and 4b illustrate transforming of data rate at
information. In a transparent service, the surplus is consti- different Abis interfaces,
tuted by flux control signalling, and in a non-transparent 65 FIG. S illustrates a new frame generated from two TRAU
service by radio link protocol (RLP) frame headers and L2R frames,
flux control. In both cases, the user will have a date rate of FIG. 6 illustrates a new type of TRAU frame,
US 6,970,441 Bl
3 4
FIG. 7 illustrates implementing channel coding according work implementation in case of a 64 kbit/s Abis interface
to the invention, 218. In such a case transcoding is carried out in connection
FIG. 8 illustrates a possible puncturing for the coded bits, with the base station 200 and is a linear process utilizing
FIGS. 9a and 9b illustrate two frames of the new type, and ITU-T V.110 rate transformation specification. The signal
FIG. 10 illustrates a second example of a cellular radio received from the radio path 208 has been coded according
system to which the method of the invention may be applied. to specifications of the traffic channel 400 at the rate of 22.8
kbit/s. The user data rate 402 is consequently 14.4 kbit/s
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED which is first transformed to the rate of 32 kbit/s 404
EMBODIMENTS according to V.110 recommendations, and from that further
10 to the rate of 64 kbit/s 406. As the transcoder is in this case
FIG. 2 illustrates the structure of a cellular radio system located at the base station 200, there is no need for separate
of the GSM type. The invention may advantageously be TRAU frames.
applied to a digital cellular radio system whose channel and FIG. 4b illustrates a network implementation with a 16
frame structure resembles the GSM system. The system kbit/s Abis interface. In this case the transcoder 300 is
comprises a group of terminal equipments 202-206 which 15 external to the base station 200, and therefore traffic over the
have a connection 208-212 to a base station 200. The base Abis interface 218 takes place by TRAU frames. As there
station 200 communicates via digital transmission links 218 exists no rate transformation scheme from a user rate of 14.4
with a base station controller 214, which has one or more kbit/s to the rate of 16 kbit/s at the Abis interface, the method
base stations under its control. The base station controller of the invention comprises a new transformation and a
214, in turn, communicates via digital transmission links 20 TRAU frame corresponding thereto. The signal received
220 with a mobile services switching center 216, which has from the radio path 208 has been coded according to
a further connection 222 to other parts of the network. specifications of the traffic channel 400 at the rate of 22.8
The interface 218 between the base station 200 and the kbit/s. The user data rate 402 is therefore 14.4 kbit/s, which
base station controller 214 is referred to as anAbis interface. is transformed 404 according to V.110 specifications to an
Similarly, the interface 220 between the base station con- 25 intermediate rate of 32 kbit/s. For the Abis interface, a new
troller 214 and the mobile services switching center is type of 16 kbit/s TRAU frame 408 is generated which is
referred to as an A interface. There are two common ways to herein referred to as an N-TRAU frame. In the transcoding
implement these interfaces. What is essential to both these unit the N-TRAU frame is disassembled according to V.110
ways is the transfer rate used at the Abis interface, which is recommendations via 404 an intermediate rate of 32 kbit/s to
either 64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s. For the 64 kbit/s transfer rate 30 the rate of 64 kbit/s 406. In the above, it is not compulsory
employed for switching by the center 216, the signal must be to use the intermediate rate of 32 kbit/s in the base station
transcoded, and thus the location of the transcoding unit 200.
TRAU in the network depends on the transfer rate employed The TRAU frame is transmitted over the Abis interface at
at the Abis interface. FIGS. 3a-3c illustrate different alter- 20 ms intervals, and it contains 320 bits in all. If the desired
natives for the network structure at different transfer rates. 35 user data rate is 14.4 kbit/s, 288 bits of data bits should be
FIG. 3a illustrates an alternative in which the Abis inter- transmitted within 20 ms. There are four different known
face 218 between the base station 200 and the base station transcoding frames used in the GSM system, one of which
controller 214 is implemented at the rate of 64 kbit/s. In such is illustrated in FIG. 1. None of these frames utilizes the 16
a case, the transcoding unit TRAU 300 is located at the base kbit/s capacity in the best possible way. If all available data
station 200. This means that the connection 220 between the 40 bits are employed of the known frames, except the spare
base station controller 214 and the mobile services switching control bits, 270 bits will be obtained. If 9 spare bits are
center 216 is also 64 kbit/s. included from the control field of the data frame, 279 bits
FIG. 3b illustrates an alternative in which the Abis inter- will be obtained, which is not enough.
face 218 between the base station 200 and the base station The method according to the invention utilizes two new
controller 214 is implemented at the rate of 16 kbit/s. In such 45 type of transcoding frame alternatives, in which bits
a case, the transcoding unit TRAU 300 is located at the base intended for synchronization are employed in data transmis-
station controller 214. This means that the connection 220 sion. Further in the method according to the invention,
between the base station controller 214 and the mobile synchronization of the transcoding frame is changed so as to
services switching center 216 has the rate of 64 kbit/s. obtain synchronization with a smaller number of actual
FIG. 3c illustrates a second alternative in which the Abis 50 synchronization bits.
interface 218 between the base station 200 and the base FIG. 5 illustrates a new frame generated from two TRAU
station controller 214 is implemented at the rate of 16 kbit/s. frames. The bits reserved for synchronizing are denoted by
The transcoding unit TRAU 300 in this case is located at the the letter S, the bits reserved for the user data with the letter
mobile services switching center 216. The connection 220 D, and the control and spare bits have been left white. Each
between the base station controller 214 and the mobile 55 conventional TRAU frame has a four-octet-long synchroni-
services switching center 216 is thereby 16 kbit/s. zation and control part positioned at the beginning of the
In the method according to the invention, the aim of frame. When combining several frames, the control part may
which is to enable a higher transfer rate for the user data in be reduced proportionally. If two frames are combined and
a cellular radio system, a new way is introduced for carrying transmitted together, a rate of 14.4 kbit/s requires 2*288 i.e.
out coding both on the radio path and in the transcoding unit 60 576 bits per 40 ms. Two conventional frames in succession
described above. The modifications caused by the new provide 2*270 bits, i.e. there are 36 bits lacking. In the
coding on existing systems remain small, but they enable a solution according to the invention, the control part of the
14.4 kbit/s transfer rate for the user. The method of the latter frame to be combined is used for data transmission.
invention will below be first examined in connection with Furthermore, from the unused control bits of the first frame,
transcoding. 65 6 bits are used for data transmission. This will produce 576
FIGS. 4a and 4b illustrate a transformation in the transfer bits in all, whereby there will still be 3 unused control bits.
rate with different Abis interfaces. FIG. 4a illustrates net- In the solution according to the invention, as shown by FIG.
US 6,970,441 Bl
5 6
5, a double length frame has at the beginning two full octets mation to be transmitted is transferred in the transfer system
of synchronization bits, one synchronization bit at the begin- by generating a transcoding frame having a total length of
ning of the third octet, after which 8 control bits follow. 640 bits, and the information conveyed by which is applied
After this, all the bits arc data bits except the first bit in every to a channel coder as two blocks having the length of 290
other octet, this bit being reserved for synchronization. bits. This is illustrated in FIG. 9a. The bits reserved for
FIG. 6 illustrates a new 20 ms TRAD frame. The bits synchronization are denoted with the letter S, the bits
reserved for synchronization are denoted by the letter S, the assigned to the user data are denoted by D, and the control
bits reserved for user data with the letter D, and the control and spare bits have been left white. The frame therefore
and spare bits have been left white. In the solution according consists of the first 900 and the second 902 block.
to this embodiment, following the control part all the bits are 10 To both of the blocks, an identifier may be inserted which
used for data transmission, including the first bit of every indicates whether the first or the second block of the frame
octet. In this manner, an adequate number of bits may be is in question. The block identifier is in a predetermined
obtained for data transmission. A drawback concerning this position in the block and the identifier of the second block
solution is that the actual synchronization bits are all located is advantageously formed by inverting the identifier of the
at the beginning of the frame. In the solution according to the 15 first block. The identifiers are illustrated in FIG. 9b. The
invention it is possible to improve the synchronization so identifiers may advantageously be located in bits 1 and 3. It
that the transcoding frame is synchronized by using those is also possible to insert the identifiers only at the base
bits of the frame which have a known value. Such bits are station to the signal transmitted to the air interface.
represented by frame type indicator bits (4 bits), a channel The first bits 1, 2, 3 and 4 of both the blocks in the frame
type indicator (1 bit) and an intermediate rate adaptation 20 may advantageously be employed in transferring supple-
indicator (2 bits). By utilizing these bits, the functioning of mentary information over the air interface. Such supplemen-
the synchronization may be ensured. A second method tary information includes synchronization of half frames,
according to the invention involves counting a short check- sub-channel numbering or transferring inter-network, syn-
sum for some of the data octets used for transferring the chronization information over the air interface. The supple-
information to be transmitted, and transferring the CRC 25 mentary information bits may also be used for signalling
value thus obtained by using spare control bits, and utilizing discontinuous transmission.
the CRC value in synchronizing the transcoding frame. At the base station, the bit of the first block in the frame,
It is yet another embodiment of the method according to indicating discontinuous transmission, may advantageously
the invention to use fill bits to break bit sequences consisting be replaced prior to channel coding by a fixed-value bit
of the same bit: such sequences could otherwise be inter- 30 which is inverse to the bit transmitted at the same position
preted as TRAD frame synchronization patterns. One way is in the latter block.
to use frames according to ITU recommendation V.42 or According to a preferred embodiment of the invention,
frames modified based on that. As the V. 42 frames are so channel coding comprises grouping bits to be transmitted
constructed that they do not contain long sequences of ls, into blocks having the size of 290 bits, adding 4 tail bits to
the user data must be inverted prior to transmission, and 35 the blocks, carrying out convolutional coding for said blocks
deinverted following the transmission in order for them not with a 1/z code rate by employing GSM convolutional
to contain long sequences of zeros. polynomes so that after the coding the block size is 588 bits,
In the following, the method of the invention will be and puncturing the coded bits obtained by deleting 132 bits
examined in connection with channel coding. FIG. 7 offers from each block.
a block diagram illustration of implementing channel coding 40 In the following, FIG. 10 will be examined which illus-
according to the invention. The figure shows the two inven- trates the structure of cellular radio systems of the GSM
tive transcoding frames, both the 20 ms frame 700 and the type. The figure shows a mobile station MS which commu-
double length frame 702. In the 20 ms frame, 320 bits are nicates with a base station BTS. The base station BTS
transmitted during 20 ms, and 288 payload bits are rate communicates via digital transmission links with a base
adapted 408 to the rate of 14.4 kbit/s. In a similar manner, 45 station controller BSC which has one or more base stations
the double length frame comprises 640 bits during 40 ms, under its control. The base station controller BSC, in turn,
and 576 payload bits are rate adapted 408 to the rate of 14.4 communicates via digital transmission links with a mobile
kbit/s. Next, block coding 704 is carried out by using 288 services switching center MSC, which further has a connec-
bits as the size of the block in the solution according to the tion via 222 a network interworking connection 1000 to
invention. In the block coding, 4 tail bits are added. Con- 50 other parts of the network.
volutional coding 706 is carried out at the coding rate of llz, As mentioned, the interface between the base station BTS
by using the same GSM convolutional coding polynomes as and the base station controller is referred to as an Abis
at the data rate of 9.6 kbit/s. interface. The interface between the base station controller
G0=1+D 3 +D 4
BTS and the mobile services switching center MSC is
55 referred to as an A interface. In a solution according to a
Gl=l +D+D 3 +D 4 preferred embodiment of the invention, the transfer frame is
generated at the network interworking unit 1000. The frame
After the coding, 584 bits will thereby by obtained, out of is transferred over the A interface, the TRAD receives and
which 128 bits will next 708 be punctured off, and the transmits the frame further, and the frame is transferred over
remaining 456 bits will be fed further to be interleaved 710, 60 the Abis interface, and the base station receives the frame. In
to burst formatting 712, to be modulated 714, and further to a prior art solution, the frame is only generated in the TRAD
the radio path 716. The puncturing is illustrated in the at the base station controller. In the solution according to the
example of FIG. 8, in which bits denoted with the letter Pare present invention, the frame may also include a radio link
deleted from the 584 bits obtained from the convolutional protocol frame (RLP frame). This is an advantageous solu-
coding, whereby 456 bits remain. 65 tion, as the amount of overhead decreases, there is no need
Next, the second preferred embodiment according to the to separate the RLP frames with a dedicated frame separator
invention will be examined. In this embodiment, the infor- if the TRAD frame is of equal size.
US 6,970,441 Bl
7 8
Although the invention is in the above described with comprising inverting the identifier of the first block to form
reference to the example of the accompanying drawings, it the identifier of the second block.
is obvious that it may be varied in many ways within the 9. A method as claimed in claim 8, wherein first bits of
inventive idea set forth in the attached claims. both frames are employed in transferring supplementary
What is claimed is: information over the air interface, and wherein the first bits
1. A data transmission method in a digital cellular radio are supplementary information bits.
network, the method comprising: 10. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the supple-
channel coding information to be transferred for trans- mentary information bits are used for signaling discontinu-
mission, the channel coding comprising ous transmission.
grouping bits to be transmitted into blocks having the 10 11. A method as claimed in claim 10, further comprising
size of 290 bits; replacing the bit indicating discontinuous transmission in
inserting 4 tail bits into the blocks; the first block of the frame at the base station with a
carrying out convolutional coding for said block5 with fixed-value bit prior to channel coding, wherein the bit to be
a 1/z code rate by employing GSM convolutional transmitted in the same position in the latter frame has an
polynomes so that after the coding the block size is 15 inverse value.
588 bits; 12. A method as claimed in claim 9, wherein the supple-
puncturing the coded bits obtained by deleting 132 bits mentary information bits are used for transmission of syn-
from each block; chronization information.
transferring the information to be transmitted in a 13. A data transmission method in a digital cellular radio
transfer system by generating a transcoding frame 20 network, the method comprising:
having a plurality of data octets, the first two data channel coding information to be transferred for trans-
octets forming a synchronization pattern that con- mission, the channel coding comprising
sists of zeros, and said transcoding frame containing grouping bits to be transmitted in blocks having a
control bits and at least 288 bits of information to be minimum size of 288 bits;
transmitted; and 25
carrying out convolutional coding for said blocks with
calculating a short checksum for some of the data octets a code rate of 1/z by using GSM convolutional coding
used for transferring the information to be transmit- polynomes;
ted, transferring a cyclic redundancy check value
puncturing the coded bits obtained, the puncturing
obtained by using spare control bits, and employing
including deleting bits from each block so that each
the cyclic redundancy check value in synchronizing 30
block contains no more than 456 bits;
of the transcoding frame.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising transferring the information to be transmitted in a
transferring the information to be transmitted in a transfer transfer system by generating a transcoding frame
having a plurality of data octets, the first two data
system by generating one frame from two transcoding
frames by using a part of synchronization and control bit 35 octets forming a synchronization pattern that con-
positions of the latter frame in the information transfer. sists of zeros, and said transcoding frame containing
3. A method as claimed in claim 2, further comprising control bits and at least 288 bits of information to be
generating the transfer frame at a network interworking unit. transmitted; and
4. A method as claimed in claim 3, wherein the transfer calculating a short checksum for some of the data octets
frame comprises a radio link protocol frame. 40 used for transferring the information to be transmit-
5. A method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising ted, transferring a cyclic redundancy check value
inverting each information bit prior to the transfer and obtained by using spare control bits, and employing
deinverting each information bit after the transfer. the cyclic redundancy check value in synchronizing
6. A method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising of the transcoding frame.
transferring the information to be transmitted in a transfer 45 14. A method as claimed in claim 13, further comprising
system by generating a transfer frame whose total length is employing bits of the frame that have a known value for
640 bits and the information transferred by which is applied synchronizing of the transcoding frame.
to a channel coder as two blocks with the length of 290 bits. 15. A method as claimed in claim 13, further comprising
7. A method as claimed in claim 6, further comprising modifying the information to be transferred so that the bit
inserting an identifier into the two blocks indicating whether so sequences comprised by the information differ from the
a first block or a second block of the frame is in question. synchronization sequences.
8. A method as claimed in claim 7, wherein the identifier
is in a predetermined position in each block, and further * * * * *
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of22

ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia Corporation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Name: Harri Honkasalo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: Director of IPR, Standards,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Department: Intellectual Property Rights _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-02150 ESPOO, Finland, PD.Box 226, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP

Tel.: +35871800 8000 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Fax: +358718034496 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
E-mail: harri.honkasalo@nokia,com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as GSM. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Dale: Signature:

Espoo, Finland, 24 July 2002
(Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

~/E<CfJJJ D®
- 9 Sf P. 2002 Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock
Rep: __
--------- ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 4 of 22

Hong Kong 08.06 98103484.0

Japan 08.06 8-521466

Norway 08.06 973233

Singapore 08.06 9703101-7 42705

United States 08.06 08/373942 5664004

GSM  Nokia
New 14.4 Kbitls
Australia 05.03 73003/96 716158
service for GSM

ChinaP.R. 05.03 96198322.1

European Patent
05.03 96934871.3
Convention

Finland 05.03 955206

Japan 05.03 9-517098

Norway 05.03 98.1941

United States 05.03 09/066359

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
5
A7794VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll US006859447Bl
lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,859,447 Bl
Ruutu et al. (45) Date of Patent: Feb.22,2005

(54) BROADBAND CELLULAR NETWORK FOREIGN PXrENT DOCUMENTS
DEVICE
DE 19535329 3/1997
EP 0660625 6/1995
(75) Inventors: Jussi Ruutu, Espoo (FI); Mikko
EP 0729282 8/1996
Martikainen, Helsinki (FI) EP 0731620 9/1996
EP 0749259 12/1996
(73) A5signee: Nokia Corporation, Espoo (FI) EP 0796022 9/1997
EP 0 801 513 Al * 10/1997
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this EP 0801513 10/1997
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 GB 2265278 9/1993
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. WO WO 97/49254 12/1997

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(21) Appl. No.: 09/607,065
International Search Report for PCT/EP97/07351.
(22) Filed: Jun.29,2000 RFC 1987, "GSMP Protocol Specification" Aug. 1996.
Related U.S. Application Data * cited by examiner
Primary Examiner-Brian Nguyen
( 63) Continuation of application No. PCT/EP97/07351, filed on
Dec. 30, 1997. (74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Squire, Sanders &
Dempsey L.L.P.
(51) Int. CI.7 .................................................. H04Q 7/24
(52) U.S. CI ..................... 370/338; 370/395.1; 370/467; (57) ABSTRACT
455/560
A broadband cellular network device comprises a base
(58) Field of Search ................................. 370/338, 328, station controller unit (1), an asynchrouous transfer mode
370/329, 395.1, 395.2, 395.5, 395.52, 401, controller (2) adapted to control the distribution of cellular
466, 467, 469, 395, 396, 347, 398, 399, traffic consisting of asynchrouous transfer mode cells in
400, 464, 465, 470, 471, 389, 392, 310, trunking mobile communication networks based on XfM
310.1, 310.2; 455/560, 561 technology, and an asynchrouous transfer mode switching
means (3) controlled by said asynchrouous transfer mode
(56) References Cited
controller (2). The base station controller unit (1), the
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS asynchrouous transfer mode controller (2) and the asyn-
chrouous transfer mode switching means (3) form an ATM
5,825,759 A * 10/1998 Liu ............................ 370/331 based base station controller (BSC) capable of performing
5,845,211 A * 12/1998 Roach, Jr. ................... 455/436 ATM switching and adapted to replace PCM based base
5,903,559 A * 5/1999 Achrya et al. .............. 370/355
5,946,634 A * 8/1999 Korpela ...................... 455/552
station controllers in base station subsystems (BSS) of
5,963,555 A * 10/1999 Takase ct al. ............... 370/395 asynchrouous transfer mode based cellular networks.
6,018,521 A * 1/2000 Timbs ct al. ................ 370/342
6,151,314 A * 11/2000 Rauhala ...................... 370/350 6 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

BSC UNIT

l 2
ATM CONTROLLER

....
l 3
"
-"' ... ... ... .. . .., ... .,.
.....,..
...._ .. ... .......
;z .. ~::·
..... ... . ...
ATM LINKS ....- _lo.
~
,
-"'
ATM LINKS
ATM SWITCH
_,.
-,,. ............. " ............. J _,.,
,
U.S. Patent :Feb. 22, 2005 Sheet 1 of 2 US 6,859,447 Bl

Fig.1

~@~LR
DD". ......
ATM
.' ·~ ... ~ . .
' ~ .' .

Fig.2
BSC UNIT

1 2
ATM CONTROLLER

l 3
... •.•.
. ..... . • . . . . . t....._
.. .....

...... -.J--~-
... .. ..

ATM LINKS .... J -.... ~ •••• AT~ ;~;;~H· ATM LINKS
+..... - ............................. . ...

Fig.3
BSC UNIT
l 2
2a GSM RELATED LAYER
r ••.•.....•.•.••.•.••..•
2b ATM SWITCH RELATED LAYER

... ,.
J ...........
3
.. " .."' : : ...~ , -' -.......
~
... ....,,.
.. ... .. .. . . .. ................. ....._
--,
-~

ATM LINKS ATM SWITCH ATM L!NKS
.. #
.... .... .. ................................... .... -~
U.S. Patent }'eb. 22, 2005 Sheet 2 of 2 US 6,859,447 Bl

Fig.4
BSC UNIT

J 2
GSMP CONTROLLER

I 3
····· ·::::z-~·.:::······ ~
ATM LINKS -,, · · ..•. ATM SWITCH ..... · ATM LINKS
-+---++ . . . .SUPPORTING
. . . . . . . . . . .GSMP
. . . . . . . . -...,,.- - - , .

Fig.5
PRIOR ART ~--------------------,
l

(a)

1--------------------~
~----------~---------,
I
: PCM
: SWITCHING
(b) ... BSC
' •: . .,:
ATM: ~8 ATM
t:2J LJ·---
1

1--------------------~
US 6,859,447 Bl
1 2
BROADBAND CELLUIAR NETWORK Internet. The same transformations must also be made for
DEVICE data packets traveling in the opposite direction, i.e. from the
public data networks to the base transceiver station BTS. By
This application is a continuation of international appli- use of asynchronous transfer mode procedures, this data
cation serial No. PCT/EP97/07351, filed 30 Dec. 1997. transformation can be avoided, and it is moreover possible
to directly route data packets in asynchronous transfer mode
FIELD OF THE INVENTION cells from the base station subsystem BSS to public asyn-
chronous transfer mode based networks.
The present invention relates to a device for controlling
cellular traffic in a mobile communication system based on In order to use asynchronous transfer mode in the trunk-
10 ing network of a GSM system, at least the conventional
asynchronous transfer mode technology, and also concerns
a base station controller using this device. PCM links between respective network elements must be
replaced with ATM links. In the resulting arrangement,
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION ordinary PCM based GSM network elements are then con-
nected by ATM links, for which an example is shown in FIG.
In recent years, the Global System for Mobile Commu- 15 Sb.
nications (GSM) and other cellular networks have grown
Such a technique is called Circuit Emulation Services
rapidly all over the world. An accordingly increasing num-
ber of subscribers has led to a corresponding increase of (CES), which, however, is not yet an effective realization of
bandwidth in trunking networks of cellular systems such as ATM, since the base station controller BSC and, thus, the
base station subsystems (BSS) in the GSM. base station subsystem BSS do in this case not support ATM
20
switching.
FIGS. Sa and Sb schematically show examples of parts of
trunking networks in mobile communication systems. In Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to
such trunking networks, a mobile services switching center provide a device which is capable of supporting ATM
switching at base station subsystem level and, thus, imple-
MSC and an associated visitor location register VLR are
ments an effective realization of asynchronous transfer mode
linked to a base station controller BSC. The base station 25
controller BSC is in turn linked to a base transceiver station in mobile communication networks.
BTS, which is coupled with mobile stations (not shown) at In view of the future expansions expected in such mobile
respective end users. The base station controller BSC and communication networks, the present invention shall also
the base transceiver station BTS constitute a so called base provide a device which can be manufactured, installed and
station subsystem BSS, which is indicated by dashed lines in 30 maintained at low cost. A5ynchronous transfer mode tech-
FIGS. Sa and Sb. nology may also provide a big increase in capacity when
In more detail, in FIG. Sa part of a conventional pulse compared with PCM technology. Thus, the number of physi-
cal lines in base station subsystems can be reduced.
code modulation (PCM) based trunking network is
illustrated, in which the coupling links, i.e. the connections According to the present invention, this object is accom-
between network elements, and the switching in the base 35 plished by a broadband cellular network device, comprising
station controller BSC are all PCM based. a base station control unit adapted to control the distribution
However, the integration of mobile stations such as of asynchronous transfer mode cellular traffic consisting of
asynchronous transfer mode cells, an asynchronous transfer
mobile phones and data communication has recently given
rise to the introduction of new data services like e.g. the mode controller connected to and being controlled by said
40 base station control unit, and an asynchronous transfer mode
Short Message Service (SMS) or the access to the Internet
using a mobile station. Along therewith, an increasing switching means connected to and being controlled by said
asynchronous transfer mode controller and adapted to switch
demand for replacing these conventional narrow banded
asynchronous transfer mode cellular traffic.
PCM networks with broadband communication systems can
now be observed. With the above configuration, an asynchronous transfer
A<; a future data transfer technology for use in broadband 45 mode based broadband cellular network device is imple-
communication systems, asynchronous transfer mode, in mented by combining the functions of a base station con-
short also referred to as ATM, has been proposed. troller unit with an asynchronous transfer mode switch.
The basic idea of asynchronous transfer mode is to The device is capable of performing asynchronous trans-
transfer data in small data packets having a fixed size. These 50 fer mode switching in a base station subsystem and more-
data packets are called cells. A flow of such cells represents over represents an inexpensive basis for an asynchronous
a virtual channel connection VCC between respective end transfer mode based base station controller for use in asyn-
users. The virtual nature of the connection arises from the chronous transfer mode based cellular networks.
fact that cells are transferred only when there are data to be Further embodiments of the present invention are subject
sent. In contrast to known connection-oriented systems, 55 of the attached dependent claims.
therefore, resources are not used when no useful payload is Preferably, said base station unit provides either of a
present. software, hardware or mixed software/hardware implemen-
Asynchronous transfer mode is also suitable for transfer- tation of base station controller functions and comprises an
ring packet data in e.g. GSM network5. In this respect, asynchronous transfer mode controller instruction means.
General Packet Radio Services ( GPRS) have been proposed, 60 The asynchronous transfer mode controller is arranged to
in which data packets like e.g. IP traffic are transferred provide an interface for converting commands issued by the
through GSM radio interface. base station controller unit into commands causing switch-
However, with a conventional PCM based base station ing actions of the asynchronous transfer mode switching
subsystem as shown in FIG. Sa, such data packets must first means.
be transformed into PCM format in the base transceiver 65 Advantageously, the asynchronous transfer mode control-
station BTS and then retransformed into packet format ler is adapted to employ asynchronous transfer mode based
before being sent to public packet data networks like e.g. the signalling and to provide control commands for controlling
US 6,859,447 Bl
3 4
connecting hardware of the asynchronous transfer rnode tion controller BSC. The BSC unit 1 provides for normal
switching means. base station controller functions such as handover
According to a further development, the asynchronous processing, GSM signalling etc., and also decides on the
transfer rnocle controller is arranged to comprise at least two individual interconnections of traffic channels or signalling
functional layers, one of the functional layers being a channels, if necessary.
cellular network related upper layer adapted to perform The rnain difference between this BSC unit 1 and a
cellular network related functions, and one of the functional conventional PCM based base station controller consists in
that there are no PCM group switch and corresponding
layers being an asynchronous transfer rnocle related lower
controller functions in the BSC unit 1. Instead, the BSC unit
layer adapted to perform asynchronous transfer rnocle
10
1 comprises means (not shown) for instructing the ATM
switching means related functions. controller 2. In this respect, the BSC unit 1 can be arranged
Thereby, the lower functional layer of the asynchronous as a pure software irnplernentation which emulates hardware
transfer rnocle controller is advantageously arranged to con- base station controller functions, or can be arranged as a
trol the switching hardware of the asynchronous transfer mixed irnplernentation which uses part of the hardware of an
rnocle switching means. ordinary base station controller.
15
In addition, the asynchronous transfer rnode controller The ATM controller 2 is connected to the ATM switch 3
rnay be adapted to be a General Switch Management Pro- and thereby provides an interface for the BSC unit 1 to issue
tocol controller. Then, the asynchronous transfer rnocle cornrnancls for connecting or disconnecting traffic channels
switching means is adapted to support said General Switch passing through the ATM switch 3. In addition, the ATM
Management Protocol. controller 2 also provides suitable cornrnancls for the ATM
20 switch 3 in order to enable the hardware thereof to establish

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS the required connections, and rnay include specific original
equipment manufacturers' (OEM) adaptations required to
In the following, the invention will be described in greater have the ATM switch 3 work properly.
detail by way of preferred ernboclirnents with reference to The ATM switch 3 forms the actual ATM hardware
the accompanying drawings, in which: 25
switching element. It is controlled by the ATM controller 2
FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a mobile cornrnunications either using a stanclarclizecl interface like e.g. the General
network using asynchronous transfer rnocle links and asyn- Switch Management Protocol (GSMP), or a corresponding
chronous transfer rnocle switching; proprietary solution.
FIG. 2 illustrates the broadband cellular network device
according to a first preferred ernboclirnent; 30
ne!~ ~il~:e~~u~~!~:e ~~ea~T~a:::~~hA~~o s~i~~~c~i:~
FIG. 3 illustrates the broadband cellular network device respective input and output ports thereof. Hence, the rnain
according to a second preferred ernboclirnent; function of the ATM switch 3 is to connect a virtual channel
FIG. 4 illustrates the broadband cellular network device (VC) corning in at an input port to one or a plurality of
according to a third preferred ernboclirnent; virtual channels leaving at one or a plurality of output ports
35
thereof. The port switching performed by the ATM switch 3
FIG. 5a schematically shows part of a known mobile
is, thus, capable of multicast operation, and is schematically
cornrnunications network using PCM links and PCM
indicated by clotted lines.
switching; and
FIG. 3 illustrates the broadband cellular network device
FIG. 5b schematically shows part of a proposed mobile according to a second ernboclirnent.
cornrnunications network using ATM links and PCM switch- 40
While the BSC unit 1 and the ATM switch 3 fundamen-
ing.
tally correspond to those used in the above described first
BEST MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE ernboclirnent, the ATM controller 2 is now separated into two
INVEN110N functional layers. It is understood, however, that the number
45 of layers is not limited to two, but rnay be any number
FIG. 1 schematically illustrates part of a mobile cornrnu- suitable for realizing the functions to be performed by the
nications network, e.g. a GSM network, substantially com- ATM controller 2.
prising the sarne basic components as those of FIGS. 5a and In the shown two layer structure, the ATM controller 2
5b, but this tirne providing ATM links and ATM switching includes an upper layer 2a and a lower layer 2b. In accor-
in the base station controller BSC itself. 50 dance with the GSM system serving as the example mobile
That is, both the conventional PCM links between the cornrnunications network, the upper layer 2a constitutes a
mobile services switching center MSC and associated visitor GSM related layer caring for the conversion of signalling
location register VLR and the base station controller BSC and other GSM related items, as shown in FIG. 3, and
and between the base station controller BSC and the base instructs the lower layer 2b which ports and/or virtual
transceiver station BTS are replaced by ATM links. In 55 channels are to be interconnected or switched, respectively,
addition, the base station controller BSC as the central in the ATM switch 3. Accordingly, the lower layer 2b will
switching element in the base station subsystem BSS is care for other, e.g. ATM switch related tasks such as main-
adapted to perform ATM switching. tenance and error handling of the ATM switch 3.
FIG. 2 illustrates a base station controller BSC as a FIG. 4 illustrates the base station controller as the broad-
broadband cellular network device according to a first 60 band cellular network device according to a third ernbocli-
preferred ernbodirnent. The device comprises a base station rnent.
controller unit or BSC unit 1, respectively, an asynchronous While the BSC unit again corresponds to that of the first
transfer rnocle or ATM controller 2 and an asynchronous ernboclirnent, a General Switch Management Protocol
transfer rnode or ATM switch 3. (GSMP) controller 2 is employed here instead of the ATM
The BSC unit 1 is connected to the ATM controller 2 and 65 controllers 2 according to the first and second ernboclirnents,
rnay consist of a pure software, a pure hardware or a mixed and the ATM switch 3 is adapted to support the GSMP used
software/hardware irnplernentation of an ordinary base sta- by the GSMP controller 2.
US 6,859,447 Bl
5 6
The GSMP, which has recently been published under the transfer mode controller an adapted to switch asynchro-
reference RFC1987 by the Internet Engineering Task Force, nous transfer mode cellular traffic, wherein said asyn-
is a general purpose protocol which provides an interface for chronous transfer mode controller being arranged to
controlling a hardware based ATM switch 3. The GSMP function between the base station control unit and the
allows a controller to establish and release connections asynchronous transfer mode switching means and
across the ATM switch 3, to add and delete leaves on a being arranged to provide an interface for converting
point-to-multipoint connection, to manage the individual commands of a first communication protocol issued by
ports of the ATM switch 3, and to request configuration the base station control unit into commands of a second
information and statistics. communication protocol causing switching actions and
According to the third embodiment, an ATM based base 10 being configured to provide an interface for issuing
station controller BSC is provided comprising a combina- commands for connecting and disconnecting traffic
tion of a base station controller unit and a GSMP switch channels passing through the asynchronous transfer
using a GSMP controller in-between. This arrangement mode switching means.
provides for a fast and at the same time cheap construction 2. A device according to claim 1, wherein said base station
of an ATM based base station controller BSC. In this 15 control unit provides either of a software, hardware or mixed
construction, it is possible to combine the BSC unit 1 with software/hardware implementation of base station controller
any kind of GSMP switch. In this manner, hardware of a functions and comprises an asynchronous transfer mode
variety of different manufacturers can be used, and the controller instruction means adapted to instruct the asyn-
capacity of the underlying network can easily be scaled up chronous transfer mode controller.
when additional base transceiver stations BTS and trans- 20 3. A device according to claim 1, wherein the asynchro-
ceivers (TRX) (not shown) are introduced into the base nous transfer mode controller is adapted to employ asyn-
station subsystem BSS. chronous transfer mode based signalling and to provide
control commands for controlling connecting hardware of
It should be understood that the above description and
the asynchronous transfer mode switching means.
accompanying figures are only intended to illustrate the
present invention. Thus, the device according to the inven- 25 4. Device according to claim 1, wherein the asynchronous
transfer mode controller is arranged to comprise at least two
tion may also be used in networks other than the GSM
referred to as an example. The preferred embodiments of the functional layers, one of the functional layers being a
cellular network related upper layer adapted to perform
invention may also vary within the scope of the attached
cellular network related functions, and one of the functional
claims.
30 layers being an asynchronous transfer mode related lower
What is claimed is:
layer adapted to perform asynchronous transfer mode
1. A broadband cellular network device connected to a
mobile services switching center and to one or more base switching means related functions.
5. Device according to claim 4, wherein the lower func-
transceiver stations with asynchronous transfer mode links,
comprising: tional layers of the asynchronous transfer mode controller is
35 arranged to control the switching hardware of the asynchro-
a base station control unit adapted to control distribution
nous transfer mode switching means.
of asynchronous transfer mode cellular traffic consist-
6. Device according to claim 1, wherein the asynchronous
ing of asynchronous transfer mode cells,
transfer mode controller is adapted to be a General Switch
an asynchronous transfer mode controller, separate from Management Protocol (GSMP) controller, and wherein the
said base station control unit, connected to and being 40 asynchronous transfer mode switching means is adapted to
controlled by said base station control unit, and support said General Switch Management Protocol.
an asynchronous transfer mode switching means con-
nected to and being controlled by said asynchronous * * * * *
lf€lEG lJ H@
ETSI - 3 JAN. 2012
Rep: __________ _ Page 1 (version 6)
IPR Declaration reference: ISLD-201112-008

ETSI Rules of Procedure, 26 November 2008

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION
IPR HOLDER I ORGANISATION ("Declarant")
Legal Name: NOKIA Corporation

CONTACT DETAILS FOR LICENSING INFORMATION:
Name and Title: Mr. Kalle MOILANEN
Department: IPR
Address: P.O Box 86, Joensuunkatu 7, 24100 SALO, FINLAND,
Telephone: +358 50 366 2022 Fax: +358 7180 44275
Email kalle.moilanen@nokia.com URL

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT
In accordance with Clause 4.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES hereby informs ETSI that it is the
Declarant's and/or its AFFILIATES' present belief that the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex may be
or may become ESSENTIAL in relation to al least the ETSI Work ltem(s), STANOARD(S) and/or TECH NICAL SPECIFICATION(S)
identified in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex .

The Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES (check one box only):

ll(" are the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

D are not the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

IPR LICENSING DECLARATION
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(check one box only, and subordinate box, where applicable):

~ To the extent that the IPR(s) disclosed in the allached IPR Information Statement Annex are or become, and remain
ESSENTIAL in respect of !he ETSI Work Item, STANDARD and/or TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION identified in !he attached IPR
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~ This irrevocable undertaking is made subject to the condition that those who seek licences agree to reciprocate
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D The Declaranl and/or its AFFI LIATES are not prepared to make the above IPR Licensing Declaration (reasons may be explained
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The construction. validity and performance of this IPR informa tion statement and licensing declaration shall be governed by the laws
of France.
Terms in ALL CAPS on this form have the meaning provided in Clause 15 of the ETSI IPR Policy.

SIGNATUR~ t~, /.t..---
By signing this IPR Information Statement and Licensing Declaration form . you represent that you have the authority to bind the
Dectaranl and/or its AFFILIATES to !he representations and commitments provided in this form .

Name of authorized person: Mr. Kalle MOILANEN
Title of authorized person: IPR Manager
Place, Date: Salo, Finland, 29/12/2011

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director-General
ETSI - 650, route des Lucio/es - F -06921 So hia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
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IPR Oeclafithon reference ISLO-201 1 t2 -C06

ETS' Rule s of Procedure, 26 November 2008

IPR Information Statement Annex
r-----sTANDARD, TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION or Proprietor AppllcaUon No, Publication No. PalontiAppllcaUonTltla Country 0' FURTHER INFORMATION
--
ETSl Woric Ilem registration
Olher memb... otthls PATENT FAMilY If any •
Project or Work "em or AlustraUve VfH"Ilo
Standard name Standard No, Specific part 01 n AppllcaUon No. pubtlcatlon No. Country 01
(V:).x. registration 

UMTS TS 25.410
TS 25.426
4.1.1,5.4.2
4,6 . 1
3.8.0
3.9.0
NOKIA CORP
[FI)
US20000607065 US6859447 Bt Broadband cellular
network devico
UNITED
STATES
AT 19970954832
T
AT295664 T AUSTRIA

A U19980062065 AU6206598 A AUSTRALIA
D
_ _
DE19976033280 DE6973328012 GERMANY
T
EP19970954832 EP10445758 1 European
..-
ES 19970954832 ES224t06713 SPAIN
T
JP20000 52 8114 JP38575l4 8 2
T
WOI997EP0735 W09935863 AI Patent
1 Cooperation
Treaty
UMTS TS 24.229 5.2.4, 5.2.6 .3, 6.26.0 NOKIA CORP US 1999032962 t US6J6665981 Procedure for the UNITED
- AUSTRALIA
5.4.3.2 [NL) transmisSion of a STATES
subscrlbor number AU 19980050560 AU5056098 A AUSTRALIA

CN
D
0804!.!
- CHINA
DE19976036119 DE69736119 T2
T
EPI9970913226 EP0944983 B 1 Europ.an

JP19980526262 JP2001S060n A JAPAN
T
W01997F100729 W09826564 AJ Patent

-
(Reference: Not applied in Japan)
[[ Ver. 9.20 ]]
特許出願人 発明の名称 出願番号等 備考(出願国名)( 2)
(PATENT HOLDER) (NAME OF PATENT) (REGISTRATION NO. / REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.)
*9.20
セラ 、移動 及び移動通信方法 10-1022182 KR

*9.20
セラ 通信システム、無線通信 及び無線 785540 KR

NOKIA Method and arrangement for high-speed data US 19960675893 None
CORPRORATION *9.20
transmission in a mobile telecommunication
system
NOKIA Broadband cellular network device US 20000607065 None
CORPRORATION *9.20
NOKIA Asymmetric high-speed data transmission US 19980945387 AT, AU, BE, CA, CN, DE,
CORPRORATION *9.20
apparatus and method in a mobile communications EP, PF, GB, IT, NI, SE
network

NOKIA Mobile communication system and method for EP 19960931826 AT, AU, DE, CA, CN, DE,
CORPRORATION *9.20 establishing a data call ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HK,
IE, IT, NL, NO, NZ, US
NOKIA Call set-up in mobile communications system US 19990319516 CN, DE, EP
CORPRORATION *9.20

NOKIA Procedure for the transmission of a subscriber US 19990329621 BE, CN, DE, EP, FI, FR,
CORPRORATION *9.20
number GB, IT, NI

NOKIA Call waiting in call setup US 19990408345 None
CORPRORATION *9.20

NOKIA Provision of location information US 20040502762 CN, EP, US-PCD
CORPRORATION *9.20
NOKIA Communications system and method EP 20030732938 DE, ES, FR, GB
CORPRORATION *9.20

422
6
A7882VI
Europaisches Patentamt

(19) European Patent Office 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111

Office europeen des brevets (11) EP 1 068 762 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.7: H04Q 7/38
of the grant of the patent:
28.09.2005 Bulletin 2005/39 (86) International application number:
PCT/Fl1999/000264
(21) Application number: 99945702.1
(87) International publication number:
(22) Date of filing: 30.03.1999 WO 1999/053707 (21.10.1999 Gazette 1999/42)

(54) METHOD OF MEASURING TIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSMITTERS, AND RADIO
SYSTEM
VERFAHREN ZUR MESSUNG DER ZEITDIFFERENZ ZWISCHEN SENDERN SOWIE
FUNKSYSTEM
PROCEDE DE MESURE D'UNE DIFFERENCETEMPORELLE ENTRE EMETTEURS ET SYSTEME
RADIO

(84) Designated Contracting States: • ALANEN, Marko
AT BE CH DE Fl FR GB IT LI NL SE FIN-33820 Tampere (Fl)
• GUNNARSSON, Gudni
(30) Priority: 31.03.1998 Fl 980724 FIN-02130 Espoo (Fl)
• HYVARINEN, Olli
(43) Date of publication of application: FIN-33820 Tampere (Fl)
17.01.2001 Bulletin 2001/03
(7 4) Representative: Karppinen, Olavi Arto et al
(73) Proprietor: Nokia Corporation Keister Oy Ab,
02150 Espoo (Fl) P.O. Box 148,
lso Roobertinkatu 23
(72) Inventors: 00121 Helsinki (Fl)
• RUUTU, Ville
FIN-02210 Espoo (Fl) (56) References cited:
• RANTALAINEN, Timo, M. WO-A 1-96/35306 WO-A2-89/04002
FIN-00200 Helsinki (Fl)

,....
m
N
(0
I'
co
(0
0 Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give
,.... notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in
a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art.
a. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1 068 762 81 2

Description problems associated with the accuracy of the time dif-
ference.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION [0005] This is achieved with a method of the type pre-
sented in the introduction, which is characterized in that
[0001] The invention relates to a method of measuring 5 a time difference unit measures the observed time dif-
a time difference, the method being used in a radio sys- ference OTO and transmits information on the observed
tem comprising at least two base stations and a termi- time difference OTO to a time difference centre which
nal, in which radio system an observed time difference forms the real time difference RTD of the transmissions
OTO of the base stations is measured and a geometrical of the base stations as a function of time by time stamp-
time difference GTD is calculated. 10 ing the formed real time difference RTD of the base sta-
tions with the moment of occurrence.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0006] The invention also relates to a radio system
comprising at least two base stations and a terminal, a
[0002] In known radio systems timing of a signal com- time difference unit arranged to measure an observed
ing from a transmitter to a receiver can be measured 15 time difference OTO of the base station, and a time dif-
particularly for the purpose of locating a terminal. The ference centre whereto the time difference unit is ar-
document WO 9635306 presents a cellular radio loca- ranged to transmit its measuring information, and which
tion system. In a terminal location system based on radio system has information available on geometrical
measuring a signal of a base station, the terminal meas- time differences GTD of the base stations. The radio
ures an observed time difference OTO of the arrival of 20 system is characterized in that a time difference unit is
signals of at least two, or preferably at least three, base arranged to measure the observed time difference OTO
station pairs. By assuming that the base stations trans- and to transmit information on the observed time differ-
mit synchronously, i.e. the same signals leave the base ence OTO to a time difference centre which is arranged
stations simultaneously, the observed time difference at to form a real time difference RTD of the transmissions
reception of the signals which arrive from the two base 25 of the base stations as a function of time by time stamp-
stations corresponds to the distances of the base sta- ing the formed real time difference RTD of the base sta-
tions, i.e. the observed time difference is a geometrical tions with the moment of occurrence.
time difference GTD. In that case, as the location of the [0007] The method and system of the invention pro-
base stations is typically fixed and known, hyperbolas vide many advantages. The measurement of the real
can be formed by means of the differences in signal 30 time difference RTD and the observed time difference
propagation times, and the terminal is to be located at OTO measured by the terminal can be matched in time,
the intersection of the hyperbolas on the basis of the thereby making it possible to reduce the error caused
measurements. A drawback of such a measurement is by the real time difference RTD. Hence, the terminal can
that the transmissions of the base stations are not com- be located more accurately as compared with the prior
pletely synchronous. 35 art.
[0003] Signals of base stations can be measured by
means of time difference units which have a known lo- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
cation and can be used for determining a real time dif-
ference of the transmissions of the base stations. The [0008] In the following, the invention will be described
RTD in question can be further utilized when the termi- 40 in more detail by means of preferred embodiments with
nal measures the observed time difference OTO of the reference to the accompanying drawings, in which
base stations, since the real time difference RTD of the
base stations can be subtracted from the observed time Figure 1 shows a radio system,
difference OTO measured by the terminal. However, Figure 2 shows the change of a real time difference
since the observed time difference OTO measured by 45 of a base station as a function of time,
the terminal and the real time difference RTD of the base Figure 3A shows a slow change of a real time dif-
stations, measured by the time difference unit, are ference of the base station as a function of time and
measured at different times due to a delay created by a the need for measurement, and
data transmission channel, for example, the measure- Figure 3B shows a rapid change of a real time dif-
ment of the geometrical time difference GTD still con- 50 ference of the base station as a function of time and
tains errors, which brings about inaccuracy in the loca- the need for measurement.
tion determination of the terminal.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
55 [0009] Figure 1 shows a radio system of the invention,
[0004] An object of the invention is thus to provide a such as a GSM radio system without, however, restrict-
method of measuring a time difference and a radio sys- ing to it. The radio system comprises base stations 100
tem implementing the method so as to solve the above to 104, time difference units 106 to 110, a time difference

2
3 EP 1 068 762 81 4

centre 112 and terminals 114, 116. The time difference and the units (such as terminals, base stations or time
units 106 to 11 O are typically immobile receivers which difference units which, in addition to the base stations,
listen to the transmission of the base stations 100 to 104 can receive transmissions from the terminal) carrying
and measure an observed time difference of the base out actual location measurements can form a location
stations. The observed time difference OTO is formed 5 system for the terminal 114 to 116. The location system
of a real time difference RTO and a geometrical time can utilize the real time difference of the base station in
difference GTO according to formula (1): a manner such that the location system utilizes the ob-
served time difference OTO of the base station 100 to
104, measured by each subscriber terminal 114, 116,
(1) OTO= RTO + GTO.
10 and the location system, i.e. preferably the time differ-
ence centre 112, subtracts the real time difference RTO
The real time difference arises from the wrong timing of from the observed time difference OTO so as to form
the operation of the base station 100 to 104. If the base the geometrical time difference GTO of the terminal 114,
stations 100 to 104 operated completely synchronously, 116. When the location system knows the geometrical
the real time difference RTO would then be zero. The 15 time difference GTO associated with at least two of the
geometrical time difference GTO arises from the dis- base stations 100 to 104, the location co-ordinates of
tances between the base stations 100 to 104 and time the subscriber terminal 114, 116 can be determined in
difference units 106 to 110. As the location of the base accordance with the prior art by means of the location
stations 100 to 104 and the time difference units 106 to co-ordinates of the base stations 100 to 104 and the ge-
110 is known, the geometrical time difference GTO can 20 ometrical time difference GTO.
be once calculated theoretically or on the basis of prac- [0012] The time difference unit 106 to 11 O preferably
tical measurements, whereupon the same result is al- comprises a specific clock 120 by means of which the
ways available in the time difference centre 112, for ex- time difference unit 106 to 110 is arranged to measure
ample. The time difference centre 112 receives the ob- the observed time difference OTO. If the clocks 120 of
served time differences OTO measured by the time dif- 25 the different time difference units are synchronised with
ference units 106 to 11 O and forms the real time differ- a sufficient accuracy, the measurementtime can be con-
ence RTO of each base station pair 100 to 104 by sub- nected to each observed time difference measurement
traction. The time difference centre 112 also connects OTO. Instead of the clock 120, or in addition thereto,
the moment of occurrence of the real time difference, frame numbers can preferably be used in the radio sys-
possibly the measurement time or the like, to each real 30 tern, and the time difference unit 106 to 110 time stamps
time difference RTO formed. This specifies information the measurements by means of the frame numbers.
of the real time difference RTO of the base station 100 Time information can also be transmitted in the radio
to 104 and at the same time it is also possible to specify system on a control channel, for example, whereupon
other information formed by means of the real time dif- the time difference unit 106 to 110 is able to time stamp
ference RTO as compared with he prior art. When de- 35 the measurements by means of the time information.
termining the moment of occurrence, the time difference [0013] Figure 2 graphically shows a typical series of
centre 112 may also utilize the occurrence of the ob- measurement carried out by the time difference centre
served time difference OTO in the time difference unit 112. The time difference centre 112 interpolates and ex-
106 to 110, in which case the time difference unit 106 to trapolates, by means of real time differences RTO meas-
11 O informs the time difference centre 112 of the ob- 40 ured, the behaviour of the real time difference RTO of
served time difference OTO and the measurement time. the base station 100 to 104 attimes other than the meas-
[0010] The time difference unit 106 to 110 is prefera- urement time. The processing of the real time difference
bly so located in a cell that it can directly communicate RTO results is possible and effective, because each real
with an antenna of the base station 100 to 104. The cell time difference RTO result forms a pair with a given time
may comprise one or more time difference units 106 to 45 instant. In other words, the measurements of the real
110. The antenna, or antennas, of the time difference time difference RTO take place as a function of time and
unit 106 to 11 O may be nondirectional or directional, by therefore do not form a set of real time difference RTO
means of which the time difference unit 106 to 11 O lis- results without a connection to time. A white dot 200 in-
tens to all transmissions of the base station 100 to 104 dicates an interpolated value of the real time difference
by using a digital broadband receiver. 50 RTO between measuring points 202 and 204. A white
[0011] The time difference centre 112 is typically also square 208, in turn, represents an extrapolated value of
a location centre of the terminal 114, 116 and is prefer- the real time difference RTO after the last measuring
ably located in a mobile services switching centre (not point 206 of a time window. The time difference centre
shown in Figure 1). The time difference centre 112 con- 112 preferably also filters and averages the measured
trols the time difference units. Consequently, the time 55 real time differences RTO in a predetermined time win-
difference units 106 to 11 O and the time difference cen- dow. This can be done only because the measurement
tre 112 form a real time difference RTO determination results of the real time difference RTO are functions of
system, and the system together with the location centre time. A dashed line indicates the mean value of the real

3
5 EP 1 068 762 81 6

time difference RTO as a function of time, and it can be OTO and transmits information on the observed
calculated in a known manner as a least-squares sum time difference OTO to a time difference centre
which can be indicated by a straight line. The location (112) which forms the real time difference RTO of
system of the terminal may use the measured real time the transmissions of the base stations (100 to 104)
difference RTO of the base station 100 to 104 with the 5 as a function of time by time stamping the formed
closest moment of occurrence, or the interpolated or ex- real time difference RTO of the base stations (100
trapolated value of the real time difference RTO. to 104) with the moment of occurrence.
[0014] In Figure 3A the real time difference RTO of
the base station 100 to 104 changes slowly as a function 2. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in
of time. In that case, the time difference unit 106 to 11 O 10 that the real time difference RTO is utilized in the
has to measure the real time difference RTO regularly location of the terminal (114, 116) in a manner such
but relatively seldom. In figure 3A, two arrows indicate that the subscriber terminal (114, 116) measures
measuring times. In Figure 3B the real time difference the observed time difference OTO of the base sta-
of the base station 100 to 104 changes rapidly as a func- tions (100 to 104), and the real time difference RTO
tion of time. In that case the time difference unit 106 to 15 corresponding thereto in time is subtracted from the
110 has to measure the real time difference RTO irreg- OTO.
ularly and, at least sometimes, rather frequently. In Fig-
ure 3B, arrows indicate measuring times. The time dif- 3. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in
ference centre 112 decides on the basis of its measure- that the radio system comprises at least a time dif-
ments how often and how regularly the time difference 20 ference unit (106 to 110) and a time difference cen-
unit 106 to 11 O measures each base station 100 to 104. tre (112) from which the time difference unit (106 to
The frequency of measurements may be based on the 110) measures the observed time difference OTO
rate at which the mean value of the real time difference and transmits information on the observed time dif-
RTO changes, for example. A possibility of changing the ference OTO to the time difference centre (112)
frequency of measurements reduces the need for sig- 25 which forms the real time difference RTO of the
nailing of the measurement results and, consequently, base station (100 to 104) by means of the observed
the signalling load of the radio system. time difference and the geometrical time difference
[0015] In the GSM radio system the time difference GTO as a function of time, and the time difference
centre 112 may transmit the real time difference infor- centre (112) interpolates and extrapolates by
mation and information on the moment of occurrence of 30 means of the real time differences RTO the behav-
the time difference in a short message, for example, to iour of the measured real time difference RTO of the
the network elements requiring the information. In addi- base station (100 to 110) at times other than the mo-
tion to the time difference information, or instead of ment of occurrence.
them, the message may comprise information on the lo-
cation of the terminal 114, 116. In the solution of the in- 35 4. A method as claimed in claim 3, characterized in
vention the time difference units 106 to 110 and the time that the time difference unit (106 to 110) comprises
difference centre 112 can be placed in the radio system a clock (120) by means of which the time difference
in a desired manner, in connection with base stations, unit (106 to 110) measures the real time difference
for example. The functions of the time difference centre RTO of the base station (100 to 104) and by which
112 can at least to some extent be distributed over the 40 the moment of occurrence of the real time difference
time difference units 106 to 110. RTO is determined.
[0016] Although the invention is described above with
reference to the example according to the accompany- 5. A method as claimed in claim 3, characterized in
ing drawings, it is obvious that the invention is not re- that the time difference centre (112) filters and av-
stricted thereto but can be modified in many ways within 45 erages the measured real time differences RTO in
the inventive idea disclosed in the attached claims. a predetermined time window.

6. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in
Claims that the real time difference RTO of the base station
50 (100 to 104) is measured in accordance with the
1. A method of measuring a time difference, the meth- rate at which the average value of the real time dif-
od being used in a radio system comprising at least ference RTO changes.
two base stations (100 to 104) and a terminal (114,
116), in which radio system an observed time differ- 7. A method as claimed in claim 2, characterized in
ence OTO of the base stations (100 to 104) is meas- 55 that in the GSM radio system the time difference
ured and a geometrical time difference GTO is cal- centre (112) transmits information on the real time
culated, characterized in that a time difference unit difference RTO measured, information on the mo-
(106 to 110) measures the observed time difference ment of occurrence of the real time difference RTO

4
7 EP 1 068 762 81 8

and/or information on the location of the terminal minal (114, 116) and determine the location of the
(114, 116) in a short message. terminal (114, 116).

8. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in 14. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character-
that in the radio system, transmission is carried out s ized in that the time difference unit (106 to 110)
in frames and in timing frame numbers are used by comprises a clock (120) by means of which the time
means of which the moment of occurrence of the difference unit (106 to 110) is arranged to measure
real time differences RTO of the base stations (100 the real time difference RTO.
to 104) is determined.
10 15. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character-
9. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in ized in that the time difference centre (112) is ar-
that in the radio system, information is transmitted ranged to interpolate and extrapolate by means of
on a control channel, by means of which the time the measured real time differences RTO the behav-
difference unit (106 to 110) measures the real time iour of the real time difference RTO of the base sta-
difference RTO and by which the moment of occur- 15 tions (100 to 104) at times other than the moment
rence of the real time difference RTO is determined. of occurrence.

10. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in 16. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character-
that the real time difference RTO is measured reg- ized in that the radio system is arranged to use
ularly. 20 frame numbers by means of which the time differ-
ence unit (106 to 110) is arranged to time stamp the
11. A method as claimed in claim 2, characterized in measurement of the real time difference RTO.
that in when the terminal (114 to 116) is located, the
real time difference RTO of the base stations (100 17. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character-
to 104), which has the closest moment of occur- 25 ized in thatthe radio system is arranged to transmit
rence, is used. time information on a control channel and the time
difference unit (106 to 110) is arranged to time
12. A radio system comprising at least two base sta- stamp the measurement of the real time difference
tions (100 to 104) and a terminal (114, 116), a time RTO by means of the time information.
difference unit (106 to 110) arranged to measure an 30
observed time difference OTO of the base station 18. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character-
(100 to 104), and a time difference centre (112) ized in that the time difference centre (112) is ar-
whereto the time difference unit (106 to 104) is ar- ranged to measure the real time difference RTO
ranged to transmit its measuring information, and regularly.
which radio system has information available on ge- 35
ometrical time differences GTO of the base stations 19. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character-
(100 to 104), characterized in that a time differ- ized in that the time difference centre (112) is ar-
ence unit (106 to 110) is arranged to measure the ranged to filter and average the measured real time
observed time difference OTO and to transmit infor- differences RTO in a predetermined time window.
mation on the observed time difference OTO to a 40
time difference centre (112) which is arranged to 20. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character-
form a real time difference RTO of the transmissions ized in that the time difference centre (112) is ar-
of the base stations (100 to 104) as a function of ranged to measure the real time difference RTO of
time by time stamping the formed real time differ- the base station (100 to 104) in accordance with the
ence RTO of the base stations (100 to 104) with the 45 rate at which the average value of the real time dif-
moment of occurrence. ference RTO changes.

13. A radio system as claimed in claim 12, character- 21. A radio system as claimed in claim 13, character-
ized in that the radio system comprises a location ized in thatthe radio system is a GSM radio system
system of the terminal (114, 116) and the location so in which short messages are transmitted and the
system is arranged to utilize the real time difference time difference centre (112) is arranged to transmit
RTO of the base stations (100 to 104) in a manner a short message which comprises the real time dif-
such that the terminal (114, 116) is arranged to ference RTO measured, the measurement time as-
measure the observed time difference OTO of the sociated with the time difference and/or the location
base stations (100 to 104), and the location system 55 of the terminal (114, 116).
is arranged to subtract the real time difference RTO
from the observed time difference OTO so as to 22. A radio system as claimed in claim 13, character-
form the geometrical time difference GTO of the ter- ized in thatthe location system of the terminal (114,

5
9 EP 1 068 762 81

116) is arranged to use the real time difference of 5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, dadurch gekenn-
the base station (100 to 104) that is closest in time. zeichnet, dass das Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) die
gemessenen realen Zeitdifferenzen RTO filtert und
mittelt, in einem vorbestimmten Zeitfenster.
Patentanspri.iche 5
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
1. Verfahren zum Messen einer Zeitdifferenz, wobei zeichnet, dass die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO der Ba-
das Verfahren in einem Funksystem eingesetzt sisstationen (100 bis 104) in Ubereinstimmung mit
wird, umfassend mindestens zwei Basisstationen der Rate gemessen wird, mit der sich der Mittelwert
(100 bis 104) und ein Endgerat (114, 116), wobei in 10 der realen Zeitdifferenz RTO verandert.
dem Funksystem eine beobachtete Zeitdifferenz
OTO der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) gemessen 7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekenn-
wird und eine geometrische Zeitdifferenz GTO be- zeichnet, dass in dem GSM-Funksystem das Zeit-
rechnet wird, differenz-Center (112) Information Ober die gemes-
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass 15 sene reale Zeitdifferenz RTO, Information Ober den
eine Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 110) die beobach- Zeitpunkt des Auftretens der realen Zeitdifferenz
tete Zeitdifferenz OTO misst und Information Ober RTO und/oder Information Ober den Standort des
die beobachtete Zeitdifferenz OTO an ein Zeitdiffe- Endgerats (114, 116) in einer Kurznachricht Ober-
renz-Center (112) Obertragt, welches die reale Zeit- tr agt.
differenz RTO der Ubertragungen der Basisstatio- 20
nen (100 bis 104) als eine Funktion der Zeit bildet, 8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
indem die gebildete reale Zeitdifferenz RTO der Ba- zeichnet, dass in dem Funksystem die Ubertra-
sisstationen (100 bis 104) mit einem Zeitstempel gung in Rahmen ausgefOhrt wird und bei der Zeit-
des Zeitpunkts des Auftretens versehen wird. koordinierung Rahmennummern verwendet wer-
25 den, mittels derer der Zeitpunkt des Auftretens der
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn- realen Zeitdifferenzen RTO der Basisstationen (100
zeichnet, dass die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO bei ei- bis 104) bestimmt wird.
ner Standortbestimmung des Endgerats (114, 116)
in einer Weise verwendet wird, wobei das Teilneh- 9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
merendgerat (114, 116) die beobachtete Zeitdiffe- 30 zeichnet, dass in dem Funksystem Information auf
renz OTO der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) misst, einem Steuerkanal Obertragen wird, mittels der die
und die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO, die dieser in der Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 110) die reale Zeitdif-
Zeit entspricht, von der OTO abgezogen wird. ferenz RTO misst, und durch die der Zeitpunkt des
Auftretens der realen Zeitdifferenz RTO bestimmt
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn- 35 wird.
zeichnet, dass das Funksystem mindestens eine
Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 110) und ein Zeitdiffe- 10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
renz-Center (112) umfasst, wobei die Zeitdifferenz- zeichnet, dass die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO regel-
einheit (106 bis 110) die beobachtete Zeitdifferenz maBig gemessen wird.
OTO misst und Information Ober die beobachtete 40
Zeitdifferenz OTO an das Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) 11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekenn-
Obertragt, welches die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO der zeichnet, dass, wenn der Standort des Endgerats
Basisstationen (100 bis 104) mittels der beobach- (114 bis 116) bestimmt wird, die reale Zeitdifferenz
teten Zeitdifferenz und der geometrischen Zeitdiffe- RTO der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) verwendet
renz GTO als eine Funktion der Zeit bildet, und das 45 wird, welche den am nachsten liegenden Zeitpunkt
Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) mittels der realen Zeitdif- des Auftretens aufweist.
ferenz RTO das Verhalten der gemessenen realen
Zeitdifferenz RTO der Basisstationen (100 bis 110) 12. Funksystem, umfassend mindestens zwei Basis-
zu anderen Zeiten als dem Zeitpunkt des Auftretens station en (100 bis 104) und ein Endgerat (114, 116),
interpoliert und extrapoliert. 50 eine Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 110), die ange-
passt ist, um eine beobachtete Zeitdifferenz OTO
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, dadurch gekenn- der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) zu messen, und
zeichnet, dass die Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis ein Zeitdifferenz-Center (112), wobei die Zeitdiffe-
110) eine Uhr (120) umfasst, mittels derer die Zeit- renzeinheit (106 bis 110) eingerichtet ist, um ihre
differenzeinheit (106 bis 110) die reale Zeitdifferenz 55 Messinformation zu Obertragen, und wobei dem
RTO der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) misst, und Funksystem Information Ober geometrische Zeitdif-
durch welche der Zeitpunkt des Auftretens der rea- ferenzen GTO der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) zur
len Zeitdifferenz RTO bestimmt wird. VerfOgung steht,

6
11 EP 1 068 762 81 12

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zeichnet, dass das Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) ein-
eine Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 110) eingerichtet gerichtet ist, um die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO regel-
ist, um die beobachtete Zeitdifferenz OTO zu mes- mii.Big zu messen.
sen, und um Information Ober die beobachtete Zeit-
differenz OTO an ein Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) zu 5 19. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn-
ubertragen, das eingerichtet ist, um eine reale Zeit- zeichnet, dass das Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) ein-
differenz RTO der Obertragungen der Basisstatio- gerichtet ist, um die gemessenen realen Zeitdiffe-
nen (100 bis 104) als eine Funktion der Zeit zu bil- renzen RTO zu filtern und zu niitteln, in einem vor-
den, indem die gebildete reale Zeitdifferenz RTO bestimmen Zeitfenster.
der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) mit einem Zeit- 10
stempel des Zeitpunkts des Auftretens versehen 20. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn·
wird. zeichnet, dass das Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) ein-
gerichtet ist, die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO der Basis-
13. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn· stationen (100 bis 104) in Ubereinstimmung mit der
zeichnet, dass das Funksystem ein Standortbe- 15 Rate zu mess en, mit der sich der M ittelwert der rea-
stimmungssystem des Endgerii.ts (114, 116) um- len Zeitdifferenz RTO verii.ndert.
fasst, und das Ortungssystem eingerichtet ist, um
die reale Zeitdifferenz RTO der Basisstationen (100 21. Funksystem nach Anspruch 13, dadurch gekenn·
bis 104) in einersolchen Weise zu verwenden, dass zeichnet, dass das Funksystem ein GSM-Funksy-
das Endgerii.t (114, 116) eingerichtet ist, um die be- 20 stem ist, in dem Kurznachrichten ubertragen wer-
obachtete Zeitdifferenz OTO der Basisstationen den, und dass das Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) ein-
(100 bis 104) zu messen, und das Standortbestim- gerichtet ist, eine Ku rznachricht zu ubertragen, wel-
mungssystem eingerichtet ist, die reale Zeitdiffe- che die gemessene reale Zeitdifferenz RTO, die der
renz RTO von der beobachteten Zeitdifferenz OTO Zeitdifferenz zugeordnete Messzeit und/oder den
abzuziehen, um die geometrische Zeitdifferenz 25 Standort des Endgerii.ts (114, 116) umfasst.
GTO des Endgerii.ts (114, 116) zu bilden und den
Standort des Endgerii.ts (114, 116) zu bestimmen. 22. Funksystem nach Anspruch 13, dadurch gekenn-
zeichnet, dass das Standortbestimmungssystem
14. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn· des Endgerii.ts (114, 116) eingerichtet ist, um die
zeichnet, dass die Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 30 reale Zeitdifferenz der Basisstation (100 bis 104) zu
110) eine Uhr (120) umfasst, mittels der die Zeitdif- verwenden, die in der Zeit am nii.chsten liegt.
ferenzeinheit (106 bis 110) eingerichtet ist, die reale
Zeitdifferenz RTO zu messen.
Revendications
15. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn- 35
zeichnet, dass das Zeitdifferenz-Center (112) ein- 1. Precede de mesure d'une difference de temps, le
gerichtet ist, mittels der gemessenen realen Zeitdif- precede etant utilise dans un systeme radio com-
ferenz RTO das Verhalten der realen Zeitdifferenz prenant au moins deux stations de base (100 a 104)
RTO der Basisstationen (100 bis 104) zu anderen et un terminal (114, 116), systeme radio dans lequel
Zeiten als dem Zeitpunkt des Auftretens zu interpo- 40 une difference observee de temps OTO des sta-
lieren und extrapolieren. tions de base (1ooa104) est mesuree et une diffe-
rence geometrique de temps GTO est calcule, ca·
16. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn· racterise en ce qu'une unite de difference de
zeichnet, dass das Funksystem eingerichtet ist, temps (106 a 110) mesure la difference observee
Rahmennummern zu verwenden, mittels derer die 45 de temps OTO et emet une information sur la diffe-
Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 110) eingerichtet ist, a
rence observee de temps OTO un centre de dif-
die Messung der realen Zeitdifferenz RTO mit ei- ference de temps (112) qui ferment la difference
nem Zeitstempel zu versehen. reel le de temps RTO des emissions des stations de
base (100 a 104) en fonction du temps en fixant
17. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn· 50 temporellement «time stamping »la difference
zeichnet, dass das Funksystem eingerichtet ist, reelle de temps formee RTO des stations de base
um Zeitinformation auf einem Steuerkanal zu uber- (100 a 104) avec I' instant de !'occurrence.
tragen, und die Zeitdifferenzeinheit (106 bis 110)
eingerichtet ist, um die Messung der realen Zeitdif- 2. Precede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en
ferenz RTO mittels der Zeitinformation mit einem 55 ce que la difference reelle de temps RTO est utili-
Zeitstempel zu versehen. see dans !'emplacement du terminal (114, 116) de
telle maniere que le terminal d'abonne (114, 116)
18. Funksystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekenn· mesure la difference observee de temps OTO des

7
13 EP 1 068 762 81 14

a
stations de base (100 104), et la difference reelle est determine.
de temps RTO correspondante, est soustraite a
temps de l'OTO. 9. Precede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en
ce que dans le systeme radio, !'information est emi-
3. Precede selon la revendication 1 , caracterise en 5 se sur un canal de commande, grace auquel l'unite
ce que le systeme radio comprend au moins une a
de difference de temps (106 11 O) mesure la diffe-
a
unite de difference de temps (106 11 O) et un cen- rence reel le de temps le RTO et par lequel !'instant
a
tre de difference de temps (112) partir desquels de !'occurrence difference reelle de temps du RTO
a
l'unite de difference de temps (106 11 O) mesure est detennine.
la difference observee de temps OTO et emet !'in- 10
formation sur la difference observee de temps OTO 10. Precede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en
au centre de difference de temps (112) qui forme la ce que difference reelle de temps RTO est mesure
difference reel le de temps RTO de la station de ba- regulierement.
se (1 oo a 104) a l'aide de moyens utilisant la diffe-
rence observee de temps et la difference geometri- 15 11. Precede selon la revendication 2, caracterise en
que de temps GTO en fonction du temps, et le cen- a
ce que quand le terminal (114 116) est localise,
tre de difference de temps (112) interpole et extra- la difference reelle de temps RTO des stations de
a
pole I' aide de moyens utilisant les differences reel- a
base (100 104), qui a le plus preche instant d'oc-
les de temps RTO le comportement de la difference currence, est utilisee.
reelle de temps RTO mesuree de la station de base 20
a a
(100 11 O) un moment autre que celui de l'occur- 12. Systeme radio comprenant au moins deux stations
rence. a
de base (100 104) et un terminal (114, 116), une
unite de difference de temps (106 a
110) prevue
4. Precede selon la revendication 3, caracterise en pour mesurer une difference observee de temps
a
ce que I' unite de difference de temps (106 110) 25 a
OTO des stations de base (100 104), et un centre
comprend une horloge (120) au moyen de laquelle de difference de temps (112) dans lequel I' unite de
a
l'unite de difference de temps (106 110) mesure difference de temps (106 a
104) est prevue pour
la difference reelle de temps RTO de la station de emettre son information de mesure, et lequel sys-
a
base (100 104) et par lesquels !'instant de !'occur- teme radio a une information disponible sur les dif-
rence de la difference reel le de temps RTO est de- 30 ferences geometriques de temps GTO des stations
termine. a
de base (100 104), caracterise en ce qu'une uni-
a
te de difference de temps (106 110) est prevue
5. Precede selon la revendication 3, caracterise en pour mesurer la difference observee de temps OTO
ce que le centre de difference de temps (112) filtre et non emettre !'information sur la difference obser-
et fait la moyenne des differences reelles de temps 35 vee de temps OTO a un centre de difference de
mesurees RTO dans une fenetre predeterminee de temps (112) qui est prevu pour former une differen-
temps. ce reel le de temps RTO des emissions des stations
a
de base (100 104) en fonction du temps en cou-
6. Precede selon la revendication 1 , caracterise en plant temporellement la difference reel le de temps
ce que la difference reelle de temps RTO de la sta- 40 a
RTO formee des stations de base (100 104) avec
a
tion de base (100 104) est mesuree suivant la ca- !'instant de !'occurrence.
a
dence laquelle la valeur moyenne de la difference
reelle de temps RTO change. 13. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte-
rise en ce que le systeme radio comprend un sys-
7. Precede selon la revendication 2, caracterise en 45 teme de localisation du terminal (114, 116) et le sys-
ce que dans le systeme radio GSM le centre de dif- teme de localisation est prevu pour utiliser la diffe-
ference de temps (112) emet I' information sur la dif- rence reelle de temps RTO des stations de base
ference reel le de temps RTO mesuree, !'information a
(100 104) de telle maniere que le terminal (114,
de !'instant de !'occurrence de la difference reelle 116) est prevu pour mesurer la difference observee
de temps RTO et/ou I' information su r I' emplacement 50 de temps OTO des stations de base (100 104), et a
du terminal (114, 116) dans un message court. le systeme de localisation est prevu pour soustraire
la difference reelle de temps RTO de la difference
8. Precede selon la revendication 1 , caracterise en observee de temps OTO afin de former la difference
ce que dans le systeme radio, une emission est ef- geometrique de temps GTO du terminal (114, 116)
fectuee dans des trames et dans une trame de syn- 55 et de determiner !'emplacement du terminal (114,
chrenisation, on utilise des numeres au moyen des- 116).
quels !'instant de !'occurrence des differences reel-
les de temps RTO des stations de base (100 104)a 14. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte-

8
15 EP 1 068 762 81

rise en ce que l'unite de difference de temps (106 nal (114, 116) est prevu pour utiliser la difference
a 110) comprend une horloge (120) aI' aide de a
reel le de temps de la station de base (100 104)
moyens par lesquels l'unite de difference de temps qui est le plus proche en temps.
a
(106 110) est prevue pour mesurer la difference
reelle de temps RTD. 5

15. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte-
rise en ce que le centre de difference de temps
a
(112) est prevu pour interpoler et extrapoler, l'aide
de moyens de differences reelles de temps RTD 10
mesurees, le comportement de la difference reelle
a
de temps RTD des stations de base (100 104) par-
a
fois des instants autres que celui de !'occurrence.

16. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte- 15
rise en ce que le systeme radio est prevu pour uti-
liser les numeros detrame au moyen desquels l'uni-
a
te de difference de temps (106 11 O) est prevue en
fixant temporellement la mesure de la difference
reelle de temps RTD. 20

17. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte-
rise en ce que le systeme radio est prevu pour
emettre !'information de temps sur un canal de com-
a
mande et l'unite de difference de temps (106 110) 25
est prevue pour fixer temporellement la mesure de
la difference reelle de temps RTD a l'aide de
a
moyens relatifs I' information de temps.

18. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte- 30
rise en ce que le centre de difference de temps
(112) est prevu pour mesurer la difference reel le de
temps RTD regulierement.

19. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte- 35
rise en ce que le centre de difference de temps
(112) est prevu pour filtrer et faire la moyenne des
differences reelles de temps mesurees RTD dans
une fenetre predeterminee de temps.
40
20. Systeme radio selon la revendication 12, caracte-
rise en ce que le centre de difference de temps
(112) est prevu pour mesurer la difference reel le de
a
temps RTD de la station de base (100 104) selon
a
la cadence laquelle la valeur moyenne de la dif- 45
ference reel le de temps RTD change.

21. Systeme radio selon la revendication 13, caracte-
rise en ce que le systeme radio est un systeme ra-
dio de GSM dans lequel des messages courts sont 50
emis et le centre de difference de temps (112) est
prevu pour emettre un message court qui comp rend
la difference reelle de temps RTD mesuree, le
temps de mesure associe avec la difference de
temps et/ou !'emplacement du terminal (114, 116). 55

22. Systeme radio selon la revendication 13, caracte-
rise en ce que le systeme de localisation du termi-

9
f;o
f}2
B 114

.,,.....m
..... 0
0
m
~
m
.....
Rf D
CENTER

~4
~
L:J1:6
FIG. l 120
EP 1 068 762 81

RID
208

FIG. 2

RID

FIG. 3 A

RID

FIG. 3 B

11
EAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of14
·-· '.l JAN. 2003
Rep: __________ _ ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia C o r p o r a t i o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: IPRManager_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Department: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Jocnsuunkatu 7, FIN-24101 SALO, P.0.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND _ __

Tel.: +358718045008 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
Fax: +358718044275 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
E-mail: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as UMTS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY aod/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on tenns and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STAND ARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
TI1e construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws ofFraoce.

Place, Date: Signature:
/~ ~/(_ _____
Salo, Finland, 19 December 2002 _ Kalle Moilanen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
(Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex- FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EJS«E=:J) EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 8 of 14

TRACKING OF
 REAL TIME AND
OBSERVED
UMTS Nokia TIME Norway 20004893
DIFFERENCE
VALUES IN
TIME

China P.R. 99804679.5

United States 10/200930

United States 09/677114 6456237

European Patent
99945702.1
Convention

Australia 59468/99

Finland 980724 106602

Japan 2000-544146

MULTIMEDIA
MESSAGING
CENTER,
UMTS Nokia China P.R. 99816578.6
CAPABILITIES
USER PROFILE
MANAGEMENT

Please return this fonn duly signed to: ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

EIS] - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France / Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
'
;,_ EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page I of?

ANNEX I

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICE

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia Corporation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Nan1e: Harri Honkasalo - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Position: Director of!PR, S t a n d a r d s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Department: IPR._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-02150 ESPOO, P.O.Box 226, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, Finland_ _

Tel.: +358 71800 8000

fax: +358 7180 34496 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
E-n1ail: harri.honkasalo@nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, A1ticle 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as GSM.

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The constrnction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Espoo, Finland, 8 January 2003 _ _
(Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

Please return this fonn duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Ced ex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 4 of7

TS45.001, v.5.2.0
Australia TS45.010, vA.2.0 50975/00
TS45.002, v.5A.0
TS45.001, v.5.2.0
China P.R. TS45.010, vA.2.0 808273.1
TS45.002, v.5A.0
TS45.001, v.5.2.0
European Patent
TS45.010, v.4.2.0 935436.6
Convention
TS45.002, v.5A.0
TS45.001, v.5.2.0
India TS45.010, v.4.2.0 2001/01486
TS45.002, v.5A.0
TS45.001, v.5.2.0
Japan TS45.010, v.4.2.0 2001-500584
TS45.002, v.5A.0
TS45.001, v.5.2.0
Russian
TS45.01 0, vA.2.0 2001135850
Federation
TS45.002, v.5.4.0
Patent TS45.001, v.5.2.0
Cooperation TS45.010, vA.2.0 PCTIIBOOI00825
Treaty TS45.002, v.5A.0
METHOD AND
APPARATUS FOR
PERFORMING
NEIGHBOR CELL
SIGNAL
STRENGTH
GSM Nokia MEASUREMENTS United States TS 05.08, v.8.7.1 09/884678
FOR
DISCONTINUOUS
LY
TRANSMITTING
BROADCAST
CARRIERS
TRACKING OF
GSM  Nokia
REAL TIME AND
OBSERVED TIME
Norway TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 NO 20004893;
DIFFERENCE
Please return thIS form duly SIgned to: ETSI DIrector General - Karl Hemz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France 1Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
特許出願人 発明の名称 出願番号等 備考(出願国名)
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REGISTRATION NO./ REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
ノキアネットワーク (8)パケット無線ネットワークにおける サー ス 特表2002-529031 Applied in China, European
スオサケユキチュ Patent Office, Finland, Japan,
ア*2.00 United States of America, WO
ノキアネットワーク (9)フレームの制御方法及び 特表2002-527942 Applied in Canada, China,
スオサケユキチュ European Patent Office, Japan,
ア*2.00 United States of America, WO
ノキアネットワーク (10)ワイ レステレコミュニケーションネットワークにおける 特表2002-525996 Applied in Canada, China,
スオサケユキチュ European Patent Office, Finland,
の 立 Japan, United States of America,
ア*2.00
WO
ノキアネットワーク (11)データ送信のサー スクオリティを制 する方法及びシステ 特表2002-533030 Applied in Brazil, Canada,
スオサケユキチュ China, European Patent Office,
ム Finland, Japan, United States of
ア*2.00
America, WO
ノキアネットワーク (12) 間 測定方法及び無線システム 特表2002-511724 Applied in Norway, China,
スオサケユキチュ United States of America,
ア*2.00 European Patent Office,
Australia, Finland
ノキアネットワーク (13) ッセー を送出する方法 特表2002-542548 Applied in China, European
スオサケユキチュ Patent Office, Japan, United
ア*2.00 States of America, WO
ノキアネットワーク (14) アラ特 を制御する の方法 特表2002-530027 Applied in Brazil, Canada,
スオサケユキチュ China, European Patent Office,
ア*2.00 Finland, Japan, United States of
America, WO
ノキアネットワーク (15)移動機 を動 る方法、移動機 お び電 データ 特 2001-16634 Applied in Brazil, China,
スオサケユキチュ European Patent Office, Hong
ュール Kong, India, Japan,
ア*2.00
Korea(South), United States of
America
ノキアネットワーク (16) 間ハンドオー を 備する方法、移動 及びネットワ 特 2001-224053 Applied in Brazil, Canada,
スオサケユキチュ China, European Patent Office,
ーク Finland, Japan, Korea(South),
ア*2.00
Singapore, United States of

65
7
A14028VI
Europaisches Patentamt

(19) European Patent Office 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111

Office europeen des brevets (11) EP 0 956 714 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.7: H04Q 3/00
of the grant of the patent:
15.12.2004 Bu II et in 2004/51 (86) International application number:
PCT/Fl1998/000831
(21) Application number: 98950132.5
(87) International publication number:
(22) Date of filing: 26.10.1998 WO 1999/029121 (10.06.1999 Gazette 1999/23)

(54) METHOD AND APPARATUS OF EXITING A COLLECTING INFORMATION PHASE IN AN
INTELLIGENT NETWORK
VERFAHREN UNO VORRICHTUNG ZUM VERLASSEN EINER INFORMATIONSSAMMELSTELLE
IN INTELLIGENTEN NETZEN
SORTIE DE LA PHASE DE RECUEIL D'INFORMATION DANS UN RESEAU INTELLIGENT

(84) Designated Contracting States: • KRUGER, Andrei
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU FIN-00360 Helsinki (Fl)
MC NL PT SE
(74) Representative: Akras, Tapio Juhani et al
(30) Priority: 30.10.1997 Fl 974100 Oy Kolster Ab,
lso Roobertinkatu 23,
(43) Date of publication of application: P.O. Box 148
17.11.1999 Bulletin 1999/46 00121 Helsinki (Fl)

(73) Proprietor: Nokia Corporation (56) References cited:
02150 Espoo (Fl) EP-A2- 0 667 722 WO-A 1-97/36431

(72) Inventors:
• TUUNANEN, Heikki
FIN-02630 Espoo (Fl)

,....
m
"=:t'
,....
I'
«>
Lt)
0) Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give
notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in
0
a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art.
a. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP O 956 714 81 2

Description model BCSM defined in connection with the intelligent
network describes different phases of the call set-up. In
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION the intelligent network specifications, call processing
procedures to be effected at a switching point are rough-
[0001] The invention relates to set-up of a call using 5 ly grouped into phases which are called 'points in call'
an intelligent network service and in particular to a PIC. When the phase PIC terminates, a detection point
phase in the call set-up in which information is collected DP is in general encountered. Call set-up or release can
from a subscriber. be temporarily stopped atthese detection points and fur-
[0002] By means of an intelligent network (IN) a large ther call processing instructions can be requested from
number of different services can be offered to the sub- 10 the service control point SCP. Call control can be trans-
scriber to a telecommunication network, for instance a ferred to the service control point at these detection
fixed telephone network or a mobile telephone network. points. When a transition is made from the detection
These services comprise, for instance, a virtual private point DP to the phase PIC, the call control transfers to
network (VPN), which enables the use of private num- a switching point. In addition to PICs and detection
bers, and a personal number, in which the IN re-routes 15 points DPs, the basic call state model BCSM comprises
calls made to the personal number in a manner control- transitions and events. The transitions indicate proceed-
led by the subscriber. One example of the IN of this kind ing of the basic call set-up from one PIC to another. The
is described in the ITU-T (the International Telecommu- events cause transitions into and from the PIC. Messag-
nications Union) recommendations of Q.1200 series. es between the service switching point and the control
The invention and its background will be described in 20 point are called operations. For instance, the SSP may
the following by using the Corel NAP terminology of the involve a determination to continue, in response to a
standard ETS 300 374-1, but the invention can also be Collectlnformation operation, the call set-up from PIC2
applied to intelligent networks implemented by other IN where information from the subscriber is collected. In
standards. Document WO-A-9 736 431 discloses a con- connection with activation of an intelligent network serv-
ventional method for controlling a call attempt by using 25 ice the SCP sends the SSP a RequestReportBCS-
an intelligent network. MEvent operation, by means of which the SCP desig-
[0003] In the intelligent network, connection arrange- nates the detection points where it wishes to stop the
ments and service control are separated from one an- call processing at a later stage of the call set-up and to
other, so that the IN services will be made independent assume the call control at that point for giving instruc-
of the connection arrangements. Equipment or a net- 30 tions to the switching point.
work element performing tasks assigned by the IN serv- [0005] Collect Information PIC2 is one phase in the
ice control function or functions SCF (Service Control call set-up. It is normally encountered in the call set-up,
Function) is called a service control point SCP (Service when a phase is achieved where it has to be made sure
Control Point). Within the scope of the present applica- that information has been obtained sufficiently. PIC2 is
tion the SCF and SCP are equal and hereinafterthe term 35 also encountered when the SCP requests to collect ad-
SCP will be used. The SCP gives call set-up instructions ditional information with the Collectlnformation opera-
to the switching centre or the switching centre may que- tion. In this case, prior to the Collectlnformation opera-
ry the SCP about call set-up instructions. Switching cen- tion the control point SCP has transmitted the number
tres that are in charge of the intelligent network switch- of digits to be collected in the RequestReportBCS-
ing are called service switching points SSP (Service 40 MEvent operation. This number indicates the maximum
Switching Point). They comprise at least a service number of digits to be collected, which term will be used
switching function SSF (Service Switching Function) for it hereinafter. One digit refers to any one of figures 0
and a call control function CCF (Call Control Function). to 9 or some other character that can be used for call
The call control function CCF is not an IN-related func- routing.
tion, but it is a standard switching centre function com- 45 [0006] In PIC2 information is collected from the calling
prising high-level call processing functions, such as es- party from the sequence of dialled numbers. Such infor-
tablishment and release of transmission connections. mation includes e.g. service codes, prefixes, dialled ad-
The service switching function SSF is an interface be- dress digits, et cetera. The switching point examines the
tween the call control function CCF and the service con- received information. Phase exit events include: recep-
trol point SCP. Within the scope of the present applica- 50 tion of complete information, collect time out, collect info
tion, the service switching point SSP is equal in value to failure, invalid information and calling party terminates
the functional entity formed by the CCF and SSF, and the call. The reception of complete information is detect-
hereinafter the term SSP will be used. ed when the requisite number of dialled digits is collect-
[0004] In the conventional call set-up, effected without ed or a string of digits ends in an end mark. The requisite
the assistance of the intelligent network, the switching 55 number is either the maximum number transmitted in
centres make independently all the deductions about the Collectl nformation operation by the SCP or a param-
call routing. In the intelligent network, deductions about eter determined for the SSP. The detection of this event
routing are also made by the SCP. A basic call state results in encountering Information Collected DP2. Call

2
3 EP O 956 714 81 4

processing is interrupted, the collected information is its at least have to be collected, is set as a condition in
conveyed to the service control point, call control is the collect phase, the number of the collected digits is
transferred to the control point and the switching point compared with the minimum number when exiting the
remains waiting for instructions on how the call set-up collect phase and the call connection set-up control is
will be continued. The Collect Time Out event is detect- 5 transferred from the IN service switching point to the
ed when a normal inter-digit timer expires and the max- control point, if there is at least the minimum number of
imum of additional information requested by the SCP collected digits.
has not been received in the course of the collecting [0010] The invention also relates to an intelligent net-
time. The detection of this event causes a direct transi- work, to which the method of the invention can be ap-
tion to PIC6 (Exception), in which the call is released. 10 plied. The intelligent network of the invention is charac-
The Collect Info Failure event is detected when there is terized in that the service control point is arranged to
no digit receiver available at the service switching point, determine the maximum collecting time it can wait for
i.e. the resources of the switching point are engaged. the information and to transmit the maximum collecting
The detection of this event will also lead to a direct tran- time to the service switching point, and the service
sition to PIC6, in which the call is released. The Invalid 15 switching point is arranged to receive the maximum col-
Information event is detected when an error is found in lecting time and, in response to the expiring maximum
the information received from the calling party. The de- collecting time, to send the collected information to the
tection of this event will also lead to a direct transition service control point and to transfer the call control to
to PIC6, in which the call is released. The detection of the service control point.
the Calling Party Terminates the Call event results in en- 20 [0011] The invention further relates to an IN service
countering the detection point DP1 O (0-Abandon) and switching point which can be utilized in the method and
the call will be released. intelligent network in accordance with the invention. The
[0007] The above-described arrangement of Collect IN service switching point of the invention is character-
Information phase PIC2 has a drawback thatthe Collect ized by comprising reception means for receiving the
Time Out event automatically releases the call without 25 condition of the information collecting operation from the
the service control point being able to interfere. The DP2 service control point, the condition being the maximum
is designated as a detection point prior to a command, duration for monitoring information collecting time of a
and the only way by which the SCP can interfere with timer, setting means for setting the timer value to con-
the encounter is the maximum number of additional in- form to the maximum time received from the control
formation digits. If the SCP service is based on the 30 point, and transfer means responsive to the timer for
length of the dialled number and if signalling between transferring call control to the service control point.
the local switching centre and the switching point that [0012] Additionally, the invention further relates to an
relays the numbers does not support the All Information IN service switching point which can be utilized in the
Received mark, the IN services utilizing the number of method and intelligent network in accordance with the
dialled digits operate only within the areas of specific 35 invention. The IN service switching point of the invention
switching centres. is characterized by comprising reception means for re-
ceiving the condition of the information collecting oper-
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION ation from the service control point, the condition being
the minimum length of the information to be collected,
[0008] The object of the invention is to provide a meth- 40 comparison means (CCF) for comparing the length of
od and equipment implementing the method in such a the collected information with the minimum length, and
way that the above drawbacks can be solved. The ob- transfer means (SSF-FSM) responsive to the compari-
jects of the invention are achieved with the method of son means for transferring call control to the service
exiting collect information phase performed at a service control point.
switching point of an intelligent network, the method be- 45 [0013] Also, the invention further relates to an IN serv-
ing characterized in that a maximum collecting time, ice control point which can be utilized in the method and
which defines how long information collecting is allowed intelligent network in accordance with the invention. The
to take at most, is set as a condition in the collect phase, IN service control point of the invention is characterized
time consumed in the collect phase is compared with by comprising determination means for determining the
the maximum collecting time, the collect phase is exited 50 collecting time, which indicates for how long information
in response to the expiring maximum collecting time and will be collected atthe service switching point, and trans-
the call connection set-up control is transferred from the mission means are arranged to transmit the collecting
IN service switching point to the control point in re- time to the service switching point.
sponse to the exit. [0014] The invention is based on the idea that call
[0009] The invention further relates to a method of ex- 55 control is returned to the service control point SCP even
iting collect information phase performed at the IN serv- when in PIC2 the received information is not the maxi-
ice switching point, the method being characterized in mum requested as additional information by the SCP.
that the minimum number, which defines how many dig- This enables the service control point to decide how the

3
5 EP O 956 714 81 6

call will be continued. According to the prior art, the call Figure 2 illustrates signalling in a first preferred em-
is always released in these cases. Thus, an advantage bodiment of the invention, and
of the invention is that the service control point can al- Figure 3 is a flow chart of the first preferred embod-
ways make a decision on how the call will be continued iment of the invention,
on the basis of the received information irrespective of 5 Figure 4 is a flow chart of a third preferred embod-
whether the requested amount of information is re- iment of the invention,
ceived or not. One more advantage of the invention is Figure 5 illustrates an IN service switching point,
that its implementation only requires relatively insignifi- and
cant changes at the IN service control point SCP and Figure 6 illustrates an IN service control point.
service switching point SSP. 10
[0015] In one preferred embodiment of the invention, DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
the service control point SCP is able to influence how
long the information will be waited for. This enables e. [0019] Figure 1 illustrates an intelligent network IN
g. the IN services where a different amount of informa- and a few examples of telecommunication systems re-
tion in a specific time leads to a different facility, irre- 15 lated thereto. Figure 1 illustrates elements and functions
spective of whether, for instance, the relaying switching that are essential from the viewpoint of IN services. Net-
centre supports the All Information Received mark or work elements which comprise a service switching func-
not. One more advantage of this embodiment is that it tion SSF and a call control function CCF are called serv-
makes it possible to standardize the waiting time of col- ice switching points SSPs. The call control function CCF
lect information. The time of expiry of an inter-digit timer 20 is not an IN-related function, but it is a standard switch-
depends on the inter-exchange signalling and different ing centre function comprising the high-level call
signallings employ different times of expiry. Since the processing functions, such as establishment and re-
switching centre receives calls through various incom- lease of transmission connections. The service switch-
ing circuits, using different signallings, the waiting time ing function SSF is an interface between the call control
of collect information varies in prior art solutions without 25 function CCF and the service control point SCP. The
the SCP having any influence on the collecting time. SSF interprets the requests sent by the SCF and relays
[0016] In one preferred embodiment of the invention them to the CCP which starts the necessary call control
the service control point determines the minimum of the functions. Correspondingly, the call control function
information to be collected. The minimum indicates how CCF employs the SSF to request instructions from the
many digits the control point needs at least for continu- 30 SCF. The SSF is tightly coupled to the CCF whose in-
ation of the call set-up. When information collecting ter- terface it is. So each SSF together with the CCF is lo-
minates, for instance, because the All Information Re- cated at the same switching centre. A service switching
ceived mark was received or the inter-digit timer ex- point of the invention is described in greater detail in
pired, call processing at the service switching point SSP connection with Figure 5.
is interrupted and it is checked whether information was 35 [0020] Network elements which comprise the service
received at least the minimum sent by the control point. control function SCF are called a service control point
Call control is transferred to the control point and the SCP. The service control function is a centralized au-
switching point will remain waiting for instructions from thority in the intelligent network comprising, for instance,
the service control point only if at least the minimum an execution environmentfor service logic programs. In
amount of information is received. If information is re- 40 connection with an IN service, a service logic program
ceived less than that, a transition to PIC6 is performed is started at the service control point SCP and the oper-
and the call will be released. This embodiment has an ation of this program determines the instructions which
advantage that unnecessary signalling in the network is the SCP transmits to the SSP in each call phase. Each
avoided in situations that result in releasing the call due program may have a plurality of instances to be execut-
to insufficient information. 45 ed. The service control point of the invention is de-
[0017] The preferred embodiments of the method, in- scribed in greater detail in Figure 6. The service control
telligent network, IN service switching point and control point SCP of Figure 1 illustrates the service control point
point in accordance with the invention appear from the at its simplest, since it only comprises the service control
accompanying dependent claims 2, 4, 6, 8 and 11. function SCF and the necessary connections.
50 [0021] A service data function SDF is a database em-
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS ployed by the SCF. The service logic programs may que-
ry and update SDF information. For instance, subscrib-
[0018] In the following the invention will be described er-specific or service-number-specific information can
in greater detail in connection with preferred embodi- be stored in the SDF. The SDF can be either a database
ments with reference to the accompanying drawings, in 55 management system at the service control point SCP
which or, as illustrated in Figure 1, a separate database point
SOP (Service Data Point) which supports the SCF-SDF
Figure 1 illustrates an intelligent network (IN), interface and comprises a database DB.

4
7 EP O 956 714 81 8

[0022] A specialised resource function SRF of the in- mum collecting time is expired. Irrespective of the
telligent network is an interface for such network mech- number of collected digits, a transition from PIC2 to the
anisms that relates to interaction with the subscriber. detection point DP2 is performed. Otherwise the third
The SRF can be associated with intelligent peripherals preferred embodiment does not differ from the first one.
I Ps which comprise more developed speech processing 5 [0028] In a fourth preferred embodiment of the inven-
functions than the switching centres or it can be located tion, only a minimum number minNumberOfDigits is the
at the service switching point SSP. parameter of the operation transmitted at point 2-1. In
[0023] In addition, Figure 1 illustrates an exchange this case, the exit event EE is detected when at least
EX, not pertaining to the intelligent network, which, in the minimum number of digits has been collected and
addition to the CCF, comprises a call control agent func- 10 either the inter-digit timer expires or the string of digits
tion CCAF providing the users with access to the net- ends in an end mark. Otherwise the third preferred em-
work. Because the EX comprises the CCAF, it may be bodiment does not differ from the first preferred embod-
e.g. a local exchange of a fixed telephone network or a iment.
mobile telephone exchange controlling a base station [0029] The parameters transmitted in the operation of
subsystem BSS of a mobile network PLMN. The CCAF 15 point 2-1, or one of them, could be relayed to the service
may also be located at the service switching point. switching point also in the initialization operation Re-
[0024] In Figure 1, the network elements are intercon- questReportBCSMevent by adding new parameters
nected by means of a signalling network SS?. Other net- thereto. By sending the parameters in the Collectlnfor-
works, such as ISDN, can also be used. mation operation the advantage is achieved that they
[0025] Figure 2 illustrates a Collectlnformation oper- 20 are not sent until they are actually needed.
ation, which requests information to be collected, in a [0030] The flow chart of Figure 3 illustrates the IN op-
first preferred embodiment of the invention. At point 2-1 eration in accordance with the invention at the service
the service control point SCP transmits the Collectlnfor- switching point SSP in the first preferred embodiment.
mation operation to the service switching point SSP. Un- It is assumed in the figure that the calling party does not
like the prior art, the operation comprises parameters. 25 disconnect the call, does not give invalid information,
In the first preferred embodiment these parameters are: and that there are available resources at the service
collectTimer, which determines the maximum time for switching point. At point 301 the Collectlnformation op-
information collecting; and minNumberOfDigits, which eration is received, whereafter, at point 302, conditions
indicates the minimum number of digits to be collected. of the exit event of the invention are setforthe maximum
When the SSP receives the operation, it assumes the 30 collecting time T COL' which will have the parameter val-
call set-up control and performs a transition to PIC2 Col- ue of the maximum collecting time collectTimer de-
lectinglnformation. In addition to the prior art exit events scribed in connection with Figure 2, and forthe minimum
(not shown in the figure), the SSP provides for exiting number to be collected min#, which will have the param-
PIC2 an exit event EE in which the maximum collecting eter value of the minimum number of digits to be collect-
time defined by the control point has expired and at least 35 ed minNumberOfDigits described in connection with
the minimum number of digits has been collected. The Figure 2. Thereafter, the call control is transferred to the
detection of the exit event EE causes the service switch- function CCF and at point 303 collection of information
ing point to exit PIC2 and to encounter the detection is started in a normal manner. Next, checking of points
point DP2. The encounter with the detection point caus- 304, 305, 306 and 307 is repeated until one of the con-
es interruption in call processing atthe service switching 40 ditions of the points is fulfilled. At point 304, it is checked
point SSP. At point 2-2 the service switching point SSP whether the time T SPE spent for collecting information
sends a prior art response operation EventReportBSCM is at least the maximum collecting time T COL· If T SPE is
to the service control point SCP, whereafterthe call con- less than T COL' a transition is performed to point 305,
trol transfers to the service control point and the SSP where it is checked, whether the number is the same or
remains waiting for instructions from the service control 45 larger than the required number max#. The required
point SCP. The parameter calledPartyNumber of the re- number is eitherthe maximum number of requisite digits
sponse operation includes the digits that were received sent in the RequestReportBCSM Event operation by the
within the maximum collecting time. control point or, if that is not received, the required
[0026] In a second preferred embodiment of the in- number of digits set by the service switching point itself.
vention the exit event EE is detected when at least the 50 If the number is less than max#, a transition is performed
minimum number of digits has been collected and either to point 306, where it is checked, whether the received
the inter-digit timer expires or the maximum collecting information includes an acknowledgement SC (Send
time is up. Otherwise the second preferred embodiment Completed), which indicates that the calling party has
does not differ from the first preferred embodiment. already given complete information. If the received in-
[0027] In a third preferred embodiment of the inven- 55 formation does not include the acknowledgement, a
tion, only a maximum collecting time, collectTimer, is the transition is performed to point 307, where it is checked,
parameter of the operation transmitted at point 2-1. In whether the time T SPE spent for collecting information
this case, the exit event EE is detected when the maxi- is at least the time T NET which triggers the inter-digit tim-

5
9 EP O 956 714 81

er for transmission network signalling. If not, a return to than the required number max#. The required number
point 304 is performed. is either the maximum number of requisite digits sent in
[0031] If it is detected at point 304 that the maximum the RequestReportBCSMEvent operation by the control
collecting time, i.e. TspE2Tc 0 L, wasspentforcollecting point or, if that is not received, the required number of
information, a transition is performed to point 308, where 5 digits set by the service switching point itself. If the
it is checked, whether information was collected at least number is less than max#, a transition is performed to
the minimum amount needed by the service control point 406, where it is checked, whether the received in-
point, i.e. nr 2 min#. If a sufficient number of digits was formation includes an acknowledgement SC (Send
collected, a transition is performed to point 309, where Completed), which indicates that the calling party has
a detection point DP2 lnformation_Collected is encoun- 10 already given complete information. If the received in-
tered. In accordance with the prior art, from point 309 formation does not include the acknowledgement, a
the process continues by sending the collected digits to transition is performed to point 407, where it is checked,
the control point and by transferring the call control to whether the time T SPE spent for collecting information
the control point. Point 309 is also entered from point is at least the time T NET which triggers the inter-digit tim-
305, if the number of collected digits is at least the 15 er for transmission network signalling. If not, a return to
number required, i.e. nr 2 max#, and from point 306 if point 405 is performed.
the SC is received. [0036] If it is detected at point 406 that the SC is re-
[0032] If the number of digits collected at point 308 is ceived, a transition is performed to point 408, where it
insufficient, i.e. nr <min#, the process will be continued is checked, whether information was collected at least
from point 310. At point 310, a transition is made to PIC6 20 the minimum amount needed by the service control
of the BCSM, where the call will be released. Point 31 O point, i.e. nr 2 min#. Point 408 can also be entered from
can also be entered from point307 ifthetime TsPE spent point 407, if the time T SPE spent for collecting informa-
for collecting information is at least the time T NET which tion is at least the time T NET which triggers the inter-digit
triggers the inter-digittimerfortransmission network sig- timer for transmission network signalling. If it is detected
nalling. 25 at point 408 that a sufficient number of digits was col-
[0033] In the second preferred embodiment the proc- lected, a transition is performed to point 409, where a
ess proceeds as described above, with the exception detection point DP2 lnformation_Collected is encoun-
thatfrom point 307 a transition is performed to point 308, tered. In accordance with the prior art, from point 409
and notto point 310, if the time T SPE spentfor collecting the process continues by sending the collected digits to
information is at least the time T NET which triggers the 30 the control point and by transferring the call control to
inter-digit timer for transmission network signalling. This the control point. Point 409 is entered directly from point
enables the encounter with the detection point DP2 405, if the number of collected digits is at least the
when the inter-digit timer expires, if digits have been col- number required, i.e. nr 2 max#.
lected sufficiently when the time which triggers the inter- [0037] If it is detected at point 408 that the number of
digit timer is shorter than the maximum collecting time. 35 collected digits is not sufficient, i.e. nr < min#, the proc-
[0034] In the third preferred embodiment the process ess continues from point 410. At point 410, a transition
proceeds as in the first preferred embodiment, with the is made to PIC6 of the BCSM, in which the call will be
exception that at point 302 only a value of the maximum released.
collecting time T coL is given, and no checking on the [0038] In another embodiment in accordance with the
number of collected digits is performed at point 308. 40 invention the point 408 can be entered either from point
[0035] The flow chart of Figure 4 illustrates the IN op- 406 or from point 407 but not from both.
eration in accordance with the invention at the service [0039] The order of points in Figures 3 and 4 may de-
switching point SSP in a fourth preferred embodiment. viate from what has been described in the above and
It is assumed in the figure that the calling party does not they may occur in parallel. In addition, other checks,
disconnectthe call, does not give invalid information and 45 such as checking of invalid information, can be carried
that there are available resources at the service switch- out. Furthermore, it is possible to combine the above-
ing point. At point 401 the Collectlnformation operation described embodiments. The service switching point
is received, whereafter at point 402 a condition of the can be arranged to give T coL a value which exceeds
exit event of the invention is set for the minimum number T NET and to give min# the value zero when said service
min# to be collected, which will have the parameter val- 50 switching point receives the Collectlnformation opera-
ue of the minimum number of digits to be collected min- tion in which the corresponding parameter has no value.
NumberOfDigits described in connection with Figure 2. Hence the service switching point can be connected to
Thereafter the call control is transferred to the function such service control points that do not support operation
CCF and at point 403 collection of information is started in accordance with the invention.
in a normal manner. Next, checking of points 405, 406 55 [0040] Figure 5 illustrates the service switching point
and 407 is repeated, until any one of the conditions of SSP and its essential functions from the viewpoint of the
the points is fulfilled. At point 405 it is checked whether invention. The SSP can be implemented in conventional
the number of collected digits nr is the same or larger exchanges, provided that the exchange makes a dis-

6
11 EP O 956 714 81 12

tinction between the basic call control and the IN service each time separately, and if necessary, to have a differ-
control. The service switching point SSP comprises an ent value. If the timer of the application were used, the
exchange terminal SSP-ET for receiving signalling from timer value could not be changed, since according to
other network nodes and for transmitting signalling to the prior art, only one value for one operation can be
other network nodes and an application part SSP-AP 5 given to the timer of the application. Moreover, the use
which controls the exchange terminal. The application of the separate timer is simpler, since according to the
part SSP-AP comprises the actual functions of the ex- prior art, the Collectlnformation operation transfers the
change, i.e. the service switching function SSF and the SSF-FSM to a state in which the timer of the application
call control function CCF, and depending on the ex- is not used. Also other operations result in a transfer to
change type, possibly also the CCAF. These functions 10 the same state, and they do not employ the timer.
are described in greater detail in connection with Figure [0044] Figure 6 illustrates the service control point
1. The application part SSP-AP comprises a separate SCP and its essential functions from the viewpoint of the
state model instance BCSM for each call, the BCSM be- invention. The SCP comprises at least a terminal part
ing described in the above general part of the specifica- SCP-TP for receiving signalling from other network
tion, and interface instances SSF-FSM (SSF Finite 15 nodes and for sending signalling to other network
State Model instance). When IN service is needed, an nodes, and an application part SCP-AP which controls
SSF-FSM for relaying call processing instructions be- the terminal part.
tween the BCSM and the SCP is created for the call for [0045] The application part SCP-AP comprises at
an SCP connection. When the IN service is completed, least one service logic program SLP used for providing
the SSF-FSM will be terminated. The same state model 20 IN services and the service control function SCF de-
instance BCSM may need a new IN service at some oth- scribed in connection with Figure 1. In addition, the ap-
er call set-up phase, and consequently a new interface plication part SCP-AP comprises SCF Call State Model
instance SSF-FSM will be created for it. The interface instances SCSM. Every IN service request leads to cre-
instances SSF-FSM related to the calls may occur in ation of a call state model instance SCSM in accordance
parallel and asynchronously. 25 with the service logic program. The SCSM maintains di-
[0041] The application part SSP-AP comprises a alogue with the SSF on behalf of the IN service logic
service switching management entity SSME for per- program SLP with regard to that service of the call which
forming operations received from the IN service control resulted in creation of the call state model instance SC-
point, for responding to them and for requesting instruc- SM. The call state model instances SCSM related to dif-
tions. The management entity SSME comprises a con- 30 ferent calls may occur in parallel and asynchronously.
trol unit SSME-C (SSME-Control) which maintains dia- The application part SCP-AP additionally comprises a
logue, on behalf of the interface instances SSF-FSM, service control management entity SCME, which com-
with other parts of the switching point and other network prises a control unit SCM E-C (SCME-Control), for send-
nodes or functions, such as the service control point, of ing operations to the service switching point. In a cen-
the intelligent network. It is in charge of the creation, in- 35 tralized mannerthe SCME-C is in charge of the dialogue
vocation and maintenance of the interface instances of all IN-services-related instances SCSM with other
SSF-FSM. The SSME-C directs the received operation parts of the control point and with other network nodes
to the relevant instance and creates an instance, if nee- of the IN, such as the service switching point SSP and
essary. the service data function SDF. It is in charge of creating,
[0042] In the first and second preferred embodiments 40 invoking and maintaining the call state model instances
of the invention the application part SSP-AP comprises SCSM.
a timer Tc for the maximum information collecting time [0046] In the embodiments of the invention, the appli-
and a memory M for storing the minimum number min# cation part SCP-AP comprises a software routine which
of information for comparison. In the third preferred em- takes care that the SCSM adds to the Collectlnformation
bodiment of the invention the SSP-AP does not need 45 operation the parameters in accordance with the inven-
the memory M for storing the minimum number of infor- tion used in the embodiment, for instance, in the first
mation. Correspondingly, in the fourth preferred embod- and second preferred embodiments, the parameters
iment of the invention the SSP-AP does not need the shown in Figure 2; in the third preferred embodiment,
timer Tc· The application part of the switching point is only the first of the parameters shown in Figure 2, i.e.
in charge of giving the timer Tc the value of the maxi- 50 the timer value; and in the fourth preferred embodiment,
mum collecting time received from the control point and/ only the latter of the parameters shown in Figure 2, i.e
or of storing the minimum in the memory M. the minimum number.
[0043] Instead of the timer TC• the timer T ssF of the [0047] It is to be understood that the above specifica-
application of the service switching point can also be tion and the drawings related thereto are only intended
employed. However, a separate timer allows more ver- 55 to illustrate the present invention. It is obvious to the per-
satile operations, for instance, when sending the Col- son skilled in the art that the invention can be varied and
lectlnformation operation twice in succession, since by modified in a variety of ways without deviating from the
using the separate timer, the timer value can be set for scope of the invention disclosed in the appended claims.

7
13 EP O 956 714 81 14

Claims telligent network services, which service control
point requests the service switching point to collect
1. A method of exiting collect information phase per- information for continuing the call set-up requesting
formed at a service switching point of an intelligent intelligent network service, wherein
network, the method comprising the steps of 5 the service control point (SCP) is arranged to
determining a maximum collecting time as a determine the maximum collecting time it is able to
condition for the collecting phase, which defines wait for the information and to send the maximum
how long the information collecting is allowed to collecting time to the service switching point, and
take at most, the service switching point (SSP) is arranged
comparing the time spent at the collecting 10 to receive the maximum collecting time and in re-
phase with the maximum collecting time (304), sponse to the expiration of the maximum collecting
exiting the collect information phase in re- time to send the collected information to the service
sponse to the expiration of the maximum collecting control point and to transfer call control to the serv-
time, and ice control point.
transferring call set-up control from an intelli- 15
gent network service switching point to a control 6. An intelligent network as claimed in claim 5, wherein
point in response to the exit. characterized in that
the service control point (SCP) is further ar-
2. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized by ranged to determine the minimum length of the in-
further comprising the steps of: 20 formation to be collected and to send it to the serv-
ice switching point, and
determining a value of the maximum collecting the service switching point (SSP) is arranged
time at the service control point, to receive the minimum length of the collected in-
sending said value in an operation related to formation and in response to the expiration of the
the collection of information to the service 25 maximum collecting time to send the collected in-
switching point and formation to the service control point and to transfer
setting said value (302) as the maximum col- call control to the service control point, if the length
lecting time of the collect information phase. of the information collected by the service switching
point is at least said minimum length.
3. A method of exiting the collect information phase 30
performed at the intelligent network service switch- 7. An intelligent network service switching point (SSP)
ing point, the method comprising the steps of which comprises a connection to the intelligent net-
determining a minimum number as a condi- work service control point and collecting means for
tion for the collecting phase, which defines how collecting information from the calling party in re-
many digits at least have to be collected, 35 sponse to the collect information operation received
comparing the number of collected digits with from the control point, wherein the switching point
the minimum number when exiting (408) the collect further comprises
information phase, and reception means (SSP-ET) for receiving a
transferring the call set-up control from the in- condition of the collect information operation from
telligent network service switching point to the con- 40 the service control point, the condition being the
trol point if the number of collected digits is at least maximum length,
the minimum number. a timer (Tc) for monitoring the information col-
lecting time,
4. A method as claimed in claim 3, further comprising setting means for setting the timer value to
the steps of: 45 conform to the maximum time received from the
characterized by control point, and
determining the value of the minimum number transfer means (SSF-FSM) responsive to the
at the service control point, timer for transferring the call control to the service
sending said value in an operation (2-1) relat- control point.
ed to the collection of information to the service 50
switching point, and 8. An intelligent network service switching point as
setting said value as the minimum number claimed in claim 7, characterized by additionally
(302). comprising transmission means (SSP-ET) respon-
sive to the transfer means (SSF-FSM) for transmit-
5. An intelligent network (IN) which comprises a serv- 55 ting the information collected in the course of the
ice switching point (SSP) for connecting the intelli- maximum time to the service control point.
gent network to other data communication networks
and a service control point (SCP) for producing in- 9. An intelligent network service switching point (SSP)

8
15 EP O 956 714 81 16

which comprises a connection to the intelligent net- formationen im Ansprechen auf den Ablauf der ma-
work service control point and collecting means for ximalen Sammelzeit, und
collecting information from the calling party in re- Ubergeben einer Rufaufbausteuerung von ei-
sponse to the collect information operation received nem Dienstevermittlungspunkt an einen Dienste-
from the control point, the switching point further 5 steuerungspunkt des intelligenten Netzes im An-
comprising sprechen auf das Verlassen.
reception means (SSP-ET) for receiving a
condition of the collect information operation from 2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, ferner mit den Schrit-
the service control point, the condition being the ten:
minimum length of the information to be collected, 10
comparison means (CCF) for comparing the Bestimmen eines Werts der maximalen Sam-
collected information with the minimum length, and melzeit bei dem Dienstesteuerungspunkt,
transfer means (SSF-FSM) responsive to the Senden des Werts zu dem Dienstevermitt-
comparison means for transferring the call control lungspunkt in einer auf das Sammeln von lnfor-
to the service control point. 15 mationen bezogenen Operation, und
Einstellen des Werts (302) als die maximale
10. An intelligent network service control point (SCP) Sammelzeit der Phase des Sammelns von ln-
which comprises a connection to the service switch- formationen.
ing point, control means for controlling the set-up of
a call using an intelligent network service and trans- 20 3. Verfahren zum Verlassen der bei dem Dienstever-
mission means for transmitting instructions and in- mittlungspunkt des intelligenten Netzes ausgefi.ihr-
formation requests to the service switching point, ten Phase des Sammelns von lnformationen, mit
wherein den Schritten
the service control point further comprises de- Bestimmen einer minimalen Anzahl, die defi-
termination means (SCSM) for determining the col- 25 niert, wie viele Stellen zumindest gesammelt wer-
lecting time which indicates for how long informa- den mussen, als einer Bedingung fi.ir die Sammel-
tion will be collected at the service switching point, phase,
and Vergleichen der Anzahl von gesammelten
transmission means (SCP-ET) are arranged Stellen mit der minimalen Anzahl, wenn die Phase
to transmit the collecting time to the service switch- 30 des Sammelns von lnformationen verlassen wird
ing point. (408), und
Ubergeben der Rufaufbausteuerung von dem
11. An intelligent network service control point as Dienstevermittlungspunkt an den Dienstesteue-
claimed in claim 10, characterized in that wherein rungspunkt des intelligenten Netzes, falls die An-
the determination means (SCSM) are ar- 35 zahl von gesammelten Stellen zumindest die mini-
ranged to determine the minimum number that de- male Anzahl ist.
fines how many digits have to be collected at least,
in order that the control point could continue the call 4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, ferner mit den Schrit-
set-up, ten:
the transmission means (SCP-ET) are ar- 40
ranged to transmit the minimum number to the serv- Bestimmen des Werts der minimalen Anzahl
ice switching point. bei dem Dienstesteuerungspunkt,
Senden des Werts zu dem Dienstevermitt-
lungspunkt in einer auf das Sammeln von lnfor-
Patentanspruche 45 mationen bezogenen Operation (2-1), und
Einstellen des Werts als die minimale Anzahl
1. Verfahren zum Verlassen einer bei einem Dienste- (302).
vermittlungspunkt eines intelligenten Netzes aus-
gefi.ihrten Phase des Sammelnsvon lnformationen, 5. lntelligentes Netz (IN), das einen Dienstevermitt-
mit den Schritten 50 lungspunkt (SSP) zum Verbinden des intelligenten
Bestimmen einer maximalen Sammelzeit, die Netzes mit anderen Datenubertragungsnetzen und
definiert, wie lange das lnformationssammeln einen Dienstesteuerungspunkt (SCP) zum Erzeu-
hochstens dauern darf, als einer Bedingung fi.ir die gen von Diensten des intelligenten Netzes umfaBt,
Sammelphase, wobei der Dienstesteuerungspunkt den Dienstever-
Vergleichen der in der Sammelphase ver- 55 mittlungspunkt zum Sammeln von lnformationen
brauchten Zeit mit der maximalen Sammelzeit zum Fortsetzen des einen Dienst des intelligenten
(304), Netzes anfordernden Rufaufbaus auffordert, wobei
Verlassen der Phase des Sammelns von In- der Dienstesteuerungspunkt (SCP) zum Be-

9
EP O 956 714 81 18

stimmen der maximalen Sammelzeit, die er auf die 9. Dienstevermittlungspunkt (SSP) eines intelligenten
lnformationen warten kann, und zum Senden der Netzes, der eine Verbindung mit dem Dienstesteue-
maximalen Sammelzeit zu dem Dienstevermitt- rungspunkt des intelligenten Netzes und eine Sam-
lungspunkt ausgelegt ist, und meleinrichtung zum Sammeln von lnformationen
der Dienstevermittlungspunkt (SSP) zum 5 von dem rufenden Teilnehmer im Ansprechen auf
Empfangen der maximalen Sammelzeit und im An- die von dem Steuerungspunkt empfangene Opera-
sprechen auf den Ablauf der maximalen Sammel- tion des Sammelns von lnformationen umfaBt, wo-
zeit zum Senden der gesammelten lnformationen bei der Vermittlungspunkt ferner umfaBt
zu dem Dienstesteuerungspunkt und zum Uberge- eine Empfangseinrichtung (SSP-ET) zum
ben einer Rufsteuerung an den Dienstesteuerungs- 10 Empfangen einer Bedingung der Operation des
punkt ausgelegt ist. Sammelns von lnformationen von dem Dienste-
steuerungspunkt, wobei die Bedingung die minima-
6. lntelligentes Netz nach Anspruch 5, wobei le Lange der zu sammelnden lnformationen ist,
der Dienstesteuerungspunkt (SCP) ferner eine Vergleichseinrichtung (CCF) zum Ver-
zum Bestimmen der minimalen Lange der zu sam- 15 gleichen der gesammelten lnformationen mit der
melnden lnformationen und zu ihrem Senden zu minimalen Lange, und
dem Dienstevermittlungspunkt ausgelegt ist, und eine auf die Vergleichseinrichtung anspre-
der Dienstevermittlungspunkt (SSP) zum chende Ubergabeeinrichtung (SSF-FSM) zum
Empfangen der minimalen Lange der gesammelten Ubergeben der Rufsteuerung an den Dienstesteue-
lnformationen und im Ansprechen auf den Ablauf 20 rungspunkt.
der maximalen Sammelzeit zum Senden der ge-
sammelten lnformationen zu dem Dienstesteue- 10. Dienstesteuerungspunkt (SCP) eines intelligenten
rungspunkt und zum Ubergeben einer Rufsteue- Netzes, der eine Verbindung mit dem Dienstever-
rung an den Dienstesteuerungspunkt, falls die Lan- mittlungspunkt, eine Steuerungseinrichtung zum
ge der durch den Dienstevermittlungspunkt gesam- 25 Steuern des Aufbaus eines Rufs unter Verwendung
melten lnformationen zumindest die minimale Lan- eines Dienstes des intelligenten Netzes und eine
ge ist, ausgelegt ist. Ubertragungseinrichtung zum Ubertragen von An-
weisungen und lnformationsanforderungen zu dem
7. Dienstevermittlungspunkt (SSP) eines intelligenten Dienstevermittlungspunkt umfaBt, wobei
Netzes, der eine Verbindung mit dem Dienstesteue- 30 der Dienstesteuerungspunkt ferner eine Be-
rungspunkt des intelligenten Netzes und eine Sam- stimmungseinrichtung (SCSM) zum Bestimmen der
meleinrichtung zum Sammeln von lnformationen Sammelzeit, die angibt, fUrwie lange lnformationen
von dem rufenden Teilnehmer im Ansprechen auf bei dem Dienstevermittlungspunkt gesammelt wer-
die von dem Steuerungspunkt empfangene Opera- den, umfaBt, und
tion des Sammelns von lnformationen umfaBt, wo- 35 die Ubertragungseinrichtung (SCP-ET) zum
bei der Vermittlungspunkt ferner umfaBt Ubertragen der Sammelzeit zu dem Dienstevermitt-
eine Empfangseinrichtung (SSP-ET) zum lungspunkt ausgelegt ist.
Empfangen einer Bedingung der Operation des
Sammelns von lnformationen von dem Dienste- 11. Dienstesteuerungspunkt eines intelligenten Netzes
steuerungspunkt, wobei die Bedingung die maxi- 40 nach Anspruch 10, wobei
male Lange ist, die Bestimmungseinrichtung (SCSM) zum
einen Zeitgeber (Tc) zum Uberwachen der ln- Bestimmen der minimalen Anzahl, die definiert, wie
formationssammelzeit, viele Stellen zumindest gesammelt werden mus-
eine Einstellungseinrichtung zum Einstellen sen, damit der Steuerungspunkt den Rufaufbau
des Zeitgeberwerts derart, daB er der von dem 45 fortsetzen kann, ausgelegt ist,
Steuerungspunkt empfangenen maximalen Zeit die Ubertragungseinrichtung (SCP-ET) zum
entspricht, und Ubertragen der minimalen Anzahl zu dem Dienste-
eine auf den Zeitgeber ansprechende Uber- vermittlungspunkt ausgelegt ist.
gabeeinrichtung (SSF-FSM) zum Ubergeben der
Rufsteuerung an den Dienstesteuerungspunkt. 50
Revendications
8. Dienstevermittlungspunkt eines intelligenten Net-
zes nach Anspruch 7, der zusatzlich eine auf die 1. Precede pour sortir d'une phase de collecte d'infor-
Ubergabeeinrichtung (SSF-FSM) ansprechende mations effectuee au niveau d'un commutateur
Ubertragungseinrichtung (SSP-ET) zum Ubertra- 55 d'acces au service d'un reseau intelligent, le prece-
gen der wahrend der maximalen Zeit gesammelten de comprenant les etapes consistant a:
lnformationen zu dem Dienstesteuerungspunkt um-
faBt. determiner un temps maximal de collecte en

10
EP O 956 714 81 20

tant que condition pour la phase de collecte, qui tion de donnees et un point de commande de ser-
definit pendant combien de temps au plus la vice (SCP) pour preduire des services de reseau
collecte des informations est permise, intelligent, ce point de commande de service de-
comparer le temps passe pour la phase de col- mande au commutateur d'acces au service de col-
lecte au temps maximal de collecte (304), 5 lecter des informations pour continuer l'etablisse-
sortir de la phase de collecte d'informations en ment d'un appel demandant le service du reseau
a
reponse !'expiration du temps maximal de col- intelligent, dans lequel
lecte, et le point de commande de service (SCP) est
transferer une commande d'etablissement d'un dispose pour determiner le temps maximal de col-
a
appel partir d'un commutateur d'acces au ser- 10 lecte durant lequel ii peut attendre les informations
vice d'un reseau intelligent vers un point de et pour envoyer le temps maximal de collecte au
a
commande en reponse la sortie. commutateur d'acces au service, et
le commutateur d'acces au service (SSP) est
2. Precede selon la revendication 1 , comprenant en dispose pour recevoir le temps maximal de collecte
outre les etapes consistant a: 15 a
et, en reponse !'expiration du temps maximal de
collecte, pour envoyer les informations collectees
determiner une valeur du temps maximal de au point de commande de service et pourtransferer
collecte au niveau du point de commande de la commande d'appel au point de commande de
service, service.
envoyer ladite valeur dans une operation liee a 20
la collecte d'informations au commutateur d'ac- 6. Reseau intelligent selon la revendication 5, dans le-
ces au service et quel
definir ladite valeur (302) comme le temps le point de commande de services (SCP) est
maximal de collecte de la phase de collecte d' en outre dispose pour determiner la longueur mini-
informations. 25 a
male des informations collecter et pour les en-
voyer au commutateur d'acces au service, et
3. Precede pour sortir de la phase de collecte d'infor- le commutateur d'acces au service (SSP) est
mations effectuee au niveau du commutateur d'ac- dispose pour recevoir la longueur minimale des in-
ces au service d'un reseau intelligent, le precede a
formations collectees et, en reponse !'expiration
comprenant les etapes consistant a: 30 du temps maximal de collecte, pour envoyer les in-
formations collectees au point de commande de
determiner un nombre minimum en tant que service et pour transferer la commande d'appel au
condition pour la phase de collecte, qui definit point de commande de service, si la longueur des
combien de caracteres au moins doivent etre informations collectees par le commutateur d'acces
collectes, 35 au service est au moins ladite longueur minimale.
comparer le nombre de caracteres collectes au
nombre minimum lors de la sortie (408) de la 7. Commutateur d'acces au service (SSP) d'un reseau
phase de collecte d'informations, et intelligent network qui comprend une connexion au
transferer la commande d'etablissement d'un point de commande de service du reseau intelligent
a
appel partir du commutateur d'acces au ser- 40 et un moyen de collecte pour collecter des informa-
vice d'un reseau intelligent vers le point de a
tions prevenant d'un appelant en reponse l'ope-
commande si le nombre de caracteres callee- ration de collecte d'informations rei;:ue depuis le
tes est au moins le nombre minimum. point de commande, dans lequel le commutateur
d'acces comprend en outre :
4. Precede selon la revendication 3, comprenant en 45
outre les etapes consistant a: des moyens de reception (SSP-ET) pour rece-
voir une condition de !'operation de collecte
determiner la valeur du nombre minimum au ni- d'informations depuis le point de commande de
veau du point de commande de service, service, la condition etant la longueur maxima-
envoyer ladite valeur dans une operation (2-1) 50 le,
lieea la collecte d'informations au commuta- un temporisateur (Tc) pour contr61er le temps
teur d'acces au service, et de collecte d'informations,
definir ladite valeurcomme le nombre minimum des moyens de reglage pour regler la valeur du
(302). temporisateur pour qu'elle soit conforme au
55 temps maximal rei;:u depuis le point de com-
5. Reseau intelligent (IN) qui comprend un commuta- mande, et
teur d'acces au service (SSP) pour connecter le re- des moyens de transfert (SSF-FSM) sensibles
a
seau intelligent d'autres reseaux de communica- au temporisateur pour transferer la commande

11
21 EP O 956 714 81 22

d'appel au point de commande de service.

8. Commutateur d'acces au service d'un reseau intel-
ligent selon la revendication 7, comprenant en outre
des moyens d'emission (SSP-ET) sensibles aux 5
moyens de transfert (SSF-FSM) pour emettre les
informations collectees au cours du temps maximal
vers le point de commande de services.

9. Commutateur d'acces au service (SSP) d'un reseau 10
intelligent network qui comprend une connexion au
point de commande de service du reseau intelligent
et des moyens de collecte pour collecter des infor-
mations provenant d'un appelant en reponse a
!'operation de collecte d'informations rei;:ue depuis 15
point de commande, le commutateur d'acces com-
prenant en outre
des moyens de reception (SSP-ET) pour re-
cevoir une condition de !'operation de collecte d'in-
formations depuis le point de commande de servi- 20
ce, la condition etant la longueur minimale des in-
formations a collecter,
des moyens de comparaison (CCF) pour
comparer les informations collectees a la longueur
minimale, et 25
des moyens de transfert (SSF-FSM) sensi-
bles aux moyens de comparaison pour transferer la
commande d'appel au point de commande de ser-
vice.
30
10. Point de com man de de services (SCP) d'un reseau
intelligent qui comprend une connexion au commu-
tateur d'acces au service, des moyens de comman-
de pour commander l'etablissement d'un appel en
utilisant un service de reseau intelligent et des 35
moyens d'emission pour emettre des instructions et
des demandes d'informations vers le commu-
tateur d'acces au service, dans lequel
le point de commande de services comprend
en outre des moyens de determination (SCSM) 40
pour determiner le temps de collecte qui indique
pendant combien de temps les informations seront
collectees au niveau du point de commande de ser-
vices, et
des moyens d'emission (SCP-ET) sont dispo- 45
ses pour transmettre le temps de collecte au com-
mutateur d'acces au service.

11. Point de commande de service d'un reseau intelli-
gent selon la revendication 10, dans lequel 50
les moyens de determination (SCSM) sont
disposes pour determiner le nombre minimum qui
definit combien de caracteres au moins doivent etre
collectes, afin que le point de commande puisse
continuer l'etablissement de l'appel, 55
les moyens d'emission (SCP-ET) sont dispo-
ses pour transmettre le nombre minimum au com-
mutateur d'acces au service.

12
EP 0 956 714 81

EX
1-.J

FIG. 1

SSP SCP FIG. 2
1
2-1. Co!lectlnformatlon(coHectTimer, rninNumberOfDigits)

j DP j ~----•L 1 2-2. EventReportBCSM(calledPartyNumber)
2

13
EP O 956 714 81

301
receive Collectlnformation-operation

set TCOL =collectTimer
302
min# =minNumberOfDigits

start collecting information
303 FIG.3

yes no

no yes

yes encounter with 309
detection point OP2

ei

yes

no

310

yes transition to
phase PIC6

14
EP O 956 714 81

401
receive CollectlnformationMoperation

402
set min# =minNumberOfDigits

403 F/G.4
start collecting information

409
yes encounter with
end
detection point DP2

no

410
yes
transition to
phase PIC6

no
yes

no yes

15
EP 0 956 714 81

SSP
\....-,

M

- SSME
I

r-~-----------------
: l
I l
:
:
SSME-C I :
l___ ________________ JI
I

FIG.5

-

CCF

- I

J SCP
~

SCP-AP
SCP-ET SLP
- SCME
~--------------------------
I I

l
I~:
!

SCME-C I
l

I I
I I

'------;------------------1

SCF
8 FIG.6

16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of22

ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia Corporation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Name: Harri Honkasalo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: Director of IPR, Standards,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Department: Intellectual Property Rights _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-02150 ESPOO, Finland, PD.Box 226, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP

Tel.: +35871800 8000 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Fax: +358718034496 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
E-mail: harri.honkasalo@nokia,com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as GSM. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Dale: Signature:

Espoo, Finland, 24 July 2002
(Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

~/E<CfJJJ D®
- 9 Sf P. 2002 Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock
Rep: __
--------- ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 11 of 22

Sweden TS 48.008 9903029-8

United States TS 48.008 09/028726

Method of
 exiting collect
infonnation
GSM Nokia Canada TS 23.121 2276374
phase in
intelligent
network

China P.R. TS 23.121 98802213.3

European Patent
TS 23.121 98950132.5
Convention

Finland TS 23.121 974100 105981

Hong Kong TS 23.121 00102926.5

Japan TS 23.121 11-530114

United States TS 23.121 09/331874 6393121

Rate adaptation TS 04.21, TS
of edge traffic 08.20, TS
GSM Nokia Canada 2295608
channel in GSM 29.007, TS
network 27.001

Please return this fann duly signed to: ETSI Director General- Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France / Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
28
A14268VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US007792092B 1

02) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 7,792,092 Bl
Olkkonen et al. (45) Date of Patent: Sep. 7,2010

(54) DATA TRANSMISSION METHOD AND A 4,958,341 A 9/1990 Hemmady et al.
NETWORK ELEMENT 5,014,268 A * 5/1991 Tyrrell et al. ................ 370/374
5,029,200 A * 7/1991 Haas et al. ............... 379/88.18
(75) Inventors: Mikko Olkkonen, Kirkkonummi (FI); 5,168,498 A * 12/1992 Adams et al. ............... 370/349
Senthil Sengodan, Woburn, MA (US); 5,331,631 A * 7/1994 Teraslinna .................. 370/392
Jarno Rajahalme, Kirkkonummi (FI); 5,535,199 A * 711996 Arnri et al. .................. 370/392
Jyri Suvanen, Espoo (FI); Johan
Ilaeggstriim, Helsinki (FI)
(Continued)
(73) Assignee: Nokia Corporation, Espoo (FI) FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the tenn ofthis WO WO 97/28628 8/1997
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days.
(Continued)
(21) Appl. No.: 09/868,819 OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(22) PCT Filed: Dec. 23, 1999 Cisco Systems, Inc., "Understanding TCP/IP", "http://www.cisco.
com/univercd/cc/td/ doc/product/iaabu/centri4/user/ scf4ap l .htm",
(86) PCT No.: PCT/US99/30845 1992-2002.*

§ 371 (c)(l), (Continued)
(2), (4) Date: Oct. 4, 2001 Primary Examiner-] Bret Dennison
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Foley & Lardner LLP
(87) PCT Pub. No.: W000/39970
(57) ABSTRACT
PCT Pub. Date: Jul. 6, 2000

(30) Foreign Application Priority Data The invention is concerned with transmission of speech infor-
mation over mixed networks, particularly over a segment
Dec. 29, 1998 (FI) ...................................... 982811
using packet transmission in an otherwise circuit switched
data transmission network. According to the invention, PCM
(51) Int. Cl.
transmission lines are connected with a packet based network
H04L 12166 (2006.01)
such as an IP network in such a way, that data from one or
G06F 15116 (2006.01)
more channels of a first PCM transmission line is collected in
(52) U.S. Cl........................................ 370/352; 709/236
the payload part of a data packet. Further, the destination
(58) Field of Classification Search .... ...... ....... 709/236, address of the data packet is constructed in such a way, that
709/246~247; 370/352~359
the packet network entity being connected to the second PCM
See application file for complete search history. transmission line can determine based on the destination
(56) References Cited address of the packet, to which channel or channels of the
second PCM transmission line the data should be transmitted.
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
4, 707 ,827 A * 11/ 1987 Bi one et al. ................. 3 70/405 25 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

160

301
302 <-802
303 303

310 310
~
315 315
US 7, 792,092 Bl
Page 2

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6,324,175 Bl * 11/2001 Shiomoto et al. ........... 370/357 2008/0062973 Al * 3/2008 Wilkes et al. ............... 370/352
6,330,614 Bl* 12/2001 Aggarwal et al. ........... 709/236
6,337,863 Bl* 1/2002 Nair et al. .............. 370/395.53 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
6,347,087 Bl* 212002 Ganesh et al. .............. 370/392
WO WO 98/44704 10/1998
6,449 ,278 B2 * 912002 Rose .......................... 3 70/397
6,457,061 Bl* 912002 Bal et al. .................... 709/245 OTHER PUBLICATIONS
6,483,833 Bl* 11/2002 Jagannath et al ............ 370/392
6,542,501 Bl* 4/2003 Tikka ......................... 370/389 FOLDOC, "X.25", "http://fol doc .org/foldoc/foldoc .cgi?X.25", Aug.
6,581,107 Bl* 6/2003 Deac .......................... 7091245 10, 1996.*
C. Yang, "INET Phone: Telephone Services and Servers on Internet"
6,618,762 B2 * 9/2003 Fee et al. .................... 709/245
RFC 1789, University of North Texas, Apr. 1995, pp. 1-6.
6,650,632 Bl * 11/2003 Volftsun et al. ............. 370/352
Office Action dated Jul. 7, 2006 in corresponding EPO Application
6,711,161 Bl* 3/2004 Erimli ........................ 370/360
No. 99 9657 599.4.
6,728,238 Bl * 412004 Long et al. .................. 370/352
6,751,209 Bl* 6/2004 Hamiti et al. ............... 370/349 * cited by examiner
U.S. Patent Sep. 7,2010 Sheet 1of2 US 7,792,092 Bl

205
COLLECTING DATA FROM PCM r
LINE
210
·~ COMPRESSED
I EXTRACTION OF
SPEECH PARAMETERS
215
~
DETERMINATION OF
DESTINATION IP ADDRESS
( 220
••
CONSTRUCTION OFAN IP
DATAGRAM
225
i
TRANSMISSION OF THE IP
DATAGRAM

I

EXTRACTION OF DATA FROM
THE IP DATAGRAM
230


GENERATION OF SPEECH
SIGNALS FROM COMPRESSED
235

SPEECH PARAMETERS
240
~ v/
TRANSMISSION OF DATA TO
PCM LINE I
I

Fig. 1

160 160

MSC MSC
300 300

.,_302
303

315 310 310 315

Fig. 2
U.S. Patent Sep. 7,2010 Sheet 2of2 US 7,792,092 Bl

Fig~ 3

400

170

Fig. 4

GENERATION OF A MESSAGE LISTING /"
SUPPORTED CODING MODES IN AN ORDER OF f/
PREFERENCE

J
TRANSMISSION OF THE MESSAGE
DESCRIBING SUPPORTED CODING MODES
v 520

~
METHOD OF FIG. 1

Fig. 5
US 7,792,092 Bl
1 2
DATA TRANSMISSION METHOD AND A resulting coded speech parameters over the radio interface to
NETWORK ELEMENT the base station of the cellular network. The coded speech
parameters are decoded back to a speech signal in the cellular
This is a U.S. national stage of PCT application No. PCT/ network. However, typical compression methods used do not
US99/30845, filed on Dec. 23, 1999. Priority is claimed on transmit all data in the speech signal, since the compression
that application and on patent application No. 982811 filed in methods take advantage of the fact, that speech perception of
Finland on Dec. 29, 1998. a typical listener is very sensitive to certain features of a
speech signal, while being less sensitive, even insensitive to
TECHNICAL FIELD OF TITLE INVENTION some other features. Therefore, typical compression methods
10 leave out those parts of a speech signal, which are not impor-
The invention is concerned with transmission of speech tant to the perceived quality of transmitted speech. However,
information over mixed networks, particularly over a seg- when coding and decoding is performed more than once, such
ment using packet transmission in an otherwise circuit as in a mobile-to-mobile connection in a cellular telecommu-
switched data transmission network. The invention is directed nication network, speech quality may be drastically reduced
to a method according to the preamble of claim 1. 15 due to the double coding and decoding. This problem can be
avoided for example by using the so called tandem free opera-
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION tion (TFO) mode of transmission. In TFO mode, the cellular
network element perforn1ing the decoding of the coded
In conventional telephony, a basic channel format is the 64 speech paran1eters received from the mobile station, inserts
kbit/s channel, in which a single speech connection is trans- 20 the original received coded speech parameteres into the
mitted. The 64 kbit/s channel transmits 8000 samples per decoded speech signal which is forwarded to the receiver. The
seconds, each sample having 8 bits. Typically, a plurality of speech paran1eters are typically inserted into the least signifi-
64 kbit/s channels are transmitted in a single transmission line cant bits of the speech samples of the speech signal, whereby
to form 1544 kbit/s, 2048 kbit/, and higher transmission rates. they are perceived as a slight increase of background noise by
In a 2048 kbit/s transmission link, a 256 bit i.e. 32 byte frame 25 a receiver of the speech signal, if the receiver does not utilize
is transmitted 8000 times per second. The 32 groups of8 bits, the embedded speech parameters. In case of a mobile to
i.e. bytes of the frame are referred to as time slots. The terms mobile TFO mode call, the network element at the receiving
PCM transmission line and trunk line are commonly used to end performing the encoding of the speech signal for trans-
refer to a comm1mication link transmitting a plurality of 64 mission to the receiving mobile station extracts the embedded
kbit/s channels. Therefore, to identify a certain speech chan- 30 speech parameters, and transmits those to the mobile station
nel transmitted within a group of trunk lines, one needs to without performing a second coding operation. The receiving
indicate the time slot number of the channel and a trunk line mobile station then decodes the speech parameters into a
identifier. The tern1 trunk line is sometimes used also to speech signal. In the TFO mode, a speech signal is coded only
denote a basic 1544 kbit/s or 2048 kbit/s unit of transmission once, i.e. in the transmitting mobile station, and the receiving
even in a case, when a plurality of such transmission units are 35 mobile station receives the coded speech parameters prepared
transmitted in a single physical transmission meditilll i.e. in a by the transmitting mobile station, whereby double coding is
single physical transmission line. Although the acronym avoided. This significantly improves the speech quality
PCM strictly considered denotes pulse code modulation, because without TFO, the original speech signal is coded
which is typically used in trunk lines, the term PCM trans- twice with the lossy speech compression algorithm which
mission line is generally used by a person skilled in the art and 40 degrades the speech quality each time the compression is
specifically in this specification to refer to aforementioned applied. The difference between the single encoding and the
logical group of channels or a group of groups of channels and tandem encoding becomes even more important when the
not to a specific modulation method. bit-rate of a speech codec is very low. The old high bit-rate
Further, packet based transmission networks are presently speech coding standards, as exemplified by the G.711 stan-
in widespread use, a prominent example being the Internet. A 45 dard of 64 kbits PCM coding, are very robust to successive
common packet transmission protocol is the Internet Protocol coding. However, the state of the art speech coders operating
(IP). The IP protocol version 4 is described in detail in the in a range of 4 kbits to 16 kbits are quite sensitive to more than
specification RFC 791. The next version of the IP protocol, one successive coding.
known as IPv6, is described in the specification RFC 1883. A nun1ber of problems arises when different types oftrans-
The increasing importance and use of teleconmmnication 50 mission networks participate in transmission of connections,
drives toward interconnection of different types of networks. especially when different connections have different param-
For example, the Internet is already used for transmitting eters such as the data transmission rate and whether compres-
voice using so called Internet telephony. As the data trans- sion is used or not. One problem, for example, is how to
mission capacity of the Internet increases, the use of Internet optimize the data transmission in the case, when some of the
as a replacement of conventional telephones will become 55 data transmission channels are compressed and some trans-
common. Some telephone operators already provide long mission channels are not compressed. A further problem is
distance calls via the Internet with a reduced rate. how to efficiently connect PCM transmission lines with an
Different schemes for interconnecting cellular telecommu- packet based network such as an IP network.
nication networks with the Internet are presently under devel-
opment. The complicity of cellular telecommunication net- 60 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
works and the wide variety of services they provide create
new and extensive fields of problems in the interconnection of An object of the invention is to realize a transmission
different networks. One example of a feature tmique to cel- method, which allows the use of packet based networks in
lular telecommunication networks is the compression of transmission of circuit switched connections. An object of the
speech, which is needed due to limitations of the capacity of 65 invention is also to provide a way for connecting two PCM
the radio interface. A mobile station codes the speech of the transmission lines with a packet based network such as an IP
user using one of the available codecs, and transmits the or an X.25 network. A further object of the invention is to
US 7,792,092 Bl
3 4
provide such a method, which allows the transmission of both amount of bytes is large enough for efficient transmission and
compressed and noncompressed traffic. A still further object small enough for not producing a too large packetizing delay.
of the invention is to provide such a method, which optimizes When the predetennined amount of speech parameter infor-
the use of data transmission capacity for both compressed and mation is collected, the information is inserted in an IP
noncompressed traffic. packet, which is given a destination address corresponding to
The objects are reached by inserting a number of samples the packet network gateway associated with the destination
from at least one channel of a PCM transmission line into the MSC. The packet is then trm1smitted through the IP network
payload part of a data packet, and indicating the destination to the destination packet network gateway.
PCM transmission line and the channel within the transmis- The destination packet network gateway then receives the
sion line in the destination packet address. 10
packet and extracts the speech parm11eter infomiation from
The method according to the invention is characterized by the packet. Next, the destination packet network gateway
that, which is specified in the characterizing part of the inde- creates a speech signal according to the speech parameter
pendent method claim. The network element according to the information, and embeds the speech parmneter information in
invention is characterized by that, which is specified in the the lowemrnst bits of the speech signal as in conventional
characterizing part of the independent claim directed to a TFO mode. The resulting signal is then sent to a 64 kbit/s
15 PCM channel towards the destination MSC.
network element. The dependent claims describe further
advantageous embodiments of the invention.
According to the invention, PCM transmission lines are B. Channel Identification Information
connected with a packet based network such as an IP or an
X.25 network in such a way, that data from one or more In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the chan-
channels of a first PCM transmission line is collected in the 20 nel information identifying the PCM channel at the receiving
payload part ofa data packet. Further, the destination address end is included in the packets of the packet network such as an
of the data packet is constructed in such a way, that the packet IP or a X.25 network. In the following, an example of an
network entity being connected to the second PCM transmis- embodiment of the invention as applied in an IP network is
sion line can detem1ine based on the destination address of the described. The cham1el identification information may for
packet, to which channel or channels of the second PCM 25 exmnple be defined by the destination IP address, or be
transmission line the data should be transmitted. included in the IP datagrmn in an extra option field or in the
data part of the datagram.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In such an embodiment, in which the destination IP address
defines the channel identification information, a predefined
The invention is described in more detail in the following 30
rule may be used for generating the IP address and deducing
with reference to the accompanying drawings, of which the channel identification infonnation from the IP address.
FIG. 1 describes a method according to an advantageous For example, the 64 kbit/s channels in the PCM transmission
embodiment of the invention, line com1ected to the destination packet network gateway
FIG. 2 illustrates a network element according to an advan- may be numbered consecutively, in which case the IP address
tageous embodiment of the invention, of a channel cm1 be found by adding the number of the
35
FIG. 3 illustrates a further advantageous embodiment of cham1el to the base address of the packet network gateway.
the invention, This is only one example of a rule, and does not limit the
FIG. 4 illustrates a still further advantageous embodiment invention in any way, since many other types of rules may be
of the invention, and used in various embodiments of the invention. For example,
FIG. 5 illustrates a method according to an advantageous the time slot numbers of the chmmels may be used as well. If
embodiment of the invention. 40 the packet network gateway is connected to more than one
Same reference m1merals are used for similar entities in the 2048 kbit/s PCM tnmk line, the tnmk lines may be numbered
figures. consecutively, in which case the IP number may be derived
from both the time slot number and the tnmk line number. For
DETAILED DESCRIPTION exmnple, the following equation may be used:
45 IP address=base address+(Nn·trunk line number)+
A. An Exan1ple of Transmission of a TFO Mode time slot number
Channel
The term Nrs denotes the number of time slots in one frame
of the trunk line.
In one advantageous embodiment of the invention, the
A 1544 kbit/s PCM trunk line has 24 time slots, whereas a
processing is performed by a network element connected to 50
one or more PCM data transmission lines and a IP network. 2048 kbit/s PCM trunk line has 32 time slots. For exmnple, if
a packet network gateway has as its base address
Such a network element is hereafter referred to as a packet
network gateway. The packet network gateway receives 64 1.313.42.100, the IP addresses of32 time slots ofa first 2048
kbit/s data transmission cham1els from the PCM data trans- kbit/s trunk line would then be 1313.42.100 to 1.313.42.131
mission lines. Each of these 64 kbit/s cham1els may transmit and addresses of the time slots of a second 2048 kbit/s trunk
55 line would then be 1.313.42.132 to 1.313.42.163, assuming
for example speech or a data or a fax transmission. The PCM
transmission line is connected to a network element of a that the numbering of time slots and trunk lines starts with
zero. The opposite procedure, i.e. computing the trunk line
cellular telecommunications network, such as a MSC (mobile
services switching center) of a GSM or a UMTS network. In number and the time slot number, can be done for exmnple
according to the following equations:
this example, the processing of a TFO mode call is described.
60
In a TFO mode call, the 64 kbit/s speech signal comprises in time slot number=(IP address-base address)MOD N TS
addition to the speech signal itself, the compressed speech
information in the least significant bits of the speech signal. In trunk line number=INT((IP address-base address)/
this example, the packet network gateway extracts the com- Nrs)
pressed speech information from the incoming signal. The
packet network gateway collects a predetermined an1ount of 65 where the function m MOD n is the modulo function, and the
this compressed speech information, for example a certain function INT(x) returns the integral part ofx. The man skilled
amount of bits corresponding to an amount of bytes, which in the art knows many other straightforward ways how to
US 7,792,092 Bl
5 6
proceed in the opposite way, i.e. how to compute the time slot these bits can indicate the number of bits used for transmis-
number and the trunk line number from the IP address, when sion of the particular sample of the cham1el. For example, if a
the base address is known. Therefore, these ways are not chaimel is transmitted Ullcompressed, the sample length
described here in further detail. would be 8 bits. If a channel transfers compressed speech
The invention is not limited to the previous example of parameters, three bits may be enough to represent a sample of
forming the IP address corresponding to a cham1el, since the compressed speech signal. depending on the compression
many other IP address forming rules can be used. For method used. If the channel is inactive, no bits need to be used
example, in a further advantageous embodiment of the inven- to trai.1smit that channel. In the example of 16 samples from 64
tion, the IP address is formed by concatenating the time slot channels being packed in one IP datagram, 64 times 4 bits i.e.
number to a prefix value associated with the packet network 10 32 bytes of status information needs to be inserted in the
gateway. datagram. This embodiment has the advantage, that while the
The previous addressing examples require that the neces- capacity savings brought about by compressed traffic can be
sary address space, i.e. one IP number per channel is avail- obtained, uncompressed and mixed traffic can be transmitted
able. In an IPv6 network this should not be a problem. On the using the same mechanism. Preferably, the destination IP
other hand, an IPv4 network might not have enough free 15 address and the sender IP address are used to indicate the
addresses. In such an embodiment it is desirable, that the PCM trunk line or lines, whose data is carried by the data-
cham1el identification infonnation is specified in some other gram. The position of each sample in the datagram specifies
way than through the IP address. As previously mentioned, the time slot i.e. chatmel corresponding to the sample.
the channel identification information may also be encoded in Preferably, information about the number of chai.mels
an extra options field in the header of the IP datagram, or 20 transferred by an IP datagrams is included in the datagram,
preferably, in a predefined way in the data part of the IP for example in the beginning of the chai.mel status informa-
datagram. tion header described in the previous paragraph.
In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, the C.2 Nonconsecutive Chaimels
cham1el identification information at the sending packet net- A further advantageous embodiment of the invention pro-
work gateway is included in the IP datagram. The channel 25 vides for transmission of data from nonconsecutive time slots
identification information can be specified in the form of an IP in a single datagram. Such ai.1 embodiment can be realized by
address for example according to previous examples, which inserting status information into the datagrai.11, which status
address is used as the sender's IP address in the IP datagram. information in this embodiment can comprise for example
The chm.me! identification information may also be encoded five bits for each time slot: one bit indicating whether the
in an extra options field or in the data part of the IP datagram 30 chaimel is active or inactive, three bits indicating the length of
in a predefined way. the samples of the channel, and one bit indicating whether
channel information is defined by the datagram or not.
C. Combining of Multiple Chai.mels Thereby the header can indicate separately for each time slot,
whether the datagram carries the corresponding chai.mel or
In further advantageous embodiments of the invention, 35 not. If the datagram does not carry the corresponding chai.mel,
speech data from more than one chai.mel is transmitted in one the receiving packet network gateway can receive data to that
datagram of the network level protocol such as the IP or the chaimel from other sources from the IP network. This
X.25 protocol. One datagran1 may contain data for exan1ple embodiment allows the transmission of any number of time
from a plurality of consecutive time slots, or from a plurality slots from one frame, regardless of whether they are consecu-
of at least partly non-consecutive time slots. Some examples 40 tive or not. This embodiment has the advantage, that different
of such embodiments are presented in the following para- time slots of a single PCM trunk line can receive data from
graphs. different packet network gateways. For example, a first
C. l. Consecutive Channels packet network gateway may send data to time slots 5 to 10 of
In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, data 45 a 2048 kbit/s PCM trunk line at a second packet network
from all time slots of one or more consecutive frai.nes are sent gateway, while a third packet network gateway may send data
to the rest of the time slots of the same PCM trunk line.
in one datagram of the network level protocol such as the IP
or the X.25 protocol. For example, a frame of a 2048 kbits Further, this embodiment allows the destination packet net-
PCM line contains 32 time slots. Since each time slot contains work gateway to receive a group of channels from ai.1other
8 bits, one frame corresponds to 32 bytes of payload in an IP 50 packet network gateway, and single channels separately from
datagram, if no compression is used. For example, if 32 one or more other sources, such as IP telephones.
consecutive frames are sent in one IP datagram, the IP data- C.3 IP Address Determination in Case of Multiple Chai.mels
gram would have 1024 bytes of uncompressed speech data. The IP address determination can be performed in roughly
However, packing of 32 consecutive frames i.e. 32 samples similar way as in the case of a single channel being transferred
from each of32 channels introduces a 4 ms packetizing delay. 55 in an IP datagram. The IP address may be advantageously
To obtain shorter delays, frames can be collected from more determined based on the time slot number of the first time
than one PCM trunk lines. For example, collecting 16 con- slot, whose data is transferred in the datagrai.11, and the time
secutive frames from each of two 2048 kbit/s PCM lines i.e. slot for each of the rest of the data samples in the datagram is
16 samples from each of 64 channels, would result in the same specified by its position relative to the first time slot.
ammmt of data, but only in a 2 ms delay. 60
In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, D. Selection of Coding Mode
one or more of the plurality of consecutive channels can be
transmitted in compressed fom1. This can be realized for In some advantageous embodiments of the invention, the
example by adding status information of the transmitted packet network gateway does not perform any coding mode
channels to the IP packet. The status information can for 65 negotiations with other network elements. In such embodi-
example comprise four bits per channel. One of these bits can ments, the packet network gateway transparently transfers
denote the active/inactive status of the channel, and three of uncompressed chai.mels, and transmits through the packet
US 7,792,092 Bl
7 8
network only the compressed speech parameters for any TFO receive infonnation indicating that the call is a speech con-
mode signals present. However, in other embodiments of the nection, and not a data or a fax call.
invention, the packet network gateway can take part in coding
mode negotiations between various network elements, and E. Protocols
two packet network gateways can negotiate about compres-
sion modes to be used between them. Such fanctionality In a farther advantageous embodiment, a higher level
brings considerable advantages for example when different transmission protocol is used on top of the packet network
types of communication networks are connected using a level protocol between the two communicating packet net-
packet network. Some exemplary embodiments of the inven- work gateways. For example, the IP protocol does not guar-
tion, in which packet network gateways perform or partici- 10 antee delivery of data, and the IP protocol has no mechanisms
pate in coding mode decisions and negotiations are described for replacement of faulty or missing datagrams. Neither does
in the following paragraphs. the IP protocol guarantee the correct receive order of data-
In one advantageous embodiment, a first packet network grams. Therefore, a second protocol is advantageously used
gateway is com1ected to a cellular telecommm1ications net- on top of the packet network level protocol such as the IP or
work such as a GSM network or an UMTS network, and a 15 the X.25 protocol to enhance the reliability of data transmis-
second packet network gateway is com1ected to a conven- sion between the packet network gateways. In such an
tional telephone system. In such a case, the first and second embodiment of the invention, the data is inserted in a packet
packet network gateways can negotiate to select the same of the higher level protocol, after which the packet of the
coding mode for a connection, which is used by the mobile higher level protocol is inserted into one or more packet
station of the cellular telecommunications network. Conse- 20 network level protocol datagrams for transmission over the
quently, the com1ection can betreated by the cellular telecom- packet network. The packet network gateways execute the
munications network as a TFO connection. The first packet higher level protocol, generating messages and replying to
network gateway simply transmits the compressed speech messages as required by the specifications of the particular
parameters to the second packet network gateway as protocol. However, it is also possible in other embodiments of
described previously, and the second packet network gateway 25 the invention to implement the execution of the higher level
compresses the speech signal from the conventional tele- protocols using a separate network element between an
phone network, before transmission of the compressed signal packet network gateway and the packet network.
to the first packet network gateway and the cellular telecom- If the packet network gateway receives a packet network
munications network. Further, in this case the second packet level protocol datagram addressed to an address within the
30
network gateway does not need to embed the compressed plurality of addresses managed by the packet network gate-
speech parameters in the decompressed speech signal sent to way, and which datagram does not contain data which the
the conventional telephone network, since most likely the packet network gateway recognizes as valid speech data and
compressed speech parameters would not be used in any way does not contain any messaging data pertinent to a protocol
in the conventional telephone network. used in the transmission of the speech data, the packet net-
In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, an 35 work gateway preferably discards the packet.
packet network gateway can in addition to coding implement In one embodiment of the invention, the well known TCP
other conventional features used typically in cellular telecom- protocol (Transmission Control Protocol) is used. However,
munication systems to reduce data transmission, such as dis- the TCP protocol is not very well suited for real time trans-
continuous transmission. In such an embodiment, a voice mission, wherefore other protocols are preferred. A further
40
activity detector of the packet network gateway monitors the alternative is the UDP protocol (User Datagram Protocol) or
transmitted speech signal, and ifno voice activity is detected, the RIP protocol (Real Time Protocol), which is designed for
no data is transmitted over the packet network. Preferably, transmission of real time data. The TCP protocol is defined by
silence descriptor infomiation is transmitted before a trans- the specification RFC 791, UDP by RFC 768, and RIP by
mission pause, in order to enable the receiving packet net- RFC 1889. Other suitable protocols are the PPP protocol
45
work gateway to generate comfort noise. (Point-to-Point Protocol) defined in RFC 1661, PPP protocol
In one exemplary embodiment of the invention, in which a in HDLC-like fran1ing as defined in RFC 1662, orthe V.110
mobile-to-mobile call is routed from one MSC via a first or V.120 protocols.
packet network gateway, a packet network, and a second Further, more than two protocols can be used on top of each
packet network gateway to a second MSC, the coding mode 50
other. For exan1ple, the RIP protocol is preferably used on top
negotiations can be perfom1ed for example as follows. During of the UDP protocol, which is used on top of the IP protocol.
call set up, TFO connections are first set up between the These protocols are well known by a man skilled in the art,
transcoder unit and the packet network gateway at both ends, wherefore they are not described in further detail in this
after which the packet network gateways negotiate the coding specification.
mode between them. If the same coding mode was selected at 55
both ends, the establishment of the cmmection can be contin- F. An Example of a Method
ued. If different coding modes were selected, one of the
packet network gateways can renegotiate the coding mode FIG. 1 illustrates a method according to an advantageous
selected at the corresponding end of the connection. Alterna- embodiment of the invention for transmission of data arriving
tively, one of the packet network gateways can perform 60 from a PCM transmission line through an IP network to
transcoding, i.e. conversion between the coding modes. another PCM transmission line. First, in step 205, data is
In a farther advantageous embodiment of the invention, collected from the PCM line, from one or more channels i.e.
two packet network gateways can negotiate between them- time slots. If any of the channels contains a TFO mode signal,
selves about compressing a signal transmitted between them, the compressed speech parameters are extracted from the data
even if the systems at either end of the connection do not use 65 at step 210. In the following step 215, the IP address for the IP
or support compression. Preferably this is performed only in datagram is determined for example in some of the ways
the case that during call set up, the packet network gateways described previously.
US 7,792,092 Bl
9 10
Preferably, the IP address is stored in a memory means for munications network, the two switching centers can be
later use. Thereafter, when another IP datagram containing mobile services switching centers (MSC:s).
data from the same channel or channels is to be sent, the When a subscriber makes a call, SC A receives a SETUP
determination step 215 can simply comprise fetching of the message of the ISUP protocol. The SETUP message com-
previously determined IP address from the memory means. prises the number of the other party, which the subscriber
In the following step 220, the IP datagram is constructed, wishes to call. Switching center A examines the number, and
whereafter the datagram is transmitted through the IP net- if the analysis of the digits implies that SC B can receive IP
work in step 225. After the destination packet network gate- traffic, SC A interrogates SC B by sending e.g. a "Send
way receives the datagram, it extracts the data samples from Routing Info" command to SC B using the signalling system
the datagram in step 230. In case that the data contains com- 10
SS7. Upon receiving the command, SC B locates a free
pressed speech parameters, the compressed speech param-
eters are decompressed to speech signal data in step 235. In incoming channel in the transmission line between SC B and
the next step, the received and/or decompressed data are sent its local packet network gateway, generates an IP address
to corresponding channels of the PCM line connected to the corresponding to the channel, and sends the IP address back
destination packet network gateway. 15 as a response to the command. When SC A receives the IP
The method shown in FIG. l is only an example of an address, it switches the connection to the packet network
embodiment of the invention. The invention can be realized in gateway associated with SC A, and sends the IP address to the
many other ways as well. For example, the ordering of steps packet network gateway to be used as the destination IP
210, 215, and 220 can be different from that shown in FIG. l address. The packet network gateway of SC B can subse-
in various embodiments of the invention. 20 quently obtain the IP address of the channel in the packet
network gateway of SC A from the source IP address of IP
G. An Example of a Network Element datagrams sent by the packet network gateway of SC A.
The interrogation command mentioned in the previous
FIG. 2 illustrates one example of an embodiment of the paragraph can be specific to IP traffic supporting switching
25 centers, in which case a SC receiving such an interrogation
invention, in which the inventive functionality is realized in a
network element 300 located between a MSC 160 and a IP command always knows that the sender of the conunand also
network 170. The network element preferably comprises a supports IP traffic. Consequently, a SC can always reply to
processor unit 310 such as a digital signal processor 310 for such a command by sending an IP address instead of an E.164
realizing the functions of the network element. For example, telephone number. According to another embodiment of the
30 invention, a second switching center receiving such an inter-
the network element may comprise an IP address generating
unit 301 for generating IP addresses for IP packets based at rogation command from a first switching center examines
least partly on parameters identifying at least one channel of infonnation identifying the first switching center, e.g. the
the PCM transmission line. Further, the network element may telephone number of the calling party. If the telephone num-
comprise a compressed speech parameter extraction unit 302 ber identifies that the first switching center supports IP traffic,
35 the second SC can reply by sending an IP address. Otherwise,
for extracting compressed speech parameters from at least
one signal from the PCM transmission line, which signal the second SC replies in the conventional way by sending an
comprises both an uncompressed speech signal part and com- E.164 telephone number.
pressed speech parameters. The network element may also
comprise a compression unit 303 for compressing the signal I. Further Advantageous Embodiments of the
40
of at least one channel from the PCM transmission line before Invention
transmission over the data transmission network. The address
generating unit 301, speech parameter extraction unit 302 and In a further advantageous embodiment, the packet network
the compression unit 303 may advantageously be realized gateways also comprise functionality necessary for transcod-
using software programs executed by the processing unit 310 ing between various encoding modes. Such a functionality in
45
stored in a memory means 315 in the network element 300. addition to the previously described negotiation functions are
in the present embodiment used for optimizing of the number
H. Call Set-Up of transcodings within the transmission path.
In the present embodiment, the object of minimization is
The information about the packet network level protocol 50 the number of transcodings, if any, in the end-to-end trans-
address of the destination packet network gateway can be mission path. For obtaining this aim, a special ordering is
obtained by the sending packet network gateway for example used in the messages transmitted between the various net-
during call set up. In the following, one example of call setup work elements for describing the capabilities of the elements
signalling according to an advantageous embodiment of the regarding supported coding modes. Such messages are often
invention as applied to an IP network is described. In this 55 called terminal capability set (TCS) messages. Such mes-
embodiment, the switching centers supporting IP traffic are sages typically list the coding modes which the sender of the
implemented in such a way, that they return an IP address message can receive and which ones the sender can transmit.
instead of a conventional E.164 telephone number as a In this application, the item describing a coding mode is
response to a routing info request from another switching denoted a capability descriptor, a tenn which is also used for
center. 60 this purpose in some specifications of cellular telecommuni-
In this example, it is assumed that switching centers having cation systems. The available coding modes may be different
IP traffic capability can be recognized by the telephone num- for different directions. In the present inventive embodiment,
bers corresponding to the SC:s. The switching centers may the order in which the capabilities is listed in a tenninal
for example have a database specifying which other switch- capability set message is given significance, i.e. the listing
ing centers support IP traffic. 65 order signifies an order of preference.
In this example, messaging between switching centers The order of the capability descriptors is defined by certain
(SC) A and B is described. In the case of a cellular telecom- set of rules, which the network elements follow when trans-
US 7,792,092 Bl
11 12
mitting a terminal capability set message to the next network Next, the second gateway G2 receives the message, and
element along a transmission path. Basic considerations for prepares a new TCS message for transmission to the second
these rules are the following: terminal TB. Gateway G2 arranges the capability descriptors
111ose coding modes, which the previous network node in the following way:
supports and which the current network node supports, those capability descriptors which Gl sent and which G2 is
have highest preference. Preferably, the current network capable of supporting form a first set of capability
node maintains the preference order of the previous descriptors
network node if the following considerations do not among these capability descriptors in the first set, the capa-
require a change in the order, and at least partially, if the bility descriptors of symmetrical coding modes form a
order needs to be changed. 10 second set, while the rest of the capability descriptors of
After these, those coding modes have the next highest the first set form a third set
preference, which coding modes the previous network the second set is ordered in the same order in which these
node does not support, but which coding modes are capability descriptors were in the TCS message received
supported by the current network node, and for which byG2
modes the current network element can act as a l5 the third set is ordered in the same order in which these
transcoder, transcoding to/from a coding mode sup- capability descriptors were in the TCS message received
ported by the previous network node. byG2
a fourth set of capability descriptors is formed by those
Symmetrical encodings are preferred over asymmetrical
capability descriptors, which correspond to reception
encodings. In symmetrical encoding, the same codecs
20 coding modes supported by G2 and not supported by G1,
are used for transmission and for reception.
but which modes the gateway G2 can receive and which
As an example, let us consider the flow ofTCS messages in modes G2 can transcode to a coding mode supported by
a network as shown in FIG. 3. FIG. 3 shows schematically a Gl
first terminal TA 400, a first packet network gateway Gl 300,
a fifth set of capability descriptors is formed by those
a packet network 170, a second packet network gateway G2 25 capability descriptors, which correspond to transmis-
300, and a second terminal. TB 400. Let us consider a situa- sion coding modes supported by G2 and not supported
tion, in which the first terminal TA communicates its capa- by Gl, but which modes the gateway G2 can transmit
bilities to the other terminal TB. Similar procedure applies in and to which G2 can transcode from a coding mode
the reverse direction, but for, clarity, we discuss here only the supported by Gl.
direction from TA to TB. 30 The TCS message transmitted by the G2 then comprises
First, the terminal TA transmits a TCS message to Gl, the second, third, fourth and fifth sets of capability descrip-
listing the capability descriptors in a desired order of prefer- tors, in that preference order. However, the order of the fourth
ence. and fifth sets can also be the other way around.
Next, the first gateway Gl receives the message, and pre- Finally, the second terminal TB receives the TCS message
pares a new TCS message for transmission to gateway G2. 35 from gateway G2, and preferably selects for reception a cod-
Gateway Gl arranges the capability descriptors in the follow- ing mode which it can receive, and of those coding modes, the
ingway: one having the highest preference.
those capability descriptors which TA sent and which Gl is One natural way oflisting the capability descriptors is that
capable of supporting form a first set of capability the most preferred capability descriptor is listed first of all
descriptors 40 capability descriptors in the tem1inal capability set message,
among these capability descriptors in the first set, the capa- and following the most preferred one, the other ones in a
bility descriptors of symmetrical coding modes form a decreasing order of preference. As a man skilled in the art
second set, while the rest of the capability descriptors of perceives, the correspondence of the listing order and the
the first set form a third set preference order can also be defined the other way around.
the second set is ordered in the same order in which these 45 FIG. 4 illustrates one configuration of the transmission
capability descriptors were in the TCS message received path according to an advantageous embodiment of the inven-
byGl tion. This embodiment illustrates the possibility, that more
than two network element within the transmission path have
the third set is ordered in the same order in which these
transcoding capability, i.e. can take part in negotiating and
capability descriptors were in the TCS message received
50 effecting TFO mode operation. In this embodiment, the ter-
byGl
minals TAand TB 400 are mobile communication means. The
a fourth set of capability descriptors is formed by those speech data in this exan1ple traverses from one terminal
capability descriptors, which correspond to reception through a TRAU (Transcoder and Rate Adaptor Unit) 410 to
coding modes supported by G1 and not supported by TA, a packet network gateway 300, and through the packet data
but which modes the gateway Gl can receive and which 55 network 170 to another packet network gateway 300 and
modes Gl can transcode to a coding mode supported by TRAU 410, and finally to the other terminal 400. In this
TA embodiment, both gateways Gl, G2 and both TRAU units
a fifth set of capability descriptors is formed by those 410 have transcoding capability. The ordering scheme
capability descriptors, which correspond to transmis- according to preference described in relation to FIG. 3 is used
sion coding modes supported by G1 and not supported 60 also in this embodiment. The previously described scheme
by TA, but which modes the gateway G1 can transmit for ordering the capability descriptors in the terminal capa-
and to which G1 can transcode from a coding mode bility set messages ensures, that if there is at least one coding
supported by TA. mode supported by all of these network elements having
111e TCS message transmitted by the G1 then comprises transcoding capability, such a coding mode will be selected
the second, third, fourth and fifth sets of capability descrip- 65 for transmission of speech data. Further, the previously
tors, in that preference order. However, the order of the fourth described scheme also minimizes the number of transcod-
and fifth sets can also be the other way around. ings, if one common transcoding mode cannot be found.
US 7,792,092 Bl
13 14
Since the preference order is carried within the TCS message, used in a base station subsystem (BSS) to a 64 kbit/s channel,
no other signalling about the preference order needs to be which is the basic transmission channel handled by a MSC.
performed in order to optimize the transmission. Since transcoder units typically participate in the TFO mode
FIG. 5 illustrates a method according to an advantageous negotiations, the creation of data packet payloads comprising
embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5 illustrates steps during compressed data in the transcoder units would simplify the
connection setup phase, when tenninal capability set mes- arrangements necessary for the TFO mode negotiations, i.e.
sages are sent. According to this embodiment, a message could even remove the need of packet network gateways to
listing supported coding modes in an order of preference is participate in the TFO mode negotiations.
generated 510. Next, the message listing supported coding Most of the packet network gateway fonctionality may as
modes is transmitted from a network element to the next 10 well be implemented in the TRCU. In such an embodiment,
network element in the transmission path. After these steps, the TRCU creates the data packets and forwards the data
other steps necessary for setting up a com1ection can advan- packets to the MSC in a normal circuit switched com1ection.
tageously be performed, before begim1ing the transmission of The MSC switches the signal to a network element of the
actual speech data. Transmission of speech data can for packet network. This network element extracts the packets
example be performed according to the method shown in FIG. 15 from the circuit switched data stream and sends them forward
1. in the packet network layer protocol format as described
previously. In such an embodiment, the TRCU can create also
J. Further Considerations higher level protocol structures used in the transmission of
data over the packet network, i.e. for example PPP protocol
TI1e invention has several advantages. For example, the 20 structures carried in network level protocol packets.
collection of data from a plurality of ch3llllels to a single data Previously, some examples were presented of a predefined
packet reduces the packetizing delay for a single ch3llllel, i.e. rule for generating an IP address based on PCM channel
the time needed for collecting enough samples for filling the information. In an advantageous embodiment of the inven-
data packet. Consequently, the size of the packets can be tion, network elements participating in the data transmission
large, which assists in optimization of the effectivity of data 25 negotiate between themselves, which rule will be used.
transfer over the packet network, without the large size of the Advantageously, the negotiation may be performed between
packets increasing the packetizing delay by an inordinate the packet network gateways. In a farther advantageous
amount. Further, the number of packet connections can be embodiment of the invention, the rule is negotiated by the
lower than the number of transmitted channels, which MSC:s connected to the packet network gateways.
reduces the amount of transmission overhead per a transmit- 30 The name of a given functional entity, such as the base
ted cham1el. station controller, is often different in the context of different
The packet network may be in various embodiments of the cellular telecommunication systems. For example, in the
invention for example an internal network of a building or an UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) sys-
organization, i.e. an intranet, or a large network, such as the tem the functional entity corresponding to a base station
world-wide Internet network. The invention is not limited to 35 controller (BSC) is the radio network controller (RNC).
any specific packet network. The packet network may for Therefore, the particular terminology used to denote various
exan1ple be a network employing the IP protocol, the X.25 fonctional entities in this specification are only examples
protocol, or for example the CLNP (Connectionless Network according to the GSM system, and do not limit the invention
Protocol) protocol as the network level protocol. in anyway.
A single MSC can in various embodiments of the invention 40 The invention can be used in many different cellular tele-
be com1ected to more than one packet network gateway. Also, communication systems, such as the GSM or the UMTS
the functionality of more than one packet network gateway systems.
may be realized within a single MSC. In view of the foregoing description it will be evident to a
As described in the prior art, the tem1 PCM transmission person skilled in the art that various modifications may be
line is used in this specification to refer to a transmission line, 45 made within the scope of the invention. While a preferred
which comprises a plurality of channels. The transmission embodiment of the invention has been described in detail, it
line may be for example a 2048 kbit/s trunk line or a 1544 should be apparent that many modifications and variations
kbit/s trunk line, or a higher level line comprising a plurality thereto are possible, all of which fall within the true spirit and
of such trunk lines. The invention is not limited to any specific scope of the invention.
transmission line type. The tem1 PCM transmission line is 50
used only as an example of a transmission line with the The invention claimed is:
intention of presenting an as clear description of the invention 1. A method, comprising:
as possible, which term is well known by a person skilled in transmitting data over a data transmission network from a
the art and which term is commonly used for a general trans- first circuit switched transmission line through a first
mission line in the jargon of the art. However, for reasons of 55 circuit switched network node towards a second circuit
clarity and accuracy the term circuit switched transmission switched network node that is coupled to a second circuit
line is used in the claims for denoting such a transmission line switched transmission line;
comprising a plurality of channels. Correspondingly, a chan- employing, in the data transmission network, an IP proto-
nel of such a transmission line is in the claims referred to as a col for transmissions from said first circuit switched
circuit switched cham1el. 60 network node, which receives data from said first circuit
In various embodiments of the invention, the previously switched transmission line, towards said second circuit
described functionality described as associated with a packet switched network node, said data being destined for
network gateway can be realized using also other network transmission into said second circuit switched transmis-
elements as a packet network gateway. For example, the cre- sion line;
ation of data packet payloads comprising data from com- 65 using an IP protocol datagram to transmit data received
pressed data channels can also be realized in a transcoder unit from the first circuit switched transmission line towards
(TRCU), which converts ch3llllels from a 16 kbit/s channel the second network node;
US 7,792,092 Bl
15 16
fom1ing a header for said IP protocol datagram based at 13. The method of claim 12, wherein a third packet net-
least partly on circuit switched cham1el identifying work gateway is arranged to send data to the second packet
parameters, which identify at least one chailllel in the network gateway and to use headers of transmitted IP proto-
second circuit switched transmission line, and an IP col datagrams to identify the rest of the time slots of the same
protocol address of the second network node; and PCM tnmk line as destinations of data transmitted from said
indicating within said IP protocol datagram separately for third packet network gateway to said second packet network
each of a plurality of time slots known to at least one of gateway.
said first and second circuit switched network nodes, 14. A network element, comprising:
whether the IP protocol datagram carries data belonging a first coilllection for coilllecting to a first circuit switched
to a chailllel corresponding to the time slot, and when it 10 transmission line;
is indicated that the IP protocol datagram does not carry a second connection for connecting to a data transmission
data belonging to the channel, the second circuit network employing an IP protocol, and
switched network node enables the reception of data to a hardware processor configured to implement an IP pro-
that chailllel from other sources from an IP-network in a tocol address generating unit for generating IP protocol
non-consecutive mailller. 15 addresses for IP protocol datagrams to be transmitted
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein data from at over said data transmission network to a second network
least one cham1el of the first circuit switched transmission element;
line is transmitted as compressed data over the data transmis- wherein said IP protocol address generating unit is config-
sion network. ured to form a header of an IP protocol datagram based
3. The method according to claim 2, wherein only com- 20 at least partly on circuit switched channel identifying
pressed speech signal parameters of a signal received from parameters, which identify at least one channel in a
said at least one cham1el of the first circuit switched transmis- second circuit switched transmission line coupled to the
sion line are transmitted over the data transmission network; second network element, and an IP protocol address of
wherein said received signal comprises an uncompressed the second network element; and
speech signal part and compressed speech parameters. 25 wherein the network element is configured to indicate
4. The method according to claim 2, wherein the received within said IP protocol datagram separately for each of a
signal of said at least one chailllel of the first circuit switched plurality of time slots known to at least one of said first
transmission line is compressed in the first network node. and second network elements, whether the IP protocol
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein samples of datagram carries data belonging to a chailllel corre-
data from more than one channel of the first circuit switched 30 sponding to the time slot, and when it is indicated that
transmission line are transmitted over the data transmission the IP protocol datagram does not carry data belonging
network in one IP protocol datagram. to a channel, the second circuit switched packet network
6. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: element enables the reception of data to that chailllel
transmitting a message which describes supported coding from other sources from an IP-network in a non-con-
modes for compressed speech parameters from the first 35 secutive manner.
circuit switched network node to the second circuit 15. The network element according to claim 14, wherein
switched network node, and the network element comprises a compressed speech param-
describing said supported coding modes in said transmitted eter extraction unit for extracting compressed speech param-
message in an order of preference for optimizing speech eters from at least one signal from the first circuit switched
data transmission. 40
transmission line, said at least one signal comprising an
7. The method according to claim L further comprising: uncompressed speech signal part and compressed speech
inserting status information into the datagram. parameters.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein said status information
16. The network element according to claim 14, wherein
comprises at least an indicator to indicate activity of the at the network element comprises a compression unit for com-
least one channel, a length of samples of the at least one 45 pressing a signal of at least one chailllel of the first circuit
channel and whether chailllel information definition is com- switched transmission line before transmission over the data
prised in the IP protocol datagram. transmission network.
9. The method according to claim 1, wherein said forming
17. The network element according to claim 14,
of a header for said IP protocol datagram is based at least
partly on a time slot number that at least one of said first and 50 wherein the network element is configured to insert status
second network nodes knows is associated with data which is information into the IP protocol packet.
transferred in the IP protocol datagram. 18. The network element according to claim 14, wherein
10. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: the network element is configured to determine said IP pro-
inserting a number of samples from at least one channel of tocol address based at least partly on a time slot number that
said first transmission line into a payload portion of said 55 at least one of said first and second network nodes knows is
IP protocol datagram. associated with data which is transferred in the IP protocol
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the method comprises datagram.
transmitting the number of time slots in the corresponding 19. The network element according to claim 14, wherein
frame. the network element is configured to insert a number of
12. The method of claim 1, wherein a first packet network 60 samples from said at least one channel of said first transmis-
gateway acts as said first circuit switched network node and sion line into a payload portion of said IP protocol datagram.
sends data to a second packet network gateway that acts as 20. A method, comprising:
said second circuit switched network node, and said first receiving data over a data transmission network, said data
packet network gateway uses headers of transmitted IP pro- coming from a first circuit switched transmission line
tocol datagrams to identify time slots 5 to 10 of a PCM trunk 65 through a first circuit switched network node, at a second
line operating at least at the rate 2048 kbit/s as destinations of circuit switched network node that is coupled to a second
transmitted data at said second packet network gateway. circuit switched transmission line;
US 7,792,092 Bl
17 18
employing, in the data transmission network, an IP proto- node and receives data destined to a group of cham1els in the
col for transmissions from said first circuit switched second circuit switched transmission line from another
network node to said second circuit switched network packet network gateway.
node, said data originating from said first circuit 24. The method of claim 20, wherein said second circuit
switched transmission line and being destined for trans- switched network node receives data destined to individual
mission into said second circuit switched transmission channels in the second circuit switched transmission line
line; separately from one or more other sources, such as IP tele-
using an IP protocol datagram to receive data transmitted phones.
from the first circuit switched transmission line at the 25. A second network element, comprising:
second network node; 10 a first connection for connecting to a data transmission
reading a header from said IP protocol datagram, said network employing an IP protocol,
header being based at least partly on circuit switched a second connection for connecting to a second circuit
channel identifying parameters, which identify at least switched transmission line, and
one channel in the second circuit switched transmission a hardware processor configured to implement an IP pro-
line, and an IP protocol address of the second network 15 tocol address reading unit for reading IP protocol
node; and addresses from IP protocol datagrams received over said
reading from said IP protocol datagram an indication sepa- data transmission network from a first network element;
rately for each of a plurality of time slots known to at wherein said IP protocol address reading unit is configured
least one of said first and second circuit switched net- to read a header from an IP protocol datagram based at
work nodes, whether the IP protocol datagram carries 20 least partly on circuit switched channel identifying
data belonging to a channel corresponding to the time parameters, which identify at least one channel in the
slot, and when it is indicated that the IP protocol data- second circuit switched transmission line coupled to the
gram does not carry data belonging to the channel, the second network element, and an IP protocol address of
second circuit switched network node enables the recep- the second network element; and
tion of data to that channel from other sources from an 25 wherein the network element is configured to read from said
IP-network in a nonconsecutive manner. IP protocol datagram an indication separately for each of a
21. The method according to claim 20, wherein com- plurality of time slots known to at least one of said first and
pressed speech parameters received from the first network second network elements, whether the IP protocol datagram
node are decompressed into an uncompressed speech signal carries data belonging to a channel corresponding to the time
before transmission into the second circuit switched trans- 30 slot, and when it is indicated that the IP protocol datagram
mission line. does not carry data belonging to a cham1el, the second circuit
22. The method of claim 20, wherein the method comprises switched packet network element enables the reception of
receiving data of different time slots of a single PCM trunk data to that channel from other sources from an IP-network in
line from different packet network gateways. a non-consecutive mam1er.
23. The method of claim 20, wherein a destination packet 35
network gateway acts as said second circuit switched network * * * * *
IPR Details - Nokia Corporation's Statement about IPR related to RFC 5087 https://datatracker.ietf.org/ipr/1796/

Disclosure History

Only those sections of the relevant entry form where the submitter provided information are displayed.

Update this IPR disclosure. Note: Updates to IPR disclosures must only be made by authorized representatives of the
original submitters. Updates will automatically be forwarded to the current Patent Holder's Contact and to the Submitter of
the original IPR disclosure.

Submitted Date: June 8, 2012

'I'. Patent Holder/Applicant ("Patent Holder")
Legal Name: Nokia Corporation

'II'. Patent Holder's Contact for License Application
Name: Kalle Moilanen
Email: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com
Other Info:
(address,phone,etc) T: +358 50 366 2022

'III'. Contact Information for the IETF Participant Whose Personal Belief Triggered this Disclosure:
Name: Markus Isomäki
Email: markus.isomaki@nokia.com
Other Info:
(address,phone,etc) T: +358 50 522 5984

'IV'. IETF Document or Other Contribution to Which this IPR Disclosure Relates:
RFC: "Time Division Multiplexing over IP (TDMoIP)"
(RFC5087)

 'V'. Disclosure of Patent Information (i.e., patents or patent applications required to be disclosed by Section
6 of RFC 3979)
A. For granted patents or published pending patent applications, please provide the following information:
Patent, Serial,
Publication, US7792092
Registration, or Date: 7th of Sept 2010
Application/File Country: US, EP, JP
number(s):
B. Does this disclosure relate to an unpublished pending patent application?: no

'VI'. Licensing Declaration
The Patent Holder states that its position with respect to licensing any patent claims contained in the patent(s) or
patent application(s) disclosed above that would necessarily be infringed by implementation of the technology
required by the relevant IETF specification ("Necessary Patent Claims"), for the purpose of implementing such
specification, is as follows(select one licensing declaration option only):
See Text Below for Licensing Declaration
Licensing information, comments, notes, or URL for further information:

1 of 2 4/8/2015 12:52 PM
IPR Details - Nokia Corporation's Statement about IPR related to RFC 5087 https://datatracker.ietf.org/ipr/1796/

This is to advise the IETF, in accordance with the IETF RFCs 3979 and 4879 that Nokia
Corporation believes the Nokia patent " Data transmission method and a network
element” (US7792092) (the “Disclosed Patents”), may be required to implement the
following IETF contribution ” RFC5087” (the “Contribution”).

To the extent that the Contribution is incorprorated in an IETF RFC, Nokia Corporation
informs that Nokia Corporation and its Affiliates will make a license available on fair,
reasonable and non-discriminatory (“FRAND”) terms and conditions based on
reciprocity to all persons desiring to implement such IETF RFC for those claims of the
Disclosed Patents only that would, in the absence of a license, be necessarily
infringed by the use of a right (e.g. making, using, selling, importing, distribution,
copying,etc) with respect to a technology implementing such IETF RFC (the
“License”). In this context, “necessarily infringed” means that such claims are
technically necessary to implement the IETF RFC in question.

“Affiliate” of Nokia Corporation means any legal entity that is for the time being
directly or indirectly controlled by Nokia Corporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing
Nokia Siemens Networks B.V (the joint venture of Nokia Corporation and Siemens AG)
and the companies controlled by Nokia Siemens network B.V shall not be deemed to
be Affiliates of Nokia Corporation. Control in this context, exists where one entity
owns more than fifty percent (50%) of the voting stock or equity in another entity, or
regardless of stock or equity ownership, is otherwise able to direct its affairs or to
appoint a majority of the members of the board of directors or an equivalent body to
determine the course of action of the entity by virtue of its voting or other rights. Such
entities shall only be deemed to be Affiliates hereunder for as long as such control
exists.

Note: The individual submitting this template represents and warrants that he or she is authorized by the
Patent Holder to agree to the above-selected licensing declaration.

'VII'. Contact Information of Submitter of this Form
Name: Kalle Moilanen
Email: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com

2 of 2 4/8/2015 12:52 PM
8
A14734VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US007072358B2

02) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 7,072,358 B2
Su van en (45) Date of Patent: Jul. 4, 2006

(54) TRANSMISSION AND INTERCONNECTION WO 0054526 912000
METHOD WO 0074411 12/2000
WO 0137606 5/2001
(75) Inventor: Jyri Suvanen, Helsinki (FI)
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
(73) Assignee: Nokia Corporation, Espoo (FI) EIS 300 979, GSM "Digital Cellular Telecommunications
System; Inband Control of Remote Transcoders and Rate
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this Adaptors for Half-Rate Traffic Channels" (BSM 08.61 v
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 5.0.1, May 1997.
U.S.C. 154(b) by 925 days. EIS 300 737, GSM 08.60 v 5.1.1, "Digital Cellular
Telecommuni-cations System (Phase 2+ ); Inband Control of
(21) Appl. No.: 09/997,200 Remote Transcoders and Rate Adaptors for Enhanced Full
Rate (EFR) and Full Rate Traffic Cham1els", 2nd Ed., Feb.
(22) Filed: Nov. 28, 2001 I998.
ETSI TS 101 504 v 4 7.1.0 (Apr. 2000), "Digital Cellular
(65) Prior Publication Data
Tele-communicatios System (Phase 2+ ); Inband Tandem
US 2002/0086667 Al Jul. 4, 2002 Free Operation (TFO) of Speech Codecs; Service Descrip-
tion; Stage 3", GSM 06.8 v 7.1.0 Release 1998.
Related U.S. Application Data
(Continued)
(63) Continuation of application No. PCT/EP99/03764,
filed on May 31, 1999.
Primary Examiner-Due Ho
Assistant Examiner-Thien D. Tran
(51) Int. Cl.
H04J 3116 (2006.01) (57) ABSTRACT
(52) U.S. Cl. ....................................... 370/465; 370/328 Data are transmitted between a core network (CN) and at
(58) Field of Classification Search ..................... None least one access system (BSS) of a GSM based access
See application file for complete search history. system type via an Iu interface (Iu-I/F). Also, the present
invention aims to provide accordingly adapted network
(56) References Cited elements. By virtue of the present invention, substantial
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS savings concerning resources can be obtained by supporting
data formats of GSM coded speech on the open, i.e., not
6,301.250 Bl 10/2001 Schmitz ...................... 370/395 network operator proprietary, Iu interface according to
6,308,063 Bl 10/2001 Koistinen et al ............ 455/422 UMTS/3rd generation specifications. Thus, GSM transcod-
6,445,917 Bl * 9/2002 Bark et al. .................. 455/423
ers and 3rd generation transcoders as well as GSM base
6,466,556 Bl * 10/2002 Boudreaux .................. 370/331
6,725,038 Bl* 4/2004 Subbiah ...................... 455/436
station controllers and 3rd generation radio network control-
6,807,421 Bl* 10/2004 Ahmavaara ................. 455/438 lers can be integrated, so that the same hardware resources
can be used for both systems, i.e., for GSM as well as for 3rd
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS generation.
WO WO 99/21383 411999
WO 0051387 8/2000 10 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets

MSC MSC GW
GSM-TC

~ PCM
'---.....----13G-TC
\ 64 kbit/s
Iu-I/F ...__ __.

.......................................................
:· ......... --··~·- ...... -·~··. -. ········-~-·+· .................... .
CN
RAN BSS

AN
........ JG"RMIO.:.:··--···----·
GSM RADIO-
I/F
I /F

.____3G____,MS II,_____ MS____,
US 7,072,358 B2
Page 2

OTHER PUBLICATIONS "GRAN' -A New Concept for Wireless Access in UMTS",
A. Schieder et al, XVI World Telecom Congress Proceedings,
"Research Activities on UMTS Radio Interface, Network
Pub. Sep. 29, 1997, pp. 339-345.
Architectures, and Planning", E. Bem1to et al, IEEE Com-
muni-cations Magazine, Feb. 1998, pp. 82-95. * cited by examiner
U.S. Patent Jul. 4, 2006 Sheet 1 of 6 US 7,072,358 B2

Fig. 1
(PRIOR ART)

MSC

..--A-I/F

TC

- - Ater-I/F

BSC

---- Abis-I/F

BS

--Um-I/F
(RADIO-
I/F)

MS
U.S. Patent Jul. 4, 2006 Sheet 2 of 6 US 7,072,358 B2

Fig. 2
(PRIOR ART)

MSC

A-I/F A-I/F

IWU/TC TC

- - Ater-I/F
Iu-I/F

RNC BSC

Abis-I/F

BS BS

Um-I/F
3G RADIO- I_ (RADIO
I/F --/1 -I/F)

I'--- II-3G ___,MS MS___,,

~
3G PART
~
GSM PART
U.S. Patent Jul. 4, 2006 Sheet 3 of 6 US 7,072,358 B2

Fig. 3

r-----------
1
------------- .... I
I
:,.-- CN
•I (
I MSC
I
I
t
•I A-I/F A-I/F
I
I
I
I
I I
I

''
I
IWU I TC I
l
I I
I -- AN
·--------- --~u:.::17F----------- ------111:.rfF' ,'
r-------- ---------------------
' _.............. . ................... ·- ......... --------------~------
.. .... ............... . .............. ········ I
1 : : I
I: I :
I ; : I
I
I
i
:

·
RNC z~ BSC : f
:
•I
I
f : : I
I : : I
I: ; I
I: : I
I . : J
I : · I
r: : 1
I: . . BSS :I
I: RAN : :.···· :l
I ! I
t : • I
I • : I
I : : I
I: : I
I : : I
I: BS BS . I
I : : I
i • ; I
I : . • • I

L':·j~~ iii~i_:.-:·:·:-~ ~t,:.::.:.:.:_::..::.::.:.:.:::: .: :.:.·.:.::::::.::.-.::.·.:.-...::..tr=::.:.:::.::..::..::::.:.::.·.:.::::.::::JJ
· _/ GSM RADIO-
! 1F I/F

l.____3G__,MS I l_MS~I
U.S. Patent Jul. 4, 2006 Sheet 4 of 6 US 7,072,358 B2

Fig. 4

GSM-TC
3G-TC : \
~ \_ 64 kbit/s
- Iu-I/F PCM

···-·----------····-~ ·-... CN

BSS :
.:·-.___ AN

1~3G ____.MS II"'-- I MS
______
U.S. Patent Jul. 4, 2006 Sheet 5 of 6 US 7,072,358 B2

16 kbit/s TRAU FRAME

OCTET BIT 1 BIT2 BIT3 BIT4 BITS BIT6 BIT7 BITS
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 1 C1 C2 C3 C4 cs C6 C7
3 CB C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15
4 1 D1 02 03 04 05 06 07
5 DB 09 010 011 012 013 014 015
. -
. .
- .
36 1 DZ41 0242 0243 0244 0245 0246 0247
37 0248 0249 0250 0251 0252 0253 0254 0255
38 1 0256 0257 0258 0259 0260 C16 C17
39 C18 C19 C20 C21 11 T2 T3 T4

OCTET BIT 1 BIT2 BIT3 BJT4 BITS BrT6 BIT7 BITS
0 01 02 03 D4 05 DS 07 08
1 09 010 011 012 013 014 015 016
. .
. .
. .
31 0249 0250 0251 0252 0253 0254 0255 0256
32 0257 0258 0259 0260 C1 C2 C3 C4
33 cs C6 C7 ca C9 C10 C11 C12
34 C13 C14 C15 C17 DS1 S1 S2 S3

FIG. 6
U.S. Patent .Jul. 4, 2006 Sheet 6 of 6 US 7,072,358 B2

8 kbitls :-fRAU FRAME

OCTET BIT 1 BIT2 BIT3 BIT4 BITS BITS BIT7 BIT8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 1 C1h C2h C3h C4h C5h XC1 XC2
3 0 1 XC3 XC4 XC5 XC6 D1h D2h
4 1 03h D4h 05h D6h D7h DBh D9h
5 1 D10h D11h D12h D13h 014h 015h D16h
. .
. .
. .
9 1 CRC2 CRC1 CRCO D45b D46h D47h D48h
11 1 D49h DSOh D51h D52h D53h D54h D55h
. .
. .
. .
18 1 D105h 0106h 0107h D108h 0109h D110h D111h
19 1 D112h C6h C7h C8h C9h T1 T2

FIG.1

OCTET BIT1 BIT2 BIT3 BIT4 BITS BITS BrT7 BIT8
0 D1h D2h D3h D4h D5h D6h D7h D8h
1 D9h D10h D11h 012h D13h 014h 015h D16h
. .
. .
. .
13 D102h D103h 0104'1 D105h D106h 0107h D108h D109h
14 D110h D111h D112h C1h C2h C3h C4h C5h
15 XC1 XC2 XC3 XC4 XC5 XC6 TAC C6h
16 C7h C8h C9h DS1 S1 S2 S3 S4

FIG.8
US 7,072,358 B2
1 2
TR<\.NSMISSION AND INTERCONNECTION Now, if a call is established between two tern1inal devices
METHOD MS_Aand MS_B, speech data transmitted there between are
normally transcoded twice. Namely, firstly speech is
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED encoded in the tenninal device MS_A and subsequently
APPLICATION 5 decoded in the network. Thus, the speech data are present in
the 64 kbps PCM format. Thereafter, the speech is encoded
TI1is application is a continuation of International Appli- again in the network for transmission to the terminal MS_B,
cation PCT/EP99/03764 having an international filing date where it is decoded upon being received.
of3 l May 1999 and from which priority is claimed under all Thus, the coding is performed twice, while such double
applicable sections of Title 35 of the United States Code 10 coding adversely affects the quality of transmitted speech,
including, but not limited to, Sections 120, 363 and 365(c). which of course, is undesirable.
FIG. 1 shows known teleconnnunication system accord-
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
ing to GSM specification. A mobile services switching
center MSC is connected to a transcoder TC via the A
The present invention relates to a transmission and inter-
15 interface A-I/F. The transcoder TC in turn is connected to the
com1ection method for transmitting data in a telecommuni-
base station controller BSC as a transceiver control device
cation network and also to a corresponding telecommuni-
via an Ater interface Ater-I/F. The base station controller in
cation network. Still further, the present invention also
turn is connected to a transceiver device or base station BS
concerns corresponding network elements to be used in
via an Abis interface Abis-I/F. Such a base station (base
and/or forming part of such a telecommunication network.
20 transceiver station) BS communicates with a subscriber
Particularly, the present invention relates to mobile telecom-
terminal such as a mobile station MS via an air interface or
munication networks based on radio telecommunication.
radio interface RADIO-I/F also referred to as Um interface
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Um-I/F.
In the above described network, at least the MSC forms
In currently used mobile radio telecommunication sys- 25 part of a so-called core network, while at least the BSC and
tems such as the existing GSM system, radio resources are BS constitute an access network (radio access network). As
limited due to the limited radio spectrnm available and/or regards the transcoder TC, which provides the TRAU func-
reserved for such purposes. T11e saving of radio resources is tionality that includes speech coding and data rate adapta-
achieved by the usage of codecs (encoding-decoding tion, according to GSM, this transcoder is logically associ-
devices) which operate at low bit rates. Nanlely, with such 30 ated to the access network side, i.e. to the base station system
low-bit-rate codecs, the transmission rate on a radio inter- BSS (formed by the BSC and BS) connnunicating with the
face is reduced to/expanded from 13 kbps in current GSM core network, i.e. the MSC via the A interface A-I/Fas an
systems. open interface.
Furthermore, existing mobile radio teleconmmnication It is to be noted that the present description distinguishes
networks like GSM networks have to co-operate with exist- 35 between an open interface on one hand and a proprietary
ing public switched telephone networks PSTN such as the interface on the other hand. The term "proprietary interface"
currently spreading ISDN network (Integrated Services is intended to designate an interface specific for an indi-
Digital Network). vidual network and thus dependent on a network operator,
However, ISDN-PSTN networks primarily use a repre- while the tenn "open interface" is intended to designate an
sentation for speech data of 64 kbps in pulse code modula- 40 interface independent of individual networks and thus inde-
tion (PCM), while the mobile radio teleconnnunication pendent of network operators that can be accessed from
network uses the above mentioned 13 kbps representation. different networks, presumably also run by different opera-
Hence, interoperability at an interface I/F between the two tors.
types of networks has to be provided for, which is achieved Thus, referring back to the transcoder TC, the above
by an interworking function unit also referred to as IWF unit 45 means that the base station system BSS is controlling the
or gateway unit (GW). operation of the transcoder TC. However, data such as
In case a call is forwarded from the ISDN-PSTN network speech and/or other data is present in a 64 kbit/s PCM mode
to a mobile station MS as a radio terminal device of the radio at the A interface A-I/F. Transmission at such an elevated or
telecommunication network (and vice versa), a speech cod- high data rate, however, is rather expensive, and therefore,
ing functionality is required on both sides, i.e., on the 50 the transcoder is physically located at the core network side,
network side and on the tenninal device side. Namely, i.e., close to the MSC as a core network control device,
speech data of a call forwarded from the ISDN-PSTN thereby reducing the data rate already in the core network.
network have to be coded in the network side for transmis- Thus, speech and/or other data to be transmitted are trans-
sion via the radio interface (air interface Um), and if speech mitted via a physically actually long transmission path from
data of"an answer" are transmitted from the terminal device 55 the transcoder and the base station controller BSC in coded
side, the speech data have likewise to be coded for trans- format, which transmission path is referred to as Ater
mission via the air interface. interface Ater-I/F.
Such a transmission of coded speech using time divisional Recently, however, new telecommunication systems are
multiplexing (TDM) between the radio access part or access currently being developed, which systems are referred to as
network of the telecommunication network (e.g., a base 60 third generation systems (in short 3G systems). Specific
transceiver station) and a speech codec part (e.g., transcoder examples for such 3G systems are the UMTS (Universal
and/or Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit (TRAU)) Mobile Telecommunication System) and/or the IMTS-2000
associated to, for example, a Mobile Services Switching (International Mobile Teleconnmmication System for the
Center (MSC) as a part of a core network of the telecom- year 2000).
munication network, according to GSM, is effected using 65 In those 3G telecommunication networks, the transcoder
so-called TRAU frames (for details, reference is made to TC is also logically associated to (and mostly also physically
GSM 08.60). located in) the core network side and communicates with the
US 7,072,358 B2
3 4
corresponding 3G access network via an open Iu interface core network and an access network, with said access
Iu-I/F. That is, data/speech is transmitted in coded fomiat network comprising at least one access system of a GSM
over this interface based on ATM transmission principles based access system type; wherein said core network is
(Asynchronous Transmission Mode). com1ected to said at least one access system of a GSM based
FIG. 2 shows a specific implementation of a telecommu- access system type of said access network via an Iu inter-
nication network, which is adapted to establish communi- face.
cation with a GSM based terminal such as a mobile station Still further, the present invention concerns accordingly
MS as well as with a third generation based terminal denoted adapted network elements to be used in and/or forming part
in FIG. 2 by 3G_MS. Those parts which are similar or of said telecommunication network.
identical to those illustrated in connection with FIG. 1 10 Favorable further refinements of the present invention are
explained above are denoted with the same reference signs defined in the dependent claims.
and their explanation is not repeated in com1ection with FIG. Thus, with the present invention being implemented dif-
2. ferent radio systems such as GSM based and UMTS based
The specific configuration shown in FIG. 2 illustrates a radio systems or radio access networks can be connected to
case, in which the 3G core network is based on GSM 15 the same core network element.
technology, i.e. uses a GSM based core network control Thereby, both access systems can share as much hardware
device MSC. In this case, the same MSC can handle/manage and transmission capacity resources as possible.
communication via GSM as well as via 3G (e.g. UMTS) Particularly, due to the GSM speech/circuit switched data
radio networks via the open A interface A-I/F. format being supported by the 3G (open) Iu interface, this
Therefore, as illustrated in FIG. 2, there has to be pro- 20 enables substantial savings as a GSM based transcoder and
vided an interworking unit IWU for the 3G part of the a third generation based transcoder can be integrated, thus
system, adapted to perform an adaptation between the A being implemented in the same network node. Stated in
interface A-I/F and the Iu interface Iu-I/F. Thus, the 3G other words, the same transcoder TC resources can be used
transcoder TC must be located in association with the for both access systems.
interworking unit IWU, as shown in FIG. 2. (In an alterna- 25 Also, a GSM based base station controller and a third
tive case, (not shown in the figure), the transcoder could be generation radio network controller can be integrally pro-
located in association with the 3G radio network controller vided as the same network element. This "merging" of
RNC without Iu interface). previously separate network elements yields an advantage in
Anyway, in any such a case the transcoder TC for the that it is easier to connect GSM based transceiver devices
GSM part has to be purchased from the same manufacturer 30 and/or base stations and third generation based base stations
as the rest of the base station system BSS (comprising BSC to the teleconununication network at the same time.
& BS's), since the Ater interface Ater-I/F is a proprietary According to a further embodiment, the transcoder can
interface uniquely adapted to each respective manufacturer even be located at the gateway position/gateway node of the
and/or network operator. However, for the transcoder for the teleconununication network establishing a com1ection to
3G network part IWU/TC this is not the case, and this 35 other networks. This will enable further transmission opti-
transcoder does not underlay special requirements in terms mization possibilities, particularly those possibilities as pre-
of the manufacturer which has to supply the transcoder. sented in applicants former patent application PCT/EP99/
Thus, due to the imposed restrictions as set out above, 01615 can be applied to the then obtained network structure.
such a teleconummication system suffers from a reduced Still further, also GSM based transceiver devices (base
flexibility and a degraded compatibility of network compo- 40 stations) and third generation based transceiver devices
nents. In addition, different transcoding hardware resources (based on WCDMA (=Wideband Code Division Multiple
have to be provided for. Access) transmission principles could be integrated or
In a current implementation, data are transmitted via the merged, so that the Iu interface could even be extended from
Ater interface for GSM in a data fomiat used for the Abis the transceiver devices up to the core network, so that an
interface, i.e. in TRAU frames. However, these frames have 45 RNC/BSC based on ATM (as used in third generation) could
been specified only for TDM (PCM transmission) and the forward coded speech/data directly via the Iu interface up
respective implementations are also proprietary. the transceiver devices, i.e. base stations.
Thus, also these implementations suffer from the above
described drawbacks. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
50
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention will be more readily understood
with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which
Hence, it is an object of the present invention to provide FIG. 1 schematically shows a prior art teleconununication
a transmission method, a telecommunication network, and system according to GSM specification;
corresponding network elements which overcome the above 55 FIG. 2 shows a prior art telecommunication system com-
problems, respectively. prising a teleconununication subsystem adapted to be oper-
According to the present invention, this object is achieved ated according to GSM specification and a telecommunica-
by a transmission method for transmission of data in a tion subsystem adapted to be operated according to a third
telecommunication network, said network comprising a core generation (3G) specification such as UMTS;
network and an access network, with said access network 60 FIG. 3 shows a telecommunication network comprising
comprising at least one access system of a GSM based access systems confonning to GSM and UMTS specifica-
access system type; wherein data are transmitted between tion, respectively, according to a first embodiment of the
said core network and said at least one access system of a present invention;
GSM based access system type of said access network via an FIG. 4 shows a telecommunication network comprising
Iu interface. 65 access systems conforming to GSM and UMTS specifica-
Also, according to the present invention this object is tion, respectively, according to a second embodiment of the
achieved by a teleconununication network, comprising a present invention;
US 7,072,358 B2
5 6
FIG. 5 illustrates a structure of a 16 kbit/s TRAU frame; times referred to as "Node B") to the network at the same
FIG. 6 illustrates a first frame type used on an ATM time, since they can share the same controller resources.
connection (Iu interface); Nevertheless, the RNC/BSC network element can also be
FIG. 7 illustrates a structure of a 8 kbit/s TR.AU frame; physically separated, though functionally and/or logically
and 5 combined. In such a case, however, the BSC part thereof
FIG. 8 illustrates a second frame type used on an ATM should be provided with an ATM based connection to the Iu
connection (Iu interface). interface Iu-I/F. In this instance, ifthe BSC is a stand alone
entity and is provided with an ATM connection to the Iu
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED interface, but not to the Abis interface (based on TDM
EMBODIMENTS 10 transmission), the BSC is adapted to perfonn a conversion
between TDM based data transmission fonnats (e.g. TR,L\.U
The present invention will now be described in detail with frames as specified in GSM reconnnendation 08.60) and
reference to the drawings. ATM frame fonnats used in the Iu interface. This function-
According to the present invention, due to transmitting ality is then preferably also located in the BSC.
GSM coded speech and/or circuit switched data over the 15 Further, although the IWU/TC element and RNC/BSC
open Iu interface according to a third generation specifica- element are both shown as integrated network elements in
tion in addition to "nonnal" third generation data/speech FIG. 3, only one of them could be provided as an integrated
formats, the Ater interface previously necessary for GSM network element in a network.
based parts of telecommunication networks, can be dis- In a modification (not shown) of the illustrated embodi-
pensed with. The data/speech is transmitted via the Iu 20 ment, it is also conceivable that a respective of said trans-
interface using specified transport frames supporting the ceiver devices BS is connected to a said associated trans-
transport of GSM speech/circuit switched data via the Iu ceiver control device RNC/BSC via said interface of said
interface. same interface type Iu-I/F. Stated in other words, the trans-
FIG. 3 shows a network architecture for a telecommuni- mission between BS and RNC/BSC should use the same
cation network according to a first embodiment of the 25 medium/transmission principle such as ATM, so that the Iu
present invention. This particular example assumes that a interface is extended from the core network CN (and
core network control device, i.e., an MSC as a mobile through the access network parts) up to the transceiver
services switching center, is GSM based. stations BS.
TI1e network comprises a core network CN and an access FIG. 4 shows a network architecture for a teleconnnuni-
network AN. The core network may communicate via a 30 cation network according to a second embodiment of the
gateway network element (not shown) with external com- present invention. This particular example assumes that a
munication networks (not shown) such as the PSTN/ISDN core network control device, i.e., an MSC as a mobile
or an intelligent network (IN) such as the Internet. services switching center, is based on a third generation
The core network comprises, as shown in FIG. 3, a core specification.
network control device such as a mobile services switching 35 As illustrated in FIG. 4, the core network CN consists of
center MSC. However, more than one MSC can be included two MSCs in this specific example, with one of the MSCs
in a core network, and also one of such MSCs is adapted to being additionally provided with a gateway functionality
provide a gateway functionality, thus representing a gateway GW for enabling a collll11unication with an external com-
MSC (GMSC). munication network such as the PSTN/ISDN in the illus-
The MSC as shown in FIG. 3 communicates via the A 40 trated example. Due to the MSC's conforming to third
interface A-I/F with a network element IWU/TC which generation specifications, there is no need for a separate
combines the functionalities of an interworking unit IWU IWU functionality. Therefore, the transcoder functionality
with those of a transcoder TC. TI1e interworking unit IWU TC can be located at the gateway functionality. The
functionality is adapted to perform an adaptation of the A transcoder functionality TC comprises a GSM based
interface A-I/F to the Iu interface Iu-I/F, while the transcod- 45 transcoder functionality GSM-TC as well as third generation
ing TC functionality is a combined transcoding functionality based transcoder functionality 3G-TC.
for the GSM based and 3G based network parts, which The core network CN is connected to the access network
transcoding functionality resource is thus shared by both via the Iu interface only, as in the first embodiment. The
systems, GSM and 3G. access network is illustrated in a simplified mam1er as
Thus, the core network collll11unicates via the Iu interface 50 compared to the first embodiment in that only the third
Iu-I/F with the access network AN. generation based access network part RAN and the GSM
The access network AN comprises at least two access based access network part BSS as different access system
systems denoted with RAN, BSS, respectively, of different types are depicted in the Figure. The remaining parts of the
access system types. Namely, RAN specifies a radio access illustrated embodiment denoted with the same reference
system conforn1ing to third generation standards, while BSS 55 signs as in the first embodiment denote the like components
specifies a base station system conforming to GSM stan- and/or network elements and functionalities and a detailed
dards. repeated description thereof can be dispensed with. Note that
In particular, the Iu interface Iu-I/F extends from the core in the core network CN in FIG. 4, an interface between
network to an access network control device denoted by different individual MSCs is constituted by a so-called E
RNC/BSC in FIG. 3. This indicates that the control func- 60 interface denoted with E-I/F.
tionalities for both access system types are integrated in one Particularly, it should be noted that a RAN and a BSS
and the same network element RNC/BSC. This network access network system could be connected to each of the
element RNC/BSC combines the functionalities of a third MSCs shown in FIG. 4, i.e., a single MSC can cope with the
generation radio network controller RNC with those func- control of two different access network systems, similar to
tionalities of a GSM based base station controller BSC. 65 the case shown in FIG. 3.
Thus, it is much easier to connect GSM based base stations In the case illustrated in FIG. 4, transmission savings can
BS and third generation based base stations BS (also some- be obtained within the whole PLMN (Public Land Mobile
US 7,072,358 B2
7 8
Network) also if GSM access is used. Nevertheless, for an interfaces (not shown). Iub denotes the interface between a
MS-MS call within such a network, the speech codecs used third generation base station and the RNC. Iur denotes the
in the terminal devices, i.e. in the mobile stations MS, must interface between two RNC's. This means that within an
be the same in both mobiles. access network AN the user-plane (frame) formats are then
Also, in the second and first embodiments, the transport the same as those adopted for the Iu interface.
frame for speech data/circuit switched data transmission can Accordingly, as has been described herein before, the
be a speech frame, an O&M frame, a data frame, or an present invention proposes a transmission method for trans-
extended data frame based on the specification in GSM mission of data in a telecommunication network, said net-
recommendation GSM 08.60, GSM 08.61 or GSM 08.62 work comprising a core network CN and an access network
(specifying Tandem Free Operation TFO). These recom- 10 AN, with said access network AN comprising at least one
mendations include GSM coded speech format specifica- access system RAN; BSS of a GSM based access system
tions, and particularly the latter one describes frame formats type; wherein data are transmitted between said core net-
for an open A interface. work CN and said at least one access system BSS of a GSM
In particular, FIG. 5 illustrates the strncture of a 16 kbit/s based access system type of said access network AN via an
TRAU frame. The structure of the speech frame of FIG. 5 is 15 Iu interface Iu-I/F. Also, the present invention aims to
specified in section 08.60 of the GSM specifications. Bits provide accordingly adapted network elements. By virtue of
Dl-D260 in octets 4-38 are used for transmitting the actual the present invention, substantial savings concerning
speech parameters. The bits in the first two octets are coded resources can be obtained by supporting data formats of
"O". The bits in question and the first bits (coded nl") in GSM coded speech on the open, i.e., not network operator
octets 2, 4, 6, ... , 36 and 38 are synchronization bits. In 20 proprietary, Iu interface according to UMTS/3rd generation
accordance with the invention, the bits in question are not specification. Thus, GSM transcoders and 3rd generation
transmitted over the ATM connection, since they are not transcoders as well as GSM base station controllers and 3rd
needed on that connection. The last four bits Tl to T4 (stop generation radio network controllers can be integrated, so
bits) and spare bits Cl8-C21 of the TRAU frame in question that the san1e hardware resources can be used for both
are not transmitted over the ATM connection either. Fur- 25 systems, i.e., for GSM as well as for 3rd generation.
thermore, a flag, i.e., a bit Cl6, used in the TRAU frame for It should be understood that the above description and
indicating speech is not transmitted to the ATM connection, accompanying figures are merely intended to illustrate the
because its value can be detected at the receiving end on the present invention by way of example only. The preferred
basis of the value of a silence descriptor SID flag C13-Cl4. embodiments of the present invention may thus vary within
In FIG. 5, the bits that are transmitted over the ATM 30 the scope of the attached claims.
connection in accordance with the invention are shown in The invention claimed is:
bold text, and the bits that are excluded are shown in normal 1. A transmission method for transmission of data in a
text. (Note that ATM connection here stands for the trans- telecmrummication network,
mission via the Iu interface.) said network comprising a core network (CN) and an
FIG. 6 illustrates a first frame type which is used on the 35 access network (AN),
ATM connection (Iu interface Iu-I/F) and, on that connec- with said access network (AN) comprising
tion, substitutes in accordance with the invention the TRAU at least one access system (RAN, BSS) of a GSM
frame presented in FIG. 5. The frame of FIG. 6 can be used based access system type;
in the uplink (from base station system towards mobile wherein data are transmitted between said core network
services switching center) and in the downlink (from mobile 40 (CN) and said at least one access system (BSS) of a GSM
services switching center towards base station system) direc- based access system type of said access network (AN) via an
tions. Iu interface (Iu-I/F) wherein each of said at least one access
In the frame of FIG. 6, bits Dl-D260 are used for systems (RAN, BSS) comprises at least one transceiver
transmitting speech paran1eters. Bits Cl-CS indicate the device (BS) and an associated transceiver control device
frame type. Bits C6-Cll are timing bits. A bit Cl2 is used 45 (RNC/BSC), and wherein data are transmitted within each
for bad frame indication BFI. Bits C13 and C14 form a SID of said access systems (RAN, BSS) via an Iub and/or an Iur
flag. A bit ClS forms a TAF flag. A bit Cl 7 is used in the interface in a frame fomiat which is the same as the one
uplink direction for controlling discontinuous transmission adopted for said Iu interface (Iu-IF).
of the downlink direction. The bit in question is a spare bit 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein data are
in the downlink direction. A bit DSl is used for indicating 50 transmitted via said interface as coded data which are coded
if the frame in question originates from the transcoder unit as specified by the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommu-
or from the base station system. Bits Sl-S3 are spare bits. nication System) specifications or as coded data which are
FIG. 7 illustrates the structure of an 8 kbit/s TRAU frame. coded according to GSM specifications.
In the submultiplexed 8 kbit/s speech frame of FIG. 7, the 3. A method according to claim 2, wherein said transmit-
bits that are transmitted in accordance with the invention 55 ted data coded according to GSM specifications are trans-
over the ATM connection are shown in bold text. It can be mitted via said interface using a specified transport fran1e
detected from FIG. 7 that the bits to be excluded include adapted to the transmission of GSM speech data and circuit
synchronization bits, for example. switched data.
FIG. 8 illustrates a second frame type which is used on the 4. A method according to claim 3, wherein said transport
ATM connection and, on that connection, substitutes in 60 frame is a speech frame, an O&M frame, a data frame, or an
accordance with the invention the TRAU frame of FIG. 7. extended data frame based on the specification in GSM
CRC bits CRC2-CRCO are transmitted in their nomial recommendation GSM 08.60, GSM 08.61, or GSM 08.62.
places between bits D44h and D45h. 5. A teleconmmnication network, comprising
Moreover, although the foregoing description has mainly a core network (CN) and an access network (AN),
focused on the transmission GSM coded speech/data over 65 with said access network (AN) comprising
the (open) Iu interface, basically the same applies for at least one access system (RAN, BSS) of a GSM
transmission of GSM coded speech/data over the Iub and Iur based access system type;
US 7,072,358 B2
9 10
wherein said core network (CN) is connected to said at least for connection to said access network (AN) and is provided
one access system (RAN, BSS) of a GSM based access with an A interface (A) for com1ection to a core network
system type of said access network (AN) via an Iu interface control device (MSC).
(Iu-I/F) wherein each of said at least one access systems 8. A network according to claim 6, wherein said network
(RAN, BSS) comprises at least one transceiver device (BS) s element (IWU/TC) is a gateway (GW) network element of
and an associated transceiver control device (RNC/BSC), said core network (CN) associated to a core network control
and wherein data are transmitted within each of said access device (MSC).
systems (R,i\.N, BSS) via an mb and/or an Iur interface in a 9. A network according to claim 5 wherein said trans-
frame format which is the same as the one adopted for said ceiver control device (RNC/BSC) is adapted to perform a
Iu interface (Iu-IF). 10 control functionality (BSC) according to GSM specification
6. A network according to claim 5, wherein said core as well as a control fm1ctionality (RNC) according to UMTS
network (CN) comprises a network element (IWU/TC) specification.
adapted to perform transcoding functionality (TC) according 10. A network according to claim 9, wherein said trans-
to GSM specification as well as a transcoding functionality ceiver control device (RNC/BSC) is provided with said Iu
(IWU) according to UMTS specification. 15 interface (Iu-I/F) for connection to said core network (CN).
7. A network according to claim 6, wherein said network
element (IWU/TC) is provided with said Iu interface (Iu-I/F) * * * * *
EAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of14
·-· '.l JAN. 2003
Rep: __________ _ ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia C o r p o r a t i o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: IPRManager_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Department: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Jocnsuunkatu 7, FIN-24101 SALO, P.0.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND _ __

Tel.: +358718045008 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
Fax: +358718044275 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
E-mail: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as UMTS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY aod/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on tenns and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STAND ARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
TI1e construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws ofFraoce.

Place, Date: Signature:
/~ ~/(_ _____
Salo, Finland, 19 December 2002 _ Kalle Moilanen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
(Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex- FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 12 of 14

Korea South 7015506/2001

Great Britain 9912846.4

European Patent
00931178.8
Convention

China P.R. 00809632.5

Canada PCT/EPOO/04230

Brazil P10011099-0

United States 09/980377

PACKET RADIO
UMTS Nokia TELEPHONE United States 09/189590
SERVICES

Finland 974290

European Patent
98947586.8
Convention

Japan 2000-520596

TRANSMISSION
 AND
2374847
UMTS Nokia Canada
INTERCONNEC
TION METHOD
Please return thIS form duly sIgned to. ETSI DIrector General - Karl Hemz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucio1es - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France / Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
'
;,_ EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page I of?

ANNEX I

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICE

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia Corporation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Signatory

Nan1e: Harri Honkasalo - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Position: Director of!PR, S t a n d a r d s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Department: IPR._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-02150 ESPOO, P.O.Box 226, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, Finland_ _

Tel.: +358 71800 8000

fax: +358 7180 34496 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
E-n1ail: harri.honkasalo@nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, A1ticle 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as GSM.

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The constrnction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Espoo, Finland, 8 January 2003 _ _
(Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

Please return this fonn duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Ced ex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 5 of7

VALUES IN TIME

United States TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 10/200930 6456237

United States TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 09/677114

Finland TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 980724 106602

European Patent
TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 99945702.1
Convention

China P.R. TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 99804679.5

Australia TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 59468/99 755890

Japan TS 03.71, v.7.9.0 2000-544146

TRANSMISSION
GSM  Nokia
AND
Japan TS 23.002, v.5.5.0 2001-500582
INTERCONNECTI
ON METHOD

Korea South TS 23.002, v.5.5.0 7015377/2001

European Patent
TS 23.002, v.5.5.0 99927811.2
Convention

China P.R. TS 23.002, v.5.5.0 999816695.2

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France / Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
特許出願人 発明の名称 出願番号等 備考(出願国名)
REGISTRATION NO./
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
Nokia Corporation*3.00 HYBRID AUTOMATIC REPEAT REQUEST (HARQ) SCHEME WO02/096006 BR CA CN EP JP KR SG US WO ZA
WITH IN-SEQUENCE DELIVERY OF PACKETS
Nokia Corporation*3.00 CHARGING IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORK WO02/098099 AU BR CA CN EP IN JP KR MX RU US
WO ZA
Nokia Corporation*3.00 METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR BEARER AUTHORIZATION IN A WO03/003690 BR CA CN EP JP KR US WO
WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORK
Nokia Corporation*3.00 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING WO03/019795 BR CA CN EP JP KR SG US WO ZA
TRANSMISSION OF PACKETS IN A WIRELESS
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Nokia Corporation*3.00 `TRANSMISSION OF DATA WITHIN A COMMUNICATIONS WO03/019960 CA EP JP KR WO ZA
NETWORK
Nokia Corporation*3.00 METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR CHANGING A SUBSCRIPTION WO03/061236 WO
Nokia Corporation*3.00 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM AND METHOD WO03/081876 GB WO
Nokia Corporation*3.00 A METHOD OF REGISTERING AND DEREGISTERING A USER WO03/081937 US WO
Nokia Corporation*3.00 METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR RE-AUTHENTICATION IN IP WO03/084257 US WO
MULTIMEDIA CORE NETWORK SYSTEM (IMS)
Nokia Corporation*3.00 PDP CONTEXT ERROR HANDLING METHOD WO03/084262 GB WO
Nokia Corporation*3.00 SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HANDLING SESSIONS OF WO03/094563 WO
SPECIFIC TYPE IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Nokia Corporation*3.00 METHOD AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING WO03/096603 US WO
SECURITY ASSOCIATION LIFETIME
ノキアコー レイシ 送信及び 方法 特表2003-501906 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
ョン*3.00 European Patent Office, Japan,
Korea(South), United States of America,
WO
ノキアネットワーク 無線送信 と を 無線ネットワークとの間のタイミ 特表2001-525135 Applied in Australia, China, European
スオサケユキチュ ン を 定する方法 Patent Office, Norway, United States of
ア*3.00
America, WO
ノキアネットワーク 移動通信システムにおけるサー ス オン デ ンド 特表2002-511670 Applied in China, European Patent
Office, Finland, Japan, United States of
スオサケユキチュ America, WO
ア*3.00

79
9
A15038VI
I
(19) Europilsches
Patentamt
European 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Patent Office
Office europeen
des brevets
(11) EP 1 212 919 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.:
of the grant of the patent: H04W 36/12r2009· 01J
08.09.2010 Bulletin 2010/36
(86) International application number:
(21) Application number: 00966045.7 PCT/EP2000/009100

(22) Date of filing: 13.09.2000 (87) International publication number:
WO 2001/020938 (22.03.2001 Gazette 2001/12)

(54) RELOCATION IN A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
UMLENKUNG IN EINEM KOMMUNIKATIONSSYSTEM
DEPLACEMENT DE PROTOCOLE DANS UN SYSTEME DE COMMUNICATION

(84) Designated Contracting States: (72) Inventor: AHMAVAARA, Kalle,
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU Nokia Japan Co Ltd
MC NL PT SE Tokyo 100-0014 (JP)

(30) Priority: 14.09.1999 GB 9921706 (74) Representative: Ruuskanen, Juha-Pekka et al
Page White & Farrer
(43) Date of publication of application: Bedford House
12.06.2002 Bulletin 2002/24 John Street
London
(60) Divisional application: WC1 N 2BF (GB)
10170344.5
(56) References cited:
(73) Proprietor: Nokia Corporation EP-A- 0 898 438 WO-A-99/51051
02150 Espoo (Fl) CH-A- 682 867

T"'"
cc
0)
T"'"
0)
N
T"'"
N Note: Within nine months of the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent in the European Patent
Bulletin, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to that patent, in accordance with the
T"'"
Implementing Regulations. Notice of opposition shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been
a. paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1 212 919 81 2

Description controller is controlling another controller controlling the
MS. One controller of the plurality of controllers in the
Field of the Invention system can be defined as a serving (main) controller
whereas the others may act as secondary controllers.
[0001] The present invention relates to relocation in a 5 The responsibility of controlling a connection between
communication system and in particular, but not exclu- the mobile station and the network may change during
sively, to relocation of a protocol termination point. an ongoing connection. It is therefore necessary to relo-
cate at least part of functionalities associated with the
Background of the Invention connection such that the connection will not become dis-
10 connected and/or that the quality of the connection re-
[0002] Communication networks typically operate in mains in an acceptable level. It is to be appreciated that
accordance with a given standard which sets out what in addition or as an alternative to relocating functionalities
the elements of the network are permitted to do and how of the controller node, the functionality to be relocated
that should be achieved. The communication in the net- may also be located in any other of the network elements,
works follows predefined rules which are referred to in 15 for example in the base station, base station subsystem,
the following as protocols. The protocols to be used are in the gateway and so on.
defined in the associated standard. The protocols can be [0006] When relocation is decided to be performed,
used for controlling various events and functionalities in the serving controller or another node of the communi-
a connection provided through the communications net- cation system may initiate the necessary proceeding for
work. Several protocols may be simultaneously in an ac- 20 replacing one or several of the network nodes with a new
tive state for providing control of a connection. During an corresponding node or nodes.
ongoing i.e. active connection a protocol is having a ter- [0007] In case of an active i.e. ongoing connection,
mination point in the network element controlling the con- one of the features that should to be relocated is the state
nection. For example, a protocol may have termination of a protocol termination point. Although it is not always
points in a telephone terminal and in a network controller 25 necessary, in a usual case the status of the protocol ter-
controlling the connection. mination point at the new "replacing" network element or
[0003] A communication network is a cellular radio net- node should be such that it may take over the functions
work consisting of cells. In most cases the cell can be of the old "replaced" network node. At the present the
defined as a certain area covered by one or several base parameters which need to be transferred have to be de-
transceiver stations (BTS) serving mobile stations (MS) 30 fined also in the protocols which are used to convey the
via a radio interface and connected to a base station sub- information from the old termination point to the new ter-
system (BSS). Several cells cover a larger area, and form mination point. For example, if parameters of a Radio
the coverage area of a cellular radio network. The cell Resource Control (RRC) or Medium Access Control
(or group of cells) and thus the mobile station (MS) or (MAC) or Radio Link Control (RLC) protocols are to be
similar user equipment (UE) within one of the cells of the 35 relocated in a system that would use radio network sub-
system can be controlled by a node providing controller system application part (RNSAP) for communication be-
functionality, for example by a radio network controller tween the network controller nodes, this would mean that
(RNC) or a mobile switching center (MSC). The controller a lot of "external" parameters would have to be defined
can be connected further to a gateway or linking node, for the RNSAP. This would increase the complexity of
for example a gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) or 40 the RNSAP. In addition, if several additional parameters
gateway mobile switching center (GSMC), linking the cell of a protocol are to be defined for the another protocol,
to the other parts of the communication system and/or it makes these two different protocols very dependent on
other communication networks, such as to a PSTN (Pub- each other. The independent evolution of them would
lic Switched Telecommunications Network) or to a data thus become more difficult to manage.
network, such as to a X.25 based network or to a TCP/IP 45
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) based Summary of the Invention
network.
[0004] European Patent Application EP-A-0 898 438 [0008] It is an aim of the embodiments of the present
describes a radio network controller system whose con- invention to address one or several of the above prob-
trol is headed over to base station that belongs to another 50 lems.
radio network controller. [0009] According to one aspect of the present inven-
[0005] The mobile station MS may be controlled by tion, there is provided a method in a communication sys-
only one controller at time. However, the MS may also tem for relocating a protocol termination point, compris-
be simultaneously controlled by several controller nodes. ing:
This may occur e.g. when the cells overlap or in so called 55
soft handoff mode, where the MS may be in communi- using a first protocol to define a protocol initialization
cation with two base stations and those base stations unit at a first termination point of a first protocol, said
may be connected to different controllers, or when one protocol initialization unit containing predefined in-

2
3 EP 1 212 919 81 4

formation pertaining to initialization of a second ter- protocol initialization unit may contain state information
mination point of said first protocol; of the first protocol termination point.
transferring the protocol initialization unit from the [0014] The first termination point may also be located
first termination point to a second termination point at a first network element of the communication system
by a second protocol; and 5 and the second termination point may be located at a
initializing the second termination point based on the second network element of the communication system.
protocol initialization unit. The second network element may, upon receiving the
protocol information unit, generate and transmit a re-
[001 O] According to another aspect of the present in- sponse to the first network element by means of the sec-
vention there is provided a communication system, com- 10 ond protocol.
prising: [0015] The protocol initialization unit may be encapsu-
lated in a message transmitted between the first termi-
a first protocol termination point; nation point and the second termination point. The pro-
a second protocol termination point; tocol initialization unit may also be transparent for the
control means for relocating a first protocol from the 15 second protocol.
first protocol termination point to the second protocol [0016] The protocol initialization unit may be transmit-
termination point, said control means being arranged ted via a network element of a core network of the com-
to form a protocol initialization unit containing pre- munication system. This may be accomplished by means
defined information of the first protocol at the first of a radio access network application part (RANAP) pro-
protocol termination point; 20 tocol. According to an embodiment, the protocol initiali-
communication path based on a second protocol be- zation unit may be transmitted directly between the ter-
tween the first and the second termination points for mination points. This may be accomplished by means of
transferring the protocol initialization unit; and a radio network subsystem application part (RN SAP) pro-
control means for initializing the second protocol ter- tocol.
mination point based on the protocol initialization 25 [0017] The protocol initialization unit may contain in-
unit. formation of at least one further protocol. According to
an embodiment at least one further protocol initialization
[0011] According to a still another aspect of the present unit may be defined containing predefined information of
invention there is provided a network element for use in a further protocol by the further protocol, whereafter the
a communication network, comprising: 30 further protocol initialization unit is transferred from the
first termination point to the second termination point.
a protocol termination point; The further protocol initialization unit may be transferred
control means for relocating a first protocol from the between the termination points by a protocol that is dif-
protocol termination point to another protocol termi- ferent to the second protocol.
nation point, said control means being arranged to 35 [0018] The parameters of the second termination point
form a protocol initialization unit containing prede- may be set into a state that is relatively similar to the state
fined information of the first protocol at the protocol of parameters of the first termination point before or at
termination point; and the time the relocation procedure was initiated during the
interface to said other protocol termination point initialization procedure.
based on a second protocol for transferring the pro- 40 [0019] The embodiments of the invention provide sev-
tocol initialization unit from the first termination point eral advantages. One of the benefits is that a need for
by means of the second protocol. defining a great number of parameters of one protocol in
another protocol is avoided. This provides clear benefits
[0012] According to a still another aspect of the present in updating and maintenance of the protocols.
invention there is provided a network element for use in 45
a communication network, comprising: Brief Description of Drawings

a protocol termination point of a first protocol; [0020] For better understanding of the present inven-
interface to another protocol termination point for re- tion, reference will now be made by way of example to
ceiving a protocol initialization unit containing pre- 50 the accompanying drawings in which:
defined information of the first protocol at said other
termination point, wherein the interface is based on Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a cellular
a second protocol; and radio network system in which embodiments of the
control means for initializing the protocol termination invention can be implemented;
point based on the received protocol initialization 55 Figure 2 shows the hierarchy of various elements of
unit. the network of Figure 1;
Figure 3 shows two possible interfaces between net-
[0013] According to a more specific embodiment, the work nodes; and

3
5 EP 1 212 919 81 6

Figure 4 is a flow chart for operation in accordance stations may include information identifying the mobile
with one embodiment. station (for instance, MS ID and/or IMSI (Mobile Station
Identity and/or International Mobile Subscriber Identity,
Description of Preferred Embodiments of the Invention respectively)).
5 [0025] In addition to the serving controller (RNC 10),
[0021] Reference will be first made to Figure 1 in which the cellular telecommunications system of Figure 2 in-
three cells 1,2,3 of acellulartelecommunications network cludes another controller RNC 11 controlling the base
are shown. Each cell 1,2,3 is served by a respective base station 5 of cell 3 of Figure 2. It is, again, noted that the
transceiver station (BTS) 4',4,5. Each base transceiver second controller may also control more than one base
station (BTS) is arranged to transmit signals to and re- 10 station. The second controller may also sometimes be
ceive signals from the mobile stations (MS) 6 located in referred to as a drift controller (DRNC). The SNRC 10
the cell associated with the given base transceiver sta- and DRNC 11 may communicate with each other over
tion. Likewise, each mobile station 6 is able to transmit an open lur interface 18 established between them.
signals to and receive signals from the respective base [0026] Figure 2 illustrates one possible relocation sit-
transceiver station 4' ,4,5, and also able to move from the 15 uation wherein the mobile station MS 6 or similar user
coverage area of one cell to the coverage area of another equipment communicates firstly via the BTS 4 over a
cell, e.g. from cell 2 to cell 3. radio interface designated by a solid line and then switch-
[0022] The exemplifying cellular telecommunications es to communicate via a new BTS 5, as designated by
network will be described in more detail in the following the dashed radio interface. According to one possibility
by using the terminology of a proposed Universal Mobile 20 the change from one base station to another may occur
Telecommunications System (UMTS) standard. Howev- after the mobile station 6 has moved into the service or
er, it is to be appreciated thatthe invention is not restricted illumination area of the second base station 5. However,
to UMTS but can be implemented in any standard. Ex- it is to be appreciated that in addition to the movement
amples of these include, without any intention to restrict of the mobile station, there are also other possible rea-
the possible communication systems to these, any of the 25 sons for triggering the relocation of the connection to an-
code division multiple access (COMA) based systems or other base station or to another network element, such
any of the time division multiple access (TOMA) based as network optimization, load balancing, hardware con-
systems or any of the frequency division multiple access gestion, connection quality improvement, fault in the sys-
(FDMA) based systems or any hybrids thereof. tem or base station and so on.
[0023] Reference is now made to Figure 2 which 30 [0027] In order to ensure a proper operation of the sys-
shows the hierarchy of a cellular communication system. tem and to avoid disconnecting a possibly ongoing call,
As can be seen, the mobile station 6 is in wireless com- at least some of the functionalities of the network ele-
munication with one of the base stations. Typically a ments have to be relocated for the connection. For ex-
number of mobile stations will be in communication with ample, when a SRNC functionality is to be located from
each base station although only one mobile station is 35 a first RNC to a second RNC some protocol termination
shown in Figure 2 for clarity. A first base station 4 is con- points of an ongoing connection (such as RRC, RCL
nected to a first network controller, which in Figure 2 is and/or MAC protocols) need to be changed from the first
a serving radio network controller SRNC 10. Again, more RNC to the second RNC.
than one base station is usually connected to each con- [0028] Before explaining an embodiment for the relo-
troller 1Oalthough only one is shown for clarity. Typically 40 cation in more detail, a brief explanation will given of the
more than one controller is also provided in a network. protocol termination point with reference to Figure 3
The SRNC 10 is connected to other elements of the net- showing a block diagram of the source RNC 10 and the
work 12 via a suitable linking or gateway apparatus, such target RNC 11. The exemplifying protocol termination
as a serving GPRS (General Packet radio Service) Sup- point is illustrated to comprise a radio resource control
port Node (SGSN) 14. 45 (RRC) protocol. However, it is to be appreciated that the
[0024] The SRNC 10 is arranged to control the base described RRC protocol is only an example, and that the
station, either directly or through an intermediate node embodiments can be implemented for any other protocol
(not shown). The controller 1Opasses on data to be trans- used fora connection in a communication system as well.
mitted to the mobile station by the base station. The con- These other protocols include, without any restriction to
troller 1O will also receive from the base station data 50 these, medium access control (MAC) protocol, radio link
which the base station has received from the mobile sta- control (RLC) protocol and packet data convergence pro-
tion. The implementation of the communication between tocol (PDCP).
the base station, the mobile station and the controller is [0029] The SRNC 10 and DRNC 11 each are provided
known, and will thus not be discussed in detail herein. It with a Radio Resource Controller functionality RRC 24
is sufficient to note that the interface may comprise chan- 55 and 26, respectively. When the MS 6 is communication
nels in both uplink and downlink directions. The data may with the controller 10, the RRC protocol has its other ter-
be sent between the mobile station and the controller in mination point correspondingly at the controller 10, while
any suitable format. The messages sent from the mobile the other termination point is at the mobile station. How-

4
7 EP 1 212 919 81 8

ever, should the controller change, the termination point number of parameters of one protocol in another proto-
of the RRC protocol should also be changed correspond- col. For example, by the embodiment described in the
ingly. More precisely, the new controller 11 should be following about 100 RRC parameters in the RANAP pro-
provided with a similar termination point functionality us- tocol are avoided.
ing similar parameters as the previous controller had. 5 [0033] Referring again to Figure 3, a more detailed ex-
These functionalities will be controlled by a control unit ample of the relocation procedure will now be given in
20 at the source controller 1O and by a control unit 21 at context of relocating a radio interface L3 protocol (i.e. a
the target controller 11. radio resource control; RRC) protocol from a first or
[0030] Figure 3 shows further an lur interface 18 be- source controller (e.g. RNC 1O of Figure 3) to a second
tween the DRNC 1O and the SRNC 11. For example, a 10 or target controller (e.g. RNC 11 of Figure 3). The exem-
RNSAP (Radio Network Subsystem Application Part) plifying RRC protocol is known, and is not described in
protocol can be used for the direct signalling between more detail. It is sufficient to note that the RRC provides
the two RN Cs. A RANAP (Radio Access Network Appli- common controlling and signaling over the air interface
cation Part; in the control plane) protocol can used for L3 between the serving RNC and the mobile station and that
(Layer 3) signalling over the lu interface between the 15 the RRC can be shared with circuit switched traffic and
RN Cs and an appropriate element 14 of the core network packet switched traffic.
14. The core network element 14 can be e.g. a mobile [0034] The control unit 20 of the first (source) RNC 10
switching center or a serving GPRS support node. produces the special protocol initialization unit which in
[0031] A reference will now be made to the flow chart this instance will be referred to as a RRC POU. The RRC
of Figure 4 showing in more detail an embodiment for 20 POU contains all such predefined RRC parameters that
moving the required state information of a protocol ter- have to be known by the new termination point in order
mination point from one termination point at a first net- to receive and continue the connection. These parame-
work element (NE) to another termination point in a sec- ters may include information concerning e.g. one or sev-
ond network element. As illustrated by step 30, the pro- eral of the following: radio bearer(s), transport channel
tocol termination point is to be moved between the ter- 25 (s), radio link(s) and their physical channels, capability
mination points during an active state of the protocol be- information as well as user equipment capabilities and
tween the servicing network controller and the mobile measurements being reported by the user equipment
station. After the relocation procedures are initiated at and so on. According to a preferred embodiment the RRC
step 32, the "old" protocol termination point in the source POU contains all such RRC parameters that are required
network element produces at step 34 a special protocol 30 by the termination point at the target RNC to start the
data unit (POU) containing predefined necessary proto- RRC protocol in a relatively similar state and conditions
col parameters for initialization of the second termination that existed in the old termination point.
point before relocation of the connection. The POU is [0035] According to an embodiment the generated
passed at step 36 to the new termination point with help RRC POU can be transferred from the first RNC to the
of a second protocol. The second protocol is used for 35 second RNC by means of a RN SAP (Radio Network Sub-
signaling between the different network elements or system Application Part) over an open interface lur 18
nodes. The passed information can be transparent to the provided between the first controller 10 and the second
second protocol used for the transmission of the POU. controller 11. The termination point at the second RNC
Examples of the protocols which may be used for the receives the RRC POU and subsequently decodes the
transmission of the POU will be discussed in more detail 40 received RRC POU. The termination point26 is initialized
later in this specification. The new termination point re- based on the received and decoded information. The in-
ceives the POU and it is initialized at step 38 based on itialization procedure can be controlled by the control unit
the information received from the old termination point. 21.
After the initialization procedure the termination point will [0036] According to another embodiment the POU is
be relocated at step 40 to the new network element and 45 firstly moved from the source RNC 1Oto the core network
the operation of the system continues as before except (CN) 14 over an lu interface 19 by a RANAP (Radio Ac-
that the protocol termination point of the active protocol cess Network Application Part) message 'RELOCATION
is now situated in the new network element. REQUIRED' and subsequently from the core network to
[0032] In other words, an explicit protocol message will the target RNC 11 by an lu RANAP message 'RELOCA-
be passed between the old termination point and the new 50 TION REQUEST'.
termination point of a protocol in case of relocation of the [0037] The RRC POU can be encapsulated within a
protocol termination point. The specified POU (or mes- message in the second protocol as there is no need for
sage) is used within a protocol peer between the old and the contents of the RRC POU to be visible for the func-
the new termination point of the protocol. In a preferred tionality of the second protocol, such as to the RANAP
embodiment a single protocol defines the information to 55 or the RNSAP. The encapsulation of protocol messages
be transferred between the protocol peers and the infor- transparently to a message of another protocol is a known
mation to be transmitted within one peer. By means of technique and will thus not be discussed in more detail
this it is possible to avoid a need for defining a great herein

5
9 EP 1 212 919 81 10

[0038] It should be appreciated that the status of any a mobile station, embodiments of the present invention
other protocol, such as the MAC protocol or RLC protocol are applicable to any other suitable type of connections
referred to above, could also be conveyed by the RRC terminating to one node. It should also be appreciated
protocol. In more general terms, a protocol may "collect" that base stations can sometimes be referred to as node
required information for several protocols and generate 5 B.
a POU containing required information for all or at least [0044] There are also other possible reasons for initi-
more than one of the protocols to be relocated. According ating the relocation procedure that movement of the mo-
to an embodiment a separate or further protocol initiali- bile station into a new service area. For example, the
zation unit POU is used for each of the protocols to be network element in question may become overloaded or
relocated or at least some of the protocols to be relocated. 10 a failure in the system of the network element itself may
The different protocol initialization units can be trans- force the system to relocate at least a part of the func-
ferred between the termination point by protocols that tionalities, network optimization, load balancing and so
are different to each other. on.
[0039] It should also be appreciated that some embod- [0045] The exemplifying embodiments of the invention
iments do not require an identical or relatively similar pro- 15 have discussed protocols terminated to a network con-
tocol termination point at the old and the new network troller. Embodiments of the present invention can be ap-
element. However, it is preferred that the information in- plicable to other network elements as well where appli-
cluded in the protocol initialization unit is such that that cable.
the functionalities of the communication system may con- [0046] It is also noted herein that while the above de-
tinue without disconnecting the user equipment from the 20 scribes one exemplifying embodiment of the invention,
communication system. there are several variations and modifications which may
[0040] According to one possibility the termination be made to the disclosed solution without departing from
point is not relocated from a network element or node to the scope of the present invention as defined in the ap-
another node but within the node. pended claims.
[0041] It is noted that in some embodiments of the in- 25
vention, the relocation of some or all functionalities may
also be triggered even in such conditions where the com- Claims
munication could continue without any relocation pro-
ceedings, e.g. in order to optimize the operation of the 1. A method in a communication system for relocating
system or balance the load distribution in the system. In 30 a protocol termination point, characterised in the
addition, the mobile station 6 of Figure 2 may be in com- steps of:
munication with both controllers 1Oand11. Furthermore,
it may not be necessary to relocate the entire protocol or using a first protocol to define a protocol initial-
all protocols used for a connection, but instead only a ization unit (20) at a first termination point of a
part of the information concerning the protocols is trans- 35 first protocol (34), said protocol initialization unit
mitted between the network elements. For example, a containing predefined information pertaining to
user plane communication may be enabled via the lur initialization of a second termination point (36)
interface 18 of Figure 2, whereby the mobile station 6 of said first protocol;
within the service area of the controller 11 could still be transferring the protocol initialization unit from
controlled by the old servicing controller 1O via the con- 40 the first termination point to a second termination
troller 11. point by a second protocol; and
[0042] According to a further embodiment the initiali- initializing the second termination point based
zation is a bidirectional process. In other words, instead on the protocol initialization unit (38).
of only transmitting information from the first network el-
ement (node) to the second element, the new network 45 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the protocol
element may send a respond to the first element or ac- initialization unit (20) contains state information of
complish a transmission to a further network element. the first protocol termination point.
The respond may include a message such as "unable to
initialize", "overload", "all parameters not received" and 3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the first
so on. Upon receiving the response, the first network 50 termination point is located at a first network element
element may modify its state and/or take some other ac- (1 O) of the communication system and the second
tions towards the new termination point. For example, termination point is located at a second network (11)
transmit modified parameter or parameters, or use dif- element of the communication system.
ferent transmission route, or try to relocate the connec-
tion to another network element. 55 4. A method according to claim 3, wherein the second
[0043] It should also be appreciated that whilst embod- network element (11 ), upon receiving the protocol
iments of the present invention have been described in information unit (20), generates and transmits a re-
relation to a connection between the network nodes and sponse to the first network element by means of the

6
11 EP 1 212 919 81 12

second protocol. cated at one of the following: a base station control-
ler, a radio network controller, a base station, a gate-
5. A method according to any of the preceding claims, way.
wherein the protocol initialization unit (20) is encap-
sulated in a message transmitted between the first 5 16. A method according to any of the preceding claims,
termination point and the second termination point wherein the step of initializing the second termination
by the second protocol. point comprises setting the parameters of the second
termination point into a state that is similar to the
6. A method according to any of the preceding claims, parameters of the first termination point before or at
wherein the protocol initialization unit (20) is trans- 10 the time the relocation procedure was initiated.
parent for the second protocol.
17. A communication system, characterized in com-
7. A method according to any of the preceding claims, prising:
wherein the protocol initialization unit is transmitted
via a third network element between the termination 15 a first protocol termination point (1 O);
points. a second protocol termination point (11);
control means for relocating a first protocol from
8. A method according to claim 7, wherein the trans- the first protocol termination point to the second
mission is based on a radio access network applica- protocol termination point, said control means
tion part (RANAP) protocol. 20 being arranged to form a protocol initialization
unit (20) containing predefined information of
9. A method according to any of claims 1 to 6, wherein the first protocol at the first protocol termination
the protocol initialization unit (20) is transmitted by point;
a direct connection between the termination points. communication path (18) based on a second
25 protocol between the first and the second termi-
10. A method according to claim 9, wherein the trans- nation points for transferring the protocol initial-
mission is based on a radio network subsystem ap- ization unit; and
plication part (RNSAP) protocol. control means for initializing the second protocol
termination point based on the protocol initiali-
11. A method according to any of the preceding claims, 30 zation unit.
wherein the predefined information of the first proto-
col comprise one or several parameters of a radio 18. A communication system according to claim 17,
resource control protocol (RRC), medium access wherein the protocol initialization unit (20) contains
control protocol (MAC), radio link control protocol state information of the first protocol termination
(RLC), and/or packet data convergence protocol 35 point.
(PDCP).
19. A communication system according to claim 17 or
12. A method according to any of the preceding claims, 18, wherein the control means for relocating are ar-
wherein the protocol initialization unit contains infor- ranged to encapsulate the protocol initialization unit
mation of at least one further protocol. 40 (20) into a message to be transmitted from the first
termination point to the second termination point.
13. A method according to any of the preceding claims,
comprising steps of: 20. A communication system according to any of claims
17 to 19, wherein the first termination point is located
defining at least one further protocol initialization 45 at a first network element (1 O) of the communication
unit containing predefined information of a fur- system and the control means for relocating are ar-
ther protocol by the further protocol; and ranged in connection with the first network element.
transferring the further protocol initialization unit
from the first termination point to the second ter- 21. A communication system according to any of claims
mination point. 50 17 to 20, wherein the second termination point is
located at a second network element (11) of the com-
14. A method according to claim 13, wherein the further munication system and the control means for initial-
protocol initialization unit is transferred between the izing are arranged in connection with the second net-
termination points by a protocol that is different to work element.
the second protocol. 55
22. A communication system according to any of the
15. A method according to any of the preceding claims, claims 17 to 21, wherein the protocol initialization
wherein at least one of the termination points is lo- unit contains information of at least one further pro-

7
13 EP 1 212 919 81 14

tocol. Protokollinitialisierungseinheit (20) an einem er-
sten Endpunkt von einem ersten Protokoll (34)
23. A network element for use in a communication net- zu bestimmen, wobei die Protokollinitialisie-
work, comprising: rungseinheit eine vorbestimmte Information ent-
5 halt, die eine lnitialisierung eines zweiten End-
a protocol termination point; punkts (36) des ersten Protokolls betrifft;
control means for relocating a first protocol from Ubertragen der Protokollinitialisierungseinheit
the protocol termination point to another proto- von dem ersten Endpunkt zu einem zweiten
col termination point, characterized in said Endpunkt durch ein zweites Protokoll; und
control means being arranged to form a protocol 10 lnitialisieren des zweiten Endpunkts basierend
initialization unit (20) containing predefined in- auf der Protokollinitialisierungseinheit (38).
formation of the first protocol at the protocol ter-
mination point; and 2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei welchem die Proto-
interface to said other protocol termination point kollinitialisierungseinheit (20) eine Zustandsinfor-
based on a second protocol for transferring the 15 mation des ersten Protokollendpunkts enthalt.
protocol initialization unit from the first termina-
tion point by means of the second protocol. 3. Verfahren nach einem der Anspruche 1 oder 2, bei
welchem sich der erste Endpunkt an einem ersten
24. A network element according to claim 23, wherein Netzwerkelement (10) des Kommunikationssy-
the network element comprises a controller of a eel- 20 stems befindet und sich der zweite Endpunkt an ei-
lular communication network. nem zweiten Netzwerkelement (11) des Kommuni-
kationssystems befindet.
25. A network element according to claim 23 or 24,
wherein the control means for relocating are ar- 4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, bei welchem das zweite
ranged to encapsulate the protocol initialization unit 25 Netzwerkelement (11) nach einem Empfang der
into a message to be transmitted from the first ter- Protokollinformationseinheit (20) eine Antwort an
mination point by means of the second protocol. das erste Netzwerkelement mittels des zweiten Pro-
tokolls erzeugt und Obertragt.
26. A network element according to any of claims 23 to
25, wherein the protocol initialization unit contains 30 5. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche,
information of at least one further protocol. bei welchem die Protokollinitialisierungseinheit (20)
in einer Nachricht gekapselt ist, die zwischen dem
27. A network element for use in a communication net- ersten Endpunkt und dem zweiten Endpunkt durch
work, comprising: das zweite Protokoll Obertragen wird.
35
a protocol termination point of a first protocol; 6. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche,
interface to another protocol termination point bei welchem die Protokollinitialiserungseinheit (20)
characterise in being adapted to receive a pro- tor das zweite Protokoll transparent ist.
tocol initialization unit containing predefined in-
formation of the first protocol at said other ter- 40 7. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche,
mination point, wherein the interface is based bei welchem die Protokollinitialisierungseinheit Ober
on a second protocol; and ein drittes Netzwerkelementzwischen den Endpunk-
control means for initializing the protocol termi- ten Obertragen wird.
nation point based on the received protocol ini-
tialization unit. 45 8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, bei welchem die Uber-
tragung auf einem Funkzugangsnetzwerkanwen-
28. A network element according to claims 27, wherein dungsteil-Protokoll (RANAP) basiert.
the network element comprises a controller of a cel-
lular communication network. 9. Verfahren nach einem der Anspruche 1 bis 6, bei
50 welchem die Protokollinitialisierungseinheit (20)
durch eine direkte Verbindung zwischen den End-
Patentanspruche punkten Obertragen wird.

1. Verfahren in einem Kommunikationssystem zum 10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, bei welchem die Uber-
Verlagern eines Protokollendpunkts, gekennzeich- 55 tragung auf einem Funknetzwerkuntersysteman-
net durch: wendungsteil-Protokoll (RNSAP) basiert.

Verwenden eines ersten Protokolls, um eine 11. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche,

8
15 EP 1 212 919 81 16

bei welchem die vorbestimmte Information des er- Protokollinitialisierungseinheit; und
sten Protokolls einen oder mehrere Parameter eines Steuermittel zum lnitialisieren des zweiten Pro-
Funkressourcensteuerprotokolls (RRC), eines Me- tokollendpunkts basierend auf der Protokollin-
diumzugriffssteuerprotokolls (MAC), eines Funkver- itialisierungseinheit.
bindungssteuerprotokolls ( RLC) und/oder eines Pa- 5
ketdatenkonvergenzprotokolls (PDCP) umfasst. 18. Kommunikationssystem nach Anspruch 17, bei wel-
chem die Protokollinitialisierungseinheit (20) eine
12. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche, Zustandsinformation des ersten Protokollendpunkts
bei welchem die Protokollinitialisierungseinheit eine enthalt.
Information von wenigstens einem weiteren Proto- 10
koll enthalt. 19. Kommunikationssystem nach einem der Anspruche
17 oder 18, bei welchem die Steuermittel zum Ver-
13. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche, lagern so eingerichtet sind, dass sie die Protokollin-
umfassend: itialisierungseinheit (20) in eine Nachricht kapseln,
15 die von dem ersten Endpunkt an den zweiten End-
Definieren wenigstens einer weiteren Protokol- punkt zu Obertragen ist.
linitialisierungseinheit, die eine vorbestimmte
Information eines weiteren Protokolls enthalt, 20. Kommunikationssystem nach einem der Anspruche
durch das weitere Protokoll; und 17 bis 19, bei welchem sich der erste Endpunkt an
Obertragen der weiteren Protokollinitialisie- 20 einem ersten Netzwerkelement (10) des Kommuni-
rungseinheit von dem ersten Endpunkt an den kationssystems befindet und die Steuermittel zum
zweiten Endpunkt. Verlagern in Verbindung mit dem ersten Netzwer-
kelement eingerichtet sind.
14. Verfahren nach Anspruch 13, bei welchem die wei-
tere Protokollinitialisierungseinheit zwischen den 25 21. Kommunikationssystem nach einem der Anspruche
Endpunkten durch ein Protokoll Obertragen wird, das 17 bis 20, bei welchem sich der zweite Endpunkt an
sich von dem zweiten Protokoll unterscheidet. einem zweiten Netzwerkelement (11) des Kommu-
nikationssystems befindet und die Steuermittel zum
15. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche, lnitialisieren in Verbindung mit dem zweiten Netz-
bei welchem sich wenigstens einer der Endpunkte 30 werkelement eingerichtet sind.
bei einem der folgenden befindet:
22. Kommunikationssystem nach einem der Anspruche
einer Basisstationssteuerung, einer Funknetz- 17 bis 21, bei welchem die Protokollinitialisierungs-
werksteuerung, einer Basisstation, einem Gate- einheit eine Information von wenigstens einem wei-
way. 35 teren Protokoll enthalt.

16. Verfahren nach einem dervorstehenden Anspruche, 23. Netzwerkelement zur Verwendung in einem Kom-
bei welchem das lnitialisieren des zweiten End- munikationsnetzwerk, umfassend:
punkts Versetzen des Parameters des zweiten End-
punkts in einen Zustand umfasst, der den Parame- 40 einen Protokollendpunkt;
tern des ersten Endpunkts vor oder zu der Zeit ah- Steuermittel zum Verlagern eines ersten Proto-
nelt, als die Verlagerungsprozedur initiiert wurde. kolls von dem Protokollendpunkt zu einem an-
deren Protokollendpunkt, dadurch gekenn-
17. Kommunikationssystem, gekennzeichnet durch zeichnet, dass die Steuermittel so eingerichtet
Umfassen von: 45 sind, dass sie eine Protokollinitialisierungsein-
heit (20), die eine vorbestimmte Information des
einem ersten Protokollendpunkt (1 O); ersten Protokolls enthalt, an dem Protokollend-
einem zweiten Protokollendpunkt (11 ); punkt bilden; und
Steuermittel zum Verlagern eines ersten Proto- eine Schnittstelle zu dem anderen Protokollend-
kolls von dem ersten Protokollendpunkt zu dem 50 punkt, die auf einem zweiten Protokoll basiert,
zweiten Protokollendpunkt, wobei die Steuer- zum Obertragen der Protokollinitialisierungsein-
mittel so eingerichtet sind, dass sie eine Proto- heit von dem ersten Endpunkt mittels des zwei-
kollinitialisierungseinheit (20), die eine vorbe- ten Protokolls.
stimmte Information des ersten Protokolls ent-
halt, an dem ersten Protokollendpunkt bilden; 55 24. Netzwerkelement nach Anspruch 23, bei welchem
einem Kommunikationspfad (18), der auf einem das Netzwerkelement eine Steuerung eines Mobil-
zweiten Protokoll zwischen dem ersten und dem funknetzwerks umfasst.
zweiten Endpunkt basiert, zum Obertragen der

9
17 EP 1 212 919 81 18

25. Netzwerkelement nach einem der Anspruche 23 3. Precede selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel
oder 24, bei welchem die Steuermittel zum Verlagern a
le premier point de terminaison est situe un premier
so eingerichtet sind, dass sie die Pretokollinitialisie- element de reseau (10) du systeme de communica-
rungseinheit in eine Nachricht kapseln, die von dem tion et le second point de terminaison est situe una
ersten Endpunkt mittels des zweiten Pretokolls zu 5 deuxieme element de reseau (11) du systeme de
Obertragen ist. communication.

26. Netzwerkelement nach einem der Anspruche 23 bis 4. Precede selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le
25, bei welchem die Protokollinitialisierungseinheit deuxieme element de reseau (11), lors de la recep-
eine Information von wenigstens einem weiteren 10 tion de I' unite d'information de protocole (20), genere
Pretokoll enthalt. et transmet une reponse au premier element de re-
seau au moyen du second pretocole.
27. Netzwerkelement zur Verwendung in einem Kom-
munikationsnetzwerk, umfassend: 5. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications
15 precedentes, dans lequel l'unite d'initialisation de
einen Protokollendpunkt von einem ersten Pre- protocole (20) est encapsulee dans un message
tokoll; transmis entre le premier point de terminaison et le
eine Schnittstelle zu einem anderen Protokol- second point de terminaison par le second protocole.
lendpunkt, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es
ausgelegt ist, eine Protokollinitialisierungsein- 20 6. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications
heit zu empfangen, die eine vorbestimmte Infor- precedentes, dans lequel l'unite d'initialisation de
mation des ersten Pretokolls an dem anderen protocole (20) est transparente pour le second pro-
Endpunkt enthalt, wobei die Schnittstelle auf ei- tocole.
nem zweiten Protokoll basiert; und
ein Steuermittel zum lnitialisieren des Protokol- 25 7. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications
lendpunkts basierend auf der empfangenen precedentes, dans lequel l'unite d'initialisation de
Pretokollinitialisierungseinheit. protocole est transmise par l'intermediaire d'un trei-
sieme element de reseau entre les points de termi-
28. Netzwerkelement nach Anspruch 27, bei welchem naison.
das Netzwerkelement eine Steuerung eines Mobil- 30

funknetzwerks umfasst. 8. Precede selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la
transmission est fondee sur un protocole d'applicatif
de reseau d'acces radio (RANAP).
Revendications
35 9. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications
1. Precede, dans un systeme de communication, pour 1 a 6, dans lequel l'unite d'initialisation de pretocole
translater un point de terminaison de protocole, ca- (20) est transmise par une connexion directe entre
racterise par les etapes consistant a: les points de terminaison.

utiliser un premierpretocole pour definir une uni- 40 10. Precede selon la revendication 9, dans lequel la
a
te d'initialisation de protocole (20) un premier transmission est fondee sur un protocole d'applicatif
point de terminaison d'un premier protocole de sous-systeme de reseau radio (RNSAP).
(34), ladite unite d'initialisation de protocole con-
tenant des informations predefinies concernant 11. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications
!'initialisation d'un second point de terminaison 45 precedentes, dans lequel les informations predefi-
(36) dudit premier protocole ; nies du premier protocole comprennent un ou plu-
transferer l'unite d'initialisation de protocole du sieurs parametres d'un protocole de controle de res-
a
premier point de terminaison un second point sources radio (RRC), pretocole de controle d'acces
de terminaison par l'intermediaire d'un second au support (MAC), pretocole de controle de liaison
protocole ; et 50 radio (RLC), et/ou pretocole de convergence de don-
initialiser le second point de terminaison sur la nees par paquets (PDCP).
base de l'unite d'initialisation de protocole (38).
12. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications
2. Precede selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'unite precedentes, dans lequel l'unite d'initialisation de
d'initialisation de pretocole (20) contient des infor- 55 protocole contient des informations d'au moins un
mations d'etat du premier point de terminaison de protocole supplementaire.
pretocole.
13. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications

10
19 EP 1 212 919 81 20

precedentes, comprenant des etapes consistant a : de terminaison de protocole.

definir au moins une unite d'initialisation de pre- 19. Systeme de communication selon la revendication
tocole supplementaire contenant des informa- 17 ou 18, dans lequel les moyens de controle pour
tions predefinies d'un protocole supplementaire 5 trans later sont agences pour encapsuler I' unite d'ini-
par l'intermediaire du protocole tialisation de protocole (20) dans un message des-
supplementaire ; et a
tine etre transmis du premier point de terminaison
transterer l'unite d'initialisation de protocole au second point de terminaison.
supplementaire du premier point de terminaison
au second point de terminaison. 10 20. Systeme de communication selon une quelconque
des revendications 17 a 19, dans lequel le premier
14. Precede selon la revendication 13, dans lequel l'uni- point de terminaison est situe dans un premier ele-
te d'initialisation de pretocole supplementaire est ment de reseau (1 O) du systeme de communication
transferee entre les points determinaison par un pre- et les moyens de controle pour trans later sont agen-
tocole qui est different du second pretocole. 15 ces en association au premier element de reseau.

15. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications 21. Systeme de communication selon une quelconque
precedentes, dans lequel au moins un des points de des revendications 17 a 20, dans lequel le second
terminaison est situe dans un des elements point de terminaison est situe dans un deuxieme ele-
suivants : un controleur de station de base, un con- 20 ment de reseau (11) du systeme de communication
troleur de reseau radio, une station de base, une et les moyens de controle pour initialiser sont agen-
passerelle. ces en association au deuxieme element de reseau.

16. Precede selon une quelconque des revendications 22. Systeme de communication selon une quelconque
precedentes, dans lequel l'etape consistant a initia- 25 des revendications 17 a 21, dans lequel I' unite d'ini-
liser le second point de terminaison comprend l'eta- tialisation de pretocole contient des informations
pe consistant a regler les parametres du second d'au moins un pretocole supplementaire.
point de terminaison dans un etat qui est similaire
aux parametres du premier point de terminaison 23. Element de reseau destine a etre utilise dans un re-
avant ou a !'instant auquel la procedure de transla- 30 seau de communication, comprenant :
tion a ete initiee.
un point de terminaison de pretocole ;
17. Systeme de communication, caracterise en ce qu'il des moyens de controle pour translater un pre-
comprend: mier protocole du point de terminaison de pro-
35 tocole a un autre point de terminaison de preto-
un premier point de terminaison de protocole cole, caracterise en ce que lesdits moyens de
(10) ; controle sont agences pour former une unite
un second point de terminaison de protocole d'initialisation de pretocole (20) contenant des
(11) ; informations predefinies du premier pretocole
des moyens de controle pour translater un pre- 40 au point de terminaison de pretocole ; et
mier pretocole du premier point de terminaison une interface avec ledit autre point de terminai-
de protocole au second point de terminaison de son de protocole sur la base d'un second pro-
protocole, lesdits moyens de controle etant tocole pour transferer l'unite d'initialisation de
agences pour former une unite d'initialisation de pretocole a partir du premier point de terminai-
protocole (20) contenant des informations pre- 45 son au moyen du second pretocole.
definies du premier protocole au premier point
de terminaison de pretocole ; 24. Element de reseau selon la revendication 23, dans
une voie de communication (18) fondee sur un lequel !'element de reseau comprend un controleur
second pretocole entre les premier et second d'un reseau de communication cellulaire.
points de terminaison pour transferer l'unite 50
d'initialisation de pretocole ; et 25. Element de reseau selon la revendication 23 ou 24,
des moyens de controle pour initialiser le second dans lequel les moyens de controle pour translater
point de terminaison de protocole sur la base de sont agences pour encapsuler l'unite d'initialisation
l'unite d'initialisation de pretocole. de pretocole dans un message destine a etre trans-
55 mis a partir du premier point de terminaison au
18. Systeme de communication selon la revendication moyen du second protocole.
17, dans lequel l'unite d'initialisation de protocole
(20) contient des informations d'etat du premier point 26. Element de reseau selon une quelconque des re-

11
21 EP 1 212 919 81 22

a
vendications 23 25, dans lequel I' unite d'initialisa-
tion de protocole contient des informations d'au
moins un protocole supplementaire.

21. Element de reseau destine a etre utilise dans un re- 5
seau de communication, comprenant :

un point de terminaison de protocole d'un pre-
mier protocole ;
une interface avec un autre point de terminaison 10
de protocole, caracterise en ce qu'il est adapte
pour recevoir une unite d'initialisation de proto-
cole contenant des informations predefinies du
premier protocole audit autre point de terminai-
son, dans lequel !'interface est fondee sur un 15
second protocole ; et
des moyens de controle pour initialiser le point
de terminaison de protocole sur la base de l'uni-
te d'initialisation de protocole rectue.
20
28. Element de reseau selon la revendication 27, dans
lequel !'element de reseau comprend un controleur
d'un reseau de communication cellulaire.

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

12
EP 1 212 919 81

4 6

5

MS
6 x
BTS

6
FIG. 1

MSC/SGSN r-----14
. 19
Ju ~

RA NAP fur RANAP
1
I
RNSAP
RNC - RNC

Cont- Cont-
RRC ~ roller~ RRC -'>.
roller.).
I ~ I D l L I
l24 '\10 0o 18 ~6 11f (21

FIG. 3

13
EP 1 212 919 81

12

FIG. 2

14
EP 1 212 919 81

A protocol having a termination point in a first v3a
NE is an active state

Termination point relocation procedure initiated
at the first NE 1--32
_y-

An initialization POU formed in the first NE by
the protocol termination point _r34

The PDU is passed to anew termination point in
another network element by means of at least one v36
other protocol

The termination point initializes itself based 38
on the received POU _,,.V

The operation of the first NE is relocated in the
40
new NE V
...;

FIG. 4

15
EP 1 212 919 81

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION

This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European
patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be
excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description

• EP 0898438 A [0004]

16
18 AVR. 2012
Page 1 (version 6)
Rep;_______ ____ IPR Declaration reference: ISLD-201204-004

ETSI Rules of Procedure, 26 November 2008

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION
IPR HOLDER I ORGANISATIONJ.:~"'"'"' ""'}
Legal Name: NOKIA Corporation

CONTACT DETAILS FOR LICENSING INFORMATION:
Name and Title: Mr. Kalle MOILANEN
Department: IPR
Address: P.O Box 86, Joensuunkatu 7, 24100 SALO, FINLAND,
Telephone: +358 50 366 2022 Fax: +358 7180 44275
Email: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com URL:

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT
In accordance with Clause 4.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES hereby informs ETSI that it is the
Declarant's and/or its AFFILIATES' present belief that the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex may be
or may become ESSENTIAL in relation to at least the ETSI Work ltem(s), STANDARD(S) and/or TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION(S)
identified in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

The Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES (check one box only):

5!l(' are the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

0 are not the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

IPR LICENSING DECLARATION
In accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES hereby irrevocably declares the following
{check one box only, and subordinate box, where applicable):

5!l(' To the extent that the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex are or become, and remain
ESSENTIAL in respect of the ETSI Work Item, STANDARD and/or TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION identified in the attached IPR
Information Statement Annex, the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES are prepared to grant irrevocable licences under this/these
IPR(s) on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy.

51(' This irrevocable undertaking is made subject to the condition that those who seek licences agree to reciprocate
(check box if applicable):

0 The Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES are not prepared to make the above IPR Licensing Declaration (reasons may be explained
in writing in the attached IPR Licensing Declaration Annex).

The construction, validity and performance of this IPR information statement and licensing declaration shall be governed by the laws
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Terms in ALL CAPS on this form have the meaning provided in Clause 15 of the ETSI IPR Policy.

{L,L____
SIGNATURE
By signing this IPR Information Statement and Licensing Declaration form, you represent that you have the authority to bind the
Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES to the representations and commitments provided in this form.

Name of authorized person: Mr. Kalle MOILANEN
Title of authorized person: IPR Manager
Place, Date: Salo, Finland, 10/04/2012

Please retum this form duly signed to: ETSI Director-General
ETSI - 650, route des Lucio/es· F-06921 Sopflia Anti/)_olis Cedex - France I Fax. +33_(gl 4 93 65 47 16
Page 2 (version 6)
IPR Declaration reference: ISLD-201204-004

ETSI Rules of Procedure, 26 November 2008

IPR Information Statement Annex

3GPP-EUTRAN TS 36.413 7, 9.2.1.7 8.10.0 NOKIA CORP EP20000966045 EP1212919 81 RELOCATION IN A European A T20000966045 AT480970 T AUSTRIA
[Fl] COMMUNICATION Patent Office T
TS 36.331 10.1, 10.2.1, 8.15.0
SYSTEM
10.2.2, 10.3 AU20000076577 AU7657700 A AUSTRALIA
D
8R20000013975 BR0013975 A BRAZIL
CA20002384290 CA2384290 C CANADA
CN20008012876 CN1178547 C CHINA
EP20100170344 EP2237609 A3 European
Patent Office
ES20000966045 ES2348709 T3 SPAIN
T
J P20010524385 JP3602501 82 JAPAN
T
US20000088452 US7242933 81 UNITED
STATES
W02000EP0910 W00120938 A 1 Patent
0 Cooperation
Trea
3GPP-EUTRAN TS 36.300 19.2.1.5, 5.3, 8.0.0 NOKIA CORP US20030350002 US7333503 82 Sending permission UNITED AT20010958110 AT488114 T AUSTRIA
11.1 [Fl] assignment in STATES T
telecommunications
AU20010079848 AU7984801 A AUSTRALIA
system
D
CN20018014576 CN 100486386 C CHINA
CN20081182195 CN101415209 8 CHINA
EP20010958110 EP1325647 81 European
Patent Office
Fl20000001705 F120001705 A FINLAND
US20070987193 US2008165744 UNITED
A1 STATES
W02001 FI00681 W00209463 A 1 Patent
Cooperation
Treat
Page 3 (version 6)
IPR Declaration reference: ISLD-201204-004

lGPP-EUTRAN TS l6.l21 5.10,5.10.2 8.10.0 NOKIA MOBILE US2001093455l US6944459 82 Method and arrangement UNITED AU20010082218 AU8221801 A AUSTRALIA
PHONES LTD for transferring STATES D
TS l6.ll1 4.4, 8.15.0 [Fl] infonnation in a packet
5.l.10.5,6.l .2 BR2001001341l BR011341l A BRAZIL
radio service
CA2001242095l CA242095l C CANADA
CN20018017715 CN1270486 C CHINA
F120000001876 Fl20001876 A FINLAND
JP20020522141 JP4870l19 82 JAPAN
JP20020522141 JP20045079l2 A JAPAN
T
W02001 F100745 W0021757l A 1 Patent
Cooperation
Treaty
ZA200l0001451 ZA200l01451 A SOUTH AFRICA
lGPP-EUTRAN TS l6.l21 4.l.1,6.2.1 8.10.0 NOKIA CORP US20020104847 US6665280 82 Method and apparatus UNITED AT200l0702866 AT481847 T AUSTRIA
[Fl] providing multiple STATES T
TS 2lA01 4.7.l,4.7.2.1 8.15.0 temporary block flow AU200l020598l AU200l20598l AUSTRALIA
TS 24.008 10.5.6.12 8.15.0 (TBF) mapping to upper A1
layer when operating in
GSM/EDGE radio access CN200l8008849 CN1675863 A CHINA
network (GERAN) A/Gb EG20040090092 EG24815A EGYPT
mode
EP200l0702866 EP1488558 81 European
Patent Office
ES200l0702866 ES2l489l8 Tl SPAIN
T
IL20040164097 IL164097 A ISRAEL
JP20030579l95 JP2005521 l28 T JAPAN
T
N02004000l855 N020043855 A NORWAY
RU200401l1211 RU2l04l50 C2 RUSSIAN
FEDERATION
W0200llB00517 W00l081817 A1 Patent
Cooperation
Treaty
lGPP-EUTRAN TS 36.ll1 6.2.2, 6.l.1 8.10.0 NOKIA CORP US200007l0l50 US6751460 82 Methods and apparatus UNITED AT20000992l96 AT423442 T AUSTRIA
TS l6.1ll 4.2.2.1 8.10.0
[Fl] for pertormin~ cell STATES T
reselection or AU2001004l1 Ol AU777888 82 AUSTRALIA
TS l6.l04 5.2.4.8.2,5.2.4,5. 8.10.0 supporting efficiently
2.4.2, 5.2.l.2 hierarchical cell CN20008016909 CN12079l6 C CHINA
structures EP20000992l96 EP12l8545 81 European
¢ Patent Office
JP2001054l0l6 JP450l904 82 JAPAN
T
RU20020118128 RU2265287 C2 RUSSIAN
FEDERATION
W02000US4261 W00143462 Al Patent
7 Cooperation
Treaty
Page 4 (version 6)
IPR Declaration reference: ISLD-201204-004

3GPP-EUTRAN TS 36.300 15.3.5, 15.3.3 9.2.0 NOKIA CORP US20020306162 US7054619 82 Method of determining UNITED
TS 36.321 5.12 9.1.0 [Fl) the validity of service STATES
announcements
TS 36.331 5.8.1.1 9.1.0
3GPP-EUTRAN TS 36.213 7.2, 7.2.3, 7.2.1 8.8.0 NOKIA CORP US20050226502 US7649959 82 Transmission format UNITED EP20050799936 EP1813044 81 European
[Fl) indication and feedback STATES Patent Office
in multi-carrier wireless
communication systems
3GPP-EUTRAN TS 36.213 7.2, 7.2.1 8.8.0 NOKIA CORP US20080075950 US7843801 82 Optimum technique for UNITED CN20088008442 CN101636954 A CHINA
[Fl] encoding and decoding STATES
physical resource block EP20080719707 EP2122889 A2 European
Patent Office
locations
W020081850971 W02008114188 Patent
A3 Cooperation
Treaty
3GPP-EUTRAN TS 26.247 7.2, 10.1,10.2.3, 10.1.0 NOKIA CORP W020111852662 W02011158221 METHOD AND Patent
10.2.6 [Fl] A2 APPARATUS FOR Cooperation
BOUAZIZI IMED ' GENERATING AND Treaty
[Fl] HANDLING STREAMING
LIU CHENGHAO MEDIA QUALITY-OF-
J_FJl EXPERIENCE METRICS
3GPP-EUTRAN TS 26.234 5.8 10.1.0 NOKIA CORP W020111852663 W02011161603 METHOD AND Patent
[Fl] A2 APPARATUS FOR Cooperation
80UAZIZI IMED CHANGING THE Treaty
[Fl] CONFIGURATION OF AN
ONGOING STREAMING
SESSION
*Information on other members of a PATENT FAMILY is provided voluntarily (Clause 4,3 of the ETSI IPR Policy).

Please return this form together with the "IPR Information Statement and Licensing Declaration form" to:
ETSI Director-General - ETSI - 650, route des Lucio/es - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
16 AVR. 2012 Page 1 (version 6)
Rep;_______ ____ IPR Declaration reference: ISLD-201204-004

ETSI Rules of Procedure, 26 November 2008

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION
IPR HOLDER I ORGANISATION ("Declarant")
Legal Name: NOKIA Corporation

CONTACT DETAILS FOR LICENSING INFORMATION:
Name and Title: Mr. Kalle MOILANEN
Department: IPR
Address: P.O Box 86, Joensuunkatu 7, 24100 SALO, FINLAND,
Telephone: +358 50 366 2022 Fax: +358 7180 44275
Email: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com URL:

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT
In accordance with Clause 4.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES hereby informs ETSI that it is the
Declarant's and/or its AFFILIATES' present belief that the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex may be
or may become ESSENTIAL in relation to at least the ETSI Work ltem(s), STANDARD(S) and/or TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION(S)
identified in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

The Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES (check one box only):

~ are the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

D are not the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

IPR LICENSING DECLARATION
In accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES hereby irrevocably declares the following
(check one box only, and subordinate box, where applicable):

ll(" To the extent that the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex are or become, and remain
ESSENTIAL in respect of the ETSI Work Item, STANDARD and/or TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION Identified in the attached IPR
Information Statement Annex, the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES are prepared to grant irrevocable licences under this/these
IPR(s) on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy.

ll(" This irrevocable undertaking is made subject to the condition that those who seek licences agree to reciprocate
(check box if applicable):

D The Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES are not prepared to make the above IPR Licensing Declaration (reasons may be explained
in writing in the attached IPR Licensing Declaration Annex).

The construction, validity and performance of this IPR information statement and licensing declaration shall be governed by the laws
of France.
Terms in ALL CAPS on this form have the meaning provided in Clause 15 of the ETSI IPR Policy.

~,L _ __
SIGNATURE
By signing this IPR Information Statement and Licensing Declaration form, you represent that you have the authority to bind the
Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES to the representations and commitments provided in this form.

Name of authorized person: Mr. Kalle MOILANEN
Title of authorized person: IPR Manager
Place, Date: Salo, Finland, 10/04/2012

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director-General
ETSI - 650, route des Lucio/es - F-06921 Sopflia Antip_o/is Cedex - France I Fax. +33JQ}_ 4 93 65 47 16
Page 2 (version 6)
IPR Declaration reference: ISLD-201204-004

ETSI Rules of Procedure, 26 November 2008
IPR Information Statement Annex

TS 36.331 10.1,10.2.1, 8.15.0
10.2.2, 10.3



EP20100170344 EP2237609 A3 European
Patent Office
ES20000966045 ES2348709 T3 SPAIN
T
J P2001 0524385 JP3602501 82 JAPAN
T
US20000088452 US7242933 81

W02000EP0910 W00120938 A 1
0

3GPP-EUTRAN TS 36.300 19.2.1.5,5.3, 8.0.0 NOKIA CORP US20030350002 US7333503 82 Sending permission UNITED AT488114 T AUSTRIA
11.1 [FI] assignment in STATES
telecommunications
system

US20070987193 US2008165744
A1
W02001 FI00681 W00209463 A 1
141nu1

is****~=***~***~****$****~*
*** 1..\1mTYSlnl'OJ(T1'I n;
*******~******~*****~******

1..:\II ETYS 11I\

LI\' NIW 0300
\ .\ST.\PI 01.E."- Nl IMEIW 09!Hl33.rn:1ti547 I Ii
\l.l llSll ITE
\ \STWl 11JI. Tllr\Nl iS
.\I ...\I KA . 21 1 12 13:31
KESTO :!.i' HI
S l\'l".1:\ IJ.llETETIY ·~ /
TlllJJS OK

NOKIA Fax
Date:
21.12 01
Pages: 1+50

From:
l\dd1e~s: Keilalahd ntie 2-4. FIN-02150 ESPOO
Fax: I 358 7180 34496

PMne: +358 718 08000
E-mail: Harri.honl.asalo@nokia.com

To: ETSI DirE ctor General .. Karl Heinz Roseobrock
Company: ETSI
Fax: +33493 354716
Cc to:

Dear Mr. Rosenbrock,

Please find enclosed Nokii GSM and UMTS IPR declarations.

Merry Christmas and Hap~ y New Year 2002!

~o~Q_r~
Harri Honkasalo
Director of IPR. Standard TP-dmology
Nokia Corporation
NOKIA Fax

Date;
21.12.01
Pages: 1+50

From: Harri Honkasalo
Address: Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-02150 ESPOO
Fax: +358 7180 34496
Phone: +358 7180 08000
E-mail: Harri.honkasalo@nokia.com

To: ETSI Director General · Karl Heinz Rosenbrock
Company: ETSI
Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Cc to:

Dear Mr. Rosenbrock,

Please find enclosed Nokia GSM and UMTS IPR declarations.

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2002!

Harri Honkasalo
Director of IPR, Standards T echnotogy
Nokia Corporation
El lROPEf\ N T El,EC0 1\IMUNICATI( >N STANIM RDS lNSTITUTI!:
page I ol 26

ANNEX I

IPR INFORMATION STA,TE.MF.NT AND LICENSI NG DECLARATION

11•H I lolcler/Organisuli1111

I cgJI N.Lnll'. Noki:i Corporation,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Sigualon •

Nan11:: !lam I lon~:1~;1li1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
l'o.,I\ 11 ltl D1rc.:h11 of ll'R. StanJard~
IJcp;u llncnt: IPR
A<lllr.:i.i.: Kc1l:il.1hJcnt1l· 2 • 4. FINO~ 150 ESPOO. Pl. 221>. FIN-CXXM5 NOKIA CiROUP. FINI.AND

Tel.: +358 7180 USOlKJ
Fax: +l:iS 71 lm l~-t%

E-nmil: ham.hi mka~;1l11(a'm l~la.l'\HTI

11"1< i11fonuuliu11 Sl llk llll'IU

In acrnrd:u!l·c wtth lhc l'.'I SJ IPR Puhc). Artidc -t. I. I hcn:h) inform ETSI 1ha1.

with rcfcrcn~·c tu !he lcchnKal proposal idcntif1cJ a~ UMTS ______________

111~ my belief that thl' IPR~ listed 111Annex1 ;ire, or an: liJ..d) to hcrnmc. Essential IJ>R, in rclaiinn lo tha1 Standard,

11•1< lkN1'iing dt'l'larntion

lhl' SIGNATORY has nnt1f1cJ ETSI th:u ii 1s the proprietor 111 1hc IPRs hsti:d in Anne\:? and ha:. mlonm:ll ETSI
1ha1 ti bchc\>c:. that 1hc IPR, may lie rnns1dcrcd ESSENTIAi. lo the Standards hstcd ;ihuvc.
Thi." SJ< iNA roRY ;md/ur tis Al·r:JLIATES h<!rehy dc1.:larc th:u they an: prcp;1red \\)grant 1rrcv11<:ahlc licenses under
lh(• ll'Rs \,111 tcrm:. and 1:1111dititms whkh are in accordun\·c w11h Cl.iusl' C>. l of the l:.T.SJ ll'R Policy, 111 rcspc~·t of 1111:
STANDARD. to 1hc cx1cm 1ha1 the IPR:; rem:tin ESSENTIAi ..
The construcunn. valld11y unc.I performance uf this DECLARATION shall bc govcrm:c.1 by the lawi. ufFrancc.

Sic:11111u rc:

1S1)!11c1l fur a111l 11n hch.1\1 of lhc SICiNATOHYl

Plcao;c rclum llus form dul:y >l~ncd to
I· rst D1rt>c1nr \n.•ncrul - K•1tl 11.:in.I' Ro~l·nhmd.
ETSI MO. rnurc Jes l.ucwlc·-; · F-069:!1 Soph1:i Antipolis Ccurx • 1' ~1\N('f
F:1x. +3J 1014 llJ (1~ 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 16of26

RELOCATIO:-J OF RRC
1'515 TS15.J31.

Nokia
UMTS PROTOCOL IN SRNS Great Britain 99111069
Telccommun'ClltlVl' cry RELOCATION
TS1SAI3. TS25 __1O]

1"525.401. T'SlS..3JI. P('TfEPOOtOI)IOO
PCT TS25413, TS25.301

USING SPARSE
FEED8ACKTO
INCREASE
BANDW[OTII
UMTS Nolan Nc:tworiLs ay United Slates 09/ .
EFACIENCY iN HIGH
DEL\Y. LOW
IJ ANDW IDTII
ENV IRONt-.1E1\'T

PCr PCT/lJS00/29S-«i

A.,'I/ AI'PROACH FOR
CELL· ID
UMTS Notia Nctw(ltts Oy Britain TS25.305 0000528.0
IJETERMI.."ATION IN A
WCOf..IA SYSTEM

I'CT TS2S .]OS PCTfEI'OOlI]().I..\

SECURITY
INTER WORKING
UMTS Nolia Networks Oy BE1WEE.'1 RELEASE l'eT 1'533.102, 1'$2/).002 PC'TIEP99108412
98 AN D 99 M SClVLRS
FOR ROAMING USIMS
VARIA BLE LENGHT
UMTS Nokia Networks Oy ENCODING OF United Stones

PCT rcTfUSOOI..t 1773

CO:'\'TROWi'a OF UE
BEH A VlOUR IN
ur..rrs Nokia Nt[work:s ay REJECTION OF RRC Finland TS 25 3]1 20000090
CON!'.'ECTION SETIJP
ATTEM PT

Please return this form duly signed to: EfS I Director General - Karl l-leinz Rost:nbrock

ETSI- 650. roUle des Lucioles - F·0692 I Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0).4 93 6547 16
出願番号等
特許出願人 発明の名称 備考(出願国名)
REGISTRATION NO./
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
NOKIA MOBILE DATA PACKET NUMBERING IN PACKET-SWITCHED WO01/78286 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
PHONES LTD. *1.00
DATA TRANSMISSION European Patent Office, Finland,
Japan, Korea(South), Singapore,
United States of America, WO
NOKIA MOBILE A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM COMPRISING A WO02/067617 Applied in United Kingdom, WO
PHONES LTD. *1.00 PLURALITY OF COMMUNICATION NETWORK
NOKIA MOBILE METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING A SEQUENCE OF WO01/05061 Applied in China, European Patent
PHONES LTD. *1.00 SYMBOLS Office, Finland, Japan, Korea(South),
United States of America, WO
NOKIA MOBILE ALPHA TAGGING AND TYPE INDICATION OF WO01/67796 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
PHONES LTD. *1.00 EMERGENCY CALL NUMBER European Patent Office, Japan,
Korea(South), Singapore, United States
of America, WO, South Africa
NOKIA MOBILE TRANSMISSION OF FIXED SIZE PROTOCOL DATA UNITS WO01/78323 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
PHONES LTD. *1.00 THROUGH THE TRANSPARENT European Patent Office, Japan,
Korea(South), Singapore, United States
of America, WO, South Africa
NOKIA NETWORKS OY ARRANGING CONTROL SIGNALLINGS IN WO01//03463 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
*1.00 TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM European Patent Office, Finland,
Japan, Korea(South), United States of
America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY RELEASING A CONNECTION IN A WIRELESS WO00/76243 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
*1.00 COMMUNICATION NETWORK European Patent Office, United
Kingdom, Japan, Korea(South), United
States of America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY RELOCATION IN A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM WO01/20938 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
*1.00 European Patent Office, United
Kingdom, Japan, Korea(South), United
States of America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SELECTING AN WO01/33883 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
*1.00 IDENTIFICATION CONFIRMATION European Patent Office, Japan, United
States of America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY METHOD OF CHECKING AMOUNT OF TRANSMITTED WO01/63853 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
*1.00 DATA European Patent Office, Finland, India,
Japan, United States of America, WO

39
10
A15081VI
Europaisches Patentamt

(19) European Patent Office 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111

Office europeen des brevets (11) EP 1 221 212 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.7: H048 7/26, H04Q 7/22
of the grant of the patent:
02.02.2005 Bulletin 2005/05 (86) International application number:
PCT/EP1999/007596
(21) Application number: 99950691.8
(87) International publication number:
(22) Date of filing: 11.10.1999 WO 2001/028131 (19.04.2001 Gazette 2001/16)

(54) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SYNCHRONIZATION OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

VERFAHREN UNO VORRICHTUNG ZUR SYNCHRONISIERUNG IN EINEM
KOMM UN IKATIONSSYSTEM
PROCEDE ET DISPOSITIF DE SYNCHRONISATION

(84) Designated Contracting States: (7 4) Representative:
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU Leson, Thomas Johannes Alois, Dipl.-lng.
MC NL PT SE Tiedtke-Buhling-Kinne & Partner GbR,
TBK-Patent,
(43) Date of publication of application: Bavariaring 4
10.07.2002 Bulletin 2002/28 80336 Munchen (DE)

(73) Proprietor: Nokia Corporation (56) References cited:
02150 Espoo (Fl) WO-A-98/18244 US-A- 5 793 744

(72) Inventor: RASANEN, Juha
FIN-02660 Espoo (Fl)

,....
m
N
,....
N
,....
N Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give
N
,.... notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in
a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art.
a. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1 221 212 81 2

Description tion according to the old frame format from which the
network end should resend the information mapped into
FIELD OF THE INVENTION a frame format corresponding to the new channel cod-
ing. The mobile end sends a REMAP frame on every
[0001] The present invention relates to a method and 5 sending opportunity until a responding REMAP frame is
apparatus for synchronizing a first and a second com- received from the network end. The network end an-
munication end point during a connection mode change swers by sending a REMAP U frame, wherein a C/R
procedure in a telecommunication network, such as a control bit is set to "response". In the information field,
GSM network. the network end indicates the frame number from which
10 the mobile end should remap the information into the
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION new frame format. The network end responds to all
REMAP commands it receives. Any REMAP acknowl-
[0002] In mobile telecommunication networks, the edgment that may arrive at the mobile end after one of
Radio Link Protocol (RLP) is used for data transmission them has been received is discarded by the mobile end.
and covers the Layer 2 functionality of the ISO OSI Ref- 15 The RLP supervises the synchronization state by a tim-
erence Model. It is tailored to the special needs of digital er, wherein the network end enters an Asynchronous
radio transmission and provides to its users the OSI Da- Disconnected Mode (ADM) when it does not receive an
ta Link Service. appropriate U frame within a predetermined time period.
[0003] RLP is intended for use with non-transparent The ADM is a data link non-operational mode, where
data transfer, wherein a protocol conversion may be pro- 20 the RLP entity is logically disconnected from the data
vided for a variety of protocol configurations. RLP link and may therefore neither transmit nor accept num-
frames are sent in strict alignment with the radio trans- bered information frames.
mission and are of a fixed size of 240 (TCH/F9.6 channel [0008] The mobile end stops sending REMAP frames
coding) or 576 bits (TCH/F14.4 channel coding). When- after recognizing the first REMAP frame sent by the net-
ever a frame is to be sent, the RLP entity has to provide 25 work end. Then, the mobile end acknowledges the re-
the necessary protocol information to be contained in it. ceipt by sending an l+S or S frame to the network end,
[0004] In RLP, a provision is made for a discontinuous and leaves the REMAP synchronization state. In re-
transmission (DTX) mode, where the transmission is au- sponse thereto, the RLP entity atthe network end leaves
tomatically interrupted when a period with no data to be the REMAP synchronization state after receiving the
sent has been detected, to thereby reduce power con- 30 l+S or S frame from the mobile end.
sumption and interference of neighboring cells. During [0009] However, in case a mobile station is set into a
such a period with no data to be sent, only periodical DTX state, the supervisory frames (S frames) sent by
low layer fill frames are sent in the radio channel. the MS are not sent towards the network end by the low-
[0005] RLP spans from a mobile station (MS) of the er protocol layers. Consequently, the RLP entity (e.g.
GSM network to an interworking function (IWF) located 35 IWF) at the network end stays in the REMAP synchro-
at the nearest Mobile Switching Center (MSC) or be- nization state and the data transmission fails.
yond. The RLP link may be initiated by the MS or the [0010] US-A-5 793 744 discloses a mobile communi-
MSC/IWF. cation system with high speed non-transparent data
[0006] RLP has to change the supported frame length connection. The number of parallel subchannels to be
due to transitions between different channel codings. 40 allocated depending from the nominal data transfer rate.
The RLP entities then have to be re-synchronized after A protocol is used where data frames to be transmitted
a change of the channel coding. Any change of the are stored until an acknowledgment is received of a suc-
channel coding is indicated to the RLP-entity by an ex- cesful preceding reception. Discontinuous transmission
ternal event. The RLP-entity at the mobile end enters a can also be applied on subchannels.
synchronization state when it receives a relevant Radio 45
Resource Management message, and starts sending a SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
REMAP message at the earliest possible time. The
RLP-entity at the network end enters the synchroniza- [0011] It is therefore an object of the present invention
tion state when the network end detects the REMAP to provide a synchronization method and apparatus by
message. Afterthe REMAP procedure is completed, the 50 means of which a connection mode change procedure
RLP entities leave the synchronization state and normal can be performed successfully even in a DTX condition.
operation is resumed. An example for such a change of [0012] This object is achieved by a method for syn-
the channel coding is a transition between TCH/F9.6 chronizing a first and a second communication end point
and TCH/F14.4 channel codings. during a connection mode change procedure, said
[0007] In particular, a REMAP exchange is started by 55 method comprising the steps of:
the mobile end which sends a REMAP command U
frame (unnumbered frame) in the information field of entering a connection mode change state at the first
which the RLP entity indicates the respective informa- end point;

2
3 EP 1 221 212 81 4

transmitting a connection mode change request [0017] Furthermore, the change request message
message from the first end point to the second end may be a REMAP frame of the RLP. The numbered
point; frame may be an l+S frame of the RLP.
entering a connection mode change state at the [0018] Additionally, a counting means may be provid-
second end point in response to a receipt of the con- 5 ed in the synchronization apparatus, for counting the
nection mode change request message; number of acknowledgment messages transmitted by
transmitting an acknowledgment message and a the communication means, wherein said control means
numbered frame from the second end point to the may be arranged to perform control such that the com-
first end point; munication means transmits the numbered frame after
leaving the connection mode change state at the 10 the counting means has reached a predetermined val-
first end point in response to a receipt of the ac- ue. Thus, additional numbered frames are transmitted
knowledgment message; after every predetermined number of acknowledgment
transmitting from the first end point to the second messages. Thereby, a slowdown of the exit from the
end point an acknowledgment acknowledging the REMAP synchronization state due to a retransmission
numbered frame; and 15 only after the expiration of the retransmission timer can
leaving the connection mode change state at the be prevented.
second end point in response to a receipt of the ac-
knowledgment acknowledging the numbered BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
frame.
20 [0019] In the following, the present invention will be
[0013] Additionally, the above object is achieved by described in greater detail on the basis of a preferred
an apparatus for achieving a synchronization with a embodiment with reference to the accompanying draw-
communication end point during a connection mode ings, in which:
change procedure, said apparatus comprising:
25 Fig. 1 shows a principal block diagram of a GSM
detecting means for detecting a connection mode network connected to a fixed network,
change request message received from the com- Fig. 2 shows a principal block diagram of a synchro-
munication end point; nization apparatus according to the preferred em-
communication means for performing communica- bodiment of the present invention,
tion with the communication end point; 30 Fig. 3 shows a flow diagram of a synchronization
control means for setting the communication means method according to the preferred embodiment of
into a connection mode change state in response the present invention, and
to the detection result of the detection means; Fig. 4 shows a transmission diagram of a REMAP
exchange procedure according to the preferred em-
wherein the communication means is arranged to trans- 35 bodiment of the present invention.
mit an acknowledgment message and a numbered
frame to the communication end point, in response to DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
the setting by the control means into the connection
mode change state; and [0020] The preferred embodiment will be described
wherein the control means is arranged to control the 40 on the basis of a communication system as shown in
communication means so as to leave the connection Fig. 1.
mode change state, in response to a receipt of an ac- [0021] According to Fig. 1, an end terminal (TE) 5 is
knowledgment acknowledging the numbered frame connected via a fixed network 4, e.g. a Public Switched
from the communication end point. Telephone Network (PSTN), an IP network or the like,
[0014] Accordingly, a numbered frame, e.g. an l+S 45 to a mobile station (MS) 1 which may be a mobile tele-
frame, is transmitted together with the acknowledgment phone. The MS 1 is radio-connected to a Base Station
message to the other communication end point. In case Subsystem (BSS) 2 which is connected to a Mobile
this other communication end point is in the DTX state, Switching Center (MSC) 30 having an allocated inter-
the numbered frame is acknowledged based on the usu- working function unit (IWF) 31. The IWF 31 is provided
al ARO (Automatic Repeat Request) scheme used for 50 e.g. for adapting protocol features of the mobile network
error control. Thereby, an acknowledgment is received to protocol features of the fixed network 4.
even in case of a DTX state of the other communication [0022] Fig. 2 shows a basic block diagram of an ap-
end point. paratus for achieving a synchronization with communi-
[0015] Preferably, the first end point may be a mobile cation end points during a connection mode change pro-
station and the second end point an interworking unit. 55 cedure. According to the preferred embodiment, this
[0016] The connection mode change procedure may synchronization apparatus corresponds to the IWF 31
be a change of a channel coding, such as a change be- shown in Fig. 1. However, the apparatus according to
tween TCH/F14.4 and TCH/F9.6 in the RLP. Fig. 2 may as well be arranged at a separate location

3
5 EP 1 221 212 81 6

within the mobile network or the fixed network 4. Fur- according to the preferred embodiment is described with
thermore, it is to be noted that only those parts relevant reference to Fig. 3.
to the present invention are included in the basic block [0030] In step S101, the control unit 33 checks wheth-
diagram shown in Fig. 2, wherein the block functions er the REMAP frame detector 34 has detected the re-
may be achieved by respective program routines for 5 ceipt of a REMAP framefrom the MS 1. If not, step S101
controlling a processing unit, e.g. a CPU. is continuously repeated at predetermined time inter-
[0023] According to Fig. 2, the IWF 31 comprises a vals.
transceiver unit (TRX) 36 for transmitting/receiving [0031] If a REMAP frame has been received, the con-
speech or data calls to/from the fixed network 4 or the trol unit 33 performs control such that the signal
MS 1, respectively. Thus, the TRX 36 comprises a trans- 10 processing unit 32 is entered into a REMAP synchroni-
mitting and a receiving function so as to achieve a bi- zation mode and transmits a REMAP acknowledgment
directional data or speech transmission via the fixed net- frame to the MS 1 (step S102). Furthermore, the control
work 4 or, respectively, the radio path of the mobile net- unit 33 controls a signal processing unit 32 so as to
work. transmit a numbered l+S frame to the MS 1 (step S103).
[0024] Furthermore, a signal processing unit 32 is 15 [0032] Then, the control unit 33 reads the REMAP
connected to the TRX 36. The signal processing unit 32 frame counter 35 and checks whether a predetermined
comprises interworking resources (e.g. transcoding number n of REMAP frames has been transmitted after
functions, modem functions, rate adaptation functions, the l+S frame (step S104). If not, the control unit 33 con-
etc.) required for adapting data or speech calls of the trols the signal processing unit 32 so as to transmit a
fixed network 4 to data or speech calls of the mobile net- 20 REMAP acknowledgment frame to the MS 1 (step
work, or vice versa. S105).
[0025] The signal processing unit 32 is controlled by [0033] In case the predetermined number n of REM-
a control unit 33 which performs control so as to ensure AP frames has been transmitted afterthe l+S frame, the
the required signaling according to the protocols used flow proceeds to step S107, where the control unit 33
at the input and output side of the apparatus. Further- 25 resets the REMAP frame counter 35 to zero. Then, the
more, a REMAP frame detector 34 is provided for de- procedure continues with step S 103, where the control
tecting the receipt of a REMAP frame from the mobile unit 33 controls the signal processing unit 32 so as to
station 1. The REMAP frame detector 34 is arranged to transmit a numbered l+S frame to the MS 1.
supply a corresponding control signal indicating the de- [0034] After every transmission of a REMAP frame in
tection resultto the control unit 33. Having received such 30 step S 105, the control unit 33 checks on the basis of an
a control signal, the control unit 33 sets the signal information obtained from the signal processing unit 32,
processing unit 32 into a REMAP synchronization state, whether the signal processing unit 32 has received an
in which the signal processing unit 32 performs a com- acknowledgment from the MS 1, acknowledging the re-
munication with the MS 1 by transmitting a REMAP ac- ceipt of the numbered l+S frame (step S 106). If not, the
knowledgment message and a numbered l+S frame. 35 procedure continues at step S104, where the number of
[0026] Furthermore, a REMAP frame counter 35 is REMAP frames is checked.
connected to the control unit 33. The REMAP frame [0035] If an acknowledgment has been received from
counter 35 is arranged to count the number of REMAP the MS 1, the control unit 33 controls the signal process-
acknowledgment messages transmitted by the signal ing unit 32 so as to leave the REMAP synchronization
processing unit 32 to the MS 1 after an l+S frame. The 40 mode (step S108), to thereby terminate the synchroni-
control unit 33 is arranged to repeatedly check the zation control procedure.
counting result of the REMAP frame counter 35, so as [0036] Accordingly, the IWF 31 transmits a numbered
to determine whether a predetermined number of REM- l+S frame after the first REMAP frame to the MS 1. The
AP acknowledgment frames has been detected. purpose of this is to compel the MS 1 to acknowledge
[0027] When the signal processing unit 32 receives 45 the end of the REMAP condition as soon as possible
an acknowledgment frame to the numbered l+S frame, after it has received the first REMAP frame from the IWF
it supplies a corresponding information to the control 31.
unit 33 which then controls the signal processing unit 32 [0037] In order to increase the probability that the MS
so as to leave the REMAP synchronization state. 1 has correctly received a REMAP frame before the l+S
[0028] Thus, even in case the MS 1 is set into a DTX 50 frame, the IWF 31 may transmit more than one REMAP
state where the unnumbered S frames are not rooted to frames before transmitting the l+S frame.
the IWF 31, the signal processing unit 32 receives an [0038] Furthermore, in order to guarantee a fast exit
acknowledgment acknowledging the numbered l+S from the REMAP synchronization state, the IWF 31 may
frame, since such an acknowledgment is transmitted to transmit additional numbered l+S frames to the MS 1,
the network by the lower protocol layers, i.e. the lower 55 e.g. after every n REMAP frames, wherein n is an inte-
layers automatically leave the DTX state if l+S traffic is ger number greater than or equal to 1. If the IWF 31
available. transmits only one numbered l+S frame and the MS 1
[0029] In the following, the synchronization method loses or discards this, e.g. because it has failed to re-

4
7 EP 1 221 212 81 8

ceive the first REMAP frame, the retransmission will be [0043] It is to be noted that the synchronization meth-
performed only after the expiration of a retransmission od and apparatus described in the preferred embodi-
timer provided according to the GSM specifications, ment may be applied in any telecommunication network
which would slow down the exit from the REMAP syn- where frames are not transmitted towards the network
chronization state. 5 by the lower protocol layers in certain conditions or
[0039] If the IWF 31 has no user data to be sent to the modes of a communication end point. In particular, the
MS 1, e.g. no real need to send an l+S frame to the MS present invention is not restricted to the described REM-
1, the IWF 31 transmits an empty l+S frame to the MS AP synchronization processing, and can be applied to
1 in order to compel the MS 1 to acknowledge the exit any connection mode change processing, where a syn-
from the REMAP synchronization state. As soon as the 10 chronization processing is performed between respec-
IWF receives an acknowledgment from the MS 1 to the tive communication end points. The above description
transmitted l+S frame, the IWF 31 exits the REMAP syn- of the preferred embodiment and the accompanying
chronization state. Thereby, the REMAP exchange pro- drawings are therefore only intended to illustrate the
cedure can be performed even in case the MS 1 is set present invention. The preferred embodiment of the in-
into a DTX condition. 15 vention may vary within the scope of the attached
[0040] Fig. 4 shows a transmission diagram corre- claims.
sponding to a REMAP exchange procedure as de-
scribed on the basis of Fig. 3, in a case where the pre-
determined count number n is set to three. According to Claims
Fig. 4, the MS 1 enters the REMAP synchronization 20
state and transmits REMAP frames in predetermined in- 1. A method for synchronizing a first (1) and a second
tervals. When the IWF 31 receives the first REMAP (31) communication end point during a connection
frame, it enters the REMAP synchronization state and mode change procedure, said method comprising
transmits a REMAP acknowledgment frame (broken the steps of:
line) to the MS 1. Having received the REMAP acknowl- 25
edgment frame, the MS 1 leaves the REMAP synchro- a) entering a connection mode change state at
nization state. After transmitting the REMAP acknowl- said first end point (1 );
edgment frame, the IWF 31 transmits a numbered l+S b) transmitting a connection mode change re-
frame (fat line) to the MS 1. The numbered l+S frame is quest message from said first end point (1) to
acknowledged according to the RLP with a correspond- 30 said second end point (31 );
ing acknowledgment ACK (broken fat line). In response c) entering a connection mode change state at
to the receipt of the ACK from the MS 1, the IWF 31 said second end point (31) in response to a re-
leaves the REMAP synchronization state. ceipt of said connection mode change request
[0041] Thus, irrespective of a DTX condition at the MS message;
1, the IWF 31 receives the ACK to the numbered l+S 35 d) transmitting an acknowledgment message
frame, and leaves the REMAP synchronization state as and a numbered frame from said second end
soon as possible. Furthermore, an additional l+S frame point (31) to said first end point (1 );
is transmitted by the IWF 31 after three successive e) leaving said connection mode change state
REMAP frames to thereby ensure a quick receipt of an at said first end point (1) in response to a receipt
additional ACK, in case the MS 1 loses or discards the 40 of said acknowledgment message;
first numbered l+S frame. f) transmitting from said first end point (1) to
[0042] In summary, the present invention relates to a said second end point (31) an acknowledgment
synchronization method and apparatus, wherein a first acknowledging said numbered frame; and
end point entering a connection mode change state g) leaving said connection mode change state
transmits a request message to a second end point. The 45 at said second end point (31) in response to a
second end point enters the connection mode change receipt of said acknowledgment acknowledg-
state in response to the receipt of the request message ing said numbered frame.
and transmits an acknowledgment and a numbered
frame to the first end point. Having received the ac- 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said first
knowledgment, the first end point leaves the connection 50 end point is a mobile station (1) and said second
mode change state and transmits an acknowledgment end point is an interworking unit (31).
acknowledging the numbered frame to the second end
point which leaves the connection mode change state 3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein said
in response to the receipt of the acknowledgment. Thus, connection mode change procedure is a change of
the receipt of the acknowledgment acknowledging the 55 a channel coding.
numbered frame is received by the second end point
irrespective of a DTX condition at the first end point, 4. A method according to claim 3, wherein said
since a numbered frame is always acknowledged. change of the channel coding is a change between

5
9 EP 1 221 212 81 10

TCH/F14.4 and TCH/F9.6 in the RLP. said control means (33) is arranged to perform a
control such that said communication means (32)
5. A method according to any one of the preceding transmits said numbered frame after said counting
claims, wherein said change request message is a means (35) has reached a predetermined value.
REMAP frame of the RLP. 5
13. An apparatus according to any one of claims 7 to
6. A method according to any one of the preceding 12, wherein said numbered frame is an l+S frame
claims, wherein said numbered frame is an l+S of the RLP.
frame of the RLP.
10
7. An apparatus for achieving a synchronization with Patentanspriiche
a communication end point (1) during a connection
mode change procedure, said apparatus compris- 1. Verfahren zum Synchronisieren eines ersten (1)
ing: und eines zweiten (31) Kommunikationsendpunk-
15 tes wahrend eines Verbindungsmodusanderungs-
a) detecting means (34) for detecting a connec- vorgangs, mit den Schritten:
tion mode change request message received
from said communication end point (1); a) Eintreten in einen Verbindungsmodusande-
b) communication means (32) for performing a rungszustand an dem ersten Endpunkt (1 );
communication with said communication end 20 b) Ubertragen einer Verbindungsmodusande-
point(1); rungsanforderungsmitteilung von dem ersten
c) control means (33) for setting said commu- Endpunkt (1) zu dem zweiten Endpunkt (31);
nication means (32) into a connection mode c) Eintreten in einen Verbindungsmodusande-
change state in response to the detection result rungszustand an dem zweiten Endpunkt (31)
of said detection means (34); 25 als Reaktion auf einen Empfang der
d) wherein said communication means (32) is Verbindungsmodusanderungsanforderungs-
arranged to transmit an acknowledgment mes- mitteilung;
sage and a numbered frame to said communi- d) Senden einer Bestatigungsmitteilung und ei-
cation end point, in response to said setting by nes nummerierten Rahmens von dem zweiten
said control means (33) into said connection 30 Endpunkt (31) zu dem ersten Endpunkt (1);
mode change state; and e) Verlassen des Verbindungsmodusande-
e) wherein said control means (33) is arranged rungszustandes an dem ersten Endpunkt (1)
to. control said communication means (32) so als Reaktion auf einen Empfang der Bestati-
as to leave said connection mode change state gungsmitteilung;
in response to a receipt of an acknowledgment 35 f) Senden einerden nummerierten Rahmen be-
acknowledging said numbered frame from said statigenden Bestatigung von dem ersten End-
communication end point (1 ). punkt (1) zu dem zweiten Endpunkt (31 ); und
g) Verlassen des Verbindungsmodusande-
8. An apparatus according to claim 7, wherein said ap- rungszustandes an dem zweiten Endpunkt (31)
paratus is an interworking unit (31) of a GSM net- 40 als Reaktion auf einen Empfang der den num-
work. merierten Rahmen bestatigenden Bestatigung.

9. An apparatus according to claim 7 or 8, wherein 2. Verfahren nach Patentanspruch 1, wobei der erste
said communication end point is a mobile station Endpunkt eine Mobilstation (1) und der zweite End-
(1 ). 45 pun kt eine Zusammenarbeitseinheit (31) ist.

10. An apparatus according to any one of claims 7 to 9, 3. Verfahren nach Patentanspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der
wherein said connection mode change procedure Verbindungsmodusanderungsvorgang eine Ande-
is a REMAP procedure of the RLP. rung einer Kanalkodierung darstellt.
50
11. An apparatus according to claim 10, wherein said 4. Verfahren nach Patentanspruch 3, wobei die Ande-
detection means (34) is arranged to detect a REM- rung der Kanalkodierung eine Anderung zwischen
AP frame of the RLP. TCH/F14.4 und TCH/F9.6 in dem RLP ist.

12. An apparatus according to any one of claims 7 to 55 5. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Patentan-
11, wherein counting means (35) are provided for spruche, wobei die Anderungsanforderungsmittei-
counting the number of acknowledgment messages lung ein REMAP-Rahmen des RLP ist.
transmitted by said communication means (32), and

6
11 EP 1 221 212 81 12

6. Verfahren nach einem der vorstehenden Patentan- rierten Rahmen sendet, nachdem die Zahleinrich-
spruche, wobei der nummerierte Rahmen ein tung (35) einen vorbestimmten Wert erreicht hat.
l+S-Rahmen des RLP ist.
13. Vorrichtung nach einem der Patentanspruche 7 bis
7. Vorrichtung zum Erreichen einer Synchronisation 5 12, wobei der nummerierte Rahmen ein l+S-Rah-
mit einem Kommunikationsendpunkt (1) wahrend men des RLP ist.
eines Verbindungsmodusanderungsvorgangs, mit:

a) einer Erfassungseinrichtung (34) zum Erfas- Revendications
sen einer von dem Kommunikationsendpunkt 10
(1) empfangenen Verbindungsmodusande- 1. Precede pour synchroniser des premier (1) et
rungsanforderungsmitteilung; deuxieme (3 1) points d'extremite de communica-
b) einer Kommunikationseinrichtung (32) zum tion pendant une procedure de changement de mo-
DurchfUhren einer Kommunikation mit dem de de connexion, ledit precede comprenant les eta-
Kommunikationsendpunkt (1 ); 15 pes consistant a :
c) einer Steuereinrichtung (33) zum Versetzen
der Kommunikationseinrichtung (32) in einen a) entrer dans un etat de changement de mode
Verbindungsmodusanderungszustand als Re- de connexion audit premier point d'extremite
aktion auf das Erfassungsergebnis der Erfas- (1) ;
sungseinrichtung (34); 20 b) transmettre un message de demande de
d) wobei die Kommunikationseinrichtung (32) changement de mode de connexion dudit pre-
zum Senden einer Bestatigungsmitteilung und mier point d'extremite (1) audit deuxieme point
eines nummerierten Rahmens zu dem Kom- d'extremite (31);
munikationsendpunkt als Reaktion auf das Ver- c) entrer dans un etat de changement de mode
setzen in den Verbindungsmodusanderungs- 25 de connexion audit deuxieme point d'extremite
zustand durch die Steuereinrichtung (33) ein- a
(31) en reponse une reception dudit message
gerichtet ist; und de demande de changement de mode de
e) wobei die Steuereinrichtung (33) zum Steu- connexion ;
ern der Kommunikationseinrichtung (32) zum d) transmettre un message d'acquittement et
Verlassen des Verbindungsmodusanderungs- 30 une trame numerotee dudit deuxieme point
zustandes als Reaktion auf den Empfang einer d'extremite (31) audit premier point d'extremite
den nummerierten Rahmen von dem Kommu- (1) ;
nikationsendpunkt (1) bestatigenden Bestati- e) quitter ledit etat de changement de mode de
gung eingerichtet ist. connexion audit premier point d'extremite (1)
35 en reponse a une reception dudit message
8. Vorrichtung nach Patentanspruch 7, wobei die Vor- d'acquittement ;
richtung eine Zusammenarbeitseinheit (31) eines f) transmettre dudit premier point d'extremite
GSM-Netzes ist. (1) audit deuxieme point d'extremite (31) un ac-
quittement acquittant ladite trame numerotee;
9. Vorrichtung nach Patentanspruch 7 oder 8, wobei 40 et
der Kommunikationsendpunkt eine Mobilstation (1) g) quitter ledit etat de changement de mode de
ist. connexion audit deuxieme point d'extremite
a
(31) en reponse une reception dudit acquitte-
10. Vorrichtung nach einem der Patentanspruche 7 bis ment acquittant ladite trame numerotee.
9, wobei derVerbindungsmodusanderungsvorgang 45
ein REMAP-Vorgang des RLP ist. 2. Precede selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit
premier point d'extremite est une station mobile (1)
11. Vorrichtung nach Patentanspruch 10, wobei die Er- et ledit deuxieme point d'extremite est une unite
fassungseinrichtung (34) zum Erfassen eines d'interfonctionnement (31 ).
REMAP-Rahmens des RLP eingerichtet ist. 50
3. Precede selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel
12. Vorrichtung nach einem der Patentanspruche 7 bis ladite procedure de changement de mode de con-
11, wobei eine Zahleinrichtung (35) zum Zahlen der nexion est un changement de codage de canal.
Anzahl von durch die Kommunikationseinrichtung
(32) gesendeten Bestatigungsmitteilungen einge- 55 4. Precede selon la revendication 3, dans lequel ledit
richtet ist, und die Steuereinrichtung (33) zur Durch- changement de codage de canal est un change-
fUhrung einer Steuerung eingerichtet ist, so dass ment entre TCH/F14.4 et TCH/F9.6 dans le proto-
die Kommunikationseinrichtung (32) den numme- cole RLP.

7
13 EP 1 221 212 81 14

5. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications 12. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendica-
precedentes, dans lequel ledit message de deman- a
tions 7 11, dans lequel des moyens de comptage
de de changement est une trame REMAP du pro- (35) sont prevus pour compter le nombre de mes-
tocole RLP. sages d'acquittement transmis par lesdits moyens
5 de communication (32), et lesdits moyens de con-
6. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications trole (33) sont agences pour effectuer un controle
precedentes, dans lequel ladite trame numerotee de sorte que lesdits moyens de communication (32)
est une trame l+S du protocole RLP. transmettent ladite trame numerotee apres que les-
dits moyens de comptage (35) aient atteint une va-
7. Dispositif pour obtenir une synchronisation avec un 10 leur predeterminee.
point d'extremite de communication (1) pendant
une procedure de changement de mode de con- 13. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendica-
nexion, ledit dispositif comprenant: a
tions 7 12, dans lequel ladite trame numerotee est
une trame l+S du protocole RLP.
a) des moyens de detection (34) pour detecter 15
un message de demande de changement de
mode de connexion rei;:u dudit point d'extremite
de communication (1) ;
b) des moyens de communication (32) pour ef-
fectuer une communication avec ledit point 20
d'extremite de communication (1) ;
c) des moyens de controle (33) pour mettre les-
dits moyens de communication (32) dans un
etat de changement de mode de connexion en
reponse au resultat de detection desdits 25
moyens de detection (34) ;
d) dans lequel lesdits moyens de communica-
tion (32) sont agences pour transmettre un
message d'acquittement et une trame numero-
tee audit point d'extremite de communication 30
en reponse a ladite mise dans ledit etat de
changement de mode de connexion par lesdits
moyens de controle (33) ; et
e) dans lequel lesdits moyens de controle (33)
sont agences pour controler lesdits moyens de 35
communication (32) de maniere a quitter ledit
etat de changement de mode de connexion en
a
reponse une reception d'un acquittement ac-
quittant ladite trame numerotee provenant du-
dit point d'extremite de communication (1). 40

8. Dispositif selon la revendication 7, dans lequel ledit
dispositif est une unite d'interfonctionnement (31)
d'un reseau GSM.
45
9. Dispositif selon la revendication 7 ou 8, dans lequel
ledit point d'extremite de communication est une
station mobile (1 ).

10. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendica- 50
a
tions 7 9, dans lequel ladite procedure de chan-
gement de mode de connexion est une procedure
REMAP du protocole RLP.

11. Dispositif selon la revendication 10, dans lequel les- 55
dits moyens de detection (34) sont agences pour
detecter une trame REMAP du protocole RLP.

8
EP 1 221 212 81

MSC IWF
fixed
30 31 network

\_ 3

BSS

2
TE

5

MS

1

Fig. 1

9
EP 1 221 212 81

to/from
to/from fixed
MS l network 4
signal proc. TRX
unit
32 36
f
l
control REMAP
1frame
unit detector
33 34

f\_ 31
~
REMAP frame
counter
35

Fig. 2

10
EP 1 221 212 81

Start

S101
No

enter REMAP sync.
mode and send
Sl02 REMAP frame to MS

send I+S frame S107
$103 to MS reset
REMAP counter
Yes
5104

send REMAP f rarne
Sl05

No
5106

Yes
leave
5108 REMAP sync. mode

End

Fig. 3

11
~s
1

- -- . -
• • • • • • - . - . -. . • •

------
-------
_......

.. . -....
f\g. 4
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of6

ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia Corporation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: Senior Patent Engineer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Department: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Joensuunkatu 7 -4, FIN-24101 SALO, P.O.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND

Tel.: +358 718045008 ------------------------~
Fax: + 358 7180 44275- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
E-mail: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com -------------------------

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as UMTS --------------

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STAND ARD, to the extent that the IP Rs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Salo, Finland, 4 July 2002 _ _ __

(Signed for and on behalf of the SIONA TORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI -650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Ccdex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 3 of6

China P.R. TS 23.060 PCTIEPOOI03478

European Patent
TS 23.060 00922643.2
Convention

Japan TS 23.060 2001-524310

United States TS 23.060 101015134

Patent Cooperation Treaty TS 23.060 PCTIEPOOI03478

UMTS SERVICE
MANAGEMENT rN European Patent TS 25.331
UMTS Nokia 00942328.6
CHANGrNG NETWORK Convention TS 24.008
ARCHITECTURE

TS 25.331
Great Britain 9915301.7
TS 24.008

TS 25.331
Japan 2001-508184
TS 24.008

TS 25.331
United States 101019745
TS 24.008

TS 25.331
Patent Cooperation Treaty PCTIIBOOI00989
TS 24.008

SYNCHRONIZATION
UMTS
 Nokia OF PROTOCOL
REMAPPrNG
Australia TS 24.022 63372199

Canada TS 24.022 PCTIEP99107596

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director General - Kar] Heinz Rosenbrock

EIS! - 650, route des Lucioles - F-0692J Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 6547 J6
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of6

ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: Nokia Corporation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: Senior Patent Engineer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Department: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Joensuunkatu 7 -4, FIN-24101 SALO, P.O.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND

Tel.: +358 718045008 ------------------------~
Fax: + 358 7180 44275- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
E-mail: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com -------------------------

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as UMTS --------------

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STAND ARD, to the extent that the IP Rs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Salo, Finland, 4 July 2002 _ _ __

(Signed for and on behalf of the SIONA TORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI -650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Ccdex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 3 of6

China P.R. TS 23.060 PCTIEPOOI03478

European Patent
TS 23.060 00922643.2
Convention

Japan TS 23.060 2001-524310

United States TS 23.060 101015134

Patent Cooperation Treaty TS 23.060 PCTIEPOOI03478

UMTS SERVICE
MANAGEMENT rN European Patent TS 25.331
UMTS Nokia 00942328.6
CHANGrNG NETWORK Convention TS 24.008
ARCHITECTURE

TS 25.331
Great Britain 9915301.7
TS 24.008

TS 25.331
Japan 2001-508184
TS 24.008

TS 25.331
United States 101019745
TS 24.008

TS 25.331
Patent Cooperation Treaty PCTIIBOOI00989
TS 24.008


SYNCHRONIZATION
UMTS Nokia OF PROTOCOL Australia TS 24.022 63372199
REMAPPrNG

Canada TS 24.022 PCTIEP99107596

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director General - Kar] Heinz Rosenbrock

EIS! - 650, route des Lucioles - F-0692J Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 6547 J6
出願番号等
特許出願人 発明の名称 備考(出願国名)
REGISTRATION NO./
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
NOKIA NETWORKS OY COUNTER INITIALIZATION, PARTICULARLY FOR WO01/65883 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
*1.00 RADIO FRAMES European Patent Office, Finland,
Japan, Korea(South), United States of
America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DATA RECEPTION WO01/03359 Applied in Brazil, China, European
*1.00 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Patent Office, United Kingdom, Japan,
Korea(South), United States of
America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY METHOD AND WIRELESS PACKET NETWORK FOR WO02/69663 Applied in United States of America,
*1.00 SETTING UP A COMMUNICATIONS WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY DATA TRANSMISSION PROTOCOL WO02/15510 Applied in United Kingdom, WO
*1.00

NOKIA NETWORKS OY CELL RESELECTION SIGNALLING METHOD WO01/54442 Applied in Australia, Brazil, Canada,
*1.00 China, European Patent Office,
Finland, India, Japan, Korea(South),
MX, RU, United States of America,
WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY INTEGRITY CHECK IN A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM WO01/63954 Applied in Australia, Canada, China,
*1.00 European Patent Office, United
Kingdom, Israel, Japan, United States
of America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY SERVICE MANAGEMENT WO01/03454 Applied in European Patent Office,
*1.00 United Kingdom, Japan, United States
of America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY SYNCHRONIZATION METHOD AND APPARATUS WO01/28131 Applied in Australia, Canada, China,
*1.00 European Patent Office, Japan,
Korea(South), United States of
America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY METHOD AND NETWORK ELEMENT FOR FORWARDING WO00/57601 Applied in European Patent Office,
*1.00 MULTICAST MESSAGES United States of America, WO
NOKIA NETWORKS OY INTER-SYSTEM HANDOVER WO01/11911 Applied in Brazil, Canada, China,
*1.00 European Patent Office, United
Kingdom, Japan, Korea(South), United
States of America, WO

40
11
A15483VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US007043246B2

02) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 7,043,246 B2
Uskela (45) Date of Patent: May 9, 2006

(54) ROUTING OF CALL MADE TO (56) References Cited
SUBSCRIBER U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
5,850,603 A * 12/1998 Lantto ct al. ............... 455/433
5,854,836 A * 12/1998 Ninunagadda ......... 379/221.13
(75) Inventor: Sarni Uskela, Helsinki (FI)
5,978,681 A * 11/1999 Bertacchi .................... 4551445
6,151,503 A * 11/2000 Chavez ....................... 455/445
(73) Assignee: Nokia Corporation, Espoo (FI) 6,363,251 Bl* 3/2002 Huang ct al. ............ 455/432.1
6,473,626 Bl * 10/2002 Nevoux et al. ............. 4551560
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this 6,546,247 Bl * 4/2003 Foti et al. ................... 455/433
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 6,625,258 Bl * 9/2003 Ram ct al. ............... 379/88.13
U.S.C. 154(b) by 536 days. 200110031635 Al 10/2001 Bharatia
2002/0037723 Al 3/2002 Roach
(21) Appl. No.: 10/035,339 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
(22) Filed: Jan. 4, 2002 WO WO 00113454 3/2000
WO WO 01/91419 11/2001
(65) Prior Publication Data * cited by examiner
US 2002/0090950 Al Jul. 11, 2002 Primary Examiner-William Trost
Assistant Examiner-Meless Zewdu
(30) Foreign Application Priority Data
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw
Jan. 5, 2001 (FI) .................................. 20010018 Pittman LLP

(51) Int. Cl. (57) ABSTRACT
H04Q 7120 (2006.01) A service associated with a call terminating at a subscriber
H04M 1100 (2006.01) can be triggered from a network node serving the subscriber
H04B 1138 (2006.01) when the subscriber is registered in the network and has a
(52) U.S. Cl. ................ 455/445; 455/432.3; 455/435.l; serving network node. In order to trigger the service also
455/461; 455/550.l; 455/517; 455/560 when the subscriber is not registered in the network, the
network is provided with a service function which triggers
(58) Field of Classification Search ............. 455/414.1, the service for the subscriber when the subscriber is not
455/414.2, 414.3, 417, 432.3, 433, 435.1, registered in the network; and the call tenninating at the
455/445, 517, 406, 409, 422.1, 424-425, subscriber is routed to this service function when the sub-
455/461, 560, 550.l; 379/221.01, 207.02, scriber is not registered in the network.
379/201.02, 201.03; 370/310, 351-352
See application file for complete search history. 39 Claims, 1 Drawing Sheet

,---------------------------,,
r -------------------------------------~
11
: I 4 5 6 3
I I I I
I HSS 11
~1 ~1 IMSl1 S_CSCF1 SUR_CSCF1 I I
1I
1 IMSl2 SUR_CSCF2 SUR_CSCF2
1
I UTRAN :
I I I
I I I

:
ID ~E 1
I
I
S_CSGF I
I
1

I I I
t I CN I
I r-J l_CSCF :

i ~L--------------------------~:
L-------------------------------------J
U.S. Patent May 9, 2006 US 7,043,246 B2

r- - - - - - - - -1-----=------=---------_-_-__-_-_-_:-_-_-_:-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-,,
I
I I 4 5 6 3 I
I I I
I HSS I
~1 ~ IMSl1 S_CSCF1 SUR_CSCF1 I
: UTRAN : IMSl2 SUR_CSCF2 SUR_CSCF2 I

I I
I I

iEfUE
I
:
I
S_CSCF

I I
I I CN
I rJ I CSCF

i ~~----------~---------- --:
L-------------------------------------J
FIG.1
UE S_CSCF HSS SUR_CSCF
2-1 -..
2-1 .....
2-2 ,..
2-3
r'

2-4
i.... 2-5 FIG.2
r' 2-6
i.... 2-7
2-8 r'
f"C
2-9

I_CSCF HSS SUR_CSCF
3-1
L... 3-2

3-3 FIG.3
3-4
3-5
US 7,043,246 B2
1 2
ROUTING OF CALL MADE TO functions, so that its performance could be optimized with-
SUBSCRIBER out the above mentioned features required for providing the
service.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to routing of a call made to a
subscriber in a connnunication system during the time the It is thus an object of the invention to provide a method
subscriber is not registered in a network. Particularly the and an apparatus implementing the method such that the
invention relates to routing of a call made to a subscriber in above problems can be solved. The object of the invention
'the third generation mobile communication systems'. 10 is achieved by a method, a system, network nodes and user
equipment, which are characterized in what is said in the
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION independent claims. The preferred embodiments of the
invention are disclosed in the dependent claims.
There is a wide variety of services provided through The invention is based on providing the network with a
communication systems, particularly mobile communica- 15 service functionality by which those services of a subscriber
tion systems, and new services are planned all the time. not registered in the network are handled that are associated
More and more of these services are likely to be non- with calls terminating at the subscriber, i.e. mobile-termi-
standard services. For example, a large number of value nating calls, and giving the address of the network node
added services, such as call forwarding, are standardized in including the a