You are on page 1of 237

13

A18052VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US006408063Bl

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,408,063 Bl
Slotte et al. (45) Date of Patent: Jun. 18,2002

(54) METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT FOR 5,818,921 A * 10/1998 Vander Meiden et al. .. 379/225
COMPLEMENTING A TELEPHONE
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
CONNECTION WITH ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION EP 0515273 A3 11/1992
EP 0555014 A3 8/1993
(75) Inventors: Sverre Slotte, Esbo; Arto Karppanen, EP 0796020 A2 9/1997
Helsinki, both of (FI) EP 0856973 A2 5/1998
EP 0924917 A2 6/1999
(73) Assignee: Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd., Espoo (FI) EP 0924 917 A2 6/1999 ............ H04M/3/42
WO WO 99/25107 5/1999
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
OTHER PUBLICATIONS
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. GSM Technical Specification 02.87, Nov. 1997, Version
5.2.1, Digital Cellular Telecommunications System (Phase
(21) Appl. No.: 09/412,926 2+); User-to-User Signalling (UUS); Service description,
Stage 1.
(22) Filed: Oct. 5, 1999
Finnish Search Report.
(30) Foreign Application Priority Data
* cited by examiner
Oct. 6, 1998 (FI) ................................................. 982159
Primary Examiner-Harry S. Hong
(51) Int. Cl. 7 H04M 7/00; H04J 1/14;
............................
(74) Attorney, A.gent, or Firm-Perman & Green, LLP
H04J 3/12
(52) U.S. Cl......................................... 379/230; 370/522 (57) ABSTRACT
(58) Field of Search ....................... 379/142.01, 142.04, For complementing a telephone connection with additional
379/201.01, 207.02, 207.11, 207.14, 207.15, information a first telecommunication device transmits to a
229, 230, 234, 235, 236, 237; 370/522 second telecommunication device a request for setting up a
telephone connection (102, 302, 402). In association with
(56) References Cited
said request, a first signalling message (103, 303, 403) is
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS transmitted. The receiver of the first signalling message
(104, 304, 404) makes a decision about how to handle the
5,289,472 A * 2/1994 Cho ........................... 370/467 call on the basis of the information received in said first
5,504,893 A * 4/1996 Kawashima et al. ........... 70719 signalling message (105, 305, 405).
5,542,072 A * 711996 Kawashima et al. .......... 707/10
5,583,658 A * 12/1996 Takezawa et al. . ......... 358/440
5,809,127 A 9/1998 Ostrcil .................... 379/201.5 9 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

B

PABX DATA EXT.B'

I:~,A CALL
v101
102~
7'
RECEIVE,
v
104

i
TOB 103~
, RETRIEVE
,
~
DATA
l L...
'
10~
DIRECT TO
EXTENSION 106_]_
WITH
UUI AND
~
,
DATA STUDYUUI )
AND DATA, i
PICK UP
THE PHONE
J
_L 107
"""
"""'
L_ _L 108

2 _L 109

'
U.S. Patent Jun.18,2002 Sheet 1 of 5 US 6,408,063 Bl

A B

PABX DATA EXT.B'

101
v 104
PLACE
A CALL
,.
102 __:-:.,,_""" v
RECEIVE,
TOB 103 ~""
, RETRIEVE
DATA ,., ,""
'
105
'-.. DIRECT TO
EXTENSION 106_}
WITH
UUI AND ,"-
DATA STUDY UUI
AND DATA,
PICK UP
THE PHONE
L 107
""""
............

L 108
""""
~ L 109
'

Fig. 1
U.S. Patent Jun. 18,2002 Sheet 2 of 5 US 6,408,063 Bl

204

INPUT

201
210 215
MEMORY
201' 203
212 213
GEN.
PROC. TRAN SM.
201JI 216

SPEC. ,.._____.
211
214 202

DISPLAY

205

Fig. 2
U.S. Patent Jun. 18, 2002 Sheet 3 of 5 US 6,408,063 Bl

A B

301
302 304
PLACE
A CALL
303 RECEIVE,
TOB
CHECK
DATA

305
306 DISCONNECT,
GIVE
307 REASON,
INITIATE
308 CALL BACK

309

Fig. 3
U.S. Patent Jun.18,2002 Sheet 4 of 5 US 6,408,063 Bl

A B

401
404
PLACE 402
A CALL RECEIVE,
TOB 403 CHECK
AVAILABILITY
OF DATA

4
0S IF NO DATA,
DISCONNECT,
GIVE
406 REASON,
407 OR IF DATA,
ACCEPT

Fig. 4
U.S. Patent Jun. 18,2002 Sheet 5 of 5 US 6,408,063 Bl

A B

501
v 504
PLACE
A CALL
502 ~", RECEIVE,
ALERT USER
v
TOB (SO~h_~ AND/OR
ENTER AUTO
ANSWER
MODE

505
'-... MANUALLY
SELECT
""'1'L506 ANSWERING
MESSAGE,
' SEND

OR
507
'-... AUTOMATIC.
SELECT
.L_f_ 508 ANSWERING
MESSAGE,
' SEND

Fig. 5

601 602 603 604 605 606 607

1) 1) J J J
I PD IocslcFu lcF1 lcF2 lcF3 I DATA

~
600

Fig. 6
US 6,408,063 Bl
1 2
METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT FOR placing a call or not, he must imtlate the SMS mode
COMPLEMENTING A TELEPHONE separately. Additionally the system will usually give no
CONNECTION WITH ADDITIONAL guarantees about the delay it takes before a transmitted SMS
INFORMATION message reaches its destination.
5 From the technology of Private Automated Branch
TECHNOLOGICAL FJELD Exchanges or PABXs and from numerous other applications
The invention generally concerns the communication of there is known the transfer of numerical character strings in
additional information in close association with a telephone the form of Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF) sequences.
connection. Especially the invention concerns the use of A user may transmit a number or a string of numbers by
such communicated information for providing added value 10 manually pressing the corresponding numerical keys in a
to the telephone connection. telephone, which transmits the standardised characteristic
dual audio tone combination on each keystroke. The receiv-
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION ing PABX or other device interprets the numerical sequence
In many cases there exists a need for transmitting, in close and uses the interpreted information in taking some further
association with a telephone connection, other information 15 action. In a typical application the PABX belongs to an
than the simple request for call connection and the subse- insurance company or other enterprise with a very large
quent voice and/or data transfer. The additional information computerised customer database, whereby the calling cus-
may be for example in the form of relatively short character tomer gives his customer identification number as a DTMF
strings, where "relatively short" means strings containing sequence and the PABX searches and displays the custom-
usually some tens of characters, or some hundreds at most. 20 er's file on the screen of the person who is going to answer
Other types of additional information comprise (but are not the call. This method is limited to the transmission of
limited to) binary messages and short executable instruc- numerical information and requires a DTMF encoder in the
tions transmitted between digital computer devices. transmitting device and a correponding DTMF decoder at
the receiving end. Additionally it necessitates always the full
In a very simple example it has been found useful to
25 establishment of a telephone connection before the trans-
inform the intended recipient of a telephone call about the
mission of numerical strings becomes possible.
identity of the caller. A known solution for this task is to
communicate, in digital telephone systems, the Calling SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
subscriber Line Identity or CLI number of the caller's
telephone to the intended recipient's telephone as a part of 30
It is an object of the present invention to provide a method
the message that indicates the incoming request for call and an arrangement for the transmission of call-related
establishment. Kno\\'Il ways for utilizing the received CLI information, avoiding the above-described drawbacks of the
number at the receiving end are displaying it to the user, prior art solutions. It is a further object of the invention to
converting it to a name or other alphanumeric identifier present a method and an arrangement for using the trans-
fetched from a memory and displaying the conversion result 35
mitted information for providing added value to the users
to the user, comparing the CU number to a list of prepro- taking part in the telephone connection.
grammed identification rules and selectively refusing or The objects of the invention are achieved by using user-
accepting the call depending on the comparison result, or to-user signalling for transmitting call-related information,
selecting a preprogrammed ringing tone according to who is and by defining certain practices for handling the user-to-
calling. 40 user signalling messages.
The drawbacks of the CU application relate to the fixed The method according to the invention is characterised in
relationship between the CLI and a certain mobile station (in that it comprises the steps of
mobile telephone systems) or telephone plug socket (in fixed transmitting from a first telecommunication device to a
telephone systems). The CU number has no direct relation- second telecommunication device a request for setting
ship to he actual caller; it only identifies the hardware he is 45
up a telephone connection,
using. In many mobile telephone systems the CU is stored
transmitting, from one of said first and second telecom-
in a removable SIM or Subscriber Identity Module that was
munication device to the other, a first signalling mes-
originally meant to be strictly personal, but in practice the
sage associated to the call the setting up of which was
"authorised" or documented user of such a mobile
requested by said request, and
telephone+SIM combination always lets other people use 50
the telephone without requiring them to use their OW'Il SIM. making a decision about how to handle the call the setting
Another drawback is that the CU number is seldom infor- up of which was requested by said request, on the basis
mative enough to add a significant amount of value to the of the information received in said first signalling
call. message.
The invention also applies to a telecommunication device
Aknmvn way of communicating relatively short character 55
comprising a memory, a processing unit, a transmitting unit
strings without an association to a telephone connection is
and input means. It is characteristic to the device according
the use of Short Message Services or SMS. Certain digital
to the invention that as a response to a command given by
telephone systems like the GSM (Global System for Mobile
a user through the input means, said command indicating the
telecommunications) allow the users to transmit and receive
user's wish to place a call to a certain telephone number, the
SMS messages that traverse the network in the form of 60
processing unit is arranged to
signalling and do not require the establishment of a call
connection. The transmitting user may compose each SMS transmit to said telephone number a request for setting up
message freely within the available character set, so they are a telephone connection,
very well suited for customised communication. However, it read previously stored information from said memory,
is just their independency of call connections that makes 65 and
SMS messages slightly unpractical for transmitting strictly transmit to said telephone number, through the transmit-
call-related information. Irrespective of whether a user is ting unit and in association with said request for setting
US 6,408,063 Bl
3 4
up a telephone connection, a first signalling message Claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its con-
carrying the information read from said memory. struction and its method of operation, together with addi-
User-to-User signalling or UUS is a procedure recently tional objects and advantages thereof, will be best under-
disclosed as a supplementary service in some advanced stood from the following description of specific
telephone systems. Its inteded use is the transmission of a 5 embodiments when read in connection with the accompa-
limited amount of subscriber generated information (UUI; nying drav.ings.
User-to-User Information) to and/or from another user in FIG. 1 illustrates a first advantageous embodiment of the
association with a call between the users concerned. The invention,
nature of UUS dictates that the network that mediates the FIG. 2 illustrates a detail of the embodiment of FIG. 1,
communication between the users does not interpret the UUI 10
FIG. 3 illustrates another advantageous embodiment of
or act upon it in any way, i.e. it is passed "transparently" the invention
through the network. This patent application will refer to the
known aspects of UUS in the form in which they have been FIG. 4 illustrates a further advantageous embodiment of
disclosed in the document "GSM 02.87: GSM Digital Cel- the invention,
lular Telecommunications System (Phase 2+); User-to-User 15 FIG. 5 illustrates a still further advantageous embodiment
Signalling (UUS); Service Description, Stage 1, v.5.2.1", of the invention and
which has been published by ETSI (European Telecommu- FIG. 6 illustrates a suggested data structure to be used in
nications Standards Institute) in November 1997. connection with the invention.
According to the invention, UUS is used to convey certain
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TIIE
caller- and/or receiver-related information between the call- 20
INVENTION
ing party and the called party in the beginning of a call,
during a call and/or at the end of a call. The transmitted FIG. 1 illustrates a first advantageous embodiment of the
information is used in the other end to manually and/or present invention. Here A is a client of a large international
automatically evaluate some features that are helpful in company B, which uses a PABX with numerous extensions
deciding how to handle the call. 25 (of which only one is shown) and a computerised client
In a first embodiment of the invention the calling party database DATA B could also be a public library, a hospital
(known as "A" in the common telephone jargon) transmits or health center, a governmental office or any other institu-
manually and/or automatically some additional information tion that receives a large number of calls from different
about him/herself to the called party ("B") at the call setup persons daily. At stage 101, A places a call to B v.ishing to
phase or during the call. In this context, "additional" means 30 discuss some matters relating to his businesses ffith B.
such information that does not form a part of a routine call Arrow 102 represents the call setup request or other corre-
setup request like the CLI number. At the receiving end B sponding message or group of messages that traverses the
may use this information for directing A's call to a certain telecommunications network mediating the connection
person or certain extension or for identifying and retrieving between A and B. Together \vith the call setup request 102
previously stored data from a database. The invention does 35 or immediately thereafter, A's telephone (or other commu-
not set any limits to the nature and content of the information nications terminal that A is using) transmits a UUS message
transmitted by A. It may be a routine message transmitted at 103 containing some information that characterises A Typi-
the setup of each new call, or the transmitted information cal examples of such information are A's name, the cus-
may be selected according to the identity of the called party. tomer identification number that B uses to locate A's files,
In an advanced variation of the first embodiment of the 40 and a language code indicating the language that A ffishes
invention A is a remote user of a restricted data system (B) to use in telephone conversations. The UUS message 103
and the information transmitted at the call setup phase traverses the network and reaches the PABX of B exactly or
contains a password or other classified identifier that the data nearly simultaneously with the call setup request 102.
system uses to check A's authorisation for using the system. Stage 104 represents a series of operations in the PABX
A positive identification causes B to place a call back call to 45 of B, comprising among others the receiving of the call setup
A for the establishment of a data transfer connection, and in request 102 and the UUS message 103. The PABX examines
negative cases B simply rejects the attempted call. the UUS message 103 to find out who the caller is, whether
The invention does not limit the direction into which there is a previously stored customer file with a customer
information is transferred by using the UUS. In a second identification number matching that received in the UUS
embodiment of the invention A is a remote operator respon- 50 message and whether the UUS message gives any hint of
sible for the operation of a computerised system or device. what kind of service the caller might request. An example of
Operation begins with a data call from A to B. B answers the latter is the indication of language. As a result the PABX
either by a call rejection together with a short UUS message connects the call setup request further to extension B', where
indicating the cause of the rejection, or by accepting the call there should be a person speaking the requested language, at
if there is enough data to be transferred to A to justify a data 55 stage 105. Simultaneously the PABX retrieves the identified
call being set up. customer file from database DATA and displays it on the
A further embodiment of the invention is applicable in a screen of the person at extension B' along with the caller's
situation where B is not able to answer A's call for the name, language request and possible other information
moment, but wants to inform A about the reason for him not received in the UUS message. FIG. 1 shows the information
answering. According to the invention B transmits manually 60 retrieved from DATA as going through the PABX; this is not
or automatically a UUS message to A informing him about necessary if the PABX can give the database and the
the situation. The selection of the UUS message to be sent computer of B' suitable instructions for realising the neces-
may be based on the identification of the calling party. sary data transfer operations between themselves and with-
out routing the data through the PABX. Methods for real-
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS 65 ising the information retrieval, transfer and displaying are
The novel features which are considered as characteristic known as such from prior art, as mentioned previously. All
of the invention are set forth in particular in the appended information from the UUS message need not be forwarded
US 6,408,063 Bl
5 6
to B'. After having studied the forwarded UUI and data the 211. Thereafter the processing unit tries to fill in any gaps
person at extension B' answers the call by picking up the remaining in the UUS message by reading the corresponding
phone at stage 106. Arrow 107 represents the message or the information from the "general" memory block 201', as
group of messages that traverse the network as an indication indicated by arrow 212. We may assume that a normal UUS
that the person at extension B' has answered the call setup 5 message consists of a name, a language code and an iden-
request, whereafter the call may proceed normally. tification code. If there was a client identification number
If the telephone of B' or the PABX of B is capable of stored together with the selected telephone number, the
transmitting UUS messages, one of them or even both of processing unit uses it as the identification code and reads
them may transmit a reply UUS message 108 or 109 to A to the remaining data (name and language code) from the
inform A about some details concerning the service pro- "general" memory block. If there was nothing in the "spe-
10
vided. For example, A might receive the name and/or direct cific" information, the U S message will consist completely
number of the person at extension B' so that he can direct of that information read from the "general" memory block.
any possible later calls to B to the same person. If A is a new Thereafter the operation in FIG. 2 may continue through
client without a previously issued customer identification two alternative paths. According to an "auto UUS" mode the
number, the PABX or the database DATA might generate 15 telephone will transmit the composed UUS message imme-
one in association with the proceedings discussed above and diately after it has been completed as indicated by arrow
send it to A as UUI. The "reply" message may be sent even 213. In an alternative "manual UUS mode" the processing
as the first UUS transaction relating to the call, meaning that unit directs the completed UUS message to the display 205
regardless of whether or not A has originally transmitted for displaying it to the user (arrow 214) and waits for the
anything in UUS form, he may receive the name and/or 20 user to react. Arrow 215 represents the user action: either the
direct number of the person at extension B', or some other user gives permission to send by a simple command, or the
information relating to the call, as UUI. user prohibits the transmission of the UUS message by a
FIG. 2 is a more detailed view of what might happen in likewise simple command, or the user edits the displayed
A's telephone (or other communications terminal that A is UUS message before it will be sent. Editing a displayed
using) during stage 101. It is typical of such devices that they 25 character string before transmitting it is known as such to the
contain a memory unit 201 for storing telephone numbers person skilled in the art from the technology of SMS
and related information, a processing unit 202 for processing messages. If arrow 215 contains a permission to send
commands given by the user as well as received and without or after editing, the processing unit will direct the
transmitted information, a transmitter unit 203 for transmit- message to the transmitter unit according to arrow 216.
ting messages composed by the processing unit as well as 30 Possible variations to the procedure described above are
speech and/or data, a keyboard 204 or other input means for for example a "fully manual UUS" mode where the pro-
the user to enter commands, and a display 205 for displaying cessing unit does not read any information from memory
messages and other information to the user. According to an before allowing the user to edit the (empty) message, a
aspect of the invention the memory unit 201 contains not "variable field UUS" mode where the user may select
only previously stored telephone nu~bers but also informa- 35 beforehand which fields (name, language, ID number etc.)
tion characteristic to the usual user of the device. A block should appear in the UUS message in general or especially
201' of the memory unit 201 may contain such "general" when composing a message for transmission to some spe-
characteristic information that is not related to any one of the cific telephone number, and a "UUS catalogue" mode where
stored telephone numbers, like A's name, social security the memory contains a number of preprogrammed informa-
number, preferred selection of language and so on. Another 40 tion elements (such as customer identification numbers) but
block 201" of the memory unit 201 then contains the they are not conceptually connected to any of the stored
previously stored telephone numbers and all such "specific" telephone numbers; the user may then compose a UUS
characteristic information that is closelv related to one or message by selecting suitable information element(s) from
more of the stored telephone numbers~ For example, the the memory. In a simple variation there are no UUI elements
stored telephone number of the public library might have 45 stored in the specific memory, whereby all UUS messages
A's library card number stored together with it, the tele- follow a constant pattern stored in the general memory. In a
phone number of the previously mentioned company B mirror-image variation there are no UUI elements stored in
might by accompanied by A's client identification number the general memory, whereby the processing unit checks,
and so on. whether any UUI elements are stored in the specific memory
The operation in stage 101 starts by the user giving a 50 in association with the selected telephone number, and
command that represents his wish to place a call to a specific composes the UUS message to be transmitted only if it finds
called party. This command usually takes the form of the some.
user tapping in the correct telephone number through the The invention does not limit the applicability of a proce-
keyboard 204 (or using some cursor keys to select the dure described above in connection \vith FIG. 2 to the call
telephone number from memory 201) and pressing a "green 55 setup phase. According to an alternative embodiment the
phone" key. In voice-controlled telephone devices a voice user may activate a UUS message transmission at any time
command or a group of voice commands replaces all or during an ongoing call. In that case the starting command
nearly all key commands. Arrow 210 represents the corre- represented by arrow 210 does not need to contain the
sponding command coming from the input means to the telephone number to which the UUS message should be
processing unit 202. As a response according to the 60 sent, because the processing unit has the number stored in
invention, the processing unit composes a UUS message. some call-time register according to the usual practice in
There are numerous ways by which the UUS message may digital telephones (it is known for example to have the
be composed, and the invention is not limiting in this telephone number of the called party displayed to the user
respect. In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 2 the pro- for the time while the connection remains active). All other
cessing unit 202 first checks, whether there are any "spe- 65 functions may follow the description given above.
cific" information stored in association with the telephone An important application of the above-explained embodi-
number given by the user, which is represented by arrow ment of the invention is the addition of information to
US 6,408,063 Bl
7 8
emergency calls. The called party in an emergency call is the The allowed data transfer connection could be imple-
operator at a police station, a fire station, a hospital or an mented by setting up the data call that user A has requested.
emergency communications center. It is very important that However, some additional advantages are gained by using a
the calling party is able to give as much exact information slightly more complicated embodiment of the invention,
to the operator as possible. This is often difficult to 5 illustrated in FIG. 3. Regardless of whether the user ID and
accomplish, because the caller is in distress and finds it the possible password were accepted or not, the data system
difficult to think and speak clearly. Using the above- will send at stage 305 a call disconnect message 306 and
explained UUS procedures it is possible to transmit at least within it or in a (nearly) simultaneous UUS message 307 a
some information about the caller to the called party clearly code indicating the reason for disconnecting, the latter
and without mistakes. In the future a mobile telecommuni- indicating either a positive recognition or a negative recog-
10
cations device may include an integrated positioning unit nition of the user. Immediately thereafter the data system
like the GPS receivers known today, in which case it is places a so-called call back call to user A as indicated by
possible to automatically read the current location informa- arrow 308. In placing the call back call the data system may
tion from the memory of the positioning unit and to include employ either the telephone number received in the data call
it into the UUS message transmitted at the setup, of or during setup request 302 as CU information, or a callback number
an emergency call. 15
given in the UUS message 303 in addition to the user ID, or
So far it has been expected that the information identify- a telephone number found from the same database which the
ing the caller or "A" has been previously stored into the
data system used to identify the user (or a similar database
memory of the telephone (or other communications terminal
which the data system has access to). The latter case
that A is using). This is not a limiting requirement for all
embodiments of the invention. From the technology of 20 provides additional security against cases where an unau-
electronic recognition there are known circuits that recog- thorised caller might have succeeded in falsifying the user
nise a human user by electronically reading a fingerprint ID and/or the CLI information. Only after Ahas accepted the
from a finger pressed on a semiconductor surface or anal- call back call according to arrow 309 the data call will
ysing a voice pattern recorded by a microphone. These become active.
circuits compare the read or recorded specimen to one or 25 The additional advantages referred to above are the added
several previously stored records and indicate, whether the security provided by the fact that a call back call will only
current specimen is similar enough to one of the previously proceed to a terminal that the network recognises with a
stored records to imply a positive recognition. The process- certain telephone number, and the possibility of getting the
ing unit may be arranged to send a UUS message only after enterprise's all data calls from distant authorised users
a positive recognition and association of the recognised user 30 recorded in a single invoicing record. If this embodiment of
to a previously stored name or other identification code in the invention is compared to a conventional arrangement
the form of a character string. In the structure schematically where the distant user first places a complete data call to the
illustrated in FIG. 2 the required advanced input means data system for giving his user ID over a modem connection,
could be conceptually included in the input means 204. then this data call is terminated and the received user ID is
Next we will discuss some embodiments of the present 35 checked by the data system, and finally a call back call is
invention where the called party does not involve any human initiated from the data system to the remote user, it can be
recipient. In the arrangement of FIG. 3 the caller A is a seen that at least as much time will be saved in the system
remote user wishing to employ the services of a data system of the invention as it takes to establish the first modem
B. The data system may be for example an inhouse file connection from the remote user to the data system. The
server of an enterprise. For smooth and correct operation it 40 reader should note that for the data system to receive and
is required that an authorised but distantly located user A interprete the USS message 303 it is not necessary to set up
gets readily into contact with the data system for example for a data call, although this had been formally requested by the
the downloading and/or uploading of files, but all unautho- distant user.
rised attempts to contact the data system will be promptly Next we will discuss a second major class of embodi-
rejected. 45 ments of the invention, called remote polling embodiments.
At stage 301 A uses his remote terminal to place a data call FIG. 4 illustrates a situation where the caller "A" is an
to a contact telephone number of the data system B. Simul- operator responsible for the operation of one or a number of
taneously or nearly simultaneously with the data call setup unmanned computerised remote stations "B". For the sake
request 302 the remote terminal transmits a UUS message of example we will assume that B is an unmanned meteo-
303 containing the user ID of A. For security reasons it is 50 rological measurement station, although these embodiments
appropriate that the user ID is not the same as the telephone of the invention are equally applicable to a wide variety of
number of A's remote terminal, although this is not a other applications. It is typical to the operation of remote
limiting feature of all embodiments of the invention. In a computerised stations that an operator can not be sure,
typical embodiment the user ID is an alphanumeric user- whether the station has any information to be transmitted at
name. It may be accompanied with a secret password. 55 a given moment of time. In our meteorological example it
Because B is a data system, the information contained within may happen that at the time of collecting data, the station
the UUS message 303 need not be in the form of an does not have any reasonable data available, or the situation
alphanumeric character string, but it may be for example a at the station has not changed from the previous reading.
binary sequence that would be completely inconceivable to Equally well the remote station may have a large number of
a human recipient. At stage 304 the data system B investi- 60 new measurement data to be transferred to the operator.
gates the received data call setup request and the (nearly) At stage 401 A decides to poll B for the possible down-
simultaneously received UUS message. If the user ID and loading of measurement data. A sends a data call setup
the possibly accompanying password are found to be correct request 402 and simultaneously or nearly simultaneously a
according to a database of authorised users, the data system UUS message 403 that contains possibly an indication of
will allow a data transfer connection for user A. If either the 65 who is the caller but at least a code that identifies the call as
user ID or the password or both are wrong, the data system a measurement data poll. At stage 404 B recognises the
refuses the requested connection. incoming call as a measurement data poll by investigating
US 6,408,063 Bl
9 10
the (nearly) simultaneous UUS message. If there is no A more detailed embodiment of the last mentioned type is
measurement data to be transmitted, setting up a data call the application of the invention to a combined burglar alarm
would be just wasting telecommunication resources, so in and central locking system of a house or a car. The con-
such a case B rejects the incoming data call setup request trolled system has one switch that is either ON or OFF
402 at stage 405 and transmits only a UUS message 406 5 (doors locked or unlocked) and some kind of a finite state
containing a code indicating the reason for disconnecting machine that is in one of its allowed states (alarm off, alarm
(no data, no changes etc.). As an alternative, B may find at armed, alarm sounding, malfunction). The user A may have
stage 404 that it has an ample supply of data to be an advanced mobile telephone or some other portable tele-
transmitted, in which case it accepts the data call as indi- communication device that is capable of sending and receiv-
cated by arrow 407. 10 ing UUS messages as well as placing and answering data
There are cases where a data call must be set up regardless calls. The central unit B of the controlled process has similar
of whether the remote station has data to be transmitted or capabilities. By formally requesting a data call to the central
not. A typical case is a maintenance situation where the unit of the controlled process and complimenting the request
operator wants to run a testing software and observe the with a suitable (automatically) composed UUS message the
results, or perform some other two-way communication with user can command the locking switch and alarm activating
l5 switch to change states without actually setting up a data
the remote station. In these cases either the call is identified
call. While the alarm is activated, the user's portable tele-
as a "forced" data call by a specific code in the UUS message
communication device exchanges UUS messages with the
403, or no UUS message is sent at all, which is a sign for the central unit of the controlled process regularly or at pseu-
remote station to enter a "forced" data transfer mode. dorandom intervals following the above-explained prin-
Other similar applications for the remote polling embodi- 20 ciples. Only if during a polling round an alarm situation is
ments of the invention are for example monitoring the health detected, a call will be set up to provide the user with
of a patient through a remotedly operated monitoring device detailed information about what is happening.
(health condition normal-no data call established; abnor- A further variation of the remote polling principle is the
mal conditions-set up data call for more extensive application of the invention to a situation where the original
diagnosis) and monitoring the potential malfunction states of 25 intention of A is actually not to poll for measurement results
a copying machine, a computer or a corresponding piece of or other data but to establish a voice or data call as usual. The
office or industrial equipment (normal operation or a simple action of B causes the resulting exchange of messages to
error code-no data call established; abnormal conditions- resemble the polling embodiments discussed above. As an
set up data call for running diagnosis software or otherwise example we will study a situation where B is in a meeting
taking detailed action). 30
and has set his mobile telephone into silent mode, meaning
An interesting application of the remote polling embodi- that the phone announces an incoming call only by display-
ments of the invention is the remote controlling of simple ing a corresponding message in its display, or does not
separately announce a incoming call at all. In FIG. 5, at stage
electronically controlled processes. In a very simple process
501 A tries to place a call to B. Simultaneously or nearly
a remotedly controlled switch is either ON or OFF, or in an
simultaneously with the call setup request 502 A may or may
only little more complicated process a limited number of 35 not transmit a UUS message 503. At stage 504 the mobile
switches may have a limited number of states. Under normal telephone of B receives the call setup request 502 of A and
conditions nothing else is required than changing the state of either prompts the user to react or enters an automatic UUS
one switch from ON to OFF or vice versa, or setting a answer mode. We will designate these alternatives as the
number of switches to desired positions. This may be done manual and automatic embodiments. If A has also transmit-
by formally requesting a data call and indicating the desired 40 ted a UUS message as illustrated by arrow 503, also the
switch position(s) in an accompanied UUS message. The contents of this message or some information derived from
central unit of the controlled process will respond by making the contents of this message may be displayed.
the desired modifications in the process, rejecting the formal The manual embodiment means that once the mobile
request for a data call and acknowledging the whole opera- telephone of B has given an indication that a call is coming,
tion by a return UUS message. If, however, some local 45 it waits for the user to select a proper UUS message that
abnormal condition prevents a switch from changing states should be sent to the caller as a response. In FIG. 5, stage
or some other unusual detail requires operator attention, it 505 corresponds to B selecting such an answering message.
may be necessary for the operator responsible for the remote It is most advantageous if there is at least one previously
control to establish a data call to the central unit of the stored answering message which B may choose to be sent
controlled process. Also in these cases it is the called party 50 with a single key command. If there are several previously
(the central unit of the controlled process) that decides, stored answering messages to choose from, they may be
whether a data call should actually be set up or not. represented in a display or like by different selectors, e.g.
In all embodiments discussed above it has been implicitly graphical symbols or alphanumeric headers. In selecting the
assumed that the calling party makes a more or less arbitrary message B may take into consideration the identity of A, if
one-time decision about the moment of initiating the com- 55 it was received as CLI information or within an optional
munication. This is not necessarily a limiting feature for all UUS message 503. One possible answering message could
embodiments of the invention. The calling party may be "Hold on, I'll answer in a minute" v.ith which B may
employ an automatic process that repeatedly calls some inform A that it will take some time before he has left the
previously determined number at regular or pseudorandom meeting room to talk freely, and that A should not hang up
intervals. This variation of the invention is especially appli- 60 before that. Naturally the invention sets no limits to the
cable in the remote polling embodiments of the invention, contents of the messages as long as they fill the formal
where the condition of a remote station is monitored from requirements of UUS. Arrow 506 illustrates the answering
time to time. It is assumed that in most cases the requested message selected by B and sent to A. One of the manually
data call will be rejected, so the user will not have to pay for selectable alternatives could be answering the call right
established calls. It depends on the pricing of the UUS 65 away and not sending a UUS message at all, in case it is a
service, whether such embodiments are commercially business call that may have important consequences to the
advantageous or not. meeting.
US 6,408,063 Bl
11 12
The automatic embodiment means that B has previously to represent a character in a character string, so the corre-
programmed his mobile telephone to select and send a UUS sponding maximum length in characters would be 32 char-
message in response to an incoming call. There may be a acters.
single answering message that the phone uses to answer all According to the invention, the UUS messages may be
incoming calls, or an answering message may be selected 5 used to convey information also in other forms than char-
according to some caller recognition rules. In the latter case acter strings. The existing UUS standards do not specify any
any known recognition strategy is applicable, like different detailed structure for the UUS messages. FIG. 6 illustrates
answering messages for business or private callers, different one possible structure that could be advantageously used in
answering messages for in-house colleagues or clients and a scheme where the contents of the UUS message may be in
so on. Some examplary answering messages could be "Can- 10
various forms (characters, binary data etc.) and destined to
not answer right now, will call you back", "I'm in a meeting various units (display, SIM, control block etc.) in the receiv-
right now" or "I'm on vacation, please call my secretary". In ing device. The examplary UUS message 600 contains a
FIG. 5, stage 507 represents the automatic selection of an Protocol Discriminator (PD) field 601, a Data Coding
answering message and arrow 508 illustrates the transmis- Scheme (DCS) field 602, an Control Field Length Indicator
sion of the selected message. The automatically selected (CFLI) field 603, three Control Fields (CF) 604, 605 and 606
15
answering message may be even personal, whereby the as well as a data field 607. Of these, the PD and DCS fields
mobile telephone of B reads it from a memory where a together indicate, what kind of coding and what kind of
personal message accompanies at least one previously stored protocol have been used in the preparation of the message,
identification of a person that could be called or that could the CFLI field indicates the combined length of the header
call, or it may contain personal parts which are read from fields (all fields except the data field) and the CF fields may
20
such a memory ("Hello Harry, I'm in a meeting right now"). be used to transmit the identification of the functional block
The automatic embodiment is advantageously combined in the receiving device to which the UUS message is
with the concept of operation modes known from the Nokia destined, the specific intended action that the receiving
6110 mobile telephone. The user may set his mobile tele- device is supposed to do and to which the contents of the
phone to a certain mode, which means that a predetermined UUS message are related, or some other information like
25
group of functional selections are made \vith one command. sequence numbering of several consecutive messages.
According to the invention, a certain answering message The endpoints of a point-to-point connection where UUS
may be one of the features associated with at least one of the is used according to the invention may be mobile-to-mobile,
modes. mobile-to-PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network), mobile-
Finally, for reducing the invention into practice, we will 30 to-ISON network, mobile-to-ISON terminal, or mobile-to-
consider some known aspects of UUS and their implications PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). If the other
to the invention, as well as a suggested enhancement to the end is PLMN, ISDN network or ISON terminal, it must be
existing UUS. There are three subclasses of UUS, namely equipped with sufficient ISUP (ISON Signalling User Part)
Service 1, Service 2 and Service 3. A user has access to these signaling support known a<s such to the person skilled in the
services as described in his;ber subscription contract with 35
art. If the other end is PSTN, it must be equipped with
the system operator.According to Service 1, UUI can be sent sufficient inter-exchange ISUP signaling support known as
and received during call setup and termination by embed- such to the person skilled in the art.
ding UUI into the appropriate call control messages. Service If the UUS message must travel from one kind of network
1 can be an implicit part of each call setup, whereby the user to some other kind of network (like from PLMN to PSTN or
does not have to initiate the transmission of a UUS message 40 vice versa), suitable interworking functions are required
separately, or it may be explicit in which case the user has between the networks to ensure the correct trasmission of
to initiate an appropriate procedure. Service 2 encompasses the UUS. Especially the interworking unit realising such
the UUS messages that are sent and received after the calling functions must be able to notice the presence of UUI and
party has received an indication that the called party has locate the UUI in the message(s) arranged according to the
been informed of the call, but before the call is actually 45 protocols applied in the first network, and copy the UUI to
established. The network is not responsible for delivering a a suitable location in the message(s) arranged according to
sent Service 2 message to its recipient before the call will be the protocols applied in the second network. The interwork-
established. All UUS messages referred to above in the ing unit is most preferably a part of the gateway s\vitch
description of the invention as being transmitted simulta- connecting the two networks together.
neously or nearly simultaneously with a (data) call setup 50 The invention has been described solely with reference to
request may belong to Service 1 or Service 2, but it is the UUS as described in the standards of ETSI. However, it
preferable to use Service 1 because gaining advantage from is clear that it is also possible to apply the invention to
the features of the invention usually requires that the recipi- systems known with different names, if the signalling char-
ent receives such a UUS message before the call setup is acteristics of such systems otherwise make it possible to
completed. Even if the UUS messages have been described 55 transmit short character strings from one communications
above as separate messages (separate arrows in the Figs.) it device to another communications device transparently
is readily understood that such description is meant only to through a telecommunications network in close association
clarify the role of UUS when used according to the with a proceeding or ongoing call.
invention, and the respective UUI may be embedded in other What is claimed is:
messages. All such UUS messages that are sent and received 60 1. A method for complementing a telephone connection
during an established call connection belong to Service 3. with additional information, comprising the steps of:
The length of the UUS messages is not limited by the transmitting from a first telecommunication device to a
invention. However, some practical considerations set a second telecommunication device a request for setting
limit to the maximum usable length. For example an ISDN up a telephone connection,
system (Integrated Services Digital Network) allows as a 65 transmitting, from said first telecommunication device to
network option the transfer of UUI with a maximum length the second telecommunication device a certain first
of 32 octets for Service 1. An octet of bits is usually required signalling
US 6,408,063 Bl
13 14
message associated to the call the setting up of which was 6. A method according to claim 4, wherein the step of
requested by said request, and transmitting a certain first signalling message additionally
making a decision about how to handle the call the setting comprises the substep of selecting the previously stored data
up of which was requested by said request, on the basis to be read from the memory regardless of the telephone
of the information received in said first signalling 5 number to which the request for setting up a telephone
message, connection will be transmitted.
wherein the step of making a decision about how to 7. A method according to claim 4, wherein the step of
handle the call comprises the substep of directing the
transmitting a certain first signalling message additionally
request from the second telecommunication device
10 comprises the substep of selecting a first piece of previously
further on the basis of the information received in
said first signalling message. stored data to be read from the memory on the basis of the
2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said second telephone number to which the request for setting up a
telecommunication device is a Private Automated Branch telephone connection will be transmitted and a second piece
Exchange, whereby the step of making a decision about how of previously stored data to be read from the memory
to handle the call comprises the substep of directing to the 15 regardless of the telephone number to which the request for
request to a certain extension selected on the basis of the setting up a telephone connection will be transmitted.
information received in said frist signalling message. 8. A method according to claim 4, wherein the step of
3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the step of transmitting a certain first signalling message additionally
making a decision about how to handle the call additionally comprises the substep of selecting the previously stored data
comprises the substep of retrieving previously stored data 20 to be read from the memory as a response to a user-given
from a database on the basis of the information received in command indicating the selection of a certain piece of data
said first signalling message. from a previously stored list of mutually alternative pieces
4. A method according to claim 1, wherein the step of of data.
transmitting a certain first signalling message comprises the 9. A method according to claim 1, wherein the step of
substep of reading previously stored data from a memory 25 transmitting a certain first signalling message comprises the
and inserting the read data as a part of said first signalling substeps of:
message.
5. A method according to claim 4, wherein the step of prompting a user to enter the characters to be included in
transmitting a certain first signalling message additionally the first signalling message, and
comprises the substep of selecting the previously stored data 30 composing the first signalling message from characters
to be read from the memory on the basis of the telephone entered by a user.
number to which the request for setting up a telephone
connection '>vill be transmitted. * * * * *
·•

EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of6

ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION FORMS

IPR Holder/01·ganisation

Legal Name: NOKIA CORPORATION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen
------------------------------
Position: IPRManager - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Department: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Joensuunkatu 7, FIN-24100 SALO, P.O.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND _ __

Tel.: +35850 366 2022 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
Fax: +358-7180 44275
----------------------------
E-mail: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4. 1, I hereby infonn ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as GSM. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Salo, Finkland, 25th of Jan 2005_ _
(Signed for and on behalfofthe SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director-General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 {O) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 4 of6

GSM 23.226: Nokia 6678527 Multimedia and US
1,4.1.2.6, Corporation multiservice calls in
23.226 5.2.0 mobile network
5,4.1.2
26.226 5.0.0
26.226:
24.008 9,4.1.1, 5.6.0
8.1,8.2.7
43.010 5.2.0
24.008:
10.5.4.5
43.010:4.
2,6.4.1
2373688 GB
GSM 9.2.2 4.12.0 Nokia 2001000985 Location of US
109859 FI
Corporation 7 subscriber terminal
23.271 10195393 DE
in packet-switched
radio sYstem
20040057442 US
GSM Nokia 1350407 Communication RP
Corporation system and method
23.228 5.1.1 5.13.0 for establishing a
connection to a
serving network
element
GSM  Nokia 6408063 Method and US
Corporation arrangement for
23.228 5.1.1.2 v.s.10.0 complementing a
5.2.7 telephone
connection with
5.2.6.3 additional
information

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of4

ANNEX I

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION FORMS

IPR Holder/01·ganisation

Legal Name: NOKIA CORPORATION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___,__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---+-f_

r.-~ e_R.:..-:.=.:::...::..:::.=-= .:-...:::. :::. .-: :. .j
Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Position: IPRManager - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Depaiiment: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Joensuunkatu 7, FlN-24100 SALO, P.O.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND _ __

Tel.: +358 50 366 2022
---------------------------
Fax: +358 7180 44275
---------------------------
E-mail: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as UMTS.
--------------

It is my belief that the IPRs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of Prance.

Place, Date: Signature:

Salo, 25th of Jan 2005_ _ _ __

(Signed for and on behalfoflhc SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director-General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 4 of4

UMTS 23.226: Nokia 6678527 Multimedia and US
1,4.1.2.6, Corporation multiservice calls in
23.226 v.5.2.0
5,4.1.2 mobile network
26.226 v.5.0.0
26.226:
24.008 9,4.1.1, v.5.6.0
8.1,8.2.7
24.008:
10.5.4.5
UMTS v.5.10.0 Nokia 6408063 Method and US
Corporation arrangement for
 23.228 5.1.1.2
complementing a
5.2.7 telephone
connection with
5.2.6.3
additional
information
20030096627 US
UMTS 1 v.5.4.0 Nokia 1435157 SETTING MODE OF EP WOO3/032587 WO
Corporation COMMUNICATION
23.172 4.2
4.3
*Patent family information is provided voluntarily. The completeness and accuracy of any patent family information that is provided cannot be guaranteed.

Please return this form duly signed to; ETSI Director General- Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

EISI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93654716
(Reference : Not applied in Japan)
[[ Ver. 4.40 ]]
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REGISTRATIONNO./ REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
*4.40
Nokia Corporation A METHOD OF SELECTING A NEW CELL WO01/05182 EP

Nokia Corporation *4.40 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CELL-SPECIFIC HSDPA WO03/058988 EP, KR, US
PARAMETER CONFIGURATION AND RECONFIGURATION

Nokia Corporation *4.40 Apparatus and method for measuring and recording movement of a US6611788 US
mobile station using a mobile network

Nokia Corporation *4.40 LOCATION UPDATE IN A SUPER-CHARGED ENVIRONMENT WO01/30101 EP

Nokia Corporation *4.40 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR WO02/47415 EP, US
ESTABLISHING A CONNECTION TO A SERVING NETWORK
ELEMENT

Nokia Mobile Phones Location of subscriber terminal in packet-switched radio system US2001/0009857 US, GB, FI, DE
Ltd. *4.40

Nokia Mobile Phones Method and arrangement for complementing a telephone connection US6408063 US
Ltd. *4.40 with additional information
Nokia Networks Oy*4.40 Multimedia and multiservice calls in mobile network US6678527 US
Research In Motion Home Network Name Displaying Methods andApparatus for US Patent # 7274933 Canada, France, Germany,
Limited*4.40 Multiple Home Networks Hong Kong, United Kingdom,
United States of America
QUALCOMM Mobile Station Assisted Soft Handoff in a CDMA Cellular US 5,267,261 US 5,640,414
Incorporated*4.40 Communications System
Research In Motion HOME NETWORK NAME DISPLAYING METHODS AND US8275374 CA, DE, EP, HK, US
Limited*4.40 APPARATUS FOR MULTIPLE HOME NETWORKS

374
List of Essential Industrial Property Rights for ARIB STD-T64 Ver.4.60

Attachment “No. 2”

出願番号等
特許出願人 発明の名称 備考(出願国名)
REGISTRATION NO./
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
NOKIA METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REFRESHING KEYS WO 2007/034322 WO, JP, US, EP, CN, IN, KR, TH
CORPORATION*46 WITHIN A BOOTSTRAPPING ARCHITECTURE

電話接続を追加情報で補う方法および装置 特表 2002-527951 WO, JP, US, EP, CN

異種IPネットワークにおける認証のための装置および方 特表 2007-508614 WO, JP, US EP, AU, CN, IN, KR

通信方法及び通信システム 特表 2006-506012 WO, JP, US, EP, CN, KR

SERVICE BASED BEARER CONTROL AND TRAFFIC FLOW WO 2005/119982 WO, US, EP, IN
TEMPLATE OPERATION WITH MOBILE IP

A METHOD OF CONFIGURING A COMMUNICATION WO 2006/095269 WO, JP, US, EP, CN, IN, KR,
DEVICE MX, MY, SG, TW, VN, ZA

CDMA無線システム用可変ビットレート広帯域音声符号 特表 2005-532579 WO, JP, US, EP, AU, BR, CA,
化時における効率のよい帯域内ディム・アンド・バースト(D CN, HK, ID, IN, KR, MX, MY,
IM-AND-BURST)シグナリングとハーフレートマ RU
ックス処理のための方法および装置

166
14
A18319VI
I
(19) Europilsches
Patentamt
European 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Patent Office
Office europeen
des brevets
(11) EP 1 166 589 B1
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.:
of the grant of the patent: H04Q 7138 r2006.01J
18.06.2008 Bulletin 2008/25
(86) International application number:
(21) Application number: 00920976.8 PCT/IB2000/000580

(22) Date of filing: 07.04.2000 (87) International publication number:
WO 2000/062571 (19.10.2000 Gazette 2000/42)

(54) ROTATING SYNCHRONIZATION CHANNEL (SCH) TRANSMISSION
UBERTRAGUNG MIT ROTIERENDEM SYNCHRONISATIONSKANAL
ROTATION DE TRANSMISSION PAR CANAL DE SYNCHRONISATION (SCH)

(84) Designated Contracting States: (72) Inventor: SEBIRE, Benoist
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU FIN-00260 Helsinki (Fl)
MC NL PT SE
(74) Representative: Slingsby, Philip Roy et al
(30) Priority: 08.04.1999 US 128293 P Page White & Farrer
03.01.2000 us 476500 Bedford House
John Street
(43) Date of publication of application: London, WC1 N 2BF (GB)
02.01.2002 Bulletin 2002/01
(56) References cited:
(73) Proprietor: Nokia Corporation EP-A- 0 877 510 US-A- 5 778 075
02150 Espoo (Fl)

T"'"
cc
0)
co
Lt)
(0
(0
T"'"
Note: Within nine months of the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent in the European Patent
Bulletin, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to that patent, in accordance with the
T"'"
Implementing Regulations. Notice of opposition shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been
a. paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1 166 589 81 2

Description [0009] According to one aspect of the invention, there
is provided a method for presenting information to a mo-
[0001] This invention relates generally to radio tele- bile station that is transmitted during a common idle frame
phones and systems, in particular, to radio telephones that contains a set of time slots, comprising rotating time
or mobile stations capable of operating with digital down- 5 slot transmissions from individual ones of a plurality of
link (forward) transmissions from a plurality of base sta- base stations over repeating sets of the time slots of a
tions. plurality of idle frames such that the mobile stations is
[0002] Within a Global System for Mobile Communi- enabled to receive information from all of the plurality of
cations (GSM) synchronous network all idle frames of base stations from a subset of the set oftime slots, without
traffic channels occur at the same time, i.e., every 26 10 regard for which traffic time slot the mobile station is as-
Time Division, Multiple Access (TOMA) frames. Refer- signed to.
ence can be had to a publication entitled "The GSM Sys- [0010] Preferably, the individual transmissions origi-
tem for Mobile Communications", by Michel Mouly and nate from individual ones of a plurality of base stations,
Marie-Bernadette Pautet (1992) for an overall description and the base stations are operated so as to alternate or
of the GSM system, the conventional GSM 26 multiframe 15 rotate the transmission of information as bursts within
and 51 multiframe signaling structure (see Fig. 4.15 of the idle frame. Depending on a number of different bursts
Mouly et al. and also Fig. 3 herein), as well as a thorough to be sent, a particular burst transmitted from one base
discussion of idle frames and a Base Station Identity station is never transmitted in the same time slot during
Code (BSIC, see generally pages 336-342), and a Syn- two consecutive idle frames. It will be recognised that the
chronization Channel (SCH, see, for example, pages 194 20 invention is applicable to Time Division Multiple Access
and 210). (TOMA) telecommunication systems such as IS-136 and
[0003] Document EP 0 877 510 A2 discloses a method GSM. In the case of GSM in particular, the information
of measuring neighbouring cells in a TOMA cellular radio may comprise SCH bursts transmitted from base.
between using time hopping. [0011] According to another aspect of the invention,
[0004] During the common idle frame mobile stations 25 there is provided a synchronous GSM telecommunica-
read the BSIC (which is carried by SCH bursts) of neigh- tions system, comprising a plurality of base stations
bor cells for handover purposes. As such, the SCH bursts transmitting synchronization channel (SCH) bursts to
from different base stations are sent in sequence during mobile stations during idle frames, each base station in-
the idle frame. It is important that a given mobile station cluding means for transmitting said SCH bursts such that
does not miss parts of the information sent in the SCH 30 a particular burst transmitted from one base station is
bursts, otherwise handovers will not be reliable. never transmitted in a same time slot during two consec-
[0005] Although the use of the synchronized network utive idle frames.
allows all of the mobile stations always to receive the idle [0012] Preferably, there is provided a transmission
frames at the same time, it does not imply that all of the method for a system in which predetermined information
measurement windows will occur at the same time. In 35 is apportioned to timeslots of an idle frame comprising
practice, the measurement particular mobile station. Fig. apportioning the predetermined information to different
4 shows that there exists eight possible measurement respective timeslots in respective idle frames such that
windows for the eight possible traffic time slots that may the predetermined information is extractable from a sub-
be assigned to a given mobile station (the GSM system set of the timeslots within a predetermined number of
uses eight time slots per frame.) It will be recognised by 40 frames.
those skilled in the artthatthe measurement window may [0013] The predetermined information preferably com-
not extend over all the idle frame in view of the constraints prises information relating to neighbouring base stations
placed upon the mobile station by the need to align itself surrounding the serving base station such as synchroni-
with its assigned time slot for traffic use. sation channel bursts. Consequently, a mobile station is
[0006] The SCH bursts are transmitted during the idle 45 more rapidly able to obtain the information necessary to
frame in the downlink (base station to mobile station or perform an efficient handover.
forward direction) and, as a result, in accordance with [0014] Preferably, predetermined information is ap-
conventional practice the mobile station may not receive portioned to timeslots of an idle frame, includes a plurality
some part of it. For example, and if time slot 0 is used, of base stations wherein apportioned predetermined in-
the mobile station will always miss the last burst of the 50 formation is transmitted by respective ones of said base
idle frame, while if time slot 7 is used the mobile station stations in different respective timeslots in respective idle
will always miss the four first bursts. frames such that the predetermined information is trans-
[0007] It is a first aim of the invention to provide an mitted by the base stations with in a subset of the timeslots
improvedtechniqueforincreasingthe reliability of hando- within a predetermined number of frames.
vers. 55 [0015] Finally, there is preferably provided a base sta-
[0008] It is a further aim of the invention to provide an tion for use in a synchronous telecommunications system
improved technique for overcoming the measurement in which predetermined information is apportioned to
window problem that was described above. timeslots of an idle frame, comprising transmission

2
3 EP 1 166 589 81 4

means operable to transmit part of the predetermined ing of this invention limited for use only with a GSM com-
information in a different respective time slot of the idle patible mobile station and network.
frame in respective frames. [0019] It is understood that the controller 18 also in-
[0016] The above set forth and other features of the cludes the circuitry required for implementing the audio
invention are made more apparent in the ensuing De- 5 and logic functions of the mobile station. By example, the
tailed Description of the Invention when read in conjunc- controller 18 may be comprised of a digital signal proc-
tion with the attached Drawings, wherein: essor device, a microprocessor device, and various an-
alog to digital converters, digital to analog converters,
Fig. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary mobile and other support circuits. The control and signal
station that is constructed and operated in accord- 10 processing functions of the mobile station are allocated
ance with this invention; between these devices according to their respective ca-
pabilities.
Fig. 2 is an elevational view of the mobile station [0020] A user interface includes a conventional ear-
shown in Fig. 1, and which further illustrates a wire- phone or speaker 17, a conventional microphone 19, a
less telecommunication system to which the mobile 15 display 20, and a user input device, typically a keypad
station is bidirectionally coupled through RF links; 22, all of which are coupled to the controller 18. The key-
pad 22 includes the conventional numeric (0-9) and re-
Fig. 3 depicts a conventional GSM frame hierarchy; lated keys (#,*) 22a, and other keys 22b used for oper-
ating the mobile station 10. The mobile station 1O also
Fig. 4 illustrates measurement windows that are use- 20 includes a battery 26 for powering the various circuits
ful in explaining the method of the invention; that are required to operate the mobile station.
[0021] The mobile station 1O also includes various
Fig. 5 shows six different SCHs to be sent in accord- memories, shown collectively as the memory 24, wherein
ance with the method of the invention within an idle are stored a plurality of constants and variables that are
frame containing four idle bursts; 25 used by the controller 18 during the operation of the mo-
bile station. For example, the memory 24 stores the val-
Fig. 6 similarly shows 12 different SCHs to be sent ues of various cellular system parameters and the
within the idle frame containing four idle bursts; and number assignment module (NAM). An operating pro-
gram for controlling the operation of controller 18 is also
Fig. 7 similarly shows 16 different SCHs to be sent 30 stored in the memory 24 (typically in a ROM device). It
within the idle frame containing four idle bursts. should be understood that the mobile station 1O can be
a vehicle mounted or a handheld device. It should further
[0017] Reference is first made to Figs. 1 and 2 for il- be appreciated that the mobile station 1Ocan be capable
lustrating a wireless user terminal or mobile station 10, of operating with one or more air interface standards,
such as but not limited to a cellular radiotelephone or a 35 modulation types, and access types.
personal communicator, that is suitable for practicing this [0022] Having thus described one suitable but not lim-
invention. The mobile station 10 includes an antenna 12 iting embodiment of a mobile station and radiotelephone
for transmitting signals to and for receiving signals from system that can be used to practice the teachings of this
a first base site or base station 30A (also referred to here- invention, and referring now also to Fig. 4, the telecom-
in as a base transceiver station (BTS)), as well as a sec- 40 munications network shown in Fig. 2 is assumed to be
ond and typically more base stations 30B. The base sta- synchronous. That is, the various base stations are en-
tions 30A and 30B can be a part of a cellular network abled to transmit at specified times under the control of
comprising a Base Station/ Mobile Switching Center/ In- a master timing and synchronization source (which could
terworking function (BM I) 32 that includes a mobile reside in the MSC 34 or elsewhere within the BMI 32.)
switching center (MSC) 34. The MSC 34 provides a con- 45 [0023] As was indicated previously, within GSM syn-
nection to landline trunks. chronous networks all idle frames of traffic channels oc-
[0018] The mobile station 1Otypically includes a mod- cur at the same time. During this common idle frame the
ulator (MOD) 14A, a transmitter 14, a receiver 16, a de- mobile station 10 is required to read the BSIC (carried
modulator (DEMOD) 16A, and a controller 18 that pro- by the SCH bursts) of neighbor cells for handover pur-
vides signals to and receives signals from the transmitter 50 poses. The SCH bursts from different base stations are
14 and receiver 16, respectively. These signals include consecutively transmitted during the idle frame.
signaling information in accordance with the air interface [0024] In accordance with an aspect of this invention
standard of the applicable cellular system, and also user the base stations are operated so as to alternate the
speech and/or user generated data. The air interface transmission of SCH bursts within the idle frame in order
standard is assumed for this invention to be a TOMA 55 to ensure fast and reliable BSIC decoding in the receiving
system of a type described in detail below, although the mobile station 10.
teaching of this invention is not intended to be limited [0025] As was stated above, although the use of the
only to this specific TOMA arrangement, nor is the teach- synchronized network allows all of the mobile stations 1O

3
5 EP 1 166 589 81 6

to always receive the idle frames at the same time, it set from the transmissions in time slot 2 (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4,
does not imply that all of the channel measurement win- 5, 6, 7, 8, 1, etc.)
dows will occur at the same time (refer again to Fig. 4). [0033] Note that the mobile station 10 is thus enabled
[0026] In accordance with the teachings of this inven- to receive transmissions from each of n total base sta-
tion, the base stations 30 are operated so as to alternate 5 tions within n/2 idle frames by monitoring only one half,
(or rotate) the transmission of SCH bursts within the idle or less than one half, of the time slots (e.g., time slots
frame. Depending on the number of different SCH bursts 0-2 or 4-6).
to be sent, a particular SCH transmitted from one base [0034] It should be appreciated that the teachings of
station is never transmitted in the same time slot during this invention can be employed for any type of information
two consecutive idle frames. When alternating the trans- 10 that is intended to be read during a common idle frame
mission of SCH bursts, diversity is used to favor the al- of traffic channels within a synchronized network, such
ways-read time slots (typically 4, 5 and 6). This implies as a GSM-based synchronous network, and is not limited
that all mobile stations 10 can be enabled to obtain all to only conveying handover-related information, such as
transmitted information, from these time slots only. the BSIC and other information. The teachings of this
[0027] In other words, the SCH transmissions from a 15 invention may also be applied to other than GSM sys-
plurality of base stations are arranged such that a given tems, such as high speed IS-136 and other advanced
mobile station 10 is enabled to receive all pertinent infor- TOMA systems.
mation from a subset of timeslots of an idle frame, that [0035] Furthermore, this invention specifies how the
consists of a set of time slots, without regard for what mobile station 10 is presented with the information trans-
traffic time slot or slots the mobile station 1O is assigned 20 mitted during a common idle frame. As such, the teach-
to. ings of this invention do not depend on how the informa-
[0028] By example, and referring to Figs. 5-7, Fig. 5 tion is transmitted, and the information can be transmitted
shows six different SCHs to be sent within an idle frame on the same carrier, on different carriers, from one or
which contains four idle bursts; Fig. 6 shows 12 different several base stations, etc.
SCHs to be sent within the idle frame which contains four 25
idle bursts; and Fig. 7 shows 16 different SCHs to be sent
within the idle frame which must contain four idle bursts. Claims
[0029] Note, for example, that in Fig. 5 the bursts from
base stations 6, 3, 4 and 1 are transmitted in sequence 1. A method for presenting information to a mobile sta-
in every other time slot of a first idle frame, then in a 30 tion that is transmitted during a common idle frame
second, next idle frame the bursts from base stations 4, that contains a set of time slots, comprising rotating
1, 5 and 2 are transmitted in sequence, then in a third, time slot transmissions from individual ones of a plu-
next idle frame the bursts from base stations 5, 2, 6 and rality of base stations over repeating sets of the time
3 are transmitted in sequence. During the fourth, next slots of a plurality of idle frames such that the mobile
idle frame the bursts from base stations 6, 3, 4 and 1 are 35 stations is enabled to receive information from all of
again transmitted in sequence, and the burst transmis- the plurality of base stations from a subset of the set
sion pattern thus repeats on a three idle frame basis. of time slots, without regard for which traffic time slot
[0030] For the twelve base station embodiment shown the mobile station is assigned to.
in Fig. 6 the burst pattern repeats on a six idle frame
basis, i.e., base stations 10, 4, 7, 1, followed by base 40 2. A method as in claim 1, wherein the base stations
stations 11, 5, 8, 2, followed by base stations 12, 6, 9, 3, are operated so as to alternate the transmission of
followed by base stations 7, 1, 10, 4, followed by base bursts within the idle frame.
stations 8, 2, 11, 5, followed by base stations 9, 3, 12, 6,
after which the pattern repeats. 3. A method as in claim 2, wherein depending on a
[0031] For the sixteen base station embodiment 45 number of different bursts to be sent, a particular
shown in Fig. 7 the burst pattern repeats in the same burst transmitted from one base station is never
fashion, but on an eight idle frame basis. transmitted in the same time slot during two consec-
[0032] Reading down a particular column of time slots, utive idle frames.
e.g., time slot 0 of Fig. 7, note that a first subset (one
half) of the set of base stations transmit in sequence (e.g., 50 4. A method as in claim 2 or claim 3, wherein the bursts
13, 14, 15, 16, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, etc.), while in time slot are synchronization channel SCH, bursts transmit-
2 a second subset (the other half) of the set of base sta- ted from base stations in a synchronous GSM tele-
tions transmit in sequence (e.g., 5, 6, 7, 8, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, communications system.
etc.) In time slot 4 the first subset of the set of base sta-
tions also transmit in sequence, but offset from the trans- 55 5. A method as in any of claims 1 to 4, for a system in
missions in time slot 0 (e.g., 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, which predetermined information is apportioned to
9, etc.), while in time slot 6 the second subset of the set timeslots of an idle frame, and comprising apportion-
of base stations also transmit in sequence, but again off- ing the predetermined information to different times-

4
7 EP 1 166 589 81 8

lots in respective idle frames such that the predeter- idle frame, and which includes a plurality of base
mined information is extractable from a subset of the stations wherein apportioned predetermined infor-
timeslots within a predetermined number of frames. mation is transmitted by respective ones of said base
stations in a different respective timeslots in respec-
6. A method as claimed in claim 5, wherein the system 5 tive idle frames such that the predetermined infor-
is a synchronous Time Division Multiple Access tel- mation is transmitted by the base stations within a
ecommunications system. subset of the timeslots within a predetermined
number of frames.
7. A method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the system
is a GSM telecommunications system. 10 13. A synchronous GSM telecommunications system as
claimed in claim 12, wherein the system is a syn-
8. A method as claimed in any one of claims 5 to 7, in chronous Time Division Multiple Access telecommu-
which the predetermined information comprises syn- nications system.
chronisation channel bursts.
15 14. A synchronous GSM telecommunications system as
9. A synchronous GSM telecommunications system, claimed in any one of claims 12 to 13, in which the
comprising a plurality of base stations transmitting predetermined information comprises synchronisa-
synchronization channel, SCH bursts to mobile sta- tion channel bursts.
tions during idle frames, each base station including
means for transmitting said SCH bursts such that a 20 15. A synchronous GSM telecommunications system as
particular burst transmitted from one base station is claimed in any of claims 9 to 14, wherein the base
never transmitted in a same time slot during two con- stations are arranged to apportion predetermined in-
secutive Idle frames. formation to timeslots of an idle frame, and comprise
transmission means operable to transmit part of the
10. Asynchronous GSM telecommunications system as 25 predetermined information in a different time slot of
claimed in claim 9, wherein the plurality of base sta- the idle frame in respective frames.
tions comprises a set of n number of base stations
transmitting synchronization channel, SCH, bursts 16. A synchronous GSM telecommunications system as
to mobile stations during idle frames, means for claimed in claim 15, wherein the predetermined in-
transmitting said SCH bursts is arranged such that 30 formation includes data associated with that base
said SCH bursts are transmitted by individual ones station.
of a first subset n/2 of the base stations in sequence
during a first time slot over n/2 sequential idle frames, 17. A synchronous GSM telecommunications system as
and transmitted by individual ones of a second sub- claimed in claim 15 or claim 16, wherein the prede-
set n/2 of the base stations in sequence during a 35 termined information comprises synchronisation
second time slot over the n/2 sequential idle frames. channel bursts.

11. Asynchronous GSM telecommunications system as
claimed in claim 9, wherein the plurality of base sta- Patentanspruche
tions comprises a set of n number of base stations 40
transmitting synchronization channel, SCH, bursts 1. Verfahren, um einer Mobilstation Information anzu-
to mobile stations during idle frames, and the means bieten, die wahrend eines gemeinsamen freien Rah-
for transmitting said SCH bursts is arranged such mens ubertragen wird, der eine Gruppe von Zeit-
that said SCH bursts are transmitted by individual schlitzen enthalt, umfassend, Zeitschlitzubertragun-
ones of a first subset n/2 of the base stations in a 45 gen von einzelnen einer Mehrzahl von Basisstatio-
first sequence during a first time slot over n/2 se- nen uber sich wiederholende Gruppen der Zeitschlit-
quential idle frames and also in a second, different ze einer Mehrzahl von freien Rahmen so zu rotieren,
sequence during a second time slot over the n/2 se- dass die Mobilstationen in die Lage versetzt werden,
quential idle frames and by individual ones of a sec- Information von alien der Mehrzahl von Basisstatio-
ond subset n/2 of the base stations in a first sequence 50 nen von einer Untergruppe der Gruppe von Zeit-
during a third time slot over the n/2 sequential idle schlitzen unabhangig davon zu empfangen, wel-
frames and also in a second, different sequence dur- chem Datenverkehrszeitschlitz die Mobilstation zu-
ing a fourth time slot over the n/2 sequential idle geordnet ist.
frames.
55 2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Basisstatio-
12. Asynchronous GSM telecommunications system as nen betrieben werden, um die Ubertragungen von
claimed in any of claims 9 to 11, in which predeter- Bursts innerhalb des freien Rahmens abwechselnd
mined information is apportioned to timeslots of an durchzufUhren.

5
9 EP 1 166 589 81 10

3. Veriahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei abhangig von ei- 11. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem
ner Anzahl unterschiedlicher zu sendender Bursts nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Mehrzahl von Basissta-
ein spezieller, von einer Basisstation Obertragener tionen eine Gruppe mit einer Anzahl n von Basissta-
Burst niemals in dem gleichen Zeitschlitz wahrend tionen umfasst, die Synchronisationskanal SCH-
zwei aufeinanderiolgender freier Rahmen Obertra- 5 Bursts zu Mobilstationen wahrend freier Rahmen
gen wird. Obertragen, und die Einrichtung zum Ubertragen der
SCH-Bursts ausgelegt ist, so dass die SCH Bursts
4. Veriahren nach Anspruch 2 oder Anspruch 3, wobei mittels einzelner einer ersten Teilgruppe n/2 der Ba-
die Bursts Synchronisationskanal-SCH-Bursts sind, sisstationen in einer ersten Folge wahrend eines er-
die von Basisstationen in einem synchronen GSM- 10 sten Zeitschlitzes Ober n/2 sequentielle freie Rah-
Telekommunikatonssystem Obertragen werden. men und auch in einer zweiten, anderen Folge wah-
rend eines zweiten Zeitschlitzes Ober die n/2 se-
5. Veriahren nach einem der AnsprOche 1 bis 4, fOr ein quentiellen freien Rahmen und mittels einzelner ei-
System, bei dem vorbestimmte Information Zeit- ner zweiten Teilgruppe n/2 der Basisstationen in ei-
schlitzen eines freien Rahmens portioniert zugeord- 15 ner ersten Folge wahrend eines dritten Zeitschlitzes
net wird, und umfassend, die vorbestimmte Informa- Ober die n/2 sequentiellen freien Rahmen und auch
tion unterschiedlichen Zeitschlitzen der entspre- in einer zweiten, anderen Folge wahrend eines vier-
chenden freien Rahmen so portioniert zuzuordnen, ten Zeitschlitzes Ober die n/2 sequentiellen freien
dass die vorbestimmte Information aus einer Unter- Rahmen Obertragen werden.
gruppe der Zeitschlitze innerhalb einer vorbestimm- 20
ten Anzahl von Rahmen extrahierbar ist. 12. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem
nach einem der AnsprOche 9 bis 11, bei dem vorbe-
6. Veriahren nach Anspruch 5, wobei das System ein stimmte Information auf Zeitschlitze eines freien
synchrones Zeitmultiplextelekommunikationssy- Rah mens portioniertzugeteilt ist, und das eine Mehr-
stem mit Mehriachzugriff ist. 25 zahl von Basisstationen aufweist, wobei portionierte
zugeordnete, vorbestimmte Information durch ent-
7. Veriahren nach Anspruch 6, wobei das System ein sprechende der Basisstationen in einem anderen
GSM-Telekommunikationssystem ist. entsprechenden Zeitschlitz in entsprechenden frei-
en Rahmen Obertragen wird, so dass die vorbe-
8. Veriahren nach einem der AnsprOche 5 bis 7, bei 30 stimmte Information von den Basisstationen inner-
dem die vorbestimmte Information Synchronisati- halb einer Untergruppe der Zeitschlitze innerhalb ei-
onskanalbursts umfasst. ner vorbestimmten Anzahl von Rahmen Obertragen
wird.
9. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem mit
einer Mehrzahl von Basisstationen, die Synchroni- 35 13. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem
sationskanal-SCH-Bursts zu Mobilstationen wah- nach Anspruch 12, wobei das System ein synchro-
rend freier Rahmen Obertragen, wobei jede Basis- nes Zeitmultiplexttelekommunikationssystem mit
station eine Einrichtung zum Obertragen der SCH- Mehriachzugriff ist.
Bursts umfasst, so dass ein spezieller, von einer Ba-
sisstation Obertragener Bursts niemals in einem glei- 40 14. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem
chen Zeitschlitz wahrend zwei aufeinanderiolgender nach einem der AnsprOche 12 bis 13, bei dem die
freier Rahmen Obertragen wird. vorbestimmte Information Synchronisationskanal-
Bursts umfasst.
1O. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem
nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Mehrzahl von Basissta- 45 15. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem
tionen eine Gruppe mit einer Anzahl n von Basissta- nach einem der AnsprOche 9 bis 14, wobei die Ba-
tionen umfasst, die Synchronisationskanal-SCH- sisstationen ausgelegt sind, vorbestimmte Informa-
Bursts zu Mobilstationen wahrend freier Rahmen tion auf Zeitschlitze eines freien Rah mens portioniert
Obertragen, eine Einrichtung zum Obertragen der zuzuordnen, und eine Obertragungseinrichtung um-
SCH-Bursts ausgelegt ist, so dass die SCH Bursts 50 fassen, die betriebstahig ist, einen Teil der vorbe-
durch einzelne einer ersten Untergruppe n/2 der Ba- stimmten Information in einem anderen Zeitschlitz
sisstationen in Folge wahrend eines ersten Zeit- des freien Rahmens in entsprechenden Rahmen zu
schlitzes Ober n/2 sequentielle freie Rahmen Ober- Obertragen.
tragen und mittels einzelner einer zweiten Teilgrup-
pe n/2 der Basisstationen in Folge wahrend eines 55 16. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem
zweiten Zeitschlitzes Ober die n/2 sequentiellen frei- nach Anspruch 15, wobei die vorbestimmte Informa-
en Rahmen Obertragen werden. tion dieser Basisstation zugeordnete Oaten auf-
weist.

6
11 EP 1 166 589 81 12

17. Synchrones GSM-Telekommunikationssystem 8. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
nach Anspruch 15 oder Anspruch 16, wobei die vor- a
5 7, dans lequel les informations predeterminees
bestimmte Information Synchronisationskanal- comportent des rafales de canal de synchronisation.
Bursts umfasst.
5 9. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone,
comportant une pluralite de stations de base trans-
Revendications mettant des rafales de canal de synchronisation,
SCH, a des stations mobiles au cours de trames
1. a
Precede de presentation d'informations une sta- inactives, chaque station de base comportant des
tion mobile qui sonttransmises au cours d'une trame 10 moyens en vue de transmettre lesdites rafales de
inactive commune qui contient un ensemble de tran- canal SCH de sorte qu'une rafale particuliere trans-
ches de temps, le precede comportant l'etape con- a
mise partir d'une station de base n'estjamaistrans-
a
sistant executer une rotation des transmissions de mise dans une meme tranche de temps au cours de
a
tranches de temps partir de stations de base indi- deux trames inactives.
viduelles d'une pluralite de stations de base sur des 15
ensembles repetitifs de tranches de temps d'une plu- 1O. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
ralite de trames inactives de sorte que les stations lon la revendication 9, dans lequel la pluralite de sta-
mobiles sont en mesure de recevoirdes informations tions de base comporte un ensemble d'un nombre
de la totalite de la pluralite de stations de base a n de stations de base transmettant des rafales de
partir d'un sous-ensemble de !'ensemble de tran- 20 a
canal de synchronisation, SCH, des stations mo-
ches de temps, independamment de la tranche de biles au cours de trames inactives, des moyens pour
a
temps de trafic laquelle la station mobile est affec- transmettre lesdites rafales de canal SCH sont agen-
tee. ces de sorte que lesdites rafales de canal SCH sont
transmises par des stations de base individuelles
2. Precede selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les 25 d'un premier sous-ensemble n/2 de stations de base
a
stations de base sont exploitees de fai;:on alterner en sequence au cours d'une premiere tranche de
la transmission de rafales dans la trame inactive. temps sur n/2 tram es in actives sequentielles, et sont
transmises par des stations de base individuelles
3. Precede selon la revendication 2, dans lequel, selon d'un second sous-ensemble n/2 des stations de ba-
a
un nombre de rafales differentes envoyer, une ra- 30 se en sequence au cours d'une deuxieme tranche
a
fale particuliere transmise partir d'une station de de temps sur les n/2 trames inactives sequentielles.
base n'est jamais transmise dans la meme tranche
de temps au cours de deux trames inactives conse- 11. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
cutives. lon la revendication 9, dans lequel la pluralite de sta-
35 tions de base comporte un ensemble d'un nombre
4. Precede selon la revendication 2 ou 3, dans lequel n de stations de base transmettant des rafales de
les rafales sont des rafales de canal de synchroni- a
canal de synchronisation, SCH, des stations mo-
a
sation, SCH, transmises partir de stations de base biles au cours de trames inactives, et les moyens en
dans un systeme de telecommunication GSM syn- vue de transmettre lesdites rafales de canal SCH
chrone. 40 sont agences de sorte que lesdites rafales de canal
SCH sont transmises par des stations de base indi-
5. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications viduelles d'un premier sous-ensemble n/2 de sta-
a a
1 4, destine un systeme dans lequel des infor- tions de base dans une premiere sequence au cours
mations predeterminees sont reparties dans des d'une premiere tranche de temps sur n/2 trames
tranches de temps d'une trame inactive, et compor- 45 inactives sequentielles, et egalement dans une
a
tant l'etape consistant repartir les informations pre- deuxieme sequence differente au cours d'une
determinees dans differentes tranches de temps deuxieme tranche de temps sur les n/2 trames inac-
dans des trames inactives respectives de sorte que tives sequentielles, et par des stations de base indi-
les informations predeterminees sont extractibles a viduelles d'un second sous-ensemble n/2 des sta-
partir d'un sous-ensemble des tranches de temps 50 tions de base dans une premiere sequence au cours
dans un nombre de trames predetermine. d'une troisieme tranche de temps sur les n/2 trames
inactives sequentielles et egalement dans une se-
6. Precede selon la revendication 5, dans lequel le sys- conde sequence differente au cours d'une quatrieme
teme est un systeme de telecommunication d'acces tranche de temps sur les n/2 trames inactives se-
multiple par repartition dans le temps synchrone. 55 quentielles.

7. Precede selon la revendication 6, dans lequel le sys- 12. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
teme est un systeme de telecommunication GSM. a
lon l'une quelconque des revendications 9 11, dans

7
13 EP 1 166 589 81 14

lequel des informations predeterminees sont repar-
ties dans des tranches de temps d'une trame inac-
tive, et qui com po rte une pluralite de stations de base
dans laquelle des informations predeterminees re-
parties sont transmises par des stations respectives 5
desdites stations de base dans differentes tranches
de temps respectives dans des tram es in actives res-
pectives de sorte que les informations predetermi-
nees sont transmises par les stations de base dans
un sous-ensemble des tranches de temps dans un 10
nombre de trames predetermine.

13. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
Ion la revendication 12, dans lequel le systeme est
un systeme de telecommunication d'acces multiple 15
par repartition dans le temps synchrone.

14. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
Ion l'une quelconque des revendications 12 a
13,
dans lequel les informations predeterminees com- 20
portent des rafales de canal de synchronisation.

15. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
a
Ion l'une quelconque des revendications 9 14, dans
lequel les stations de base sont agencees pour re- 25
partir des informations predeterminees dans des
tranches de temps d'une trame inactive, etcompren-
nent des moyens de transmission exploitables pour
transmettre une partie des informations predetermi-
nees dans une tranche de temps distincte de la trame 30
inactive dans des trames respectives.

16. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
Ion la revendication 15, dans lequel les informations
predeterminees incluent des donnees associees a 35
cette station de base.

17. Systeme de telecommunication GSM synchrone se-
Ion la revendication 15 ou 16, dans lequel les infer-
mations predeterminees comportent des rafales de 40
canal de synchronisation.

45

50

55

8
EP 1 166 589 81

FIG.1

12
TRANSMITTER, 14 14A CONTROLLER, 18 DISPLAY,20

22a

KEYPAD,22

SPEAKER, 17
26

MICROPHONE, 19

MEMORY,24

'--10

9
EP 1166 589 81

I TO/FROM
I OTHER
BSs
BS2

NEIGHBOR CELL

~
SCH CURRENT BS1 ..,..__""--""" MSC
12 (BSIC) CELL
30A 34
32,BMI

•--+t-4...23

26

19

FIG.2

10
HYPERFRAME=2048 SUPERFRAMES
3h 28mn 53s 760ms

SUPERFRAME=26x51 MULTIFRAMES
{6.12 s)

.,,.....m
.....
...... O'J
...... O'J
GSM U1
Ol
U)

"26 MULTIFRAME" "51 MULTIFRAMEn FIG.3 m
.....

(120 ms) PRIOR ART
l__o__l__1 __! 2--I 1241241
TOMA FRAME
, (4,615 ms)
0 7
..... TOMA FRAME -
BP BTS TRANSMITS
- IDLE FRAME DOWNLINK
J (:..;..:._.:~
l 1I ] l .·::1
....
~,~
•\ l l l T J_ f=.\i;
• "" !~J--:.:-!1=
~..
1 •• ... ........,,.::fl~r.\l
~ ~~t·:~;F:;.:
* , ..... ....!!:.....:!!...' '•. • ....
1-i=--:::!·
' .
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

-a -

2BP-a
- -- 4BP+ IX -- --- 1 I
MEASUREMENT WINDOW
12BP+a
---
- -- m
- "'CJ
.....
-- - _ ..-
.....
m
m
~
U"I
CD

- -- U)

m
.....
-- ---
- ,..

MS TRANSMITs
UPLINK
I Tl . ......
··- I l I T ... ,·-'J:
t:• ., . ._. ··~r:-1~··:1--r" :t..
11-; • ~ • • , \,. .... ,,.._,.:•1~=1
·- •• ~; ••• ~ · 1~·-J
~
it' .... T T ·~
'\.::·~· ·.;· .... •' .,~ .i. • :!.] ••.".~· .,.·:·" ... , I I T
IDLE FRAME
a TIMING ADVANCE BP BURST PERIOD

FIG.4
PRIOR ART
EP 1 166 589 81

•••
FIG.5

,~~ .... """...:.,: ~f\· 1~;·. ~· p.2·_:: . . .
...... 0 "'·. I':.;' :
.... •• ,.
~r·::...... •..-•:.- 4.....
..; .
~.
......... ... _,., ........ - "i., •:·::•·
-~·~.
.. .,,. .... 5 ...... . . •.;5 . .... ~ ... 7 .•
·.~
J .... ~ -~~.

;.:.·.~i. : :.. ... ~;. ·. ~ : ..·~· .. .,,; :.:._.,..·. ~~"'!~· ..;;: .::: »=~" ~~: :.:··... • ~>~ ~ .. ·~~-: ::,:....
-? :".· , ..... - f ....
IDLE FRAME
10 4 7 1 1st
11 5 8 2 2nd
12 6 9 3 3rd
7 1 10 4 4th
8 2 11 5 5th
9 3 12 6 6th
10 4 7 1 •••
FIG.6
..... . ......") ....... j .. ,. :' .. 4.......:~. ...···'"5':'; -
.. " .' ....~~, "!:.:,:::.;<"
, ••: •,.111
:.~o ~ ...
.... • t"
~ ·"!
~ ~
"\..."•!"
1:.l:..., =.y .2 ..... .,;,,
·--~
.... ·-~-,,_,..· -···:. ..... .
t
. -·...:5
-~-:.
r...... : •·.
;~!',,., =-~ e.:-· ..... ~>:: .'\;; ::, :_
•• ": •• ...... \ : .• 'ii.,. .. .f ....
!.:,·.. ~·'..: ,:. ,,.. :.:~: , ......·~·-t ~ ............ ....:.-. ,..: .. •• ~.... "'\ IDLE FRAME
13 5 9 1 1st
14 6 10 2 2nd
15 7 11 3 3rd
16 8 12 4 4th
9 1 13 5 5th
I 10 2 14 6 6th
11 3 15 7 7th
12 4 16 8 8th
13 5 9 1 •••
FIG.7

13
EP 1 166 589 81

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION

This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European
patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be
excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description

• EP 0877510 A2 [0003]

Non-patent literature cited in the description

• MICHEL MOUL Y ; MARIE-BEMADETTE PAUTET.
The GSM System for Mobile Communications, 1992
[0002]

14
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of6

ANNEXl

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION FORMS

IPR Holder/Organisation

Legal Name: NOKJA CORPORATION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen
·------------------------------
Position: IPR M a n a g e r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Department: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Address: Joensuunkatu 7, FIN-24100 SALO, P.O.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND _ __

Tel.: +358503662022 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Fax: +358-7180 44275
----------------------------
E-mail: kalle.moilanen@nokia.co111 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as GSM. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

It is my belief that the IPR.<; listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPR.<; in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPR.<; listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPR.<; may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPR.<; remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Salo, Finkland, 25th of Jan 2005 _ _

(Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

Please return this fonn duly signed to:
ETSI Director-General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 4716
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 2 of6

ANNEX 2

OPTIONAL INFORMATION:
ETSI Standard, Technical Specification or
Other Patents!Applications No.
Work Item
Patent! in same family*
Patent Patent Suhject! Country of
Application
Project Work Item Proprietor Title registration
No.
or or Version Patent/Application Country
Section
Standard Standard (V.X.x.X) No. Applicable
name No.
Time division 0707779 EP
multiple access 3252911 JP
radio system, 97594 FI
Nokia method for intracell .94192689.3 CN
GSM 5.5 5.1.0 6047181 US
45.010 Corporation capacity allocation, 675339 AU
and method for
performing an intra-
cell handover
Method and 65143 SG
equipment for 335275 NZ
Nokia transmitting terminal 103547 FI
GSM 10.3 5.2.0 6556550 US
44.021 Corporation interface user data 0938797 EP
and status 97199875.2 CN
information 727963 AU
1166589 EP
GSM 6.3.2.1 8.b.0 Nokia ZL0080604 Rotating CN
542686/2002 JP
Corporation 9.5 synchronization
 05.03 AnnexD
channel (SCH)
transmission

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France 1Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 6547 16
15
A18965VI
Europaisches Patentamt

(19) European Patent Office 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111

Office europeen des brevets (11) EP 1 330 933 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.7: H04Q 7/38
of the grant of the patent:
14.12.2005 Bu II et in 2005/50 (86) International application number:
PCT/Fl2001 /000909
(21) Application number: 01980558.9
(87) International publication number:
(22) Date of filing: 18.10.2001 WO 2002/035877 (02.05.2002 Gazette 2002/18)

(54) POSITIONING A SUBSCRIBER TERMINAL IN A PACKET-SWITCHED MOBILE TELEPHONY
NETWORK USING BOTH PACKET-SWITCHED AND CIRCUIT-SWITCHED MESSAGES
POSITIONIERUNG EINES TEILNEHMERENDGERATS IN EINEM PAKETVERMITTELTEN
MOBILFERNSPRECHNETZWERK DURCH VERWENDUNG SOWOHL PAKETVERMITTELTER
ALS AUCH LEITUNGSVERMITTELTER NACHRICHTEN
LOCALISATION D'UN TERMINAL D'ABONNE DANS UN RESEAU DE TELEPHONIE MOBILE A
COMMUTATION DE PAQUETS UTILISANT DES MESSAGES A LA FOIS A COMMUTATION DE
PAQUETS ET A COMMUTATION DE CIRCUITS

(84) Designated Contracting States: • RAJALA, Jussi
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU FIN-02340 Espoo (Fl)
MC NL PT SE TR
(74) Representative: Soderholm, Sampsa Petteri et al
(30) Priority: 24.10.2000 Fl 20002337 Forssen & Salomaa Oy
Eerikinkatu 2
(43) Date of publication of application: 00100 Helsinki (Fl)
30.07.2003 Bulletin 2003/31
(56) References cited:
(73) Proprietor: Nokia Corporation EP-A2- 0 841 831 WO-A 1-00/25545
02150 Espoo (Fl) WO-A 1-00n6171 WO-A 1-01 /39442
WO-A1·01/56321 WO-A1·01/60094
(72) Inventors: WO-A 1-99/63774 US-A 1- 2001 009 544
• VANTTINEN, Veijo
FIN-02770 Espoo (Fl)

,....
m
M
M
0)
0
M Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give
M
,.... notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in
a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art.
a. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1 330 933 81 2

Description are also received at a Location Measurement Unit
(LMU), sited at a known fixed point. The location of the
FIELD OF TECHNOLOGY subscriber terminal will be determined from the geomet-
rical components calculated from the time delays.
[0001] The present invention relates to the positioning 5 [0007] Another method for determining the position is
of a subscriber terminal in a packet-switched mobile tel- to use a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver fitted
ephone network. into the subscriber terminal. The GPS receiver will re-
ceive signals from at least four satellites orbiting the
BACKGROUND Earth; from these signals, it is possible to calculate/de-
10 termine the latitude, longitude and altitude of the sub-
[0002] Positioning a subscriber terminal, that is, de- scriber terminal. The subscriber terminal can either de-
termining its geographical location, is an important fea- termine its position independently, or it can be assisted.
ture in cellular radio networks. In the United States, FCC The network component of the radio system can send
(Federal Communication Commission) requires that it the subscriber terminal an assisting message to make
must be possible to determine the position of any sub- 15 positioning quicker and thus reduce the power con-
scriber terminal initiating an emergency call with a res- sumption of the subscriber terminal. The assisting mes-
olution of 50 meters at the finest. The location informa- sage may contain the time of day, a list of visible satel-
tion can also be utilised for commercial means, for ex- lites, the Doppler phase of the satellite signal, and the
ample, for determining various tariff zones or imple- search window for the code phase. The subscriber ter-
menting a navigation service for guiding the user. Loca- 20 minal may send the received information to the network
tion services (LCS) have thus far been developed pri- component that will then perform the actual calculation/
marily for applications in circuit-switched cellular radio determination of position.
networks such as the GSM system (Global System for [0008] In this application, the network component of
Mobile Communications). a radio system means the fixed part of the radio system,
[0003] There are various methods for implementing 25 that is, eitherthe whole system excluding the subscriber
the location service. On the coarsest level, the position terminal, or a specified element of the network (that is,
of the subscriber terminal can be determined by the not all network functions require all elements of the net-
identity of the cell serving it. This information is not very work, and thus the word 'network' can also refer to an
accurate, as the cell diameter can be tens of kilometres. operation performed by a single element of the net-
[0004] A more accurate result can be obtained by uti- 30 work). Therefore, the network component comprises
lising timing information of the radio connection, for ex- network elements communicating with each other in
ample Timing Advance (TA), as supplementary informa- various ways.
tion. In the GSM system, TA will indicate the position of
the subscriber terminal at a resolution of approximately PRIOR ART
550 meters. The problem is that if the cell uses an om- 35
nidirectional antenna, the position of the subscriber ter- [0009] Previously known methods for positioning a
minal can only be determined as being on a certain pe- network component, such as those used in the circuit-
rimeter drawn around the base station. A base station switched GSM system, utilise the SMLC (Serving Mo-
with three separate sectors will make the situation slight- bile Location Center) network element; the communica-
ly better, but even in this case, the position of the sub- 40 tion between network elements required forthe position-
scriber terminal can only be determined as being inside ing is conducted by means of signalling messages both
a sector 120 degrees wide and 550 meters deep at a in the data link layer and in higher layers. Thus, the SM-
certain distance from the base station. LC network element will perform the actual positioning
[0005] Even these inaccurate methods are adequate calculations/determination by request.
for some applications, for example, determination of tar- 45 [001 O] In the case of either a Mobile Originated Loca-
iff zones. In addition, more accurate methods have been tion Request (MO-LR) or a Mobile Terminated Location
developed. Usually, these methods are based on sev- Request (MTLR), the latter originated by an external cli-
eral different base stations making measurements of ent, two SCCP (Signalling Connection Control Part)
signals transmitted by the subscriber terminal, an exam- connections will be opened to access the functionality
ple being the TOA method (Time of Arrival). 50 at the network level; SCCP includes provisions for ex-
[0006] The subscriber terminal can also make meas- changing messages required for determining the loca-
urements of the signals transmitted by a number of base tion. One SCCP will be between the MSC (Mobile
stations, an example of such a method being the E-OTD Switching Center) and the BSC (Base Station Control-
method (Enhanced Observed Time Difference). In syn- ler), and another SCCP will be between the BSC and
chronised networks, the subscriber terminal can meas- 55 the SMLC (Serving Mobile Location Centre) in use. The
ure the interrelations between the moments of reception SCCP connection is of the type known as connection-
of signals from various base stations. In non-synchro- oriented. Each SCCP connection has its own identifier
nised networks, the signals sent by the base stations (SCCP Connection ID) that can be used to establish an

2
3 EP 1 330 933 81 4

association. system (such as the SGSN) and the subscriber terminal
[0011] After opening these two SCCP connections, it MS. So, the core network requests the radio network of
is possible to pass a location request to the SMLC; the the radio system (such as the BSC) to open the connec-
BSC will forward the positioning messages between the tion. The signalling required is relatively heavy and slow.
mobile terminal and SMLC over the radio interface. The 5 Nevertheless, in time-critical applications it would be im-
same connection can also be used to pass BSSLAP portant to quickly get the location of the subscriber ter-
(Base Station Subsystem Link Access Protocol) mes- minal from the location service.
sages between the SMLC and the base station serving [0016] International patent application published on
the subscriber. Because it is the responsibility of the number WO 00/25545 presents a method for providing
Base Station Controller (BSC) to direct the connections 10 location service information related to a mobile station
to the correct Mobile Station (MS), the messages in the in a system supporting two types of connections, the first
said higher layers need not include any information type being circuit-switched and the second being pack-
aboutthe connections nor any terminal identification da- et-switched. A request is received from a requesting en-
ta. tity, location service information relating to the mobile
[0012] It is not possible to use above presented meth- 15 station is retrieved and a response is provided to the
od in a packet-switched network, because there is no request. A preferred type of connection for the retrieving
means to utilise circuit-switched signalling. For exam- step is determined based on a set of predetermined cri-
ple, there is no SCCP connection to be used forth is pur- teria and at least a first attempt is performed in the re-
pose. In packet-switched networks, information identi- trieving step via the determined preferred type of con-
fying the third-layer connection must thus be included 20 nection.
in the message. For example, the so-called TLLI (Tem- [0017] European patent application published on
porary Logical Link Identity) can be included in messag- number EP 0 841 831 A2 presents a solution for com-
es in the third layer or in higher layers. The same TLLI municating over a plurality of networks that employ dif-
is also used in the RLC/MAC (Radio Link Control/Media fering transmission standards. The solution comprises
Access Control) protocol in the radio connection. 25 the use of a call set-up translator, an encoding format
[0013] The problem is the communication between translator, a special address database and a session
the BSC and the SMLC, the latter having an Lb interface, manager.
and how to make the Lb interface support packet- [0018] International patent application published on
switched communications. The difficult part is how to es- number WO 00/76171 A 1 presents a method of provid-
tablish signalling between three parties: the SMLC, the 30 ing information on the location of a first entity which is
MS and the SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node). The connectable to a communications network via a second
SGSN is known from the GPRS (General Packet Radio entity. The method comprises defining an association
Service) system. A specific difficulty is that the PCU between the first and the second entity. The position of
(Packet Control Unit) is not able to associate communi- the second entity is determined and information on the
cations through the Lb interface with the communica- 35 position of the second entity is provided as information
tions of a specified terminal. on the position of the first entity. This publication does
[0014] In packet-switched radio systems, such as not form pre-published state of the art as far as the
GPRS or EGPRS (Enhanced General Packet Radio present application is concerned.
Service), not much attention has been paid so far to the
implementation of the location service. EGPRS is a 40 THE PRESENT INVENTION
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
based system utilizing packet-switched communica- [0019] The idea of the present invention is to utilise
tions. EGPRS utilises EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for both packet-switched (connectionless) and circuit-
GSM Evolution) technology to increase the communica- switched (connection-oriented) communications be-
tions capacity. In addition to the GMSK (Gaussian Min- 45 tween the appropriate network elements for positioning
imum Shift Keying) modulation normally used with a subscriber terminal in a packet-switched network. Par-
GSM, it is possible to use 8-PSK (8-Phase Shift Keying) ticularly the idea of the invention is to use a circuit-
modulation for the packet data channels. The primary switched connection between the Base Station Control-
target is the implementation of non-real-time data com- ler and the Serving Mobile Location Centre, and a pack-
munications services such as file copying and Internet 50 et-switched connection between other network ele-
browsing, but also real-time packet-switched services ments. In the invention, an association between the
for speech and video transmission, for example, can be packet-switched and circuit-switched functionality is es-
implemented. tablished in the Base Station Controller.
[0015] To transfer the information required by the po- [0020] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the
sitioning methods described above, packet-switched ra- 55 said association can be implemented by establishing an
dio systems require a packet-switched transmission association between the packet-switched and circuit-
channel (using a so-called connectionless protocol) to switched messages, or, for example, by establishing an
be established between the core network of the radio association between the packet-switched and circuit-

3
5 EP 1 330 933 81 6

switched protocol layers. Furthermore, in an embodi- a location unitfor determining the position of the ter-
ment of the invention, the association can be estab- minal, functionally connected with a network ele-
lished as a table associating the packet-switched mes- ment of the mobile telephone network, and that the
sage identifier with the circuit-switched message iden- connection between said network element and the
tifier. 5 location unit is circuit-switched, and said network el-
[0021] An embodiment of the invention utilises signal- ement comprises:
ling based on the SS? protocol between the BSC and
the SMLC. The CCITT SS? (Signalling System 7) pro- both circuit-switched and packet-switched
tocol is a signalling protocol widely used by telecommu- functionality for processing circuit-switched
nications operators; signalling between network ele- 10 and, respectively, packet-switched messages;
ments is carried by protocol layers on a specific signal- and
ling channel. The protocol layers used are highly uni- means for establishing an association between
form, in accordance with the general-purpose 7-layer the circuit-switched and the packet-switched
protocol model. functionality for the transmission of data related
[0022] According to a first aspect of the invention, 15 to a specific positioning between the packet-
there is implemented a method for positioning a sub- switched and the circuit-switched functionality,
scriber terminal in a packet-switched mobile telephone wherein said network element is a network el-
network, wherein for positioning the terminal a message ement of a base station system of the mobile
is passed via a network element of the mobile telephone telephone network.
network; and it is characteristic of the method that 20
[0025] The invention is suited for positioning for ex-
for implementing the communications required for ample in a GSM-based packet-switched GPRS or EG-
the positioning, both circuit-switched and packet- PRS radio system utilizing a GERAN (GSM EDGE Ra-
switched messages are used in said network ele- dio Access Network) base station controller.
ment (102, 501) of the mobile telephone network; 25 [0026] According to a third aspect of the invention,
an association is established by said network ele- there is implemented a network element for a packet-
ment between these messages for transferring data switched mobile communications system, comprising
related to a specific positioning between packet- means for implementing packet-switched functionality
switched and circuit-switched functionality, and for processing packet-switched messages; it is charac-
wherein 30 teristic of the network element that it comprises:
a circuit-switched connection is used between said
network element and a location centre, wherein means for implementing circuit-switched function-
said network element is a network element of a ality for processing circuit-switched messages;
base station system of the mobile telephone net- means for establishing an association between the
work. 35 circuit-switched and the packet-switched function-
ality for the transmission of data, related to a spe-
[0023] According to the method, it is possible to per- cific positioning, between the packet-switched and
form positioning in a packet-switched network by utiliz- the circuit-switched functionality; and
ing a circuit-switched location server. A benefit of the means for using a circuit-switched connection be-
method is that SS? protocol signalling can be utilised for 40 tween said network element and a location unit,
packet-switched positioning and that this signalling will said network element being part of a base station
stay unmodified compared with the signalling used in system of the mobile telephone network.
present-day circuit-switched positioning (because the
extra information needed for positioning is transmitted [0027] The preferred embodiments of the invention
in the transport layer), so that positioning in a packet- 45 are the subject of non-independent patent claims.
switched network can be implemented using a location [0028] A method and system according to the inven-
centre from a (old) circuit-switched network (using SS? tion have the following benefits. It is possible to avoid
signalling). using different device for implementing a packet-
[0024] According to a second aspect of the invention, switched location service. Additionally, according to the
there is presented a system for positioning a subscriber 50 invention, no large modifications to existing device are
terminal in a packet-switched mobile telephone net- required, and signalling in the network becomes more
work, said network comprising a core network element, uniform, and a relatively fast location service is achieved
base stations, a base station controller controlling the that can be implemented in the current packet-switched
base stations, and a mobile terminal of the mobile tele- network in a relatively quick and, for the network oper-
phone network, the system comprising means for ar- 55 ator, relatively cost-efficient way. The location service
ranging the connections in the mobile telephone net- becomes faster when in certain cases, no specific pack-
work in a packet-switched fashion; and it is characteris- et data connection needs to be opened between the ter-
tic of the system that it comprises: minal and the location centre.

4
7 EP 1 330 933 81 8

[0029] The method according to the invention makes based radio interface, or a radio interface utilizing EDGE
it possible to implement location services in a GERAN modulation.
(GSM EDGE Radio Access Network) system by utilizing [0032] The description of Figures 1A and 1Bis mainly
the Lb interface in a way suitable for packet switching based on UMTS. The main components of the mobile
and by implementing protocol stacks suitable for packet 5 telephone system are the Core Network CN, the UMTS
switching in the BSC and SMLC network components Terrestrial Radio Access Network, also known as the
of the GERAN system. Radio Network UTRAN, and the subscriber terminal, al-
so known as the User Equipment UE. The interface be-
SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS tween CN and UTRAN is called lu, and the air interface
10 between UTRAN and UE is called Uu.
[0030] In the following, the invention will be discussed [0033] UTRAN is comprised of Radio Network Sub-
in more detail together with the preferred embodiments systems RNS. The interface between RNS's is called
by referring to the enclosed drawings, of which lur. RNS is comprised of a Radio Network Controller
RNC as well as one or more Node B's. The interface
Figure 1A shows an example of the structure of a 15 between RNC and Bis called lub. The range of Node B,
cellular network; also known as the cell, is marked in Figure 1A by the
letter C. RNS can also be called Base Station Subsys-
Figure 1B shows a more detailed block diagram of tem (BSS), a more traditional term. So, the network
a cellular network; component of the radio system comprises the radio net-
20 work UTRAN and the core network CN.
Figure 1C shows a circuit-switched connection; [0034] The description in Figure 1A is on a very gen-
eral level, so it will be clarified further in Figure 1B by
Figure 1D shows a packet-switched connection; showing the components of the GSM system that rough-
ly correspond to each component of the UMTS system.
Figure 2 shows an example of the protocol stacks 25 It should be noted that the description shown here is by
in specific parts of the cellular radio network; no means binding, but rather suggestive, because the
responsibilities and functions of the various UMTS com-
Figure 3 is a flow chart illustrating the operations ponents are still in the design stage.
performed in the positioning method; [0035] The subscriber terminal 150 can be, for exam-
30 pie, a fixed terminal, a terminal fitted to a vehicle, or a
Figure 4 is a signal sequence chart illustrating the portable terminal. The radio network infrastructure
signalling performed in the positioning method; UTRAN is comprised of Radio Network Subsystems
RNS, also known as Base Station Systems. The Radio
Figure 5 shows a block diagram of the implementa- Network Subsystem RNS is comprised of a Radio Net-
tion of base station controller according to the in- 35 work Controller RNC, also known as the Base Station
vention; and Controller 102, and at least one Node B, also known as
Base Station 100, operating under the control of the
Figure 6 shows the circuit-switched protocol signal- RNC.
ling over the Lb interface according to the invention. [0036] The Base Station 100 comprises a multiplexer
40 116, several transceivers 114, and a control unit 118,
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION controlling the operation of transceivers 114 and multi-
plexer 116. The multiplexer 116 is used to place the traf-
[0031] Referring to Figures 1A and 1B, a typical struc- fic and control channels used by several transceivers
ture of a packet-switched radio system, together with its 114 into the transmission channel 160.
interfaces to the fixed telephone network and the packet 45 [0037] The transceivers 114 in the base station 100
transmission network, will be described. Figure 1B only are connected to the antenna unit 112 which is used for
contains the blocks essential to the description of the implementing a two-way radio connection Uu to the sub-
embodiments, but it is clear to a person skilled in the art scriber terminal 150. The structure of frames transmitted
that a typical packet-switched cellular radio network also on the two-way radio connection Uu is accurately de-
comprises other functions and structures whose de- 50 fined.
tailed description is not required here. The radio system [0038] The base station controller RNC (reference
can be, for example, a GSM-based GPRS or EGPRS, 102) comprises a group switching matrix 120 and a con-
a Universal Mobile Telephone System UMTS utilizing trol unit 124. The group switching matrix 120 is used for
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, or a hybrid of switching voice and data and for connecting signalling
these systems, where the structure of the network is out- 55 circuits. The base station system RNS comprised of the
lined in the UMTS style and the radio network is called base station 100 and the base station controller 102 also
GERAN (GSM Enhanced Radio Access Network), includes a transcoder 122.
where the radio interface is nevertheless a normal GSM- [0039] The physical structure of base station control-

5
9 EP 1 330 933 81 10

ler 102 and base station 100, as well as the division of [0045] The gateway node 144 connects the public
tasks between them, can vary depending on the imple- packet transmission network 146 with the packet trans-
mentation. Typically, the base station 100 is responsible mission network 142. The Internet Protocol or the X.25
for the implementation of the radio path in the manner protocol can be used in the interface. By using encap-
described above. The base station controller 102 typi- 5 sulation, the gateway node 144 will hide the internal
cally manages the following: management of radio re- structure of packet transmission network 142 from the
sources, control of channel switching between cells, public packet transmission network 146, so from the
power regulation, timing and synchronization, and pag- point of view of the public packet transmission network
ing the subscriber terminal. 146, the packet transmission network 142 looks like a
[0040] The transcoder 122 is typically located as 10 subnet; the public packet transmission network 146 can
close as possible to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) send packets to a subscriber terminal 150 in the subnet
132, as the voice data can then be transmitted in the and can receive packets from it.
mobile telephone system's format between the trans- [0046] Typically, the packet transmission network 142
coder 122 and the base station controller 102, thus sav- is a private network utilizing the Internet Protocol and
ing transmission capacity. The transcoder 122 converts 15 carrying signalling as well as user data. The structure of
between the different digital voice coding formats used the network 142 can vary from operator to operator, in-
in the public switched telephone network and the radio cluding its architecture and protocols below the Internet
telephone network; for example, it can convert from the Protocol layer.
64 kbit/s format in the fixed network to another format [0047] The public packet transmission network 146
used in the cellular radio network (for example, 13 kbit/ 20 can be, for example, the global Internet; a terminal 148
s) and vice versa. The required device will not be dis- connected to it, for example, a server computer, wants
cussed here in more detail; it should be noted, though, to transmit packets to the subscriber terminal 150.
that no other data but voice will be subject to conversion [0048] Figure 1C shows how a circuit-switched trans-
in the transcoder 122. mission channel can be established between the sub-
[0041] The control unit 124 performs call control, mo- 25 scriber terminal 150 and the public switched telephone
bility management, gathering of statistical information, network terminal 136. In the figures, an intensified line
and signalling. shows the flow of data through the system in the air in-
[0042] The core network CN is comprised of the mo- terface 170, from the antenna 112 to the transceiver 114,
bile telephone system infrastructure outside UTRAN. Of from there multiplexed in the multiplexer 116 through the
the device related to circuit-switched transmission in the 30 transmission channel 160 to the switching matrix 120,
core network CN, Figure 1B shows the Mobile Switching where a connection has been established to the output
Centre 132. going into the transcoder 122. from there via a connec-
[0043] As can be seen in Figure 1B, the switching ma- tion made in the mobile switching centre 132 to the pub-
trix 120 can be used to make connections (shown with lic switched telephone network 134 and its terminal 136.
black circles) into the Public Switched Telephone Net- 35 In the base station 100, the control unit 118 controls the
work (PSTN) 134 via the mobile switching centre 132, multiplexer 116 in performing the transmission, and in
and into the packet transmission network 142, such as the base station controller 102, the control unit 124 con-
a GPRS network. In the public switched telephone net- trols the switching matrix 120 to make the correct con-
work 134, a typical terminal 136 is a conventional tele- nection.
phone or an ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) 40 [0049] Figure 1D shows a packet-switched connec-
telephone. Packet transmission will be carried out via a tion. A portable computer 152 has now been connected
data communications network, such as the Internet 146, to the subscriber terminal UE (reference 150 in Figure
from a computer connected to the mobile telephone sys- 1B). The intensified line shows the flow of transmitted
tem 148 to a portable computer 152 connected to the data from the server computer 148 to the portable com-
subscriber terminal 150. In place of a combination of 45 puter 152. It is of course possible to transmit data also
subscriber terminal 150 and portable computer 152, it in the opposite direction, that is, from the portable com-
is possible to use, for example, a WAP (Wireless Appli- puter 152 to the server computer 148. The data flows
cation Protocol) telephone or a device of the Nokia 911 O through the system in the air interface, also known as
Communicator type, integrating a mobile communica- the Um interface 170, from the antenna 112 to the trans-
tions terminal with a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). 50 ceiver 114, and from there multiplexed in the multiplexer
[0044] The connection between packet transmission 116 through the transmission channel (reference 160 in
network 142 and switching matrix 120 will be estab- Figure 1B) in the Abis interface to the switching matrix
lished by a support node 140 (SGSN Serving GPRS 120, where a connection has been established to the
Support Node). The purpose of the support node 140 is output going into the support node 140 in the Gb inter-
to transfer packets between the base station system and 55 face; from the support node 140, the data will be trans-
a gateway node (GGSN Gateway GPRS Support mitted via the packet transmission network 142 through
Node) 144, and to keep track of the position of subscrib- the gateway node 144, connected to the public packet
er terminal 150 within its operating area. transmission network 146 and its server computer 148.

6
11 EP 1 330 933 81 12

[0050] For clarity, Figures 1C and 1D do not show a base station B, nor the structure of the transceiver in
case where both circuit-switched and packet-switched subscriber terminal UE described here in more detail,
data is transmitted at the same time. This is, neverthe- as the implementation of the said devices is clear to a
less, wholly possible and common, as capacity that is person skilled in the art. For example, a normal EGPRS-
not used for circuit-switched transmission can be uti- 5 compliant radio network transceiver and subscriber ter-
lised for packet-switched transmission in a flexible way. minal transceiver can be used. The operations related
It is also possible to construct a network where no cir- to positioning will be carried out in upper layers of the
cuit-switched data is transmitted; the network is used OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model, particular-
only for packet-switched data. This makes it possible to ly in the third layer.
simplify the network structure. 10 [0058] Figure 2 shows the protocol stacks of the EG-
[0051] Let us take a further look at Figure 1D. The dif- PRS Control Plane as an example. It should be noted
ferent entities of the UMTS system that the embodiments are by no means restricted to EG-
PRS. The protocol stacks have been built according to
CN, UTRAN, RNS, RNC, B - are outlined in the fig- the ISO (International Standardization Organization)
ure as dashed boxes. The device related to packet- 15 OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. In the OSI
switched transmission in the core network CN will model, protocol stacks are divided into layers. In princi-
now be described in more detail. In addition to the ple, there can be seven layers. For each network ele-
support node 140, the packet transmission network ment, Figure 2 shows the protocol parts processed in
142 and the gateway node 144, the core network that element. The network elements are the subscriber
also includes a Gateway Mobile Location Center 20 terminal MS, the base station system BSS, the support
(GMLC) 186 and a Home Location Register (HLR) node SGSN, and the location centre SMLC. The base
184. station and the base station controller are not shown
separately, because no interface has been defined be-
[0052] The purpose of the Gateway Mobile Location tween them. The protocol processing assigned to base
Center 186 is to provide location service to an external 25 station system BSS can thus in principle be freely dis-
client 188. The Home Location Register 184 includes tributed between the base station 100 and the base sta-
subscriber data and routing information for the location tion controller 102; in practice, the transcoder 122 can
service. Additional location service device shown in Fig- not be used here, even though it is a part of the base
ure 1D includes the Serving Mobile Location Center station system BSS. The various network elements are
182, which can reside in the base station controller RNC 30 separated by their interfaces Um, Gb, and Gn.
as shown, for example in its control component 124; it [0059] The layers in each device MS, BSS, SGSN,
can also be a separate device connected to either the and SMLC, will communicate logically with the corre-
base station controller RNC or the support node 140. sponding layer in another device. Only the lowermost,
[0053] In addition, a Location Measurement Unit physical layers will communicate directly with each oth-
(LMU) 180 is shown; it can reside either in the base sta- 35 er. Other layers will always use services provided by the
tion B, for example in its control component 118, or it next lower layer. The message must therefore be phys-
can be a separate device connected to the base station ically passed vertically between the layers, and only in
B. The purpose of the Location Measurement Unit 180 the lowermost layer (also known as the physical layer),
is to perform radio measurements possibly required by the message will be transmitted horizontally between
the positioning method. 40 the layers.
[0054] The Location Measurement Unit 180 for sub- [0060] The actual transmission at the bit level will be
scriber terminals is a network element also known as performed using the lowermost, first layer RF, L 1. The
SMLC (Serving Mobile Location Center). physical layer defines the mechanical, electrical and
[0055] Figure 1D also shows the structural parts of the functional features for connecting into the transmission
subscriber terminal U E that are relevant to the present 45 medium in question.
application. The subscriber terminal UE comprises an [0061] The next, second layer, known as the data link
antenna 190, through which the transceiver 192 re- layer, utilises the services of the physical layer to imple-
ceives a signal from the radio interface 170. The oper- ment reliable communications, performing correction of
ations of the subscriber terminal UE are controlled by a transmission errors, for example In the air interface 170,
control component 194, typically a microprocessor with 50 the data link layer is divided into the RLC/MAC sublayer
its required software. and the LLC sublayer. The third layer, known as the net-
[0056] In addition to the components shown here, the work layer, provides the upper layers with independence
subscriber terminal UE also comprises a user interface of data transmission and switching technologies be-
typically comprised of a loudspeaker, a microphone, a tween the devices.
display and a keyboard, as well as a battery. These are 55 [0062] The network layer is responsible for establish-
not described here in more detail, as they are not rele- ing, maintaining and disconnecting connections. In the
vant to the present invention. GSM system, the network layer is also known as the
[0057] Neither is the structure of the transceiver in signalling layer. It serves two main tasks: message rout-

7
13 EP 1 330 933 81 14

ing, and the means to establish several independent, tern. The physical layer performs, for example, the car-
simultaneous connections between two entities. The rier modulation, interleaving and error correction for the
network layer comprises the Session Management transmitted data, synchronization, and transmitter pow-
(SM) sublayer and the GPRS Mobility Management er regulation.
(GMM) sublayer. 5 [0067] The GPRS tunneling protocol GTP (GPRS
[0063] The GPRS Mobility Management sublayer Tunnelling Protocol) will tunnel the signalling via the
GMM manages the consequences of subscriber termi- backbone network between different SGSN's and
nal movement that are not directly related to radio re- GGSN's. If desired, GTP can implement flow control be-
sources management. In the fixed network, this sublay- tween the SGSN and the GGSN. UDP (User Datagram
er would be responsible for user authentication control 10 Protocol) will transmitthose data packets in the GTP lay-
and connecting the user to the network. Therefore, in er that do not require a reliable link, for example, when
cellular networks this sublayer supports user mobility using IP (Internet Protocol). In the user level, TCP
and registration as well as the management of data re- (Transmission Control Protocol) could also be used; it
sulting from mobility. In addition, this sublayer will verify provides flow control as well as protection against loss
the identity of the subscriber terminal and the authorised 15 and corruption for the packets transmitted through it.
services. Messaging in this sublayer takes place be- Respectively, UDP only provides protection against
tween the subscriber terminal MS and the support node packet corruption.
SGSN. [0068] IP is the GPRS backbone protocol, its func-
[0064] The session management sublayer SM man- tions including the routing of user data as well as control
ages all operations related to the management of a 20 data. IP can be based on the IPv4 protocol, but later on,
packet-switched call, but it does not detect the move- the system will be migrated to use the 1Pv6 protocol. The
ment of the user. The session management sublayer BSSGP (Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol) layer
SM will establish, maintain, and release the connec- will carry information related to routing and quality of
tions. It includes separate procedures for calls originat- service between the BSS and the SGSN, in addition to
ed by the subscriber terminal 150 and calls terminating 25 upper-layer data. The physical transmission of this in-
in it. Messaging in this sublayer also takes place be- formation is performed in the FR (Frame Relay) layer.
tween the subscriber terminal MS and the support node NS (Network Service) will forward the messages ac-
SGSN. cording to the BSSGP protocol.
[0065] In the base station system BSS, the messages [0069] Next, reference is made to Figures 3 to 6, de-
in the session management sublayer SM and the mo- 30 scribing the possible signalling of the subscriber termi-
bility management sublayer GMM are processed trans- nal positioning method according to the invention, and
parently, that is, they are only transferred back and forth. its possible uses. Figure 3 is a flow chart illustrating the
[0066] The LLC (Logical Link Control) layer will imple- operations performed in the positioning method, and
ment a reliable, encrypted logical link between the SG- Figure 4 is a signal sequence chart illustrating the sig-
SN and the MS. The LLC is self-sufficient and independ- 35 nailing performed in the positioning method.
ent of the lower layers, to minimise the effect of a mod- [0070] It should be noted that the example shown us-
ified air interface on the network component of the mo- es operations not yet specified in the stage three de-
bile telephone network. The information to be transmit- scription of 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project),
ted, as well as the user data, will be protected by en- so the names used here may be changed in the future.
cryption. Between the Um and Gb interfaces, the LLC 40 [0071] In addition, for example the SMLC and the
data will be transmitted in the LLC relaying layer LLC base station controller may in practice be integrated in
RELAY. The MAC (Medium Access Control) layer is re- the same device. The method according to the invention
sponsible for the following tasks: multiplexing of data should be used even in this case, to facilitate an asso-
and signalling both in the uplink connections (from the ciation-based connection to the desired terminal.
subscriber terminal to the network component) and the 45 [0072] The operation starts from step 301, with a lo-
downlink connections (from the network component to cation request in step 302. Such a request 400, 401 may
the subscriber terminal), managing uplink resource re- be either a MOLR request 401 from the mobile terminal
quests, and the distribution and timing of resources for or a MTLR request 400 from another network element.
downlink traffic. Also the handling of traffic priorities is The operation is the same in both cases.
the responsibility of this layer. The RLC (Radio Link Con- 50 [0073] According to Figure 4, an internal or external
trol) layer is responsible for passing the LLC layer data, client of the location service, or a mobile terminal MS,
that is, the LLC frames, to the MAC layer; the RLC splits requests information on the location of a certain sub-
the LLC frames into RLC data blocks and relays them scriber terminal by sending a location service request
to the MAC layer. In the uplink direction, the RLC con- 400,401, received by the SGSN. The required routing
structs LLC frames from the RLC data blocks and pass- 55 information to the appropriate SGSN will be obtained
es these to the LLC layer. The physical layer will be im- from the HLR by means of a special routing information
plemented using a radio connection in the Um interface, request, acknowledged by the HLR with a routing infor-
for example, the air interface defined in the GSM sys- mation acknowledgement. This operation is regarded

8
15 EP 1 330 933 81

known, and will not be discussed further. Based on the cording to the invention. A GERAN (BSC, PCU) base
routing information, the GMLC knows the appropriate station controller 501 according to the invention com-
SGSN to send the request for subscriber terminal loca- prises a protocol stack 502 for packet-switched function-
tion. ality and a protocol stack 503 for circuit-switched func-
[0074] In the next step 303 of Figure 3, the SGSN in 5 tionality. Using the packet-switched protocol stack 502,
question will send a BSSGP message 402 to the packet the base station controller communicates with the SG-
controller (that is, the packet-switched functionality PCU SN 504, and using the circuit-switched protocol stack
of the base station controller GE RAN), including at least 503, the base station controller communicates with the
TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity) and BVCI (BSS- SMLC location server 505.
GP Virtual Connection Identifier) information. The BVCI 10 [0080] The base station controller 501 also communi-
indicates the cell where the mobile terminal is in opera- cates with the mobile station MS through the air inter-
tion. face Um, but for clarity, this is not shown in Figure 5.
[0075] The packet controller PCU examines the BSS- [0081] The control unit 506 controls the association,
GP message 402 received in step 304, and if it is a lo- and thus the packet-switched and circuit-switched com-
cation message, it will be converted to the BSSAP-LE 15 munications in the base station controller, records the
protocol so that the circuit-switching controller, that is, identification data (or the whole location message) of
the circuit-switched functionality BSC of the base station packet-switched and circuit-switched messages related
controller GERAN (see Figure 5) would be able to for- to a certain connection into the storage device 507 to
ward the message 403 further to the SMLC by means establish the association, and transmits the messages
of a SCCP connection established for the message 403. 20 to a corresponding layer in another protocol stack after
[0076] In the next step 305, the location request mes- the association has been found. The association stor-
sage 403 will be passed to the SMLC via the SCCP con- age 505 stores the required information, that is, the
nection, as additional information using the BSSAP-LE whole location message or its identification data; for
protocol. packet-switched connections, this is the TLLI corre-
[0077] Through the SCCP connection established in 25 sponding to a specified LCS message, and for circuit-
step 306, the SMLC will receive the location request switched connections, this is the SCCP Connection ID,
message 403 which includes the said BSSAP-LE mes- for example. This can be implemented as a table, for
sage; the SMLC will carry out the location request using example (as shown in the figure), where each packet-
the desired method. Because a SCCP connection has switched connection identifier TLLI 1, TLLl2, TLLl3 and
been established, the SMLC can initiate communication 30 so on corresponds to a circuit-switched connection iden-
in the MS direction through the base station controller tifier SCCP-10 1 , SCCP-10 2 , SCCP-10 3 and so on. When
in step 306, using the SCCP connection. Because the the location return message is received, it can be direct-
base station controller BSC knows the association be- ed (that is, modified by including the appropriate identi-
tween the SCCP connection and the corresponding fier and converting to a packet-switched or, respectively,
packet connection by means of the TLLI, it can initiate 35 a circuit-switched message) using the data in the asso-
communication with the appropriate terminal. This com- ciation storage 507, to be transmitted to another proto-
munication 409 will be used to implement positioning us- col stack and the appropriate recipient.
ing the requested method, and in step 307 the location [0082] Figure 6 shows a connection according to the
information or other information related to the location invention over the Lb interface using the SS? protocol.
will be returned by means of a BSSAP-LE message 40 L 1, or the first layer, is the physical layer, and the MTP
through the SCCP connection 405. The information protocol layer is used for transmission of messages be-
transmitted here is highly dependent on the positioning tween the location centre SMLC and the base station
method used. It is common to the different methods that controller BSC (that is, the circuit-switched base station
some kind of a signal is required from the terminal MS controller functionality of the base station controller
(that is, either a signal transmitted over the rf link of the 45 GE RAN). The SCCP layer implements a virtual connec-
mobile communications network, or, for example, the tion between the corresponding layers. The preferred
signal from a GPS transceiver, depending on the posi- implementation of the third layer L3 is according to the
tioning method used), to be able to determine its position BSSAP-LE protocol, and it will serve as the transmission
at the required resolution. protocol for the application layers.
[0078] In step 308, the circuit-switching controller 50 [0083] In another embodiment of the invention, the lo-
BSC will pass a message to the packet controller PCU cation centre SMLC is integrated with the base station
which will forward the message 406 to be transmitted controller GERAN. Even in this case, the preferred lo-
further by the BSSGP protocol to the SGSN. After this, cation of the location centre is in the circuit-switched
the SCCP connection can be released. When the SGSN functionality of the base station controller, still imple-
has forwarded the returned information 407,408 to the 55 menting the association according to the invention in-
requester, operation will end in step 309. side the base station controller.
[0079] Figure 5 shows a coarse block diagram of the [0084] The preferred method of implementing new
base station controller to implement the association ac- features compared to prior art is software-based, which

9
17 EP 1 330 933 81 18

means that the positioning method will require relatively said network element (102, 501) being a base sta-
simple software modifications to clearly defined func- tion controller.
tions in the network component of the radio system and
the location server. 3. A method according to claim 1, characterised in
[0085] In a preferred embodiment, the protocol stack 5 that the data related to a specific positioning is data
on the packet-switched side of the network comprises related to a certain location request.
software-based means for detecting the location mes-
sage received from the packet-switched network and for 4. A method according to claim 1, characterised in
converting this message to be forwarded in the circuit- that the data related to a specific positioning is data
switched network, under a circuit-switched protocol, to 10 related to the positioning of a certain subscriberter-
the appropriate terminal; respectively, the protocol stack min al.
on the circuit-switched side of the network comprises
software-based means for detecting the location mes- 5. A method according to claim 2, characterised in
sage received from the circuit-switched network and for that a determination of position is carried out by the
converting this message to be forwarded in the packet- 15 location centre (505), wherein connections in the
switched network, under a packet-switched protocol, mobile telephone network, other than said connec-
with the appropriate packet identifier. tion between the base station controller (102, 501)
[0086] In addition, the base station controller accord- and the location centre (505), are packet-switched
ing to the invention comprises means for transmitting a connections.
message from the packet-switched network side to the 20
circuit-switched network side and vice versa. 6. A method according to claim 5, characterised in
[0087] The SCCP connection established for the po- that a core network element (140, 504) of the mo-
sitioning can be effectively utilised in implementing the bile telephone network will pass a location request
positioning method, and the connection can be released to the base station controller (102, 501) in packet-
after giving the location response. 25 switched form with a packet identifier to establish a
[0088] Even though the invention has been presented circuit-switched connection.
above with reference to the example in the enclosed fig-
ures, it is clear that the scope of the invention is not lim- 7. A method according to any preceding claim, char-
ited to this example, but this software-based implemen- acterised in that the said association is estab-
tation can be modified in many ways in the framework 30 lished by correlating a packet-switched message
outlined by the following patent claims. identifier, such as Temporal Logical Link Identity
[TLLI], with a circuit-switched message identifier,
such as Signalling Connection Control Part ldenti-
Claims fier [SCCP-10].
35
1. A method for positioning a subscriber terminal (MS) 8. A method according to claim 7, characterised in
in a packet-switched mobile telephone network, that a packet-switched message is converted into
wherein for positioning the terminal a message is a message that can be forwarded under a circuit-
passed via a network element (102, 501) of the mo- switched protocol.
bile telephone network, characterised in that 40
9. A method according to claim 7, characterised in
for implementing the communications required that a circuit-switched message is converted into a
for the positioning, both circuit-switched and message that can be forwarded under a packet-
packet-switched messages are used in said switched protocol.
network element (102, 501) of the mobile tele- 45
phone network; 10. A method according to claim 1, characterised in
an association (507) is established by said net- that the packet-switched functionality comprises a
work element (102, 501) between these mes- packet-switched protocol, such as Base Station
sages for transferring data related to a specific Subsystem GPRS Protocol, BSSGP.
positioning between packet-switched and cir- 50
cuit-switched functionality, and wherein 11. A method according to claim 1, characterised in
a circuit-switched connection is used between that the circuit-switched functionality comprises a
said network element (102, 501) and a location circuit-switched protocol, such as Signalling Sys-
centre (505), wherein said network element tern 7, SS?.
(102, 501) is a network element of a base sta- 55
tion system of the mobile telephone network. 12. A method according to claim 5, characterised in
that the connection between the base station con-
2. A method according to claim 1, characterised by troller (102, 501) and the location centre (505) is

10
19 EP 1 330 933 81 20

performed over an Lb interface using SS? protocol. and the system comprises means for conducting
communications over said Lb interface using SS?
13. A system for positioning a subscriber terminal in a protocol.
packet-switched mobile telephone network, said
network comprising a core network element (140, 5 19. A system according to claim 13, characterised in
504), base stations (100), a base station controller that the system comprises means for obtaining a
(102, 501) controlling the base stations, and a mo- signal from the terminal (150) in order for the loca-
bile terminal (150) of the mobile telephone network, tion unit (505) to be able to determine the position
the system comprising means for arranging con- of the terminal.
nections in the mobile telephone network in a pack- 10
et-switched fashion, characterised in that the sys- 20. A network element (102, 501) for a packet-switched
tem comprises: mobile communications system, comprising means
(502) for implementing packet-switched functional-
a location unit (505) for determining the position ity for processing packet-switched messages, char·
of the terminal (150), functionally connected 15 acterised in that the network element comprises:
with a network element of the mobile telephone
network, and that the connection between said means for implementing circuit-switched func-
network element (102, 501) and the location tionality for processing circuit-switched mes-
unit (505) is circuit-switched, and said network sages;
element (102, 501) comprises: 20 means (506, 507) for establishing an associa-
tion between the circuit-switched and the pack-
both circuit-switched and packet-switched et-switched functionality for the transmission of
functionality for processing circuit- data, related to a specific positioning, between
switched and, respectively, packet- the packet-switched and the circuit-switched
switched messages; and 25 functionality; and
means (506, 507) for establishing an asso- means for using a circuit-switched connection
ciation between the circuit-switched and between said network element (102, 501) and
the packet-switched functionality for the a location unit (505), said network element be-
transmission of data related to a specific ing part of a base station system of the mobile
positioning between the packet-switched 30 telephone network.
and the circuit-switched functionality,
wherein said network element is a network 21. A network element according to claim 20, charac·
element of a base station system of the mo- terised by comprising:
bile telephone network.
35 means (502) for establishing a circuit-switched
14. A system according to claim 13, characterised by connection to the location unit (505);
said network element (102, 501) being a base sta- means (503) for establishing a packet-switched
tion controller. connection to core network of the mobile com-
munications system; and
15. A system according to claim 13, characterised in 40 means (506, 507) for processing communica-
that the circuit-switched functionality comprises a tions related to the positioning of a mobile com-
circuit-switched protocol stack, and the packet- munications terminal and for associating pack-
switched functionality comprises a packet-switched et-switched and circuit-switched positioning
protocol stack. communications with each other.
45
16. A system according to claim 13, characterised in 22. A network element according to claim 20 or 21,
that the base station controller (102, 501) compris- characterised by said network element (102, 501)
es means (506) for converting a packet-switched being a base station controller.
message into a circuit-switched message.
50
17. A system according to claim 14, characterised in Patentanspriiche
that the base station controller (102, 501) compris-
es means (506) for converting a circuit-switched 1. Verfahren zum Positionieren eines Teilnehmerend-
message into a packet-switched message. gerii.ts (MS) in einem paketvermittelten Mobiltele-
55 fonnetzwerk, wobei zum Positionieren des Endge-
18. A system according to claim 14, characterised in rii.ts eine Nachricht Ober ein Netzwerkelement (102,
that there is an Lb interface between the base sta- 501) des Mobiltelefonnetzwerks weitergegeben
tion controller (102, 501) and the location unit (505), wird,

11
21 EP 1 330 933 81 22

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass telten Nachrichtenbezeichners, so wie einertempo-
raren logischen Verbindungsidentitat (Temporal Lo-
zum lmplementieren der Kommunikationen, gical Link Identity, TLLI), mit einem leitungsvermit-
die fUr das Positionieren ben6tigt werden, so- telten Nachrichtenbezeichner, so wie einem Signa-
wohl leitungsvermittelte als auch paketvermit- 5 lisierungs-Verbindungs-Steuer-Teil-Bezeichners
telte Nachrichten in dem Netzwerkelement (Signalling Connection Control Part Identifier, SC-
(102, 501) des Mobiltelefonnetzwerks verwen- CP-10), aufgebaut wird.
det werden;
eine Verknupfung (507) von dem Netzwerkele- 8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, dadurch gekenn-
ment (102, 501) zwischen diesen Nachrichten 10 zeichnet, dass eine paketvermittelte Nachricht in
aufgebaut wird, um Oaten, die sich auf eine eine Nachricht umgewandelt wird, die unter einem
spezifische Positionierung beziehen, zwischen leitungsvermittelten Protokoll weitergeleitet werden
paketvermittelter und leitungsvermittelter kann.
Funktionalitat zu Obertragen;
15 9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, dadurch gekenn-
und wobei zeichnet, dass eine leitungsvermittelte Nachricht
in eine Nachricht umgewandelt wird, die unter ei-
eine leitungsvermittelte Verbindung zwischen nem paketvermittelten Protokoll weitergeleitet wer-
dem Netzwerkelement (102, 501) und einem den kann.
Standortzentrum (505) verwendet wird, wobei 20
das Netzwerkelement (102, 501) ein Netzwer- 10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
kelement eines Basisstationssystems des Mo- zeichnet, dass die paketvermittelte Funktionalitat
biltelefonnetzwerks ist. ein paketvermitteltes Protokoll umfasst, so wie ein
Basisstations-Untersystem-GPRS-Protokoll (Base
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn- 25 Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol, BSSGP).
zeichnet, dass das Netzwerkelement (102, 501)
ein Basisstationskontroller ist. 11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
zeichnet, dass die leitungsvermittelte Funktionali-
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn- tat ein leitungsvermitteltes Protokoll umfasst, so wie
zeichnet, dass die Oaten, die sich auf eine spezi- 30 Signalisierungssystem 7 (Signalling System 7,
fische Positionierung beziehen, Oaten sind, die sich SS?).
auf eine bestimmte Standortanfrage beziehen.
12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekenn-
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn- zeichnet, dass die Verbindung zwischen dem Ba-
zeichnet, dass die Oaten, die sich auf eine spezi- 35 sisstationskontroller (102, 501) und dem Standort-
fische Positionierung beziehen, Oaten sind, die sich zentrum (505) Ober eine Lb-Schnittstelle unter Ver-
auf die Positionierung eines bestimmten Teilneh- wendung des SS7-Protokolls ausgefUhrt wird.
merendgerats beziehen.
13. System zum Positionieren eines Teilnehmerendge-
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekenn- 40 rats in einem paketvermittelten Mobiltelefonnetz-
zeichnet, dass eine Bestimmung der Position werk, wobei das Netzwerk ein Kemnetzwerkele-
durch das Standortzentrum (505) ausgefUhrt wird, ment (140, 504), Basisstationen (100), einen Basis-
wobei Verbindungen in dem Mobilfunktelefonnetz- stationskontroller (102, 501 ), der die Basisstationen
werk auBer der Verbindung zwischen dem Basis- steuert, und ein Mobilendgerat (150) des Mobiltele-
stationskontroller (102, 501) und dem Standortzen- 45 fonnetzwerks umfasst, wobei das System Mittel
trum (505) paketvermittelte Verbindungen sind. umfasst, um Verbindungen in dem Mobiltelefon-
netzwerk in einer paketvermittelten Weise zu arran-
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekenn- gieren,
zeichnet, dass ein Kernnetzwerkelement (140, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das System um-
504) des Mobilfunktelefonnetzwerks eine Standort- 50 fasst:
anfrage an den Basisstationskontroller (102, 501)
in paketvermittelter Form mit einem Paketbezeich- eine Standorteinheit (505) zum Bestimmen der
ner weitergeben wird, um eine leitungsvermittelte Position des Endgerats (150), funktional ver-
Verbindung aufzubauen. bunden mit einem Netzwerkelement des Mobil-
55 telefonnetzwerks;
7. Verfahren nach irgendeinem der vorhergehenden und dass die Verbindung zwischen dem Netz-
Anspruche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die werkelement (102, 501) und der Standortein-
Verknupfung durch Korrelieren eines paketvermit- heit (505) leitungsvermittelt ist;

12
23 EP 1 330 933 81 24

und das Netzwerkelement (102, 501) umfasst: Mittel zum lmplementieren leitungsvermittelter
Funktionalitat zum Verarbeiten leitungsvermit-
sowohl leitungsvermittelte als auch paketver- telter Nachrichten;
mittelte Funktionalitat zum Bearbeiten leitungs- Mittel (506, 507) zum Aufbauen einer Verknup-
vermittelter bzw. paketvermittelter Nachrich- 5 fung zwischen der paketvermittelten und der
ten; und leitungsvermittelten Funktionalitat fUr das
Mittel (506, 507) zum Aufbauen einer Verknup- Ubertragen von Oaten, die sich auf eine spezi-
fung zwischen der leitungsvermittelten und der fische Positionierung beziehen, zwischen der
paketvermittelten Funktionalitat, fUr das Uber- paketvermittelten und der leitungsvermittelten
tragen von Oaten, die sich auf eine spezifische 10 Funktionalitat; und
Positionierung beziehen, zwischen der lei- Mittel, um eine leitungsvermittelte Verbindung
tungsvermittelten und der paketvermittelten zwischen dem Netzwerkelement (102, 501)
Funktionalitat, wobei das Netzwerkelement ein und einer Standorteinheit (505) zu verwenden,
Netzwerkelement eines Basisstationssystem wobei das Netzwerkelement Teil eines Basis-
des Mobiltelefonnetzwerk ist. 15 stationssystems des Mobiltelefonnetzwerks ist.

14. System nach Anspruch 13, dadurch gekennzeich- 21. Netzwerkelement nach Anspruch 20, dadurch ge-
net, dass das Netzwerkelement (102, 501) ein Ba- kennzeichnet, dass es umfasst:
sisstationskontroller ist.
20 Mittel (502) zum Aufbauen einer leitungsver-
15. System nach Anspruch 13, dadurch gekennzeich- mittelten Verbindung mit der Standorteinheit
net, dass die leitungsvermittelte Funktionalitat ei- (505);
nen leitungsvermittelten Protokoll-Stack umfasst, Mittel (503) zum Aufbauen einer paketvermit-
und dass die paketvermittelte Funktionalitat einen telten Verbindung mit dem Kemnetzwerk des
paketvermittelten Protokoll-Stack umfasst. 25 Mobilkommunikationssystems; und
Mittel (506, 507) zum Verarbeiten von Kommu-
16. System nach Anspruch 13, dadurch gekennzeich- nikationen, die sich auf die Positionierung ei-
net, dass der Basisstationskontroller (102, 501) nes Mobilkommunikations-Endgerats bezie-
Mittel (506) umfasst, um eine paketvermittelte hen, und zum Verknupfen paketvermittelter
Nachricht in eine leitungsvermittelte Nachricht um- 30 und leitungsvermittelter Positionierungskom-
zuwandeln. munikation miteinander.

17. System nach Anspruch 14, dadurch gekennzeich- 22. Netzwerkelement nach Anspruch 20 oder 21, da·
net, dass der Basisstationskontroller (102, 501) durch gekennzeichnet, dass das Netzwerkele-
Mittel (506) umfasst, um eine leitungsvermittelte 35 ment (102, 501) ein Basisstationskontroller ist.
Nachricht in eine paketvermittelte Nachricht umzu-
wandeln.
Revendications
18. System nach Anspruch 14, dadurch gekennzeich-
net, dass eine Lb-Schnittstelle zwischen dem Ba- 40 1. Precede pour positionner un terminal d'abonne
sisstationskontroller (102, 501) und der Stand- a
(MS) dans un reseau de telephone mobile com-
orteinheit (505) vorhanden ist, und das System Mit- mutation de paquets, dans lequel pour positionner
tel zum Leiten von Kommunikationen Ober die Lb- le terminal un message est passe via un element
Schnittstelle unter Verwendung des SS7-Protokolls de reseau (102, 501) du reseau de telephone mo-
umfasst. 45 bile, caracterise en ce que

19. System nach Anspruch 13, dadurch gekennzeich- pour implementer les communications neces-
net, dass das System Mittel zum Erhalten eines Si- saires pour le positionnement, on utilise a la
gnals von dem Endgerat (150) umfasst, damit der fois une commutation de circuits et des messa-
Standorteinheit (505) ermoglicht wird, die Position 50 a
ges commutation de paquets dans ledit ele-
des Endgerats zu bestimmen. ment de reseau (102, 501) du reseau de tele-
phone mobile ;
20. Netzwerkelement (102, 501) fUr ein paketvermittel- une association (507) est etablie au moyen du-
tes Mobilkommunikationssystem, umfassend Mittel d it element de reseau (102, 501) entre ces
(502) zum lmplementieren von paketvermittelter 55 messages pour transferer des donnees reliees
Funktionalitat zum Verarbeiten paketvermittelter a un positionnement specifique entre la com-
Nachrichte, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das mutation de paquets et la fonctionnalite de
Netzwerkelement umfasst: commutation de circuits, et dans lequel

13
25 EP 1 330 933 81 26

a
une connexion commutation de circuits est ce que la fonctionnalite de commutation de paquets
utilisee entre Iedit element de reseau (102, 501) comprend un pretocole de commutation de pa-
et un centre de positionnement (505), dans le- quets, tel qu'un pretocole GPRS de sous systeme
quel ledit element de reseau (102, 501) est un de station de base, BSSGP.
element de reseau d'une station de base du re- 5
seau de telephone mobile. 11. Precede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en
ce que la fonctionnalite de commutation de circuits
2. Precede selon la revendication 1, caracterise par comprend un pretocole de commutation de circuits,
ledit element de reseau (102, 501) qui est un con- tel qu'un systeme de signalisation 7, SS?.
tr61eur de station de base. 10
12. Precede selon la revendication 5, caracterise en
3. Precede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en ce que la connexion entre le contr61eur de la station
ce que les donnees reliees a
un positionnement de base (102, 501) et le centre de localisation (505)
a
specifique sont des donnees reliees une certaine est realisee sur une interface Lb en utilisant le pre-
demande de positionnement. 15 tocole SS?.

4. Precede selon la revendication 1 , caracterise en 13. Systeme pour positionner un terminal d'abonne
ce que les donnees reliees a
un positionnement a
dans un reseau de telephone mobile commutation
specifique sont des donnees reliees au positionne- de paquets, ledit reseau comprenant un element de
ment d'un certain terminal d'abonne. 20 coeur de reseau (140, 504), des stations base
(100), un contr61eur de station de base (102, 501)
5. Precede selon la revendication 2, caracterise en qui commande les stations base, et un terminal mo-
ce qu'une determination de position est realisee au bile (150) du reseau de telephone mobile, le syste-
moyen d'un centre de positionnement (505), dans me comprenant un moyen pour arranger les con-
lequel les connexions dans le reseau de telephone 25 nexions dans le reseau de telephone mobile dans
mobile, autres que ladite connexion entre le contra- un mode de commutation de paquets, caracterise
leur de station de base (102, 501) et le centre de en ce que le systeme comprend :
positionnement (505), sont des connexions par
commutation de paquets. une unite de localisation (505) pour determiner
30 la position du terminal (150), une fonctionnalite
6. Precede selon la revendication 5, caracterise en connectee avec un element de reseau du re-
ce qu'un element de coeur de reseau (140, 504) du seau de telephone mobile, et que la connexion
reseau de telephone mobile passe une demande entre ledit element de reseau (102, 501) et I' uni-
de positionnement au contr61eur de station de base a
te de localisation (505) est commutation de
(102, 501) sous forme de commutation de paquets 35 circuits, et ledit element de reseau (102, 501)
avec un identificateur de paquets pour etablir une comprend:
connexion de commutation de circuits.
a la fois la fonctionnalite de commutation
7. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendication de circuits et de commutation de paquets
precedentes, caracterise en ce que ladite associa- 40 pour le traitement de la commutation de cir-
tion est etablie au moyen de la correlation d'un iden- cu its et, respectivement, des messages de
tificateur de message de commutation de paquets, commutation de paquets ; et
telle qu'une identite de lien logique temporel [TLLI], un moyen (506, 507) pour l'etablissement
avec un identificateur de message de commutation d'une association entre la commutation de
de circuits, tel qu'un identificateur de partie de com- 45 circuits et la fonctionnalite de commutation
mande de connexion de signalisation [SCCP-ID]. de paquets pour la transmission de don-
a
nees reliees une localisation specifique
8. Precede selon la revendication 7, caracterise en entre la commutation de paquets et la fonc-
ce qu'un message de commutation de paquets est tionnalite de commutation de circuits, dans
converti en un message qui peut etre reachemine 50 lequel ledit element de reseau est un ele-
sous un pretocole de commutation de circuits. ment de reseau d'un systeme de station de
base du reseau de telephone mobile.
9. Precede selon la revendication 7, caracterise en
ce qu'un message de commutation de circuit est 14. Systeme selon la revendication 13, caracterise par
converti en un message qui peut etre reachemine 55 ledit element de reseau (102, 501) qui est un con-
sous un pretocole de commutation de paquets. tr61eur de station de base.

10. Precede selon la revendication 1 , caracterise en 15. Systeme selon la revendication 13, caracterise en

14
27 EP 1 330 933 81 28

ce que la fonctionnalite de commutation de circuit un moyen (502) pour l'etablissement d'une con-
a
comprend une pile de protocole commutation de a a
nexion commutation de circuits l'unite de
circuits, et la fonctionnalite de commutation de pa- localisation (505) ;
a
quets comprend une pile de protocole commuta- un moyen (503) pour l'etablissement d'une con-
tion de paquets. 5 a
nexion commutation de paquets au coeur de
reseau du systeme de communications de
16. Systeme selon la revendication 13, caracterise en mobile; et
ce que le controleur de la station de base (102, 501) un moyen (506, 507) pour le traitement des
comprend un moyen (506) pour la conversion d'un communications reliees au positionnement
message de commutation de paquets en un mes- 10 d'un terminal de communications de mobile et
sage de commutation de circuits. pour !'association d'une commutation de pa-
quets et de communications de positionnement
17. Systeme selon la revendication 14, caracterise en a commutation de circuits l'une avec l'autre.
ce que le controleur de la station de base (102, 501)
comprend un moyen (506) pour la conversion d'un 15 22. Element de reseau selon la revendication 20 ou 21,
message de commutation de circuits en un messa- caracterise par ledit element de reseau (102, 501)
ge de commutation de paquets. qui est un controleur de station de base.

18. Systeme selon la revendication 14, caracterise en
ce qu'il y a une interface Lb entre le controleur de 20
la station de base (102, 501) et l'unite de localisation
(505), et le systeme comprend un moyen pour la
conduite des communications sur ladite interface
Lb en utilisant le protocole SS?.
25
19. Systeme selon la revendication 13, caracterise en
ce que le systeme comprend un moyen pour l'ob-
tention d'un signal depuis le terminal (150) de fac;:on
pour l'unite de localisation (505) a etre capable de
determiner la position du terminal. 30

20. Element de reseau (102, 501) pour un systeme de
a
communications de mobiles commutation de pa-
quets, comprenant un moyen (502) pour implemen-
ter une fonctionnalite a
commutation de paquets 35
pour le traitement de messages a commutation de
paquets, caracterise en ce que !'element de re-
seau comprend :

un moyen pour I' implementation d'une fonction- 40
a
nalite commutation de circuits pour le traite-
a
ment de messages commutation de circuits ;
un moyen (506, 507) pour l'etablissement d'une
association entre la commutation de circuit et
la fonctionnalite de commutation de paquets 45
pour la transmission de donnees, en relation
avec un positionnement specifique, entre la
commutation de paquets et la fonctionnalite de
commutation de circuits; et
un moyen pour !'utilisation d'une connexion de 50
commutation de circuits entre ledit element de
reseau (102, 501) et une unite de localisation
(505), ledit element de reseau etant une partie
d'un systeme de station de base du reseau de
telephone mobile. 55

21. Element de reseau selon la revendication 20, ca-
racterise en comprenant :

15
EP 1 330 933 81

..n
(/) :::J
z
0:::
::J z
<(
z IY w
u I- :::>
::>
.
0)

u.

(/)
z
a::::

16
lGGsNI--
; 148____.,.'
144

r_____________100
_("____ _
: 116 ----- I

:
'
I
......... 114
\\/
1/
I
I m

I
"'O
.....
I
I
I
I
170 w
I
I
I
I ~
I MUX I
I
CD
w
I
I
I
I
w
I
I
I m
.....
I
I I
I I
I
I I
I
I
I
'
I
I
1 I
I I
! I
I I
I
I 118
__________
I
;
I
I_,,... __ -------- ------- I

134
/
IPsTNlr-__
Fig. 1b
102 100
__ )_______________ ,

~-------------} ______________________
I
,
'•
I t
114
\/
r
116'--..
l: 120r
I
I
I
I
r
I
TRX1

/~~70
I
I
I
''
I
132 122 I
1 0 I
I TRX2
•l I
I I

jMs21 I
I
I
I
I

~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
.,,m
I I
I
I
...... I
CIO
I
I I
I
TRXN 150
'
I
I
I
r
I
'
I f

CNTL : '
: 124 i !t _____________________________________
CNTL 118 ,
I

L-----------------'

PSTN
~
...
1------• ••
•••
134__/ 136
Fig. 1c
,------------------------------------------------------------,
188
LCS ""
:186
"-...
140
GPRS
CN i ,----~~~~-

: DATA
D
CUEN GMLC SGSN ,..__._,NETWORK GGSN ..--m111a:• NETWORK
, I '-------..--
I
148
HLR
l
I 146
184 142 144
___________________________________________ J:

Gb ---------

~--~ ----~--1 1ro
m
:
I

I
I
::
I

I
I
I

I
t
---'
:
I
J
I
:
I
I
TRX1 I I
::
f I
~
~
~
:
I
I
"'O

w
w
f I I I t I 1 l r-----------------1 0
If tf II I I 1I 1I IJ '1 192'1 CD
w
w
f ' I 1 I I J I I
I I I I I I I I I m
.....
I
I
:
I
iI J
t
MUX 11
: :
I
I
1
I
I
I
1 1
1
1 :
I
:
r
120 I
I
I
t
:
:
lI :I :I 11 190 :
:. :: CNTL : I I : : : ,: 194 :
• : : : Abis : 1
: : •, CNTL :
!: l: Li _____________________
124 SMLC \1a2!: i
I CNTL ~ 118 : :!! :: !. . ________________
UE ,!
I I f f J I
! 180 :I
!
I I
iRNS L_ _______________________ J ~ Um i
I

' ~~-~----------~------------~---------~~----~~-----~-~~--~ '
f uTRAN i ~
L-------------------------------------------------------------------------------_:
152
Fig. 1d
RRLP-PS GMM/SM GMM/SM

LLC-LE LLC
LLC Relay
RLC
RLC BSSGP-LE BSSGP-LE
----------------1-------1
MAC NS NS
MAC
FR ~---------------
FR
RF RF L1
L1 .,,.....m
I\)
0
1 Um
J BSS
Gb
T
MS SGSN

RRLP-PS
LLC-LE BSSGP-LE
NS NS
-----FR-----------~~~-----

L1 L1

Fig. 2 SMLC
EP 1 330 933 81

301 Start

302
The location requester sends a location request 400,401 to the SGSN

1
303
The SGSN sends a BSSGB message 402 to the packet controller
GERAN (BSC, PCU), including at least TLLI and BVCI data

l
304
The packet controller GERAN (SSC, PCU) examines the BSSGP
message received; if location message converts to BSSAP-LE protocol
so that the circuit-switching controller can pass the message to the
SMLC, using a SCCP connection opened for the message

l305
The location message will be passed to the SMLC as a BSSAP-LE
protocol message via the SCCP connection

306
Positioning, where the SCCP connection established between the SMLC
and base station controller is utilised for the passing of required data

307
The SMLC returns a location reply by utilising a BSSAP-LE message
via the SCCP connection
J
308
The circuit-switching controller will pass the message to the packet
controller that will forward the message to the SGSN by the BSSGP
_e_rotocol; after this, the SCCP connection can be released
J
[ 309 Finish J
Fig. 3

21
EP 1 330 933 81

GERAN.
SGSN SMLC
(BSC, PCU)

~ocalion reques~
400 401
• ·~-~~~~~-r~~~~~-+-~~----------1

location request
402 as a BSSGP
•-------,....,.. message with
TLLI attached

Packet controller examines the message
and converts to BSSGP-LE protocol
before passing to the SMLC via SCCP
connection established for the message

40_3_ _--tll-, request as BSSAP
,____
LE message on
SCCP connection

The messages of the requested positioning
method utilise the established SCCP
409 connection to the base station controller
arn: Jurther to the terminal

reply as BSSAP-
LE message on
__________
SCCP
...__
connection 405
__.~~~~----~·

LSCCP connection can be releasedj
1.----------.
reply message as
406 BSSGP message with
TLLI attached
I 1ocation reply I
407 408

Fig. 4

22
EP 1 330 933 81

PCU 507 BSC
/ 501
502
LLC Relay TLLl 1 SCCP-10 1
v
"" TLLl 2 SCCP-10 2 L3
f\ BSSGP - LE

NS
----------------·
TLLl.3. SCCP-10 1
• SCCP vo3
FR MTP V1
..
SGSN l+1" L1 I"" .. CONTROL ,. . L1 ~H SMLC

1
504
506
L
,,
I
505

Fig. 5

L3 .... l
Il
..
.....
L3
!
i
SCCP ..... i .. SCCP
II
MTP -- l ,... MTP
I
I

.....-
II ......
L1 L1
I
I
GERAN Lb SMLC

Fig. 6

23
Page 1
ETSI Rules of Procedure, 26 November 2008

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING
DECLARATION
Ii;;;?
u u
•ll ]_~
IPR HOLDER I ORGANISATION l"Declarant"l
; ~-; ,D,V!?. ?r;J:]
Legal Name: Nokia Col]2_oration Kep; ___________
CONTACT DETAILS FOR LICENSING INFORMATION:
Name and Title: Kalle Moilanen, IPR Manager
Department: IPR
Address: Joensuunkatu 7, P.O.Box 86, FIN-24101 Salo, Finland

Telephone: +358 50 366 2022 Fax: +358 7180 44275
Email: kalle.moilanen@nokia.com URL:

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT
In accordance with Clause 4.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES hereby informs
ETSI that it is the Declarant's and/or its AFFILIATES' present belief that the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached
IPR Information Statement Annex may be or may become ESSENTIAL in relation to at least the ETSI Work
ltem(s), STANDARD(S) and/or TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION(S) identified in the attached IPR Information
Statement Annex.
The Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES (check one box only):
~ are the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

D are not the proprietor of the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex.

IPR LICENSING DECLARATION
In accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES hereby
irrevocably declares the following (check one box only, and subordinate box, where applicable):

~ To the extent that the IPR(s) disclosed in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex are or
become, and remain ESSENTIAL in respect of the ETSI Work Item, STANDARD and/or TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION identified in the attached IPR Information Statement Annex, the Declarant and/or its
AFFILIATES are prepared to grant irrevocable licences under this/these IPR(s) on terms and
conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy.
~ This irrevocable undertaking is made subject to the condition that those who seek licences
agree to reciprocate (check box if applicable).

D The Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES are not prepared to make the above IPR Licensing Declaration
(reasons may be explained in writing in the attached IPR Licensing Declaration Annex).
The construction, validity and performance of this IPR information statement and licensing declaration shall
be governed by the laws of France.
Terms in ALL CAPS on this form have the meaning provided in Clause 15 of the ETSI IPR Policy.

SIGNATURE
By signing this IPR Information Statement and Licensing Declaration form, you represent that you have the
authority to bind the Declarant and/or its AFFILIATES to the representations and commitments provided in
this form.
Name of authorized person: Kalle Moilanen
Title of authorized person: IPR Manager
Place, Date: Salo, Finland, 16 of AEJril 2009

Signature: k:..~tt'€ l~i~

Please return this form duly signed to: ETSI Director-General
ETSI - 650, route des Lucio/es - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
Page 3
ETSI Rules of Procedure, 26 November 2008

6.2.1.3.1, 10/7574 20040205 Policy US
23.203 8.5.0 information in 04712627.1 1595370 EP
6.2.1.3.2, 7.2, Nokia 35 193 PCTIIB2004/000412 WO
GSM 6.2.1.4.1 multiple PDFs
Corporation 12/314200 US

EP 01980558.9 1330933 AT
01980558.9 1330933 BE 
P10114863.0 P10114863-0 BR
2426082 CA
01980558.9 1330933 CH
01817866.9 1471796 CN
Positioning a 01980558.9 1330933 DE
subscriber 01980558.9 1330933 ES
8.1a, 7.4.1, 0198055 terminal in a 20002337 FI
43.059 5.0.0 1330933 packet-switched 01980558.9 1330933 FR
9.1.3 Nokia 8.9
GSM mobile 01980558.9 1330933 GB
Corporation
telephone 01980558.9 1330933 IT
network 20037005573 200348064 KR
01980558.9 1330933 NL
01980558.9 1330933 SE
200301203.6 SG
101004084 US
PCT/FI01J00909 W002/35877 WO
2003/3108 ZA
2007-230678 2008-029029 JP

Method and
44.060:3.1, US
apparatus for
9.1.11,8.1.1.1 improving a
44.060:
.2,7.1.2.1,7.1, 1010047 mobile station
44.060, 6.24.0,
7.1.3.1, cell change
44.064 44.064: Nokia 23
GSM 11.2.16, 7447181 operation in the
.6.2.0 Corporation
44.064:6.4.1. general packet
7,7.2.1.3 radio system
(GPRS)
16
A24835VI
(19) Europ:.iisches

I
Patentamt
European 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Patent Office
Office europt!en
des brevets
(11) EP 1186119 82
(12) NEW EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION
After opposition procedure

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.:
of the opposition decision: H04B 710612006·01J
08.01.2014 Bulletin 2014/02
(86) International application number:
(45) Mention of the grant of the patent: PCT/Fl2000/000620
19.05.2004 Bulletin 2004/21
(87) International publication number:
(21) Application number: 00944091.8 WO 2001/005061 (18.01.2001 Gazette 2001/03)

(22) Date of filing: 06.07.2000

(54) METHOD FOR TRANSMITTING A SEQUENCE OF SYMBOLS
VERFAHREN ZUR UBERTRAGUNG EINER SYMBOLFOLGE
PROCEDE DE TRANSMISSION D'UNE SEQUENCE DE SYMBOLES

(84) Designated Contracting States: (56) References cited:
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES Fl FR GB GR IE IT LI LU WO-A2-96/08908
MC NL PT SE
• H. OLOFSSON ET AL.: 'Transmitterdiversitywith
(30) Priority: 09.07.1999 Fl 991589 antenna hopping for wireless communication
systems' IEEE 47TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY
(43) Date of publication of application: CONFERENCE vol. 3, 1997, pages 1743 - 1747,
13.03.2002 Bulletin 2002/11 XP002933932
• M. RAITOLA ET AL.: 'Transmission diversity in
(73) Proprietor: Vringo Infrastructure Inc. wideband CDMA' 1999 IEEE 49TH VEHICULAR
New York, NY 10017 (US) TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE vol. 2, 16May1999
- 20 May 1999, pages 1545 - 1549, XP002933931
(72) Inventors: • D. RAJAN ET AL.: 'Transmit diversity schemes
• KORPELA, Sari for CDMA-2000' WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
FIN-02700 Kauniainen (Fl) AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE, 1999, WCNC.
• KOIVISTO, Janne 1999 IEEE vol. 2, 21 September 1999 - 24
FIN-20810 Loimaa (Fl) September 1999, pages 669 - 673, XP002933933
• JANSEN, Kaj • Time switched transmission diversity, May 13,
FIN-24240 Salo (Fl) 1998 Telecommunications Technology
Associacion & MOGENSEN, PREBEN E.,
(7 4) Representative: Hale, Peter et al PETERSEN, STEVE: 'Practical Considerations of
Kilburn & Strode LLP Using Antenna Diversity in DECT' IEEE 1994,
20 Red Lion Street pages 1532 - 1536
London WC1R 4PJ (GB) • TSGR1#3(99)152: TSG-RAN Working Group 1
meeting #3 I Eskilstuna, Sweden, 22-26, March
1999: TSTD (Time Switched Transmit Diversity)
scheme for SCH
• TSGR1#4(99)433: TSG-RAN Working Group 1
meeting #4 /Shin- Yokohama, Japan, 18-20, April
1999: Text proposal for TSTD scheme of SCH
• TSGR1#4(99)354: TSG-RAN Working Group 1
meeting #4 /Shin- Yokohma, Japan 18-20, April
1999: Performance Analysis of TSTD scheme for
SCH

a..
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1186 119 B2 2

Description cell. There are also two mobile stations 102 and 103 in
the Fig. 1, and the communication between each mobile
[0001] The invention relates in general to transmission station and the base station is indicated with arrows. The
of a certain sequence of symbols. In particular the inven- base station broadcasts common control information to
tion relates to diversity transmissions where the symbols 5 all the mobile stations in the cell, and it spreads this com-
belonging to the sequence are sent using two antennas. mon control information with a certain spreading code.
[0002] In cellular networks the downlink and uplink ra- In a WCDMA system, a spreading code usually consists
dio transmissions comprise synchronization channels, of two parts: a long scrambling code Cs and a short chan-
which can be special synchronization symbols. Using the nelization code Cc. The scrambling code is effective to
information carried in the synchronization symbols, for 10 eliminate, for example, the effect of multipath propaga-
example, the receiver can determined the timing of the tion. The channelization codes that are used within a cell
transmission. Information is usually sent in frames, and are orthogonal, and they are effective to distinct, for ex-
the frames consist of a certain number of time slots. The am pie the transmission to each mobile station. In a WCD-
time slots, in turn, consist of a certain number of symbols. MAsystem, within a cell a same scrambling code Cs may
If synchronization symbols are used, they can be sent, 15 be used for all downlink transmissions. The downlink
for example, once in each time slot. It is also possible to transmission are synchronized, and therefore the differ-
send synchronization information in bursts, so that more ent channelization codes are enough for successful de-
information is sent at a time, but synchronization infor- spreading of the transmitted signals. In the neighboring
mation is sent less frequently than once in a time slot. cells, other scrambling codes are used so that adjacent
From the synchronization information it is possible to de- 20 cells do not disturb each other's transmissions.
termine both the time slot timing and the frame timing, [0007] The use of spreading codes in downlink trans-
i.e. where time slots and frames start. mission is presented in Fig. 1, where the arrow 111 rep-
[0003] The synchronization symbols may carry also resents the common control information broadcast. The
other information than just indicate timing. For example, spreading code can be presented as the product of the
in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) 25 scrambling and channelization codes Ccc = Cs Cc.
cellular networks the synchronization symbols carry cer- When entering a new cell, the mobile station can deter-
tain information about the spreading code that a base mine the downlink scrambling code Cs from the broad-
station uses to spread the downlink transmissions. In a cast transmission the base station sends. The channeli-
handover, for example, the mobile station entering a new zation code related to common control information is typ-
cell can determine the part of the downlink spreading 30 ically a fixed constant throughout the WCDMA system,
code with the help of the synchronization symbols. The so after determining the downlink scrambling code and
mobile station needs to know the spreading code in order the frame timing, the mobile station can determine the
to find out the control information transmitted via the com- common control information.
mon control channel. Otherwise it cannot, for example, [0008] The arrow 112 in Fig. 1 represents the downlink
communicate with the radio access network after power 35 transmission to the mobile station 102, and the arrow 113
up or in a handover situation receive from the new cell represents the downlink transmission to the mobile sta-
cell-specific control information that is needed to perform tion 103. The spreading code c 01 for the downlink con-
the handover. nection to the mobile station 102 is C 01 = Cs Cc 1, and
[0004] Traditionally information is transmitted over ra- the spreading code C 02 for the downlink connection to
diolink using a single antenna. Transmission diversity re- 40 the mobile station 103 is C 02 =Cs Cc 2 . Since the uplink
fers to sending information via more than one antennas. transmissions are not synchronized and each mobile has
The transmitted information can be, for example, encod- its own radio channel from the mobile station to the base
ed so that the transmitted symbol flows are not equal, station, each mobile station may use a specific scram-
but the original information flow can be determined from bling code, and various channels, for example, to acer-
each transmitted symbol flow. The receiver can, for ex- 45 tain mobile station may be separated using various chan-
ample, choose special decoding scheme in case trans- nelization codes. The downlink and uplink spreading
mission diversity is used and deduce the transmitted in- codes for connections terminating to a mobile station are
formation. The synchronization symbols can carry infor- usually established either when a mobile station enters
mation also about the use of some transmission diversity a new cell or when a new connection is established be-
scheme. It is important that the receiver can determine 50 tween the mobile station and the radio access network.
the sent synchronization symbol correctly. Otherwise, for [0009] Fig. 2 shows some of the common channels a
example, it may fail to identify the transmission diversity base station in a WCDMA system generally transmits
and encoding schemes that are used. The pilot symbols are transmitted over a common pilot
[0005] In WO 9 914 871 at least two antennas are channel (CPICH) 201. The pilot symbols are usually sent
transmitting simultaneously a sequence of symbols ac- 55 100% of the duty cycle. The pilot symbols are predeter-
cording to a predefined transmission pattern. mined, and CPICH is spread using the downlink scram-
[0006] Fig. 1 represents a typical WCDMA cell 100, bling code Cs and a fixed channelization code.
where there is a base station 101 in the middle of the [0010] The synchronization channel (SCH) 202 occu-

2
3 EP 1186 119 B2 4

pies typically 10% of the duty cycle in the beginning of tion uses only one antenna TX1 for broadcasting infor-
each time slot 210. The frame 211, which comprises a mation. When transmission diversity is employed, there
certain fixed number of time slots, is also presented in are two antennas where the information may be trans-
Fig. 2. The synchronization channel carries two synchro- mitted. It is preferable that each antenna transmits its
nization codes: a primary synchronization code 203 and 5 own pilot signal, so that the channel coefficient estimates
a secondary synchronization code 204. These codes are can be determined for each antenna. The radio waves
transmitted simultaneously within one symbol period. emitted for the two transceivers may propagate in differ-
Both the primary and secondary synchronization codes ent ways to the antenna of the mobile station.
can be modulated, for example, with the same symbol, [0015] Fig. 3 represents some broadcast channels
and because the codes have good crosscorrelation prop- 10 when transmission diversity and two antennas TX1 and
erties the receiver can distinguish the codes. A mobile TX2 are in use. The antenna TX1 transmits the common
station entering a new cell or measuring a new cell in the pilot channel CPICH 201 similarly as when no transmis-
neighborhood may always receive successfully informa- sion diversity is employed. The antenna TX2 transmits
tion broadcast over the SCH. an auxiliary pilot 301. The synchronization symbols may
[0011] The primary synchronization code is a constant 15 be transmitted using only one antenna or both antennas.
code that denotes the beginning of the time slots. The In time switched transmit diversity (TSTD) both antennas
secondary synchronization codes, which form a synchro- are used to transmit the symbols, one at a time. Fig. 3
nization code sequence or word, indicate the timing of shows how the synchronization symbols are transmitted
the frames. In addition to the frame timing, the second using TSTD and an alternating transmission pattern. For
synchronization code sequence within a frame indicates 20 example, the synchronization symbol 302 is transmitted
the scrambling code group to which the downlink scram- from the antenna TX1 and the synchronization symbol
bling code the base station uses belongs. A mobile sta- 303 is transmitted from the antenna TX2. Each synchro-
tion entering a new cell may determine the downlink nization symbol carries both the primary and the second-
scrambling code, for example, by testing the scrambling ary synchronization code.
codes of the indicated scrambling code group on the 25 [0016] The common control information may be also
CPICH. The correct scrambling code Cs is the one that transmitted from both antennas TX1 and TX2. In this case
with the known channelization code produces from the the BCCH information, for example, is encoded before it
received radio signal the known transmitted pilot sym- is transmitted over the PCCPCH channel. Space time
bols. transmit diversity (STTD), for example, specifies that
[0012] Once the scrambling code Cs has been deter- 30 from the primary antenna TX1 the symbols are transmit-
mined, the received pilot symbols may be used, for ex- ted as such, i.e. the sequence of transmitted symbols is
ample, for determining the complex channel coefficient. S 1 , S 2 , S 3 , S4 ,. ... From the second antenna TX2 these-
In general, the radio signal that is received is not exactly quence of transmitted symbols starts in the following way:
the same as the transmitted one. The signal may expe- -Sz*, S 1*, -S 4 *, S 3*,. . ., where the asterisk indicates the
rience changes in amplitude and phase, and these 35 complex conjugate. Fig. 3 presents the PCCPCH data
changes are time-dependent. They are taken into ac- 304 transmitted from the antenna TX1 and the PCCPCH
count using the complex channel coefficient h when the data 305 transmitted from the antenna TX2. It is possible
despread signal is processed. An estimate hfor the chan- also to use the space time transmit diversity for the BCCH
nel coefficient can be determined by comparing the re- information but transmit all the synchronization symbols
ceived pilot symbols to the known transmitted pilot sym- 40 from one antenna.
bols. The channel coefficient may be assumed to be con- [0017] The base station may indicate the use of diver-
stant during the time over which the pilot symbol and the sity scheme and two transceivers, for example, by trans-
studied symbol are transmitted. mitting a specific message on a broadcast channel or
[0013] Common control information is transmitted us- modulating the synchronization symbols. A certain syn-
ing, for example, a Primary Common Control Physical 45 chronization symbol value indicates that the STTD in on,
Channel (PCCPCH) 205. PCCPCH is transmitted 90% and another value indicates that it is off. The mobile sta-
of the duty cycle, at the time when the synchronization tion may also determine the use of a diversity scheme
symbols are not sent It is spread using a predetermined by detecting the auxiliary pilot symbols. The mobile sta-
channelization code and the downlink scrambling code, tion may also use all three indicators of the diversity
as discussed above. After the scrambling code has been 50 scheme.
identified, the mobile station may despread the CCPCH [0018] When the mobile station detects the presence
information from the spread signal it receives. The infor- of STTD using the synchronization symbol, the value of
mation may be, for example, information related to the the synchronization symbol needs to be determined re-
logical Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). The mobile liably. When a certain symbol needs to be determined,
station needs the BCCH information, for example, to start 55 the effect of the channel coefficient has to be taken into
communicating with the radio access network after power account. The mobile station receives the following signal
up or to make a successful handover. r
[0014] Fig. 2 represents a situation where the base sta-

3
5 EP 1186 119 82 6

which antenna a symbol belonging to sequence is trans-
mitted.
[0023] The objects of the invention are achieved by
where h represents the complex channel coefficient sscH starting the time switched transmit diversity pattern of the
represents the synchronization symbol and n represent s sequence of symbols always from the same antenna in
the noise. the beginning of a frame and by using the same pattern
[0019] When the received signal r in multiplied by the in each frame.
complex conjugate of the channel coefficient estimate h* [0024] A method according to the invention is a method
for transmitting a certain sequence of symbols, where
10
A A A a frame is constructed of a certain number of con-
h *(hsscH + n) = h * hsscH + h • n
secutive symbols,
the symbols belonging to the sequence are trans-
the result is the synchronization symbol scaled with a mitted using two antennas and
h
scalar *hand the term related to noise. From here it is 15 - the transmission of the sequence of symbols is char-
quite straightforward to infer the value of the synchroni- acterized with a certain transmission pattern, and it
zation symbol. is characterized in that
[0020] Above, the synchronization symbols have been the transmission of the sequence of symbols is start-
used as an example of a sequence of symbols that is ed from a predefined antenna and
transmitted using two antennas. The problem is that 20 - when a partial transmission pattern is used in the
when the TSTD diversity scheme is in use, the mobile end of a frame, the transmission pattern is started
station cannot necessarily distinguish from which anten- from the beginning in the beginning of a next frame.
na a certain synchronization symbol, or any other symbol
that is transmitted using a time switched diversity [0025] An arrangement according to the invention is
scheme, is transmitted. Consider, for example, a situa- 25 an arrangement, which comprises control means for con-
tion where a certain sequence of symbols is transmitted trolling the transmission of a sequence of symbols ac-
once is every time slot, and a frame consists of an odd cording to a certain transmission pattern and using two
number of time slots. If the symbols belonging to these- antennas, and it is characterized in that it further com-
quence are transmitted using a time switched diversity prises
scheme, two diversity antennas are used and the trans- 30
mission pattern is an alternating pattern, in a certain time indication means for indicating the antenna from
slot the symbol belonging to the sequence is transmitted which to transmit the first symbol belonging to the
from one antenna in every other frame and in the rest of sequence and
the frames from the other antenna. Therefore the mobile starting means for starting the transmission pattern
station does not know, which channel coefficient estimate 35 from the beginning in the beginning of a next frame,
to use for a symbol sent in a certain time slot with a time when a partial transmission pattern is used in the
switched transmission scheme. end of a frame.
[0021] To obtain a reliable result, the signal transmitted
by the primary transceiver has to be processed with the [0026] A network element according to the invention
h
channel coefficient estimate 2 determined from the pri- 40 is a network element, which comprises control means for
mary pilot and the signal transmitted by the secondary controlling the transmission of a sequence of symbols
transceiver ha~ to be processed with the channel coeffi- according to a certain transmission pattern and using two
cient estimate h 2 determined from the auxiliary pilot. Not antennas, and it is characterized in that it further
knowing from which antenna a certain symbol is trans- comprises.
mitted causes unnecessary interference to the decision 45
which symbol was sent In case of synchronization sym- indication means for indicating the antenna from
bols, this may cause that the mobile station cannot utilize which to transmit the first symbol belonging to the
the transmission diversity of, for example, the common sequence and
control information for enhancing the quality of the re- starting means for starting the transmission pattern
ceived signal. Consequently, ifthe transmission diversity 50 from the beginning in the beginning of a next frame,
is in use, but the receiver does not notice this, the quality when a partial transmission pattern is used in the
of the received common control signal may be poorer end of a frame.
than in a case where no transmission diversity is applied.
[0022] The object of the invention is to provide a ver- [0027] In a method according to the invention a se-
satile method for transmitting a sequence of symbols us- 55 quence of symbol is transmitted using two antennas. The
ing two antennas. A further object of the invention is that transmission of the symbols belonging to the sequence
the method enables to determine unambiguously from is characterized with a transmission pattern. Here the
term transmission pattern refers to a pattern that speci-

4
7 EP 1186 119 B2 8

fies both from which antenna a symbol is transmitted and too. If n diversity antennas are in use and at least n-1
at which time the symbol is transmitted. The pattern may antennas in the transmission pattern are associated to
consist, for example, of a sequence of pattern items, and physical antennas, then a receiver who knows the trans-
each of the pattern items corresponds to a certain period mission pattern, can use correct channel coefficient es-
of time. A pattern item may be represented, for example, 5 timation for all the received symbols belonging to these-
by a number indicating an antenna. For example, a pat- quence and determine their values reliably.
tern 1, 2, 0, 2, 2, 0, 1, ... , where each number corresponds [0033] The invention will now be described more in de-
to a time slot, would indicate that a first symbol of the tail with reference to the preferred embodiments by the
sequence is transmitted in a first time slot using a first way of example and to the accompanying drawings
antenna, a second symbol of the sequence is transmitted 10 where
using a second antenna in a second time slot and in the
third time slot no symbol belonging to the sequence is Fig. 1 shows a schematic drawing of a base station
transmitted. In the fourth time slot, a third symbol of the communicating with two mobile terminals in
sequence is transmitted using the second antenna, and WCDMA system,
so forth. 15
[0028] In the method according to the invention the an- Fig. 2 shows a schematic drawing of some of the com-
tenna to transmit the first symbol belonging to the se- man broadcast channels in WCDMA system,
quence is predefined. This means that a certain physical
antenna is associated to the first antenna of the trans- Fig. 3 shows a schematic drawing of some of the com-
mission pattern. The receiver thus knows which of the 20 man broadcast channels in WCDMA system
pilot signals is transmitted by the same antenna as the when transmission diversity is in use,
first symbols of the sequence, and it may use the correct
channel coefficient estimate in processing the first sym- Fig. 4 shows a flowchart of method according to a first
bol of the sequence. If, for example, the first symbol of preferred embodiment of the invention,
the sequence is transmitted using the primary antenna 25
that transmits the common pilot, the channel coefficient Fig. 5 shows a flowchart of method according to a sec-
estimate determined from the common pilot is used to and preferred embodiment of the invention,
process the received first symbol.
[0029] Further, in the method according to the inven- Fig. 6 shows a flowchart of a method according to a
tion, the transmission pattern is started from the begin- 30 third preferred embodiment of the invention and
ning in the beginning of each frame. Even if the receiver
starts to receive the signal in the middle of the transmis- Fig. 7 shows a schematic drawing of a network ele-
sion, it knows explicitly that in each frame the first symbol ment and an arrangement that employ a meth-
belonging to the sequence is transmitted using a prede- od according to the invention.
fined antenna, for example, the primary antenna. 35
[0030] The advantage of the method according to the [0034] Above in conjunction with the description of the
invention is thus that the receiver knows for certain at prior art reference was made to Figs. 1-3. The same ref-
least the antenna from which in each frame the first sym- erence numerals are used for corresponding parts in the
bol belonging to the symbol sequence is transmitted. It figures.
may thus process at least these symbols with the correct 40 [0035] Fig. 4 shows a flowchart of a method 400 ac-
channel coefficient estimate. This removes unnecessary cording to a first embodiment of the invention. A se-
interference in the decision process where the received quence of symbols is transmitted using a specified trans-
symbol is determined. When the method according to mission pattern. The symbols belonging to the sequence
the invention is in use, at least some of the symbols of are marked with S. In step 401 the transmission pattern
the sequence can thus be received reliably. 45 that characterizes the transmission of a certain sequence
[0031] Usually the receiver knows the transmission of symbols is defined. In step 402 the antenna which
pattern, and if two antennas are used to transmit the sym- transmits the first symbol S of the sequence is defined.
bol sequence, the information from which antenna the Thereafter the actual transmission of symbols S belong-
first symbol in each frame is transmitted reveals the trans- ing to the sequence begins.
mission antennas of all the symbols in that frame. A fur- 50 [0036] In step 403 the transmission pattern is reset, so
ther advantage of the invention is thus that in a case that the next symbol S of the sequence is transmitted
where two diversity antennas are used and the receiver according to the first item of the transmission pattern. In
knows the transmission pattern, the receiver can process step 404 symbols of the sequence are transmitted ac-
all received symbols belonging to the sequence with cor- cording to the transmission pattern. Step 405 is carried
rect channel coefficient estimations and determine the 55 out simultaneously with the transmission in step 404, and
received symbols reliably. when the beginning of a new frame is detected in step
[0032] If more than two diversity antennas are in use, 405, the transmission pattern is reset in step 403 and the
the method according to the invention can be applied, next symbol S of the sequence is transmitted as the first

5
9 EP 1186 119 B2 10

item of the transmission pattern specifies. even if the transmission pattern is shorter than a frame
[0037] Because the transmission pattern specifies the and the length of a frame is not a multiple of the trans-
time at which the symbols S are sent, the length of the mission pattern, it is possible to transmit symbols S of
transmission pattern can be measured in units of time. the sequence throughout a frame by repeating the trans-
The length of the transmission pattern can be expressed, 5 mission pattern and be certain that in each frame the
for example, in time slots. If the transmission pattern is symbols S of the sequence are transmitted using the di-
longer than a frame, then in a method according to this versity antennas similarly.
first preferred embodiment of the invention only a certain [0044] This method works also ifthe length of the trans-
number (corresponding to the length of a frame) of items mission pattern is longer than the frame. In that case step
in the beginning of the transmission pattern is used. If 10 502 in never entered, and only a certain part of the trans-
the transmission is shorter than a frame, then symbols mission pattern is used in sequential steps 503.
S are transmitted only in the first part of the frame in a [0045] Fig. 6 shows a more detailed flowchart of a
method according to the first preferred embodiment of transmission method 600 according to a third preferred
the invention. embodiment of the invention. In this method, the diversity
[0038] In a method according to the first embodiment 15 antenna that transmits the first symbol of the sequence
of the invention, in each frame a same number of symbols is also specified, although this is not shown in Fig. 6. In
S is transmitted. The first of these symbols S within a this method, if the transmission pattern is short, it is re-
frame is always sent using the predefined antenna. In peated within a frame similarly as in method 500. The
fact, each of the symbols Swithin a frame in the consec- part of the transmission pattern, which is placed to the
utive frames are transmitted using a certain antenna. The 20 end of each frame, is selected here from the beginning
symbols Sare thus transmitted similarly in each frame of the transmission pattern.
(although the values of the symbols, for example in cer- [0046] In step 601 the transmission pattern is defined.
tain time slots in consecutive frames, need not be same). In step 602 the length of the frame and the length of the
[0039] Fig. 5 shows a flowchart of a method 500 ac- transmission pattern are determined. In the method, the
cording to a second preferred embodiment of the inven- 25 index j is used to denote the items of the transmission
tion. In this method, if the length of the transmission pat- pattern, and in step 603 the active indexes for each an-
tern is shorter than a frame, the transmission pattern is tenna are determined from the transmission pattern. An
repeated in a certain way. This ensures that the symbols active index refers here to those transmission pattern
S of the sequence are transmitted during the whole items during which a symbol S is transmitted using a
frame. 30 certain antenna. Consider on example, where transmis-
[0040] The method 500 begins similarly as the method sion pattern is a simple alternating pattern and two diver-
400 according to the first preferred embodiment of the sity antennas are used. If one symbol Sis transmitted,
invention. In step 401 the transmission pattern is defined for example, in the beginning of each time slot, then the
and in step 402 the antenna which transmits the first sym- transmission pattern items correspond to a time slot The
bol S of the sequence. In step 403 the transmission pat- 35 transmission pattern can be represented, for example,
tern is started from the beginning. with two numbers 1 and 2. The odd values of j are active
[0041] In step 501 it is checked, ifthe length of the rest for one antenna and the even values of j for the other
of the frame is longer than or equal to a complete trans- antenna. If in a certain time slot of a pattern no symbol
mission pattern. If it is, then in step 502 symbols Sare Sis transmitted, then the respective value of jis not active
transmitted using the complete transmission pattern, and 40 for any antenna. Similarly, if in a certain time slot of a
thereafter the length of the rest of the frame is checked pattern both antennas are transmitting a symbol S, then
again. In this method, the transmission pattern is thus the respective value of j is active for both antennas.
repeated during a frame as many times as it can be re- [0047] Index j runs from 1 to the length of the trans-
peated completely. mission pattern. The length of the transmission pattern
[0042] When the end of the frame is near, i.e. the length 45 may be expressed, for example, in symbols or in time
of the rest of the frame is less than the length of the slots.
transmission pattern, then in step 503 symbols S are [0048] In step 604 the value of indexj is initialized to
transmitted using only a certain part of the transmission one. In the same step 604 index i, which refers to time
pattern. The length of this part is equal to the remainder units of a frame, is also initialized to one. Index i has to
of the length of a frame divided by the length of the trans- 50 refer to a same time unit as index j. If n > 1 symbols S
mission pattern. Thereafter the transmission pattern is can be transmitted in each time slot, then the index i may
started from the beginning in step 403, and symbols S run, for example, from 1 to n times the number of time
are again transmitted using the complete transmission slots in a frame. In this case, the length of the transmis-
pattern in step 502. The part of the transmission pattern sion pattern would also be expressed in n'th parts of a
can be selected, for example, from the beginning of the 55 time slot.
pattern. [0049] In step 605 it is checked, if the current value of
[0043] The advantage of this method according to the j is active, i.e. if any of the diversity antennas is expected
second preferred embodiment of the invention is that to transmit a symbol Sin the current time unit If j is active,

6
11 EP 1186 119 B2 12

then in step 606 the antenna(s) specified by the trans- block 701, which controls the actual transmission of sym-
mission pattern transmits the symbol S. After transmis- bols S according to a transmission pattern. It chooses
sion, in step 607 it is checked, if the end of frame or end the diversity antenna for each symbol S. The transmis-
of pattern has been reached. If j is not active, then this sion pattern is generated in a generation block 705 and
checking is done directly after step 605. If either the end 5 the sequence of symbols Smay be generated in the sym-
offrame or the end of the pattern has been reached, then bol block 704, which is not part of the arrangement 700.
the transmission pattern is started afresh by initializing j [0056] The arrangement 700 comprises also an indi-
to 1 in step 609. If the current time unit is in the middle cation block 702, which is responsible for indicating the
of the frame and the end of the pattern is not reached, antenna using which the first symbol S of the sequence
then indexj is pointed to the next item in the transmission 10 is transmitted. It also comprises a starting block 703,
pattern. This takes place in step 608, wherejis increased which, for example, detects the beginning of a frame, and
by one. starts the generation of the transmission pattern again
[0050] After index j has been updated in either step from the beginning. The arrangement 700 may use any
608 or 609, in step 61 O it is checked, if the end of the transmission method according to the invention. The
frame has been reached, i.e. if index i has reached its 15 block 701-705 may be implemented using, for example,
maximum value. If the end of the frame has been microcontrollers and suitable program code.
reached, then in step 612 index i is initialized to one. If [0057] The control arrangement can be implemented
the current time slot is in the middle of the frame, then in the same network element which is responsible for
index i is pointed to the next time unit by increasing it by transmitting the sequence of symbols. Fig. 7 shows a
one in step 611. After the value of index i has been up- 20 network element 71 O which in addition to the arrange-
dated, it is checked in step 605 if the current item of the ment 700 comprises two antennas 721 and 722. The
transmission pattern is active. arrangement controls the transmission of the symbols S,
[0051] As an example, consider a simple pattern and the actual transmission is done using the antennas.
whose length is two time slots and, for example, a syn- The network element 710 presented in Fig. 7 may be, for
chronization symbol is transmitted once in a time slot. 25 example, a base station of the WCDMA system.
Index j thus has values 1 and 2. Further, consider that [0058] It is also possible to control the transmission of
the pattern is alternating. The values I and 2 of index j a certain sequence of symbols in another network ele-
may thus directly indicate the diversity antenna using ment than in the one that transmits the symbols. The
which the synchronization symbol is transmitted. Using arrangement 700 can be a part of, for example, the Radio
the term active index, this can be expressed by saying 30 Network Controller (RNC) of the WCDMA system.
that, for example, for the primary diversity antenna the [0059] This invention has been described with refer-
index value 1 is active, and for the auxiliary diversity an- ence to illustrative exemplary embodiments. Various oth-
tenna, the index value 2 is active. er embodiments of the invention will be apparent to per-
[0052] If the length of the frame ism time slots, and m sons skilled in the art upon reference to this description.
is an odd number, then as long as i < m, steps 608 and 35 It is therefore contemplated that the appended claims will
609 are carried out in an alternating manner and the syn- cover any such modifications of the embodiments.
chronization symbols are transmitted from the two diver- [0060] The WCDMA system has been presented as
sity antennas in an alternating manner. The pairs {i, J) in an example of a cellular network where a method accord-
the consecutive transmission steps 606 are (1, 1), (2, 2), ing to the invention can be applied. It does not restrict
(3, 1), (4, 2), ... (m-2, 1), (m-1, 2). 40 the use of a method according to the invention to WCDMA
[0053] When index i is increased to value m in step networks.
611, the pair {i, j) has value (m, 1) next time in step 606. [0061] Frames and time slots have been used here as
Thereafter the check in step 607 results the initialization examples of the hierarchical structures using which in-
=
of j, because i m indicates the end of the frame. In the formation is transmitted over a radiolink. The names of
consecutive step 612 index i is initialized, and the next 45 these structures may vary from system to system and a
time the transmission step 606 is entered, the value of method according to the invention can be applied in any
the pair (i, j) is (1, 1). The transmission pattern is thus system where information is transmitted over radiolink in
started afresh, when a new frame is started. hierarchical structures.
[0054] If the transmission pattern is, for some reason, [0062] The method according to the invention can be
defined to be longer than the frame, steps 607 and 609 50 used to transmit any sequence of symbols. The invention
take care also in this case that the transmission pattern does not restrict the type or values of the symbols that
is started afresh when a frame starts. The end of the are transmitted using a method according to the inven-
transmission pattern is not used. tion. The sequence may contain, for example, only sym-
[0055] Fig. 7 shows a network element and an arrange- bols of one value, as the synchronization symbols in
ment which employ a method according to the invention 55 WCDMA system. The sequence may also be, for exam-
when they control the transmit of a certain sequence of pie, a periodic sequence, where certain symbols are re-
symbols. The arrangement 700 for controlling the trans- peated. The length of the period does not have to be any
mission of synchronization symbols comprises a control multiple of the pattern length, nor the pattern length need

7
13 EP 1186 119 B2 14

to be any multiple of the sequence period. 6. A method according to claim 1, where each frame
consists of a certain number of consecutive time
slots and each time slot consists of a certain number
Claims of consecutive symbols, characterized in that one
5 symbol belonging to the sequence of symbols is
1. A method (300, 400, 500) for transmitting a certain transmitted in each time slot.
sequence of symbols, where
7. A method according to claim 1, where each frame
- a frame is constructed of a certain number of consists of a certain number of consecutive time
consecutive symbols, 10 slots and each time slot consists of a certain number
- the symbols belonging to the sequence are of consecutive symbols, characterized in that more
transmitted (404, 502, 606) using two antennas than one symbol belonging to the sequence of sym-
and bols is transmitted in each time slot.
- the transmission of the sequence of symbols
is characterized (401, 601) with a certain trans- 15 8. A method according to claim 1, where each frame
mission pattern, characterized in that consists of a certain number of consecutive time
- the transmission of the sequence of symbols slots and each time slot consists of a certain number
is started (402) from a predefined antenna, of consecutive symbols, characterized in that in at
- each symbol of the sequence is transmitted least one of the time slots no symbol belonging to
using not more than one of said two antennas, 20 the sequence of symbols is transmitted.
whereby only one antenna is transmitting at a
time, and 9. A method according to claim 1, characterized in
when a partial transmission pattern is used in that the length of the transmission pattern is larger
the end of a frame, the transmission pattern is than the length of the frame.
started (403, 405) from the beginning in the be- 25
ginning of a next frame. 10. A method according to claim 1, characterized in
that the transmission of the sequence of symbols is
2. A method (500, 600) according to claim 1, where started from the primary antenna that transmits the
common pilot signal.
-the length of the transmission pattern is shorter 30
than the length of a frame, and 11. A method according to claim 1, characterized in
the length of the frame is not a multiple of the that the sequence of symbols is transmitted in down-
length of the transmission pattern, character- link direction in a cellular network.
ized in that during each frame
- the transmission pattern is repeated (502) until 35 12. An arrangement (700), which comprises control
the length of the rest of the frame, which length means (701) for controlling the transmission of a se-
is the length of the transmission pattern multi- quence of symbols according to a certain transmis-
plied by the number of the repetition times within sion pattern and using two antennas, characterized
the frame subtracted from the length of the in that it further comprises
frame, is less than the length of the transmission 40
pattern and - indication means (702) for indicating the an-
thereafter only a certain part, whose length is tenna from which to transmit the first symbol be-
the length of the rest of the frame, of the trans- longing to the sequence,
mission pattern is used (503). - means for arranging the transmission of each
45 symbol of the sequence using not more than one
3. A method according to claim 2, characterized in of said two antennas, whereby only one antenna
that the part of the transmission pattern is selected is transmitting at a time, and
(609) from the beginning of the transmission pattern. starting means (703) for starting the transmis-
sion pattern from the beginning in the beginning
4. A method according to claim 2, characterized in 50 of a next frame, when a partial transmission pat-
that the length of the transmission pattern is an even tern is used in the end of a frame.
number and the length of the frame is an odd number.
13. A network element (710), characterized in that it
5. A method according to claim 4, where the sequence comprises an arrangement (700) according to claim
of symbols is transmitted using a first antenna and 55 12.
a second antenna, characterized in that the trans-
mission pattern is an alternating pattern and the 14. A network element according to claim 13, charac-
length of the transmission pattern is two. terized in that it is a radio network controller of a

8
15 EP 1186 119 B2 16

spread spectrum system. zeichnet, dass die Lange des Sendemusters eine
gerade Zahl ist und die Lange des Rahmens eine
15. A network element(710) according to claim 13, char- ungerade Zahl ist.
acterized in that it is a base station of a spread
spectrum system and comprises at least two anten- 5 5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4, bei dem die Falge van
nas (721, 722). Symbolen unter Verwendung einer ersten Antenne
und einer zweiten Antenne gesendet wird, dadurch
gekennzeichnet, dass das Sendemuster ein ab-
Patentanspriiche wechselndes Muster ist und die Lange des Sende-
10 musters gleich zwei ist.
1. Verfahren (300, 400, 500) zum Obertragen einer be-
stimmten Falge van Symbolen, bei dem 6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem jeder Rahmen
aus einer bestimmten Anzahl aufeinander folgender
- ein Rahmen aus einer bestimmten Anzahl auf- Zeitschlitze besteht und jeder Zeitschlitz aus einer
einander folgender Symbole konstruiert wird, 15 bestimmten Anzahl aufeinander folgender Symbole
- die Symbole, die zu der Falge gehoren, unter besteht, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in jedem
Verwendung van zwei Antennen gesendet wer- Zeitschlitz ein Symbol, das zu der Falge van Sym-
den (404,502, 606) und bolen gehort, gesendet wird.
- die Obertragung der Falge van Symbolen
durch ein bestimmtes Sen demuster gekenn- 20 7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem jeder Rahmen
zeichnet ist (401, 601 ), dadurch gekennzeich- aus einer bestimmten Anzahl aufeinander folgender
net, dass Zeitschlitze besteht und jeder Zeitschlitz aus einer
das Senden der Falge van Symbolen van einer bestimmten Anzahl aufeinander folgender Symbole
im Voraus definierten Antenne begonnen wird besteht, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in jedem
(402), 25 Zeitschlitz mehr als ein Symbol, die zu der Falge van
jedes Symbol der Falge unter Verwendung van Symbolen gehoren, ilbertragen werden.
nicht mehr als einer der zwei Antennen gesen-
det wird, wobei zu einer Zeit nur eine Antenne 8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem jeder Rahmen
sendet, und aus einer bestimmten Anzahl aufeinander folgender
- das Sendemuster am Anfang eines nachsten 30 Zeitschlitze besteht und jeder Zeitschlitz aus einer
Rahm ens am Anfang begonnen wird (403, 405), bestimmten Anzahl aufeinander folgender Symbole
wenn am Ende eines Rahmens ein partielles besteht, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in wenig-
Sendemuster verwendet wird. stens einem der Zeitschlitze kein Symbol, das zu der
Falge van Symbolen gehort, ubertragen wird.
2. Verfahren (500, 600) nach Anspruch 1, bei dem 35
9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
- die Lange des Sendemusters kurzer als die zeichnet, dass die Lange des Sendemusters grol3.er
Lange eines Rahmens ist und als die Lange des Rahmens ist.
- die Lange des Rahmens kein Vielfaches der
Lange des Sendemusters ist, 40 10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass wahrend je- zeichnet, dass die Obertragung der Falge van Sym-
des Rahmens bolen bei der primaren Antenne beginnt, die das ge-
das Sendemuster solange wiederholt wird meinsame Pilotsignal ubertragt.
(502), bis die Lange des restlichen Rahmens,
die die Differenz zwischen der Rahmenlange 45 11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekenn-
und dem Produkt aus der Lange des Sendemu- zeichnet, dass die Falge van Symbolen in Abwarts-
sters und der Anzahl der Wiederholungen in streckenrichtung in einem Zellennetz ubertragen
dem Rahmen ist, kleiner als die Lange des Sen- wird.
demusters ist,
- anschliel3.end nur ein bestimmter Tei I des Sen- 50 12. Anordnung (700, 710), die Steuermittel (701) um-
demusters, dessen Lange gleich der Lange des fasst, die das Senden einer Falge van Symbolen ge-
restlichen Rah mens ist, verwendet wird (503). mal3. einem bestimmten Sendemuster und unterVer-
wendung van zwei Antennen steuert, dadurch ge-
3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekenn- kennzeichnet, dass sie ferner umfasst:
zeichnet, dass der Teil des Sendemusters ab dem 55
Anfang des Sendemusters gewahlt wird (609). -Anzeigemittel (702), die die Antenne anzeigen,
van der aus das erste Symbol, das zu der Falge
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekenn- gehor~gesendetwird,

9
17 EP 1186 119 B2 18

Mittel, die das Senden jedes Symbols der Fal- de la trame soustraite de la longueur de la trame,
ge unter Verwendung van nicht mehr als einer soit inferieure a la longueur du motif de trans-
der zwei Antennen organisieren, wobei zu einer mission et
Zeit nur eine Antenne sendet, und par la suite seulement une certaine partie, dont
- Startmittel (703), die das Sendemuster am An- 5 la longueur et la longueur du reste de la trame,
fang eines nachsten Rahmens am Anfang be- du motif de transmission est utilisee (503).
ginnen, wenn ein partielles Sendemuster am
Ende eines Rah mens verwendet wird. 3. Procede selon la revendication 2, caracterise en ce
que la partie du motif de transmission est selection-
13. Netzwerkelement, dadurch gekennzeichnet, es ei- 10 nee (609) depuis le debut du motif de transmission.
ner Anordnung nach Anspruch 12 umfasst.
4. Procede selon la revendication 2, caracterise en ce
14. Netzwerkelement nach Anspruch 13, dadurch ge- que la longueur du motif de transmission est un nom-
kennzeichnet, dass sie eine Funknetz-Steuerein- bre pair et la longueur de la trame est un nombre
heit eines Spreizspektrumsystems ist. 15 impair.

15. Netzwerkelement nach Anspruch 13, dadurch ge- 5. Procede selon la revendication 4, ou la sequence de
kennzeichnet, dass sie eine Basisstation eines symbole est transmise en utilisant une premiere an-
Spreizspektrumsystems ist und dass sie wenigstens tenne et une seconde antenne caracterise en ce
zwei Antennen (721, 722) umfasst. 20 que le motif de transmission est un motif alternant
et la longueur du motif de transmission est deux.

Revendications 6. Procede selon la revendication 1, ou chaque trame
se compose d'un certain nombre de tranches tern-
1. Procede (300,400,500) destine a transmettre une 25 porelles consecutives et chaque tranche temporelle
certaine sequence de symboles, OU se compose d'un certain nombre de symbole con-
secutif, caracterise en ce que un symbole appar-
- une trame est constituee d'un certain nombre tenant a la sequence de symbole est transmis dans
de symboles consecutifs, chaque tranche temporelle.
- les symboles appartenant a la sequence sont 30
transmis (404,502,606) en utilisant deux anten- 7. Procede selon la revendication 1, ou chaque trame
nes et se compose d'un certain nombre de tranches tern-
- la transmission de la sequence de symbole est porelles consecutives et chaque tranche temporelle
caracterisee (401,601) avec uncertain motif de se compose d'un certain nombre de symboles con-
transmission, caracterise en ce que 35 secutifs, caracterise en ce que plus d'un symbole
- la transmission de la sequence de symbole est appartenant a la sequence de symbole est transmis
demarree (402) depuis une antenne predetinie, dans chaque tranche temporelle.
- chaque symbole de la sequence est transmis
en utilisant pas plus d'une des deux antennes 8. Procede selon la revendication 1, ou chaque trame
moyennant quoi seulement une antenne qui 40 se compose d'un certain nombre de tranches tern-
transmet a la fois et porelles consecutives et chaque tranche temporelle
lorsqu'un motif de transmission partiel est uti- se compose d'un certain nombre de symboles con-
lise dans I' action d'une trame, le motif de trans- secutifs, caracterise en ce que dans au mains une
mission est demarre (403,405) dans le debut des tranches temporelles aucun symbole apparte-
d'une trame suivante. 45 nant a la sequence du symbole n'est transmis.

2. Procede (500,600) selon la revendication 1, ou 9. Procede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en ce
que la longueur du motif de transmission est plus
- la longueur du motif de transmission est plus longue que la longueur de la trame.
courte que la longueur d'une trame, et 50
la longueur de la trame n'est pas un multiple 10. Procede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en ce
de la longueur du motif de transmission, carac- que la transmission de la sequence de symbole est
terise en ce que lors de chaque trame demarree depuis l'antenne primaire qui transmet le
- le motif de transmission est repete(502) jusqu'a signal pilote commun.
ce que la longueur du reste de la trame, laquelle 55
longueur est la 11. Procede selon la revendication 1, caracterise en ce
longueur du motif de transmission multipliee par que la sequence de symbole est transmise dans la
le nombre des temps de repetition a l'interieur direction de liaison descendante dans un reseau eel-

10
19 EP 1186 119 B2 20

lulaire.

12. Disposition (700,710) qui comprend un moyen de
commande (701) pour commander la transmission
d'une sequence de symbole selon un certain motif 5
de transmission et utilisant deux antennes, carac-
terise en ce qu'elle comprend en outre

- un moyen d'indication (702) pour indiquer l'an-
tenne depuis laquelle transmettre le premier 10
a
symbole appartenant la sequence,
un moyen pour disposer la transmission de
chaque symbole de la sequence en utilisant pas
plus d'une des deux antennes moyennant quoi
seulement une antenne transmet a la fois et 15
- un moyen de depart (703) pour demarrer le
motif de transmission depuis le debut dans le
debut d'une trame suivante, lorsqu'un motif de
transmission partiel est utilise dans la fin d'une
trame. 20

13. Element de reseau (710), caracterise en ce qu'elle
comprend une disposition (700) selon la revendica-
tion 12.
25
14. Element de reseau (710) selon la revendication 13,
caracterise en ce qu'il s'agit d'un controleur de re-
seau radio d'un systeme par etalement de spectre.

15. Element de reseau (710) selon la revendication 13, 30
caracterise en ce qu'il s'agit d'une station de base
d'un systeme par etalement de spectre et comprend
au mo ins deux antennes (721, 722).

35

40

45

50

55

11
EP 1186 119 62

100
r·------- --,
I / Ccc=f.sCc \ \

/'~DI =Cs CCl 111 \\

. 01 ~~:~=CsCc2\\.
/~~~
I ·102 BS \
\
'\

\
\
D l
I
I
.I
I

\ 1ro I
\ I
i
\
\ #I
\ I
\ I

\ __ .................._I I
' ....__ .,..._. ........._

FIG. 1 PRIOR ART

211
>
210 210 210 2JO
< >< >< > < >
201
CPlCH ~~~~\.~~~~< ~'§\.~~"""~
202 202 202 202 202
s;:203
SCH
204 8 8 8 8
205 205 205 205
PCCPCH I 11 II IC- _]I

FlG. 2 PRlOR ART

12
EP 1186 119 B2

211
>
< 210 >< 210 >< 210 > < 210 >
201
'··· CPJCH ~~~~'\~~~"~' ~%.~~~
302 302 ' 302
'fXl ' SCH

.. ·
B B B
304 304 304 304
PCCPCH I 11 II_ _I L __:] ' - - -
301

303 303
TX2 .· SCH
8 B
305 305 305 305
PCCPCH I 11 II I L _:]I

FIG. 3 PRIOR ART

13
EP 1186119 62

400 \.. 401
Define
transmission
pattern

402 \I
Define the antenna
which transmits
the first symbol S

403 I~
Start using
transmission pattern
from the beginning

405
404 \V
Transmit symbols S
using the
transmission pattern

Detect the beginning of frame

FIG. 4

14
EP 1186 119 B2

500 "\.... 401
Define
transmission
pattern

402
Define the antenna
which transmits
the first symbol S

403
Start using
transmission pattern
from the be&innjng

501
yes J]O

End of frame near ?

503 502
Transmit symbols S Transmit symbols S ·
using a parl of using a complete
transmission pattern transmission pattern

FIG. 5

15
EP 1186 119 82

601
600 "\..
Deline transmission
pattern
602
Determine frame
length and pattern
le l
603
Determine active
values of j for each
divers't ntenna
604
Initialize
i=l.j=l
605
no es
j active?

606
Transmit symboJ S
according to lhe
i ·o t

607
End of frame or
no end pattern yes
reached?
606 609
Increase j. Initialize j.
j =j +1 j =1

End of frame
no reached? yes

611 612
Increase i. lnitiaJize i.
i: j +l j =1

FIG. 6

16
EP 1186119 B2

721 722

710

700
r··-·-

-·- -1•
:• 702
..•••••
701 l
'
I
.••• lndication
• I


..•••i• 703 705
:•
,,!•
•' !•
••
i: Starting Pattern :
:.,.____ .
:
__,•

?04
Symbols

FIG. ·7

17
EP 1186 119 B2

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION

This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European
patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be
excluded and the EPO disclaims al/ liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description

WO 9914871 A [0005]

18
141nu1

is****~=***~***~****$****~*
*** 1..\1mTYSlnl'OJ(T1'I n;
*******~******~*****~******

1..:\II ETYS 11I\

LI\' NIW 0300
\ .\ST.\PI 01.E."- Nl IMEIW 09!Hl33.rn:1ti547 I Ii
\l.l llSll ITE
\ \STWl 11JI. Tllr\Nl iS
.\I ...\I KA . 21 1 12 13:31
KESTO :!.i' HI
S l\'l".1:\ IJ.llETETIY ·~ /
TlllJJS OK

NOKIA Fax
Date:
21.12 01
Pages: 1+50

From:
l\dd1e~s: Keilalahd ntie 2-4. FIN-02150 ESPOO
Fax: I 358 7180 34496

PMne: +358 718 08000
E-mail: Harri.honl.asalo@nokia.com

To: ETSI DirE ctor General .. Karl Heinz Roseobrock
Company: ETSI
Fax: +33493 354716
Cc to:

Dear Mr. Rosenbrock,

Please find enclosed Nokii GSM and UMTS IPR declarations.

Merry Christmas and Hap~ y New Year 2002!

~o~Q_r~
Harri Honkasalo
Director of IPR. Standard TP-dmology
Nokia Corporation
NOKIA Fax

Date;
21.12.01
Pages: 1+50

From: Harri Honkasalo
Address: Keilalahdentie 2-4, FIN-02150 ESPOO
Fax: +358 7180 34496
Phone: +358 7180 08000
E-mail: Harri.honkasalo@nokia.com

To: ETSI Director General · Karl Heinz Rosenbrock
Company: ETSI
Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Cc to:

Dear Mr. Rosenbrock,

Please find enclosed Nokia GSM and UMTS IPR declarations.

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2002!

Harri Honkasalo
Director of IPR, Standards T echnotogy
Nokia Corporation
El lROPEf\ N TEl,EC0 1\IM UNICATI( )N STANl)ARDS l NSTITUTI!:
page I ol 26

ANNEX I

IPR INFORMATION STA,TE.MF.NT AND LICENSING DECLARATION

I l"H I lolcler/Organisuli1111

I cgJI N.1mc. Noki:i Corporation,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Sigualory

Nan11:: !lam I lon~:1~ali1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
l'o.,I\ 11111 D1rc.:h11 of ll'R. StanJard~

IJcpatllncnt: 1l'R
A<lllr.:i.i.: Kc1l:il.1hJc11t1l· 2 • 4. FINO~ 150 ESPOO. Pl. 221>. FIN-C)()()-lj NOKIA CiROUP. FINI.AND

Tel.: +358 7180 USOOO
Fax: +l:iS 71 lm l~-t%

E-nmil: ham.hi mka~;1l11<wm l~la.l'\HTI

I l'l< i11fonuutiu11 Slllkllll'IU

In acrnrd:ull'C with lhc l'.'I SJ IPR Puhc). Artidc -t. I. I hcn:h) inform ETSI 1ha1.

with rclcrcnl·c tu 1hc lcchnKal pmpo);a) idcntif1cJ a~ UMTS ______________

111~ my belief that the IPR~ listed 111Annex1 ;ire, or an: li!..d) to hcrnmc. Essential IJ>R, in rclaiinn lo tha1 Standard,

11·1~ lkN1'iing dt'l'larntion

The SIGNATORY has nnt1f1cJ ETSI th:u ii 1s the proprietor 111 1hc IPRs hsti:d in Anne\:? and ha:. mlormcll ETSI
1ha1 ti bchc\>c:. that the IPR, may lie rnns1derc.:d ESSENTIAi. lo the Standard~ hstcd ;ihuvc.
Thi." SJ< iNA roRY ;md/ur tis Al·r:JLIATES h<!rehy dc1.:larc th:u they arc prcp;1red \\)grant 1rrcv11<:ahlc licenses under
lh(• ll'Rs \,111 tcrm:. and condititms whkh are in accordun\·c w11h Cl.iusc C>. l of the l:.T.SJ ll'R Policy, In rcspe~·t of lhc
STANDARD. to lhe cx1cm 1ha1 the IPR:; rem:tin ESSENTIAi ..
The construcunn. valld11y unc.l performance uf this DECLARATION shall be govcrm:c.l by the lawi. ufFrancc.

Sii::11111urc:

1S1)!11c1l f111iH11l11n hch.1\1 of lhc SICiNA'J1JHYl

Plcao;c rclum 1h1.~ form dul:y >l~ncd ltl
I· rst D1rt>c1nr \n.•ncrul - K•1tl 11.:in.I' Ro~l·nhrod.
ETSI MO. rnurc Jes l.ucwlc·-; · F-069:!1 Soph1:i Antipolis Cede~· f'l{,\N('f
F:1x. +3J 1014 llJ (1~ 47 16
EURO PEA N TE LECOMM UNICAT IO N STANDARDS INSTIT UTE
page 23 of26

MENETE ....... fA
TIEOONSIIRRON
OPTl.\1OL\115EK.$1
PAKETIIKYTKEl\'TAIS
UMTS Noh:a Mobile Pbones Lld
£SSA
Finbnd TS 23060, TS n 107 19991834 101674
LANGAlTOMASSA
llEOONSllRTOJARJES
TEL\1ASSA

United 5b,\eS TS 13.060. TS!3 107

PC'!' 1'$ 23.060. TS 23.107 1'CT1F100100731

MEll'IOD HJR
UMTS  Nol.m Mobile Phoncs Lid
TRAN5MITflNG A
SEQUENCE OF
China I) R 1'5 25.211 l'CTIF[()(}/Q()620

SYMBOLS

European 1';Ilenl
TS25.211 I'C.'T/FI00I00620

Finbnd TS25.211 99ISSC)

Japan 1'$25.211 rcrlFlOOlOO620

KornSooth TS2S.211 PCTIFlW006lO

UnHro Staid TS25.2 11 PCTIFlOOlOO620

PCT TS25.211 PCTIFlOOIOO620

TRANSFER OF XID
UMTS Noll3 Mobile- l'honn Lld. I'ARA.\IETERS Staid 1'5 25.33 I. TS 23.060 09f716629, 60.' 16 7924
DURIi\G HANDOVER

Pkast: return thiS rorm dui,! signoo 10: ETSI Dlrcctor(kneraJ - Kari Hemz Rosenbrod:

ETSI 650. roule des Lucioles· F-0692 I Sophia Anlipolis Cedex - Fr.l.llCe I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
17
A25862VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US006901046B2

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,901,046 B2
Hsu et al. (45) Date of Patent: May 31, 2005

(54) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR 6,253,063 Bl * 6/2001 Cudak et al. .............. 455/63.1
SCHEDULING AND MODULATION AND 6,307,849 Bl 10/2001 Tiedemann, Jr............. 370/335
CODING SELECTION FOR SUPPORTING 6,335,922 Bl 1/2002 Tiedemann, Jr. et al. ... 370/335
QUALITY OF SERVICE IN TRANSMISSIONS 6,374,117 Bl 4/2002 Denkert et al. ............. 485/522
6,400,699 Bl * 6/2002 Airy et al. .................. 370/329
ON FORWARD SHARED RADIO CHANNELS
6,404,802 Bl 6/2002 Kang et al. ................. 375/146
6,567,375 B2 * 5/2003 Balachandran et al. ..... 370/204
(75) Inventors: Liangchi Alan Hsu, San Diego, CA
(US); Mark W. Cheng, San Diego, CA
FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS
(US); Giridhar Mandyam, Dallas, TX
(US) WO WO 03/010984 Al * 2/2003 ............ H04Q/7/22

(73) Assignee: Nokia Corporation, Espoo (FI) * cited by examiner
( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 Primary Examiner-John Pczzlo
U.S.C. 154(b) by 63 days. Assistant Examiner-Saba Tsegaye
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Antonelli, Terry, Stout &
Kraus, LLP
(21) Appl. No.: 10/025,609
(57) ABSTRACT
(22) Filed: Dec. 26, 2001
(65) Prior Publication Data The invention is a process and system for controlling
selection of which MS is to receive the next packet data
US 2002/0141362 Al Oct. 3, 2002 transmission on a forward channel and selection of which
plural MCS is to be used for the packet data transmissions
Related U.S. Application Data on the forward channel. A process for controlling selection
(60) Provisional application No. 60/280,814, filed on Apr. 3, of MCS method to be used by a BTS (10) to transmit data
2001.
packets over a forward shared channel to a MS (12) in
(51) Int. CJ. 7 ............................... H04J 3/04; H04J 3/22 accordance with the invention stores information at the BTS,
(52) U.S. CJ ........................ 370/204; 370/332; 370/465; the information containing MCS methods which may be
455/522 selected to transmit data packets over the forward shared
(58) Field of Search ................................. 370/204, 317, channel to the MS; receiving from the MS at the BTS a
370/320, 328-329, 332-333, 335-336, quality indication of transmission of data packets over the
342, 345, 465; 455/522 forward channel to the MS; and selecting a MCS method
from a plurality of MCS methods which may be used to
(56) References Cited transmit data packets on the forward channel dependent
upon the received quality indication.
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
6,035,210 A * 3/2000 Endo et al. ................. 455/522 32 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets

100I~
BTS DECODES
REVERSE R-QIECH
OR A-GOICH FIELDS

102~ I
BTS SCHEDULES FOR MULTIPLE
MSs ON THE FORWARD SHARED
CHANNEL BASED ON THEIR QOS
REQUIREMENTS
104_.:J_ l
BTS SELECTS MSC TYPE FOR
THE MS THAT IS SCHEDULED TO
TRANSMIT DURING THE NEXT
TIME SLOT BASED UPON MS INPUT

106 I
~ BTS UPDATES AVERAGE
THROUGHPU~FERAND
DELAY FOR THE MS
U.S. Patent May 31, 2005 Sheet 1of4 US 6,901,046 B2

FIG. 1
(PRIOR ART)
10

BASE
TRANSCEIVER
STATION
(BTS)

FORWARD REVERSE
. SHARED-· CHANNEL
CHANNEL '(R-QIECH
OR R-CQICH)
12 12

MOBILE MOBILE
STATION ••• STATION
(MS) (MS)
#1 #N
U.S. Patent May 31, 2005 Sheet 2 of 4 US 6,901,046 B2

FIG. 2
100
L BTS DECODES
REVERSE R-QIECH
OR R-CQICH FIELDS

102 _j_
'
BTS SCHEDULES FOR MULTIPLE
MSs ON THE FORWARD SHARED
CHANNEL BASED ON THEIR QOS
REQUIREMENTS
104 ~
BTS SELECTS MSC TYPE FOR
THE MS THAT IS SCHEDULED TO
TRANSMIT DURING THE NEXT
TIME SLOT BASED UPON MS INPUT

106
\_: BTS UPDATES AVERAGE
THROUGHPUT, FER AND
DELAY FOR THE MS

400 'l . FIG 4 I

FOR EACH MOBILE STATION, MS(i),THE
BTS COMPUTES SCHEDULING METRIC:
SCHDL(i)=(k1 *R(req)/R(avg)+k2*
FER(avg)/FER(req)+k3*DELAY(avg)/DELAY(req))
*pri

402 _j_ ~

THE BTS SCHEDULES THE NEXT TIME SLOT
FOR THE MS THAT HAS THE
HIGHEST SCHEDULING METRIC SCHOL
~

COMPUTE THROUGHPUT METRIC:
.r:ll
FIG. 3 METRIC(R)=IR(req)-R(m_avg) 1/R(req)
COMPUTE FER METRIC:
METRIC(FER)= 1FER(req)-FER(m_avg)1 /
FER(req)
200

YES YES YES YES

212 214
U.S. Patent May 31, 2005 Sheet 4 of 4 US 6,901,046 B2

FIG. 5
BASE STATION RECEIVES Ec/Nt ON REVERSE QUALITY
INDICATOR ECHO CHANNEL (R-QIECH OR R-CQICH)

500
502 Ec/Nt 504

LOOK UP AND SELECT LOOK UP AND SELECT
POSSIBLE MCS FROM FER 11
POSSIBLE MCS FROM 11 THROUGH-
vs. Ec/Nt11 TABLE PUT vs. Ec/Ntu TABLE
(TABLE 1) (TABLE 2)

MULTIPLE POSSIBLE MULTIPLE POSSIBLE
MCS SELECTIONS, MCS SELECTIONS,
MCS(fer) 508 MCS{r)

514 516
SELECT THE OPTIMAL SELECT THE OPTIMAL
MCS FROM ALL MCS FROM ALL
POSSIBLE MCS(fer) POSSIBLE MCS(r)

FIG. 6
FOR THE MOST RECENT SCHEDULED MOBILE STATION,
THE BTS UPDATES:
R(avg)=R(avg)+[R(current)-R(avg)]/Tconst
FER(avg)==FER(avg)+[FER(current)-FER(avg)]!Tconst ·
DELA Y(avg)=DELAY(avg)+[DELAY(current)-OELAY(avg)J/Tconst
600J 1
602~ THE BTS GOES TO NEXT CYCLE OF
SCHEDULING &TRANSMISSION
RESPECTIVELY AT STEPS 100, 102 AND 104 1
US 6,901,046 B2
1 2
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR providing the feedback dependent upon the feedback infor-
SCHEDULING AND MODULATION AND mation which is used to select which MS is to receive the
CODING SELECTION FOR SUPPORTING next transmission and which MSC is to be used to provide
QUALITY OF SERVICE IN TRANSMISSIONS optimal data transmission. The BTS uses QoS criteria to
ON FORWARD SHARED RADIO CHANNELS schedule the next multiplexed transmission and the MSC for
each MS. For the scheduled MS, the BTS selects the optimal
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED MCS to fulfill the QoS requirement based upon the feedback
APPLICATION from the MS and, as a result, efficiently utilizes the radio
spectrum.
This application claims the benefit of the filing date of Ser. The invention may be implemented in diverse
10
No. 60/280,814, entitled "Method and Apparatus of Sched- applications, including without limitation, BTSs of a
uling and Modulation/Coding Selection for supporting CDMA2000 lXEV-DV application and MSs of a lXEV-DV
Quality of Service in CDMA 2000-lX EV-DV System'', application if MS measurement feedback is used to optimize
filed on Apr. 3, 2001, which application is incorporated the MSC selection process.
herein by reference in its entirety.
15 A process for controlling selection of a modulation and
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION coding selection method to be used by a base transceiver
station to transmit data packets over a forward shared
1. Field of the Invention channel to a mobile station in accordance with the invention
The invention relates to wireless high-speed packet data includes storing information at the base transceiver station,
transmissions on shared radio channels, such as 20 the information containing selections of modulation and
CDMA2000-1XEV-DV and 3GPP HSDPA and more coding selection methods which may be selected to transmit
specifically, to quality of service (QoS) implementation for data packets over the forward shared channel to the mobile
transmissions on the forward shared channel from a base station; receiving from the mobile station at the base trans-
transceiver station (BTS) to mobile stations (MS). ceiver station a quality indication of transmission of data
2. Description of the Prior Art 25 packets over the forward channel to the base station; and
selecting a modulation and coding selection method from a
QoS in lXEV-DV has been proposed to examine
plurality of modulation and coding selection methods which
throughput, delay and frame error rate (FER) for packet data
may be used to transmit data packets on the forward channel
transmissions on a forward shared channel(s) from BTS to
dependent upon the received quality indication. The infor-
MS. See L. Jalloul, "Joint lXTREME proposal for lXEV-
30 mation may correlate modulation and coding selection meth-
DV" 3GPP2-C50-20001 204-006RI, Kauai, Hi., December
ods with frame error rate and throughput determined by the
2000.
mobile station. Selection of one of the modulation and
A problem exists with lXEV-DV (e.g. lXTREME) BTS coding selection methods may optimize transmission of the
scheduling of the forward shared channel transmissions data packets. The quality indication of transmission may be
while QoS is maintained for multiple users, especially for a ratio of Ee (pilot channel strength) to Nt (noise from other
35
mixed real-time and non-realtime services and how the BTS cells). The quality indication of transmission may be a
selects modulation and coding schemes based on QoS function of frame error rate or a function of throughput
requirements. which functions may be calculated by the mobile station
FIG. l illustrates a diagram of a prior art system including over a plurality of data transmissions over the forward
a BTS 10 and a group of N mobile stations (MS) 12 which 40 channel from the base transceiver station to the mobile
may without limitation be used to practice the invention. The station. The quality indication of transmission of data pack-
BTS 10 transmits packet data on a forward shared channel ets may contain a trigger that either frame error rate infor-
in accordance with a data transmission protocol, such as the mation or the throughput information is to be used in
lXEV-DV specification to the MS 12. The individual MS 12 selecting a modulation and coding selection method and an
make reverse channel transmissions to the BTS 10, includ- 45 indication of pilot signal strength and the pilot signal
ing without limitation on the Reverse Quality Echo Channel strength may be used in the selection of a modulation and
(R-QIECH) or Reserve Channel Quality Indication Channel coding selection method based upon either the designated
(R-CQICH) information of the MS's current received frame error rate information or the designated throughput
throughput and FER for the transmissions on the forward information. The trigger in the quality indication of trans-
shared channel. 50 mission of data packets to use the frame error rate informa-
tion may occur when the data packets received on the
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
forward channel are determined by the mobile station to be
'lbe present invention is a method and apparatus for (1) sensitive to frame error rate. The trigger in the quality
scheduling multiplexed transmissions on the forward indication of transmission of the data packets to use the
channel(s) to individual MS within a group of MS and (2) 55 throughput information may occur when the data received
selection of Modulation and Coding Selection (MCS) from on the forward shared channel are determined by the mobile
a group of selectable MCSs for controlling QoS with a station to be sensitive to throughput. '111e receiving of the
preferred application of the invention without limitation quality indication at the base station may be over a reverse
being the CDMA 2000-lX ED-DV System. The forward channel and the stored information may be stored in two
shared channel provides multiplexed high speed packet data 60 tables. The reverse channel may be R-QUIECH or
services with MCS to control QoS for multiple users of the RCQICH.
MS 12. A process for scheduling the transmission of data packets
The fulfillment of QoS control and optimal radio resource from a base transceiver station over a forward shared chan-
management are two significant tasks for the BTS. The nel to a plurality of mobile stations in accordance with the
invention controls QoS by utilization of MS measurement 65 invention includes receiving at the base station transceiver
feedback on a reverse channel followed by the choice of information from each of the plurality of mobile stations
MCS for subsequent packet data transmissions to the MS derived by each mobile station from data packets transmitted
US 6,901,046 B2
3 4
on the forward shared channel to each of the plurality of parameters being throughput of the data packets, frame error
mobile stations which is a function at least two of a plurality rate of the data packets, delay of the data packets and
of parameters, the parameters being throughput of the data subscriber priority; and the base station transceiver sched-
packets, frame error rate of the data packets, delay of the ules a next transmission of data packets to one of the
data packets and subscriber priority; and scheduling a next plurality of mobile stations based upon calculating a sched-
transmission of data packets to one of the plurality of mobile uling quantity for each of the plurality of mobile stations
stations based upon calculating a scheduling quantity for which is a function of at least two of the plurality of the
each of the plurality of mobile stations which is a function parameters which satisfies a scheduling criteria to determine
of at least two of the plurality of the parameters which which mobile station is allocated the next transmission of
satisfies a scheduling criteria to determine which mobile 10 data packets. The next transmission may be assigned to a
station is allocated the next transmission of data packets. mobile station which qualifies under the scheduling criteria
The next transmission may be assigned to a mobile station by performing a comparison of all calculated scheduling
which qualifies under the scheduling criteria by performing quantities for the mobile stations. The scheduling quantity
a comparison of all calculated scheduling quantities calcu- may be a function of all of the parameters. The function of
lated for the mobile stations. The scheduling quantity may 15 throughput may be a function of a ratio R(req)/R(avg),
be a function of all of the parameters. The scheduling where R(req) is the required throughput of the data packets
quantity may be a function of a ratio R(req)/R(avg), where and R( avg) is the average throughput of the data packets, a
R(req) is the required throughput of the data packets and function of a ratio FER(avg)/FER(req) where FER(avg) is
R(avg) is the average throughput of the data packets, a the average frame error rate of the data packets and FER is
function of a ratio FER(avg)/FER(req) where FER(avg) is 20 the required frame error rate of the data packets, a function
the average frame error rate of the data packets and FER is of a ratio DELAY(avg)DELAY(req) where DELAY( avg) is
the required frame error rate of the data packets, a function the average transmission delay between transmission of the
of a ratio DELAY(avg)/DELAY(req) where DELAY( avg) is data packets and DELAY(req) is the maximum permissible
the average transmission delay between transmission of the transmission delay of the data packets and the subscriber
data packets and DELAY(req) is the maximum permissible 25 priority is a saved subscriber priority of a priority of data
transmission delay of the data packets and the subscriber transmission between subscribers of the mobile stations. The
priority with the subscriber priority being a saved subscriber scheduling quantity may be defined as:
priority of a priority of data transmission between subscrib-
SCHDL (i)=(kl *R(req)!R( avg)+k2 *FER(avg)!FER(req)+
ers of the mobile stations. The scheduling quantity SCHDL k3 *DEL4Y(avg)/ DEL4Y( req)) *pri
(i) may be defined as: 30
where ki, k2 and k3 are normalization factors which are
SCHDL(i)=(kl *R(req)!R(avg)+k2*FER(avg)!FER(req)+ configurable at the base transceiver station and pri is the
k3*DEL4Y(avg)!DEL4Y(req))*pri
subscriber priority.
where ki, k2 and k3 are normalization factors which are A system in accordance with the invention includes a base
configurable at the base transceiver station and pri is the 35 transceiver station and a mobile station; and wherein the
subscriber priority. base transceiver station resolves whether frame error rate or
A process for a base transceiver station to resolve whether throughput of data packet transmission to the mobile station
frame error rate or throughput of data packet transmissions over a forward shared channel should be used to control a
to a mobile station over a forward shared channel should selection of which of a plurality of modulation and coding
control a selection of which of a plurality of modulation and 40 selection methods is to be used to transmit data packets over
coding selection methods is to be used to transmit the the forward shared channel to the mobile station with the
transmission of data packets over the forward shared chan- base transceiver station computing a frame error rate of data
nel to the mobile station in accordance with the invention packet transmission to the mobile station and comparing the
includes computing a frame error rate of data packet trans- calculated frame error rate to a threshold frame error rate and
mission to the mobile station and comparing that calculated 45 a throughput data rate of data packet transmission to the
frame error rate to a threshold frame error rate; computing mobile station and comparing the calculated throughput data
a throughput data rate of data packet transmission to the rate to a threshold throughput data rate, and the mobile
mobile station and comparing that calculated throughput station generates a trigger which identifies which of frame
data rate to a threshold throughput data rate; generating a error rate or throughput is to be used to control selection of
trigger at the mobile station which identifies which of frame 50 a modulation and coding selection method to be used at the
error rate or throughput is to be used to control selection of base transceiver station to transmit data packets on the
a modulation and coding selection method to be used at the forward shared channel and the generated trigger is trans-
base transceiver station to transmit data packets on the mitted to the base transceiver station where the trigger is
forward shared channel; and transmitting the generated used at least as part of a selection criteria for choosing
trigger to the base transceiver station where the trigger is 55 selection of one of a frame error rate or a throughput
used at least as part of a selection criteria for choosing one modulation coding dependent method used to transmit the
of a frame error rate or a throughput dependent modulation data packets on the forward channel to the mobile station.
and coding selection dependent method used to transmit the The generation of the frame error rate trigger in the mobile
data packets on the forward channel to the mobile station. station can be based on the physical layer frame or appli-
A system which schedules transmission of data packets in 60 cation layer frame error rate.
accordance with the invention includes a base station trans-
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
ceiver and a plurality of mobile stations; and wherein the
base station transceiver receives information from each of FIG. 1 illustrates a prior art system of a base transceiver
the plurality of mobile stations derived by each mobile station and multiple mobile stations in which the present
station from data packets transmitted on the forward shared 65 invention may be practiced.
channel to each of the plurality of mobile stations which is FIG. 2 is a flow chart of the process for controlling
a function of at least two of a plurality of parameters, the channel allocation according to the present invention.
US 6,901,046 B2
5 6
FIG. 3 is a flow chart of the generation of triggers by the below with reference to FIG. 3, at least one processor of the
MSs which arc used to control MSC by the BTS. BTS relics on MS feedback on a reverse channel which may
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a scheduler in a BTS in without limitation be the R-QIECH or R-CQICH for the
accordance with the present invention which controls the decision process. Throughput measured above the TCP layer
assigning of time slots for transmission to a MS having a is the preferred source of the throughput measurement but
highest calculated SCHDL(i). the invention is not limited thereto. The MS, sitting at the
FIG. 5 illustrates a process of MSC selection by a BTS in end point of the communication link, has a clear understand-
accordance with the present invention. ing of the current throughput and FER trade-off based on the
application requirement and the buffer limitations of the MS
FIG. 6 illustrates the calculation process by the BTS for 10 which are used to generate a throughput or FER trigger
calculating parameters used in scheduling of the time slot for depending upon the determined performance seen by the MS
the next data packet transmission to one of plural MSs in in the last transmissions(s) thereto. Alternatively, the mobile
accordance with the present invention. station also can use the physical layer or application layer
frame error rate to generate the quality indication including
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED
15 the FER trigger when FER triggering is used to select MCS
EMBODIMENTS
based upon FER. This quality indication can be bundled
The present invention is a process and system which uses inside the Reverse Quality Indication Echo channel
the forward shared channel of the prior art, such as, but not (R-QIECH) SDU or passed by the L3 layer signalling
limited to, FIG. 1 to provide high speed packet data services standard and preferably includes either a throughput or FER
for multiple MSs with a controlled QoS. The invention 20 trigger and Ec/Nt as described below. But the approach
con!rols (1) the selcclion of which MS is to receive a next using L3 signalling is less attractive due to the timing
transmission on the forward shared channel and (2) which consideration.
MCS method is to be used to maintain or improve QoS in the At least one processor in the MS performs the "metric
transmissions to the MS. The fulfillment of a QoS require- contention process" as shown in FIG. 3. The requested
ment for each MS and optimal radio resource management 25 ("req") QoS parameters are negotiated through IS-707A
are important functions provided by the BTS by the present standard for lX-EV-DV systems. The corresponding QoS
invention. The invention uses MS measurement feedback average values ("m_avg") are the statistical averages
and selection of a MCS from a group of selectable MSC to updated inside the MS as indicated at point 200 and defined
achieve the above performance benefits. as follows:
FIG. 2 illustrates a flow chart of the process steps for 30
metric(R)=Y'1R(req)-R(m avg)Vz/R(req)
scheduling of the next MS to receive a transmission of data
packets on the shared forward channel and MCS selection metric(FER)=l/iFER(req)-FER(m_avg)Yz!FER(req)
from a selectable group of MCSs by the BTS which are
performed by at least one processor in each of the BTS and The throughput metrics, namely metric(R) and metric
in each MS (not illustrated). At point 100, the BTS receives 35 (FER) are computed based on the negotiated QoS param-
the quality indication described below from the MS that has eters and MS internal statistics. These metrics represent the
just received the transmission of data packets on the forward present deficiency of throughput and FER and are compared
shared channel. The quality indication includes the ratio of with deficiency thresholds ("TH") as indicated at decision
pilot channel to the interference from other cells, (e.g. points 202-208. The deficiency !hrcsholds are configurable
Ec/Nt) and the through put trigger or FER trigger as 40 parameters based on the application. If the deficiency
described below with reference to FIG. 3 which used to exceeds the deficiency threshold TH, the deficiency indi-
select the MCS to be used to make a packet data transmis- cates that a! !he BTS an effort is required to compensate for
sion on the forward channel from a group of selectable that deficiency. As shown in FIG. 3, the four decision points
MCSs. At point 102, the BTS schedules the next transmis- 202, 204, 206 and 208 each use two metrics (metric(R) and
sion slot of each forward shared channel for which multiple 45 metric(FER)) and two thresholds (TH(R) and (TH(FER)) in
MSs contend. Scheduling is based on the QoS requirement the decision process to generate the throughput trigger 212
of each MS user. Once a particular MS has been scheduled or FER trigger 214 depending on whether MCS selection is
for the next transmission slot at point 104, the BS selects the to be based upon throughput or FER considerations.
optimal MCS to fulfill the required QoS. At point 106, the An extra decision point 210 "error sensitivity" of the
BTS updates the dynamic statistics of average throughput, 50 application/user in question is used to resolve any deadlock
FER and delay for !he MS for the next process cycle as contention between throughput and FER trigger determina-
described below with reference to FIG. 5. tion which drives the decision to be based upon a FER
trigger if such is important to the user. This factor is
The invention provides for forward shared channel allo-
explicitly indicated from the application layer or implicitly
cation and QoS management by:
55 derived/mapped by the lower layer at the MS. Finally, the
1. MS measurement feedback decoded at point 100 trigger (either throughput trigger 212 or FER trigger 214) is
2. Scheduling at point 102 derived from the metric contention process. The trigger
3. MCS selection at point 104 (either 212 or 214) then is transmitted in the R-QIECH SDU
All three points 100, 102 and 104 are part of the processes together with the pilot strength Ec/Nt. The BTS decodes
of the invention and the first point 100 is also related to 60 these fields at point 100 and uses these fields as inputs for the
lXEV-DV standardization. Hereinafter, the processes rep- optimal MCS decision process (inputs 510 and 512 shown in
resented by the points 100, 102 and 104 are discussed FIG. 5) to complete the MCS selection as described below.
respectively with reference to FIGS. 2, 3 and 4. Point 102: Scheduling for Multiple MSs
Point 100 R-QIECH Indication Fields: "Best-effort" high-speed packet data services over CDMA
In order for the BTS to dynamically resolve the trade-off 65 wireless radio channels have been developed using lX-EV-
between the calculated throughput metric and FER metric DO technology. A forward link "best effort" scheduler was
used to generate a throughput or FER trigger described also proposed in the publication cited above. In that
US 6,901,046 B2
7 8
publication, only throughput (data rate) was taken into put trigger 212 or the FER trigger 214. When the throughput
account when the BTS schedules multiple MSs to transmit trigger is indicated, the optimal MCS is selected from the
on the forward shared channel. In other words, the requested throughput MCS set (i.e. MCS(r)), as indicated at block 516.
and average throughputs are translated into the priority of If the FER trigger is indicated, the optimal MCS is selected
transmission. The "Assured Mode", as defined in IS-707N from the FER MSC set (i.e. MCS(fcr)) as indicated at block
IS-2000, for packet data services that require restrictive QoS 514. Note that the selection is "optimal" because the MCS
is not addressed in the publication cited above. The inven- with lowest FER or with the highest throughput is selected.
tion improves scheduling when compared to the publication Also note that Tables 1 and 2 or other equivalent storage are
cited above. configurable at the BTS.
As shown in FIG. 4, a scheduler is implemented in at least 10 An example explaining the optimal MCS decision process
one processor of the BTS. The scheduler takes into account is as follows: After obtaining Ec/Nt, the BTS looks up Table
user priority and QoS requirement parameters, including 1 and identifies N possible MCS selections and N corre-
throughput, frame error rate (FER), and delay as indicated at sponding FER values, MCS (fer)n and FER(current)n,
block 400. The requested values (req) and the present where n=l ... N and looks up Table 2 and identifies M
average values (avg) of QoS parameters are considered in 15 possible MCS selections with M corresponding throughput
the "scheduling metric", SCHDL(i). values, MCS(r)m and R(current)m, where m=l ... M. If
SCHD L( i)=( (metric( throughput)+ metric(FER )+metric trigger FER is indicated, the MCS(fer) with the lowest FER
(delay))*pri, as indicated in block 400, where is selected. If throughput trigger is indicated, the MCS(r)m
metric( throughput)=kl *R(req)/R( avg), with highest throughput is selected. The corresponding FER
20 value from Table 1 becomes FER(current), and the corre-
metric(FER)=k2*FER(avg)/FER(req),
sponding throughput value from Table 2 becomes
metric( delay)=k3*DELAY( avg)/DELAY(req), and
R(current). FER(current) and R(current) are the instanta-
k(i)(e.g. kl, k2 and k3)=normalization factors config- neous FER and throughput for the next transmission. If
urable at the base station and throughput trigger is indicated, the MSC(r)m with highest
pri=requested priority subscription priority which is saved 25 throughput is selected. These values are also used to update
as part of the user profile. the averages at point 106 discussed below with reference to
Subscription priority is saved as part of the user profile. FIG. 6.
For "assured mode" services, all requested ("req") QoS Point 106: Updating Average of Throughput, FER, and
parameters are negotiated through the IS-707A standard for Delay
lX-EV-DV systems. All the corresponding QoS average 30 After each transmission, the BTS updates the average of
values ("avg") are the statistical averages over a long period throughput, FER, and delay as indicated at block 600 of FIG.
of time and are updated after each transmission period. The 6. These average values are used for the next cycle of
average process of point 106 is described below with scheduling of a MCS process as indicated at block 602. The
reference to FIG. 6. "Pri" is the requested priority multiplied averaging process is a low-pass process of instantaneous
with the subscription priority that are defined in IS-707A 35 values over a time period, Tconst, longer than the transmis-
The scheduling is done based on the "scheduling metric", sion duration, e.g. (N*5) ms, where N is configurable in the
SCHDL(i) of FIG. 4. At least one processor of the BTS BTS. This process is similar to the process of the publication
schedules the next transmission slot of the forward shared cited above. The averaging process shown in FIG. 6 is also
channel for the MS that has the highest SCHDL(i) value as e:>..')Jressed as:
indicated at block 402. 40
R(avg)next=R(avg)+[R(current)-R(avg)]/Tconst
Point 104: MCS Selection for the Scheduled MS
Once the BTS has completed scheduling for the next FER(avg)next=FER(avg)+[FER(current)-FER(avg)]/Tconst
transmission period, the MSC for the scheduled MS is
DELAY( avg)next=DELAY( avg)+[DELAY(current)-DELAY( avg)]!
performed in the processing at point 104. Tconst
The process that the BTS performs without limitation to 45
select a MCS method is the "optimal MCS decision process" The actual scheduling of a particular MS is based upon the
shown in FIG. 5. The BTS receives the forward channel calculation by at least one processor in the BTS of the
quality indication from the Reverse Quality Indication Echo quantity SCHDL(i) of FIG. 4 with the forward channel
Channel (R-QIECH or R-CQICH) for each transmission transmission slot being assigned to the MS meeting a
duration at point 500. Based on the quality indication 50 scheduling criteria which is preferably the MS having the
(Ec/Nt), the BTS looks up information used to select the highest calculated value of SCHDL(i) as indicated at block
MSC as a function of FER and throughput which may be 402. The scheduling may be based on and may be a function
without limitation stored in two internal tables indicated at of at least two of the parameters of the throughput of the data
points 502 and 504: Table 1-"FER vs. Ec/Nt table" and packets, frame error rate of the data packets, delay of the
Table 2-"throughput vs. Ec/Nt table". Each table look-up 55 data packets and subscriber priority of block 400 with the
generates a set of possible M CS selections to be used to scheduling being a function of all four parameters being
control transmission of data packets from the BTS to mul- preferred.
tiple MSs. Next, based on the trigger (either Throughput While the invention has been described in terms of its
trigger 212 or FER trigger 214) obtained from the reverse preferred embodiments, it should be understood that numer-
channel, such as R-QEICH or R-CQICH, the BTS deter- 60 ous modifications thereto may be made without departing
mines which MCS set from Table 1 or Table 2, or from any from the spirit and scope of the appended claims. It is
storage containing the MSC selection information as a intended that all such modifications fall within the scope of
function of FER, throughput and Ec/Nt, should be dominat- the appended claims.
ing as indicated as selection points 506 and 508 which are What is claimed is:
responsive respectively to the input throughput trigger 212 65 1. A process for controlling selection of a modulation and
at point 510 and the input FER trigger 214 at point 512. Only coding selection method to be used by a base transceiver
one selection occurs at a time based upon either the through- station to transmit data packets comprising first data packets
US 6,901,046 B2
9 10
transmitted on a forward shared channel which have been 7. A process in accordance with claim 2 wherein:
received by a mobile station and second data packets to be the quality indication of transmission comprises a func-
transmitted to the mobile station on the forward shared tion of frame error rate or a function of throughput
channel which follow the first data packets to the mobile calculated by the mobile station of the first data packets
station comprising: over a plurality of data transmissions over the forward
storing information at the base transceiver station, the channel from the base transceiver station to the mobile
information containing modulation and coding meth- station.
ods which may be selected to transmit the second data 8. A process in accordance with claim 7 wherein:
packets over the forward shared channel to the mobile
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
station; 10 the frame error rate information to select the modula-
receiving feedback from the mobile station at the base
tion and coding selection method occurs when the first
transceiver station based upon the transmission of the
data packets received on the forward channel are deter-
first data packets of a quality indication of transmission
mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame
of the first data packets over the forward channel to the
mobile station; and error rate.
15 9. A process in accordance with claim 7 wherein:
selecting a modulation and coding method from a plural-
ity of modulation and coding methods to be used to the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
transmit the second data packets on the forward chan- the throughput information to select the modulation
nel dependent upon the received quality indication of and coding selection method occurs when the first data
the feedback of the first data packets; and wherein packets received on the forward shared channel are
20 determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to
the quality indication is processed at the base transceiver
station to choose from a plurality of groups of select- throughput.
able modulation and coding methods a modulation and 10. A process in accordance with claim 7 wherein:
coding method to be used to transmit the second data the function of frame error rate is an average and the
packets from one of the groups with the modulation and function of throughput is an average.
25 11. A process in accordance with claim 2 wherein:
coding method selected from each group optimizing a
different characteristic of the transmission of the sec- the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
ond data packets, the information correlates modulation the frame error rate information to select the modula-
and coding methods with frame error rate and through- tion and coding selection method occurs when the first
out determined by the mobile station; and data packets received on the forward channel are deter-
30
the quality indication of transmission of data packets mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame
contains a trigger that either frame error rate informa- error rate.
tion or the throughput information is to be used in 12. A process in accordance with claim 2 wherein:
selecting the modulation and coding selection method the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
and an indication of pilot signal strength with the pilot the throughput information to select the modulation
35
signal strength being used in the selection of a modu- and coding selection method occurs when the first data
lation and coding selection method based upon either packets received on the forward shared channel are
the designated frame error rate information or the determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to
designated throughout information. throughput.
2. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein: 13. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein:
40
selection of one of the modulation and coding methods the quality indication of transmission comprises a ratio of
optimizes transmission of the data packets. Ee (pilot channel strength) to Nt (noise from other
3. A process in accordance with claim 2 wherein: cells).
the quality indication of transmission comprises a ratio of 14. A process in accordance with claim 13 wherein:
Ee (pilot channel strength) to Nt (noise from other 45 the quality indication of transmission comprises a func-
cells). tion of frame error rate or a function of throughput
4. A process in accordance with claim 3 wherein: calculated by the mobile station of the first data packets
the quality indication of transmission comprises a func- over a plurality of data transmissions over the forward
tion frame error rate or a function of throughput cal- channel from the base transceiver station to the mobile
culated by the mobile station of the first data packets 50 station.
over a plurality of data transmissions over the forward 15. A process in accordance with claim 14 wherein:
channel from the base transceiver station to the mobile the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
station. the frame error rate information to select the modula-
5. A process in accordance with claim 3 wherein: tion and coding selection method occurs when the first
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use 55 data packets received on the forward channel are deter-
the frame error rate information to select the modula- mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame
tion and coding selection method occurs when the first error rate.
data packets received on the forward channel are deter- 16. A process in accordance with claim 14 wherein:
mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
error rate. 60 the throughput information to select the modulation
6. A process in accordance with claim 3 wherein: and coding selection method occurs when the first data
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use packets received on the forward shared channel are
the throughput information to select the modulation determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to
and coding selection method occurs when the first data throughput.
packets received on the forward shared channel are 65 17. A process in accordance with claim 13 wherein:
determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
throughput. the frame error rate information to select the modula-
US 6,901,046 B2
11 12
tion and coding selection method occurs when the first 29. A process in accordance with claim 27 wherein:
data packets received on the forward channel are deter- the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame the throughput information to select the modulation
error rate. and coding selection method occurs when the first data
18. A process in accordance with claim 13 wherein:
packets received on the forward shared channel are
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to
the throughput information to select the modulation
and coding selection method occurs when the first data throughput.
packets received on the forward shared channel are 30. A process in accordance with claim 26 wherein:
determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to one of the characteristics of transmission is frame error
throughput. 10 rate and another of the characteristics is throughput.
19. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein: 31. A process for a base transceiver station to resolve
the quality indication of transmission comprises an aver- whether frame error rate or throughput of data packet
age of frame error rate or throughput of the first data transmission to a mobile station over a forward shared
packets calculated by the mobile station over a plurality
of data transmissions over the forward channel from the 15 channel should control a selection of which of a plurality of
base transceiver station to the mobile station. modulation and coding selection methods is to be used to
20. A process in accordance with claim 19 wherein: transmit the transmission of data packets over the forward
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use shared channel to the mobile station comprising:
the frame error rate information to select the modula- computing a frame error rate of data packet transmission
tion and coding selection method occurs when the first 20 to the mobile station and comparing that calculated
data packets received on the forward channel are deter-
mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame frame error rate to a threshold frame error rate;
error rate. computing a throughput data rate of data packet trans-
21. A process in accordance with claim 19 wherein: mission to the mobile station and comparing that cal-
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use culated throughput data rate to a threshold throughput
the throughput information to select the modulation 25 data rate;
and coding selection method occurs when the first data generating a trigger at the mobile station which identifies
packets received on the forward shared channel are which of frame error rate or throughput is to be used to
determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to
control selection of a modulation and coding selection
throughput.
22. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein: 30
method to be used at the base transceiver station to
transmit data packets on the forward shared channel to
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use
the mobile station; and
the frame error rate information to select the modula-
tion and coding selection method occurs when the first transmitting the generated trigger to the base transceiver
data packets received on !he forward channel are deter- station where the trigger is used at least as part of a
mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame 35 selection criteria for choosing one of a frame error rate
error rate. or a throughput dependent modulation coding selection
23. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein: method used to transmit the data packets on the forward
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use channel to the mobile station.
the throughput information to select the modulation 32. A system comprising:
and coding selection method occurs when the first data 40 a base transceiver station and a mobile station; and
packets received on the forward shared channel are wherein
determined by the mobile station to be sensitive to
throughput. the base transceiver station resolves whether frame error
24. A process in accordance with claim 1 wherein: rate or throughput of data packet transmission to the
mobile station over a forward shared channel should be
th:e~ee~:~v~~~:r:e{:~db;~: s~~ar~~c~!~~;~~~~~nisi~t~~~ i~ 45 used to control a selection of which of a plurality of
two tables. modulation and coding selection methods is to be used
25. A process in accordance with claim 24 wherein: to transmit data packets over the forward shared chan-
nel to the mobile station with the base transceiver
the channel is R-QIECH. station computing a frame error rate of data packet
26. A process in accordance with claim 1 comprising: transmission to the mobile station and comparing the
50
processing the quality indication at the base transceiver calculated frame error rate to a threshold frame error
station to provide multiple triggers which are a function rate and a throughput data rate of data packet trans-
of the quality indication and using the multiple triggers mission to the mobile station and comparing the cal-
to select a single group of the plurality of groups of culated throughput data rate to a threshold throughput
selectable modulation and coding methods from which data rate, and the mobile station generates a trigger
the modulation and coding method used to transmit the 55
which identifies which of frame error rate or throughput
second data packets is selected. is to be used to control selection of a modulation and
27. A process in accordance with claim 26 wherein: coding selection method to be used at the base trans-
the quality indication of transmission comprises a ratio of ceiver station to transmit data packets on the forward
Ee (pilot channel strength) to Nt (noise from other shared channel and the generated trigger is transmitted
cells). 60 to the base transceiver station where the trigger is used
28. A trigger in accordance with claim 27 wherein: at least as part of a selection criteria for choosing
the trigger in the quality indication of transmission to use selection of one of a frame error rate or a throughput
the frame error rate information to select the modula- modulation and coding dependent method used to
tion and coding selection method occurs when the first transmit the data packets on the forward channel to the
data packets received on the forward channel are deter- 65 mobile station.
mined by the mobile station to be sensitive to frame
error rate. * * * * *
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of?

ANNEX!

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION FORMS

IPR Holder/Organisation
~\EGLI Il,_ ®,
_ _ _,,,.,,,__Rc··c-----1--
Legal Name: NOKIA CORPORATION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _l_"_'+-
1 '1 ! Jv" CIJ;)

~--------
Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Position: IPRManager - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Department: I P R - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Address: Joensuunkatu 7, FIN-24100 SALO, P.0.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND - - -

Tel.: +358 50 366 2022 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fax: +358718044275 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
E-mail: kalle,moilanen@nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as UMTS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
and/or
in relation to Work Item No.
-------------------------
and/or
with reference to ETSI Standard No,
---------------------~

it is my belief that the IP Rs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above,
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant inevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Salo, 6th of July 2005 _ _ __

{Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director-General - Karl Heinz Roscnbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 3 of7

0771092 DE
UMTS 25.212 5.9.0 25.212: Nokia 0771092 A method for EP
0771092 FR
Corporation transmitting packet
25.308 5.7.0 4.5
data with hybrid
0771092 GB
5946320 US
25.321 5.10.0 25.308: FEC/ARQ type II
6.2.3
25.321:
11.6
UMTS 25.214 5.10.0 25.214: Nokia W0200208 SCHEDULING, PCT
6A.2 Corporation 2829 MODULATION AND
25.308 5.7.0
CODING FOR
 25.308:
SUPPORTING
8.2.2 QUALITY OF
SERVICE IN RADIO
CHANNELS
UMTS 25.211 3.12.0 5.2.2.1 Nokia 6775548 Access channel for US
Corporation reduced access
delay in a
telecommunications
system
W003/026180 PCT
UMTS 25.308 5.7.0 5.2.2 Nokia 6665309 Apparatus, and US
Corporation associated method,
for generating
assignment
information used
pursuant to channel
allocation in a radio
communication
system

Please return this fOnD duly signed to: ErSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
(Reference : Not applied in Japan)
REGISTRATION NO./
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
NOKIA SCHEDULING, MODULATION AND CODING FOR WO 02/082829 WO, US
CORPORATION *40 SUPPORTING QUALITY OF SERVICE IN RADIO
CHANNELS

CHARGING IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKS WO 02/096085 WO, US, EP, GB, ZA

*40:These patents are applied to the revised part of ARIB STD-T64 Ver.4.00.

R-32
18
A25975VI
Illlll llllllll Ill lllll lllll lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111
US006665309B2

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent No.: US 6,665,309 B2
Hsu et al. (45) Date of Patent: Dec. 16, 2003

(54) APPARATUS, AND ASSOCIATED METHOD, (56) References Cited
FOR GENERATING ASSIGNMENT
INFORMATION USED PURSUANT TO U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
CHANNEL ALLOCATION IN A RADIO
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 5,708,655 A * 1/1998 Toth et al. .................. 370/313
2002/0145988 Al * 10/2002 Dahlman et al ............ 370;335
(75) Inventors: Liangchi Hsu, San Diego, CA (US); 2002/0151290 Al * 10/2002 Chen .......................... 455/266
Ilkka Niva, San Diego, CA (US);
2002/0172217 Al * 11/2002 Kadaba et al ............... 370/443
Mark W. Cheng, San Diego, CA (US);
Zhigang Rong, Irving, TX (US)
* cited by examiner
(73) Assignee: Nokia Corporation, Espoo (FI)

( *) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this Primary Examiner-Wellington Chin
patent is extended or adjusted under 35 Assistant Examiner-Raj Jain
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. (74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Milan I. Patel

(21) Appl. No.: 10/185,402 (57) ABSTRACT

(22) Filed: Jun. 28, 2002 Apparatus, and an associated method, for facilitating com-
munications in a radio communication system that utilizes
(65) Prior Publication Data
shared, packet channels. One or more common control
US 2003/0053478 Al Mar. 20, 2003 channels are defined upon a forward link extending between
a network part of the radio communication system and the
Related U.S. Application Data
mobile stations thereof. Assignment information sets so
( 60) Provisional application No. 60/323,805, filed on Sep. 20,
2001. generated by an assignment information generator and for-
matted into data frames for communication to the mobile
(51) Int. Cl. 7
................................................ H04B 7/216
stations. The mobile stations monitor a single shared packet
(52) U.S. Cl. ........................ 370/441; 370/335; 370/342
control channel to receive the assignment information sent
(58) Field of Search ................................. 370/310, 319,
thereto upon the common shared channel.
370/320, 328, 329, 340, 341, 342, 443,
464, 465, 468, 469, 335, 441, 522; 455/266,
450, 451, 452; 375/130, 140 20 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

Shared Control ChaMet, 106 Bits
(5ms)
54 54 54 54 54
User 1 COM User2COM User3COM User4COM CRC
Info Info Info Info (10 Bits)

Control Info For One User (24 bits)
58 58 60 62 64 66 68
54 ARQ SN/
MAC
~ 10 CH SPID MCSL BC LC ABI
ID

MACID ARO Channel ID SPIC MCSL BC LC SNJABI
(6 bits) (2 tHts) (2 bits) (3 btts) (4 bits) (4 bits) (3 bits)
~

rJJ

32 ~
C.N. =~
~
1Jl
=
~

28
12 ~
~
Mobile ~
18 Station ~
22 ....o-..
N
GWY BSC/ BTS
Q
Q
PCF ~

I 38 I

I I •
I
I
Data
Frame I 34
v • l'JJ.
=-
~
~
Generator """"'
I I ~

I 36 I Q
12 ~

Ul
I COM
I Assignment I
Info
IL _____ I
' Mobile
StaUon
_J

12
Mobile
Station

FIG.1
~

rJJ

Faward
Shared/Common
Control Channel



12




Forward Shared
Channell
FIG. 2
~

rJJ

~
... Shared Control Channel (5ms) ... =
~
~
54 54 54 54 =
~

User 1 COM User2CDM User3CDM User4CDM 52
COM for 4 users Info Info Info Info ~
~
~

54 64 64 64 ~
....o-..
N
Q
Uaar 1 COM Uaer2COM User3CDM 62 Q

COM for 3 users Info Info Info Reserved ~

l'JJ.
54 64 IU 54 =-
~
~

User 1 COM User2CDM User 1 COM User2CDM 52 """"'
~
COM for 2 users Info Info Info Info Q
~

Ul

54 64

COM for 1 users User 1 COM User 1 COM User 1 COM User 1 COM 52
Info Info Info Info

FIG. 3
~

rJJ

Shared Control ChaMel, 106 Bits
(5ms)
...
64 54 54
D-M....---C-R_C....._..... ~
....U_se_r-1-CO.._M_...,.._U_se_r_2_C_.O_M_.,...U_se_r3_C_O.._M_....,_U_se_r_4....C....
Info Info Info Info (10 Bits)

Control Info. For One User (24 bits)
56 58 80 62 84 66 68
l'JJ.
54 MAC ARQ SN/
=-
~
~
CH
~ ID SPIC MCSL . BC LC ABI """"'
+.
ID Q
~

Ul

MAC ID ARQ Channel ID SPID MCSL BC LC SNJABI
(6 bits) (2 bits) (2 bits) (3 bits) (4 bits) (4 bits) (3 bits)

FIG. 4
~

00

74
Generate The COM
Assignment Information

76
Send The COM Assignment
lnfonnation On A Shared,
Common Packet Channel

FIG. 5
US 6,665,309 B2
1 2
APPARATUS, AND ASSOCIATED METHOD, wide levels of usage. A cellular communication system
FOR GENERATING ASSIGNMENT provides for radio communications with mobile stations.
INFORMATION USED PURSUANT TO The mobile stations permit telephonic communication to be
CHANNELALLOCATION IN A RADIO effectuated therethrough. And, mobile stations are generally
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 5 of sizes to permit their carriage by users of the mobile
stations.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED A cellular communication system includes a network part
APPLICATION that is installed throughout a geographical area and with
The present application claims the priority of provisional which the mobile stations communicate by way of radio
10 channels defined upon radio links allocated to the commu-
patent application No. 60/323,805, filed on Sep. 20, 2001.
nication system.
The present invention relates generally to a manner by
which to facilitate efficient radio resource utilization in a Base transceiver stations, forming portions of the network
radio communication system that utilizes shared channels, part of the communication system, are installed at spacecl-
such as lxEV-DV forward shared channels defined in a 15 apart locations throughout the geographical area that is to be
CDMA 2000 cellular communication system that provides encompassed by the communication system. Each of the
lxEV-DV data services. More particularly, the present base transceiver stations defines a cell, formed of a portion
invention relates to apparatus, and an associated method, by of the geographical area. And, the term cellular is derived
which to allocate, control, and manage the shared channel from the cells defined by the base transceiver stations.
through the generation of CDM (code division multiplexing) 20 When a mobile station is within the cell defined by a base
assignment information. transceiver station, communications are generally effectu-
able with the base transceiver station that defines the cell. As
Efficient usage of the radio resources allocated to the radio
communication system is permitted, thereby improving the a mobile station travels between the cells defined by differ-
communication capacity of the system as well as improving ent ones of the base transceiver stations, communication
the communication performance of the communication sys- 25 hancloffs are effectuated to permit continued communica-
tern. tions by, and with, the mobile station. Through appropriate
positioning of the base transceiver stations, the mobile
BACKGROUND OF TIIE INVENTION station, wherever positioned within the geographical area
encompassed by the cellular communication system, shall
Use of communication systems through which to com- be within close proximity of at least one base transceiver
30
municate data between two, or more, locations is an endemic station. Therefore, only relatively low-powered signals need
part of modem society. Communication stations are posi- to be generated to effectuate communications between a
tioned at the separate locations and operate to effectuate the mobile station and a base transceiver station. Hanel-offs of
communication of the data. communications between successive base transceiver
In a minimal implementation, the communication system stations, as the mobile station moves between cells, permit
35
is formed of a first communication station, forming a send- the continued communications without necessitating
ing station, and a second communication station, forming a increase in the power levels at which the communication
receiving station. A communication channel interconnects signals are transmitted. And, the low-power nature of the
the communication stations. Data that is to be communi- signals that are generated permit the same radio channels to
cated by the first communication station to the second be reused at different locations of the cellular communica-
40
communication station is converted, if necessary, into a form tion system. Efficient utilization of the frequency-spectrum
to permit its communication upon the communication chan- allocation to the cellular communication system is thereby
nel. And, the second communication station operates to possible.
detect the data communicated thereto by the first commu- Cellular, as well as various other, communication systems
nication station and to recover the informational content are constructed to be operable pursuant to an appropriate
iliereof ~ operating specification. Successive generations of operating
In a radio communication system, the communication specifications have been promulgated. And, corresponding
channel that interconnects the sending and receiving stations generations of cellular communication networks have been
is formed of a radio channel, defined upon a radio link, installed throughout wide areas to permit telephonic com-
formed upon the electromagnetic spectrum. Other, conven- 50 munications therethrough. So-called first-generation and
tional communication systems generally require a fixed, second-generation cellular communication networks have
wireline connection extending between the communication been widely implemented and have achieved significant
stations upon which to define communication channel<;. levels of usage. And, installation of so-called third-
As a radio link, rather than a wireline connection, is generation and successor-generation systems have been pro-
utilized upon which to define the communication channels, 55 posed.
the need otherwise to utilize wireline connections upon An exemplary operating specification, referred to as the
which to define the communication channels is obviated. As CDMA 2000 specification, sets forth the operating param-
a result, installation of the infrastructure of the radio com- eters of an exemplary, third-generation communication sys-
munication system is generally less costly than the corre- tem. The CDMA 2000 operating specification, as well as
sponding costs that would be required to construct a 60 other third-generation operating specifications, provide for
conventional, wireline communication system. And, mobil- packet-based data communication services. The CDMA
ity of the communication station can be provided, thereby to 2000 operating specification provides for high data rate
permit a radio communication system to form a mobile radio communication services to be effectuated therethrough.
communication system. In a CDMA 2000 communication system, allocation of
A cellular communication system is an exemplary type of 65 channel capacity is a mandatory aspect that must be per-
radio communication system. Cellular communication sys- formed to permit multiple numbers of users to access the
tems have been widely implemented and have achieved communication system and communicate therethrough.
US 6,665,309 B2
3 4
And, due to the shared nature of the radio spectrum allocated It is in light of this background information related to
to a communication system that utilizes code-division communications in a radio communication system that uti-
techniques, the allocation of channels is of particular sig- lizes shared channels that the significant improvements of
nificance. Radio channel allocation of shared resources in a the present invention have evolved.
multiple-user system effects the usage efficiency of the radio 5
spectrum allocated to the communication system as well as SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
communication performance of the communication system. The present invention, accordingly, advantageously pro-
The CDMA 2000 operating specification that provides for vides apparatus, and an associated method, by which to
lxEV-DV data communications defines a high-speed for- facilitate efficient radio resource utilization in a radio com-
ward channel upon which packet data communication ser- 10 munication system that utilizes shared channels.
vices are effectuated. Multiple numbers of users with whom
the high-speed data services are effectuated share the high- Through operation of an embodiment of the present
speed forward channel. And, the numbers of users that are invention, a manner is provided by which to allocate,
permitted to utilize the forward channel varies, e.g., up to control, and manage the shared channel through the genera-
fifty users, depending upon factors including the radio tion of COM (code division multiplexing) assignment infor-
15 mation. Through such channel allocation, control, and
conditions and dynamic traffic needs.
Two general schemes are utilized in the allocation and management, efficient usage of the radio resources allocated
management of the shared channels for multiple users in the to the radio communication system is permitted, thereby
lxEV-DV system. Namely, a time division multiplexing improving the communication capacity of the system and
(TOM) scheme is set forth, and a time/code-division mu!- improving system efficiency.
20
tiplexing (TOM/COM) scheme is set forth. Various, and In one aspect of the present invention, an allocation
sometimes competing, framework proposals have been set scheme is provided in which a single common, shared
forth, utilizing the different multiplexing schemes. An control channel is utilized for all of the mobile stations. Each
L3NQS scheme utilizing TOM and a lXTREME scheme mobile station, whether in a packet-data active state or a
utilizing TOM/COM have both been set forth. A TDM/CDM packet-data control hold state, monitors the shared, common
25
multiplexing scheme permits the efficiency of dealing with control channel for COM channel allocation information.
a mixture of different types of applications utilizing high Multiple sets of COM assignment information is sent on this
data rate communications and low data rate communications shared, common control channel to be provided to the
to be increased. mobile stations. And, a single spreading factor is utilized.
TOM/COM control schemes have been proposed in Because the mobile stations need only monitor a single
30
lxEV-DV, e.g., lXTREME. One such existing control shared, common control channel, the power required of the
scheme is used in the official lXTREME framework. And, mobile station to monitor for control information is mini-
another existing scheme has been proposed as a harmoni- mized.
zation proposal harmonizing lXTREME and L3NQS In another aspect of the present invention, assignment of
schemes. 35 a single, shared common control channel is again assigned
The lXTREME scheme utilizes a fixed frame length and utilized by all of the mobile stations to obtain COM
channel structure. The control scheme enables multiple channel allocation information. The frame length of the
users to access shared forward channels simultaneously. frames of the COM channel allocation information into
Each user is assigned with a dedicated pointer channel that which such channel allocation information is formatted need
provides a pointer, pointing to a corresponding forward 40 not be of a fixed frame length. Rather, the frame length is
shared control channel. Over one forward shared control permitted to be of a variable frame length. Increased system
channel, information, e.g., Walsh code assignment, etc., flexibility is permitted through the capability of formatting
related to one, or more, forward shared channels is carried. the assignment information into a frame of a variable frame
This scheme exhibits drawbacks, however. First, one dedi- length. A single spreading factor is also, again, utilized.
cated pointer is required for each mobile station. This 45 In another aspect of the present invention, a plurality of
requirement implies that the overhead of Walsh code space two, or more, common, shared control channels are utilized
and power allocation for multiple dedicated pointer channels and COM assignment information is communicated thereon.
is necessitated. And, the lXTREME control scheme also Each mobile station is assigned to a selected, shared control
fail'> to take into account the possibility that a frame can be channel, thereby to permit the mobile station to monitor a
of a variable frame length. 50 single shared, control channel, i.e., the shared, control
And, in the lxEV-DV harmonized proposal, each mobile channel that is assigned to the particular mobile station.
station monitors multiple forward shared channels to deter- In another aspect of the present invention, the multiplicity
mine the forward shared channel assignments. If assigned, of common, shared control channels is again utilized. And,
information carried on the forward shared control channels further, the COM assignment information is formatted into
provides sufficient information for the mobile station to 55 frames of variable frame lengths. By forming the COM
receive traffic data upon the appropriate forward shared assignment information into frames of selectable frame
traffic channel. In such a scheme, all of the mobile stations length'>, the flexibility of the control mechanism provided to
monitor all of the shared control channels simultaneously. the communication system is improved.
And, code division modulation can be realized. The need, In the exemplary implementation, one of the aforemen-
however, to monitor the multiple shared control channels, 60 tioned control schemes is implemented in a CDMA 2000
both while the mobile stations are in the control hold state communication scheme that provides for high data-rate
as well as also when the mobile stations are in the active communications. Mobile stations register v.ith the commu-
state, is energy-consumptive. And, battery depletion of nication system pursuant to registration procedures. Respon-
mobile stations operable in such a scheme poses a problem. sive to registration of a mobile station to the communication
Accordingly, an improved manner by which to allocate 65 system, COM control information is sent to the mobile
and control the shared channel in a packet radio, or other, station. The mobile station monitors a common, shared
communication system is required. control channel to which the mobile station is assigned to
US 6,665,309 B2
5 6
receive CDM assignment information thereon. Because only radio links are represented here by a forward link 14 and a
a single channel is monitored by the mobile station, reduced reverse link 16. Radio channels are defined upon the forward
energy consumption is required of the mobile station pur- and reverse links. And, more particularly, both control
suant to monitoring of control information, required pursu- channels and data channels are defined upon the radio links.
ant to operation of the mobile station in the communication 5 The network part of the communication system includes
system. The effectuation of high-data-rate communication a base transceiver station (BTS) 18. Both the base trans-
with the mobile station is thereby facilitated. ceiver station and the mobile station form radio transceivers
capable of transducing radio signals therebetween by way of
In these and other aspects, therefore, apparatus, and an
radio channels defined upon the forward and reverse links 14
associated method, is provided for a radio communication
10
and 16. The base transceiver station forms part of a radio
system. During operation of the radio communication access network portion of the network part of the commu-
system, code division multiplexed data is communicated nication system. And, the radio access network part of the
between a network part and a plurality of communication communication system is here shown further to include a
stations including a first station and at least a second station. base station controller/packet control function (BSC/PCF)
Communication of the data upon at least a first shared 22 and a radio gateway (GWY) 24. The BSC/PCF is coupled
channel is facilitated. A CDM (code division multiplexing) 15 between the base transceiver station and the radio gateway.
assignment information generator generates CDM assign- The gateway forms a gateway v.'ith a fixed-network part,
ment information. The CDM assignment information forms here represented by a packet data network (PDN) 28. A
a first multiple assignment information set and at least a correspondent node (CN) 32 is coupled to the network 28
second multiple assignment information set for communi- and is representative of a communication node with which
cations with each of the first station and the at least the 20 communications are effectuable with the mobile stations 12.
second station. The correspondent node is formed, for example, of a data
A more complete appreciation of the present invention server at which data that is to be communicated to the
and the scope thereof can be obtained from the accompa- mobile station is sourced.
nying drawings that are briefly summarized below, the The network part of the communication system includes
following detailed description of the presently preferred 25 apparatus 34 of an embodiment of the present invention. The
embodiments of the invention, and the appended claims. apparatus is implemented at any desired location of the
network part, such as, here, at the base station controller or
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TIIE DRAWINGS base transceiver station, or distributed therebetween.
FIG. 1 illustrates a functional block diagram of a radio 30 The apparatus 34 here includes a CDM (code division
communication system in which an embodiment of the multiplexing) assignment information generator 36 and a
present invention is operable. data frame generator 38 coupled thereto. The CDM assign-
FIG. 2 illustrates a representation of an exemplary control ment information generator generates CDM assignment
channel defined pursuant to operation of an embodiment of information for communication to the mobile stations 12.
the present invention and implemented in the radio commu- 35 Separate information sets are generated for different ones of
nication system shown in FIG. 1. the mobile stations. And, once generated, the assignment
information is provided to the data frame generator 38. The
FIG. 3 illustrates exemplary repetition patterns of CDM
data frame generator operates to format the assignment
assignment information communicated upon the control
information sets into frames that are communicated to the
channel shown in FIG. 2, variously for a single user, and
40 mobile stations. In one implementation, the data frames are
increased numbers of users.
of fixed frame sizes, such as frame sizes corresponding to
FIG. 4 illustrates exemplary information contained in the five millisecond (ms) time durations. In another
CDM allocation information communicated to a particular implementation, the frame lengths of the frames formed by
mobile station operable in the radio communication system the data frame generator are of variable lengths, dependent
shown in FIG. 1. upon the number of multiple assignment information sets,
45
FIG. 5 illustrates a method flow diagram listing the and corresponding mobile stations that are to receive the
method steps of the method of operation of an embodiment informational content of the individual ones of the assign-
of the present invention. ment information sets.
FIG. 2 illustrates a representation of a control channel
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
50 defined pursuant to an embodiment of the present invention,
Referring first to FIG. 1, a radio communication system, and upon which CDM assignment information generated by
shown generally at 10, provides for radio communications the CDM assignment information generator 36, shown in
with mobile stations, of which several mobile stations 12 are FIG. 1, is communicated to provide the mobile stations with
shown in the figure. In the exemplary implementation, the necessary information to operate in the radio communication
communication system forms a cellular communication sys- 55 system. The control channel defined pursuant to an embodi-
tem operable, generally, pursuant to a CDMA 2000, cellular ment of the present invention, and shmvn in the figure,
operational specification. The teachings of the present utilizes a mixed CDM/TDM techniques.
invention are, however, also implementable in any of vari- As indicated, the mobile stations 12 all utilize a common/
ous other types of communication systems in which multi- shared control channel 44. The TDM nature of the channel
cast and broadcast communication services are imple- 60 is also designate by blocks in the Figure.
mented. Accordingly, while the following description shall The control channel defined pursuant to an embodiment
describe operation of an embodiment of the present inven- of the present invention and shown in FIG. 2 builds upon
tion with respect to its implementation in a CDMA 2000 existing lXTREME and lxEV-DV schemes in manners that
communication system, the present invention is analogously reduce the complexity of the existing schemes while also
also operable in other types of communication systems. 65 reducing the requirements of the mobile station to monitor
The mobile stations 12 communicate by way of radio multiple channels, thereby reducing the power requirements
links with a network part of the communication system. The of the mobile station.
US 6,665,309 B2
7 8
In the first implementation, the frames generated by the variable sizes, and two or more common, shared control
data frame generator 38, shown in FIG. 1, are of common channels are utilized, the mobile stations are provided with
lengths. The common sizes facilitate simplicity of detection information indicating which control channel that the mobile
by individual ones of the mobile stations of the assignment station should monitor upon registration with the system,
information sets designated for the respective ones of the 5 such as by delivery to the mobile station of a layer 3 (L3)
mobile stations. All mobile stations 12 continuously monitor message or other higher-level message.
the shared, common control channel for CDM channel FIG. 3 illustrates repetition patterns of various frames,
allocation information. The channel is monitored, in the here designated at 52 pursuant to operation of the apparatus
exemplary implementation, both when the mobile station is 34. The top-most (as shown) frame 52 indicates the repeti-
in a packet-data active state and when the mobile stations are 10 tion pattern when there are four users, i.e., mobile stations,
in the packet-data control hold states. Multiple sets of the that are to receive assignment information therefrom. The
CDM assignment information are carried on the control frame is divided into four portions 54, each containing an
channel for multiple users, i.e., mobile stations, simulta- assignment information set for a particular one of the four
neously. The number of sets, e.g. four alternately, is a mobile stations. Four separate assignment sets are indicated
configurable number, selectable as a system parameter. For 15 in the top-most frame 52. The frame 52 positioned directly
instance, in one implementation, 82 percent of near-real- therebeneath (as shmvn) indicates the repetition pattern
time (NRT) packets are transmitted with three, or fewer, when three users are to receive CDM assignment informa-
codes and 76 percent of WAP (wireless access protocol) tion. Here, the assignment information sets 54 are allocated
packets are transmitted using three or fewer codes. Assum- to the three users and a fourth of the assignment sets is a
ing availability of fourteen Walsh codes upon the forward- 20 reserved assignment set.
shared packet data channels, four users, i.e., 14i3, are able to
And, positioned therebeneath is a frame 52 representative
utilize CDM communications simultaneously. And,
of the repetition pattern when two users are to receive the
accordingly, four sets of channel allocationiassignment
CDM assignment information. Here, the information to each
information is utilized.
of the two users is repeated within the frame. And, the
In the exemplary implementation, a single, spreading 25 bottom-most (as shown) frame 54 indicates the repetition
factor is utilized, e.g., a spreading factor of sixty-four. If the pattern when only a single user, i.e., mobile station, is tuned
number of information sets embodied in the control channel to receive the assignment information. Here, the assignment
is fewer than four, repetitive transmission of one or more of information set is repeated in each of the portions 54 of the
the assignment information sets is performed. frame.
30
Through use of the shared channel, battery life of the FIG. 4 illustrates in greater detail the informational con-
mobile station is enlarged as the mobile station is required tent contained in a single assignment information set 54.
to monitor only one shared/common control channel. And, Here, the set is of a twenty-four bit length divided into seven
in an implementation in which the frame sizes of the frames fields, fields 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, and 68. The field 56 is
containing the assignment information sets are of set a sixth-bit length mac id field. The field 58 is a two-bitARQ
35
lengths, mobile-station complexity is reduced as multiple channel id field. The field 68 is a two-bit sbid field and the
frame sizes are not utilized on the shared control channel. field 62 is a 3-bit mcsl field. The field 64 is a four-bit be field;
And, as only a single spreading factor needs to be utilized, the field 66 is a four-bit le field; and the field 68 is an sn/abi
as well as a fixed data rate, implementation complexity is field of a three-bit, bit length. Details pertaining to the values
reduced and information reliability is increased. that populate such fields are contained in the appropriate
40
In another implementation, the frames generated by the CDMA 2000 specification.
frame generator are selectably of variable frame lengths, i.e.,
Because the mobile station is required to monitor only a
of frame lengths that differ with the base line frame length
single-shared channel, improved system performance is
of five ms. And, when the frame length of the frames are of
possible as the radio resources of the communication system
a frame length that differs \vith the base line frame length, 45 are efficiently utilized.
the spreading factor that is utilized is a variant, varying by
a variation factor, with the spreading factor utilized with a FIG. 5 illustrates a method flow diagram, shown generally
scheme that utilizes a fixed frame length. For instance, if the at 72, of the method of operation of an embodiment of the
spreading factor is 64 times N is used for frames of five ms present invention. The method operates to facilitate com-
in length, then a spreading factor of sf 64 times N/2 is used munication of data in a radio communication system in
50
when the frame lengths are of frames corresponding to 2.5 which code division multiplex data is communicated
ms time periods. N is a configurable parameter. between a network part and a plurality of mobile stations.
In another implementation, two, or more, commonishared First, and as indicated by the block 74, CDM (code
control channels are utilized. Each mobile station 12 is division multiplexing) assignment information is generated
assigned with a shared control channel of the two or more 55 at the network part. The CDM assignment information forms
shared control channels, such as by way of a layer 3 message a first multiple assignment information set and at least a
allocated thereto when the mobile station registers with the second multiple information assignment set for communi-
system. The mobile stations again are required merely to cation with each of the first mobile station and the at least the
monitor a single shared channel. The layer 3 message is a second mobile station. Then, and as indicated by the block
higher-level logical layer, positioned above the physical 60 76, the CDM assignment information is sent to the first and
layer of the system. at least second mobile stations upon the at least the first
In one such implementation, the frame links of the frames shared channel.
generated by the frame generator and communicated upon The previous descriptions are of preferred examples for
the control channel or of fixed frame links, such as frame implementing the invention, and the scope of the invention
links corresponding to a 5 ms time period. And, in another 65 should not necessarily be limited by this description. The
implementation, the frame links are of variable lengths. scope of the present invention is defined by the following
When a scheme is utilized in which the frame links are of claims:
US 6,665,309 B2
9 10
We claim: higher-level logical level, and wherein said CDM assign-
1. In a radio communication system in which code divi- ment information generator is embodied at the higher-level
sion multiplexed data is communicated between a network logical layer.
part and a plurality of communication stations including a 12. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein the CDM assign-
first station and at least a second station, an improvement of s ment information generated by said CDM assignment infor-
apparatus for facilitating communication of the data upon at mation generator forms formatted messages formed of mes-
least one first shared channel, said apparatus comprising: sage parts, the message parts concatenated together to form
a CDM (code division multiplexing) assignment informa- the message, individual ones of the message parts associated
with individual ones of the first and at least second mobile
tion generator for generating CDM assignment
information, the CDM assignment information forming 10 stations.
a first multiple assignment information set and at least 13. In a method of communicating in a radio communi-
a second multiple assignment information set for com- cation system in which code division multiplexed data is
municating vvith each of the first station and the at least communicated between a network part and a plurality of
the second station, respectively, over the at least one communication stations including a first mobile station and
first shared channel. 15 at least a second mobile station, an improvement of a
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the at least one first method for facilitating communication of the data upon at
shared channel comprises a single shared control channel least one first shared channel, said method comprising:
and wherein the CDM assignment information generated by generating CDM assignment information at the network
said CDM assignment information generator for communi- part, the CDM assignment information forming a first
cation to each of the first and the at least the second station, 20 multiple assignment information set and at least a
respectively, is communicated upon the single shared con- second multiple information assignment set for com-
trol channel. municating with each of the first mobile station and the
3. The apparatus of claim 2 further comprising a data at least the second mobile station, respectively; and
frame generator coupled to receive the CDM assignment sending the CDM assignment information generated dur-
information, said data frame generator for generating a data 25 ing said operation of generating to the first and the at
frame, the data frames of selected frame lengths and con- least second mobile stations upon the at least one first
taining the CDM assignment information. shared channel.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the selected frame 14. The method of claim 13 further comprising the
lengths of the data frames formed by said data frame preliminary operation of:
generator are of fixed lengths. 30 registering the first and at least second mobile stations
5. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the selected frame with the radio communication system pursuant to a
lengths of the data frames formed by said data frame system in protocol, and wherein
generator are of variable lengths. said operation of generating is performed responsive to
6. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the at least one first registration performed during said operation of regis-
shared channel comprises a first shared channel and at least 35 tering.
a second shared channel, and wherein the CDM assignment 15. The method of claim 13 wherein the at least one first
information generated by said CDM assignment information shared channel comprises a single shared control channel,
generator for communication to each of the first and at least and wherein said operation of sending comprises sending the
the second stations is communicated to a corresponding CDM assignment information upon the single shared chan-
selected one of the first shared channel and the at least the 40 nel.
second shared channel. 16. The method of claim 15 wherein the assignment
7. The apparatus of claim 6 further comprising a data information generated during said operation of generating is
frame generator coupled to receive the CDM assignment formatted into a frame and wherein the frame is of a fixed
information, said data frame generator for generating a data length.
frame, the data frames of selected frame lengths. 45 17. The method of claim 15 wherein the assignment
8. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein the selected frame information generated during said operation of generating is
lengths of the data frames formed by said data frame formatted into a frame and wherein the frame is of a variable
generator are of fixed lengths. length.
9. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein the selected frame 18. The method of claim 13 wherein the at least one first
lengths of the data frames formed by said data frame so shared channel comprises the first shared control channel
generator are of variable lengths. and at least a second shared channel and wherein said
10. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the first and at least operation of sending comprises selectably sending the CDM
second mobile stations, respectively, register with the radio assignment upon the first and at least second shared
communication system pursuant to a registration scheme channels, respective! y.
and wherein the CDM assignment information generated by 55 19. The method of claim 18 wherein the assignment
said CDM assignment information generator is generated information generated during said operation of generating is
responsive to effectuation of registration of respective ones formatted into a frame and wherein the frame is of a fixed
of the first and at least second mobile stations. length.
11. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the radio commu- 20. The method of claim 19 wherein the assignment
nication system comprises a cellular communication system 60 information generated during said operation of generating is
operable generally pursuant to a CDMA 2000 operating formatted into a frame and wherein the frame is of a
specification providing for lxEV-DV data communications, variable.
wherein the radio communication system is defined in terms
of logical layers including a physical layer and at least one * * * * *
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 1 of?

ANNEX!

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION FORMS

IPR Holder/Organisation
~\EGLI Il,_ ®,
_ _ _,,,.,,,__Rc··c-----1--
Legal Name: NOKIA CORPORATION _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _l_"_'+-
1 '1 ! Jv" CIJ;)

~--------
Signatory

Name: Kalle Moilanen_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Position: IPRManager - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Department: I P R - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Address: Joensuunkatu 7, FIN-24100 SALO, P.0.Box 86, FIN-00045 NOKIA GROUP, FINLAND - - -

Tel.: +358 50 366 2022 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fax: +358718044275 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
E-mail: kalle,moilanen@nokia.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR information statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inform ETSI that,

with reference to the technical proposal identified as UMTS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
and/or
in relation to Work Item No.
-------------------------
and/or
with reference to ETSI Standard No,
---------------------~

it is my belief that the IP Rs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to become, Essential IPRs in relation to that Standard.

IPR licensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the IPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above,
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant inevocable licenses under
the IPRs on terms and conditions which are in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETSI IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and performance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Salo, 6th of July 2005 _ _ __

{Signed for and on behalf of the SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director-General - Karl Heinz Roscnbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 3 of7

0771092 DE
UMTS 25.212 5.9.0 25.212: Nokia 0771092 A method for EP
0771092 FR
Corporation transmitting packet
25.308 5.7.0 4.5
data with hybrid
0771092 GB
5946320 US
25.321 5.10.0 25.308: FEC/ARQ type II
6.2.3
25.321:
11.6
UMTS 25.214 5.10.0 25.214: Nokia W0200208 SCHEDULING, PCT
6A.2 Corporation 2829 MODULATION AND
25.308 5.7.0
CODING FOR
25.308:
SUPPORTING
8.2.2 QUALITY OF
SERVICE IN RADIO
CHANNELS
UMTS 25.211 3.12.0 5.2.2.1 Nokia 6775548 Access channel for US
Corporation reduced access
delay in a
telecommunications
system
W003/026180 PCT
UMTS 25.308 5.7.0 5.2.2 Nokia 6665309 Apparatus, and US
Corporation associated method,
for generating
 assignment
information used
pursuant to channel
allocation in a radio
communication
system

Please return this fOnD duly signed to: ErSI Director General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
Attachment 2 List of Essential Industrial Property Rights for ARIB STD-T64 Ver.3.30

REGISTRATION NO./
PATENT HOLDER NAME OF PATENT REMARKS
APPLICATION NO.
NOKIA CORPORATION CHANNEL ALLOCATION WITH CODE DIVISION WO 03/026180 Patent Cooperation Treaty
*33
MULTIPLEXING FOR 1XEV-DV SYSTEM , United States

NOKIA CORPORATION RLP LOGICAL LAYER OF A COMMUNICATION STATION WO 03/090391 Patent Cooperation Treaty
, NOKIA INC. *33 , United States

NOKIA CORPORATION APPARATUS, AND ASSOCIATED METHOD, FOR WO 03/105498 Patent Cooperation Treaty
*33
PERFORMING REVERSE-LINK TRAFFIC MEASUREMENTS IN , United States
A RADIO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

NOKIA CORPORATION APPARATUS, AND ASSOCIATED METHOD, FOR WO 04/064292 Patent Cooperation Treaty
, NOKIA, INC. *33 PERFORMING PACKET ZONE TIMING OPERATIONS AT A , United States
MOBILE NODE OPERABLE IN A PACKET RADIO
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

APPARATUS AND AN ASSOCIATED METHOD FOR WO 03/105381 Patent Cooperation Treaty
FACILITATING COMMUNICATIONS IN A RADIO
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM THAT PROVIDES FOR DATA
COMMUNICATIONS AT MULTIPLE DATA RATES

146
27
A40217VI
(19)

I
Europilsches
Patentamt
European 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Patent Office
Office europeen
des brevets
(11) EP 1 700 419 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.:
of the grant of the patent: H04L 12/18r2006·01J H04Q 7138 (2006.01)
11.07.2007 Bulletin 2007/28 H04M 3142(2006.011

(21) Application number: 04806376.2 (86) International application number:
PCT/IB2004/004180
(22) Date of filing: 16.12.2004
(87) International publication number:
WO 2005/064849 (14.07.2005 Gazette 2005/28)

(54) METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PUSH-TO-TALK SERVICE
VERFAHREN UNO EINRICHTUNG FUR PUSH-TO-TALK-DIENST
PROCEDE ET APPAREIL POUR SERVICE 'PUSH-TO-TALK'

(84) Designated Contracting States: (56) References cited:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES Fl FR GB GR WO-A-02/093812
HU IE IS IT LILT LU MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR
• ANONYMOUS: "Push-To-Talk over Cellular
(30) Priority: 22.12.2003 GB 0329707 (PoC); Signaling Flows; Poe Release 1.0, V
26.03.2004 us 809710 1.1.4"[0nline] October 2003 (2003-10), pages
1-115, XP002321968 Retrieved from the Internet:
(43) Date of publication of application: URL: http://www.ericsson.com/mobi lityworld/
13.09.2006 Bulletin 2006/37 developerszonedown/downloads/docs/ims_
poc/ poc_1_0_sgnaling_flows.pdf> [retrieved on
(73) Proprietor: Nokia Corporation 2005-03-18]
02150 Espoo (Fl) • ANONYMOUS: "Push-To-TalkoverCellular(PoC)
User Plane;Transport Protocols; Poe Release
(72) Inventors: 1.0, V 1.1.1 "[0nline] October 2003 (2003-10),
• ISOMAKI, Markus pages 1-37, XP002321969 Retrieved from the
FIN-02210 Espoo (Fl) Internet: URL:http://www.ericsson.com/
• POIKSELKA, Miikka mobilityworld/ developerszonedown/down loads/
FIN-02600 Espoo (Fl) docs/ims_poc/ poc_1_0_transport_
• VEIKKOLAINEN, Simo protocols.pdf> [retrieved on 2005-03-18]
FIN-02340 Espoo (Fl) • WU ET AL: "Use of Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
(74) Representative: Ruuskanen, Juha-Pekka et al for Conference Floor Control" IETF INTERNET
Page White & Farrer DRAFT, 2 March 2003 (2003-03-02), XP015005760
Bedford House • DARI LION K ET AL: "A service environment for
John Street air traffic control based on SIP" SYSTEM
London, WC1 N 2BF (GB) SCIENCES, 2004. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 37TH
ANNUAL HAWAII INTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCE ON 5-8 JAN. 2004, PISCATAWAY,
NJ, USA,IEEE, 5 January 2004 (2004-01-05),
pages 205-214, XP010683069 ISBN:
0-7695-2056-1
T"'"
cc
0)
T"'"
~
0
0 Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give
"
T"'"
notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in
a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art.
a. 99(1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1 700 419 81 2

Description via the gateway to the service provider. The routing may
be based on definitions in the mobile subscriber data
[0001] The invention relates to communication sys- stored by a mobile network operator.
tems, and in particular to activation of services in com- [0006] An example of the type of services that may be
munication systems that facilitate packet data communi- 5 offered for user such as the subscribers to a communi-
cation sessions. cation systems is the so called multimedia services.
[0002] A communication system can be seen as a fa- Some of the communication systems enabled to offer
cility that enables communication sessions between two multimedia services are known as Internet Protocol (IP)
or more entities such as user equipment and/or other Multimedia networks. IP Multimedia (IM) functionalities
nodes associated with the communication system. The 10 can be provided by means of an IP Multimedia Core Net-
communication may comprise, for example, communi- work (CN) subsystem, or briefly IP Multimedia subsystem
cation of voice, data, multimedia and so on. A session (IMS). The IMS includes various network entities for the
may, for example, be a telephone call type session be- provision of the multimedia services. The IMS services
tween users or multi-way conference session, or a com- are intended to offer, among other services, IP based
munication session between a user equipment and an 15 packet data communication sessions between mobile
application server (AS), such as a service provider serv- user equipment.
er. [0007] In an packet data network a packet data carrier
[0003] A communication system typically operates in may be established to carry traffic flows over the network.
accordance with a given standard or specification which An example of such a packet data carrier is a packet data
sets out what the various entities associated with the 20 protocol (PDP) context. A PDP context may be provided
communication system are permitted to do and how that for various purposes, for example for transportation of
should be achieved. For example, the standard or spec- signalling data and for transportation of payload data, i.e.
ification may define if the user, or more precisely, user for the control plane and for the user plane data commu-
equipment is provided with a circuit switched service nication. A data communication session between a user
and/or a packet switched service. Communication pro- 25 equipment and another party may be carried at least on
tocols and/or parameters which shall be used forthe con- the access network of the user equipment on a PDP con-
nection may also be defined. In other words, a specific text.
set of "rules" on which the communication can be based [0008] It is expected that various types of services are
on needs to be defined to enable communication by to be provided by means of different Application Servers
means of the system. 30 (AS) over Internet Protocol Multimedia subsystem (IMS).
[0004] Communication systems providing wireless Some of these services may be time critical. An example
communication for user equipment are known. An exam- of the time-critical services that may be provided over
ple of the wireless systems is the public land mobile net- the IMS are the so called direct voice communication
work (PLMN). The PLMNs are commonly based on cel- services. A more specific example of these is the "Push-
lular technology. In cellular systems, a base transceiver 35 to-talk over Cellular" (PoC) service, also known as PTT,
station (BTS) or similar access entity serves mobile user Push-To-Talk service. The direct voice communication
equipment (UE) via a wireless interface between these services are intended to use the capabilities of the IP
entities. The communication on the wireless interface be- Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for enabling IP connections
tween the user equipment and the elements of the com- for mobile user equipment and other parties of the com-
munication network can be based on an appropriate com- 40 munications, for example other mobile user equipment
munication protocol. The operation of the base station or entities associated with the network. The service al-
apparatus and other apparatus required for the commu- lows the users to engage in immediate communication
nication can be controlled by one or several control en- with one or more other users.
tities. The various control entities may be interconnected. [0009] In PoC services communication between a user
[0005] One or more gateway nodes may also be pro- 45 equipment and a PoC application server commonly oc-
vided for connecting the cellular access network to other curs on a one-way data communications media. A user
networks e.g. to a public switched telephone network may open the data communications media by simply
(PSTN) and/or other communication networks such as pushing a tangent key, for example a button on the key-
an IP (Internet Protocol) and/or other packet switched board of a user equipment or by otherwise activating the
data networks. In such arrangement the mobile commu- 50 communications media. The activation means may be a
nications network provides an access network enabling specific button or tangent or any appropriate key of the
a user with a wireless user equipment to access external keyboard. While a user speaks, the other user or users
networks, hosts, or services offered by specific service may listen. Bi-directional communication can be offered
providers. The access point or gateway node of the mo- since all parties of the communications session may sim-
bile communication network then provides further access 55 ilarly communicate voice data with the PoC application
to an external network or an external host. For example, server. The turns to speak are requested by activating
if the requested service is provided by a service provider the communication media, e.g. by pressing the push-to-
located in other network, the service request is routed talk button. The turns may be granted for example on a

2
3 EP 1 700 419 81 4

first come first served basis or based on priorities. Users ing the final response carrying SOP answer to the initial
can join the group session they wish to talk to and then INVITE message that the calling party can actually start
activate the media to start talking. sending media packets. Similarly on the called party side
[001 O] In service application such as PoC one-to-one the PoC application server first sends an INVITE with an
call the calling party may need to know when a 'floor' is 5 SOP offer. After receiving the final answer which carries
granted for the calling party in the beginning of the call. an SOP answer, the PoC application server can send the
The term 'floor' refers to data communication media re- called party an RTCP indication that the floor has been
sources that may be used for the communication of voice taken.
data. [0015] The embodiments aim to address the above de-
[0011] A floor may be seen as a permission to tempo- 10 scribed problems.
rarily access, manipulate or otherwise use a specific [0016] According to one embodiment, there is provid-
shared resource or a set of resources. A "floor" can be ed a method in accordance with claim 1.
granted even when no data communication channel is [0017] According to another embodiment, there is pro-
yet available. vided a communication system in accordance with Claim
[0012] If no floor is granted, the calling party may not 15 14.
be able to start sending voice data to the Poe application [0018] According to yet another embodiment, there is
server. Similarly the called party must know that the floor provided an application server in accordance with claim
has been taken by the calling party. This must somehow 18.
be indicated to the parties during the call setup sequence. [0019] According to yet another embodiment, there is
[0013] In the prior art described, for example, by PoC 20 provided a message in accordance with claim 23.
Industry Consortium Specifications, such as "Push-To- [0020] The embodiments of the invention may provide
Talk over Cellular (PoC); Signaling Flows; Poe Release advantage in reducing the time and amount of messages
1.0; Signaling Flows V 1, 1.4", October 2003 jointly pro- required for setting up a voice or other data communica-
duced by Ericsson, Siemens, Motorola and Nokia, the tion session for a user. This may be especially advanta-
indication of a granted floor is sent through a specific 25 geous in service applications that are time critical. The
floor control protocol, typically by means of a Real-time embodiments may improve the usability of services. Ben-
Transport protocol Control Protocol (RTCP). This ap- efits in using for example SOP messages instead of
proach requires creation and sending of separate mes- RTCP messages to carry status indications include the
sages for the floor status indications. In this approach a elimination of an additional RTCP packet. This may pro-
calling party of a Poe session has to send first an SIP 30 duce some savings in radio resources. The embodiment
INVITE message containing a Session Description Pro- may also make call setup more robust, for example if
tocol (SOP) offer. After receiving this the Poe application there is packet loss in the network. In some cases call
server has to communicate in a separate message to the setup delay may be reduced. SOP can be carried within
calling party an Real-time Transport protocol Control Pro- the session set-up protocol, for example in a SIP mes-
tocol (RTCP) indication that a floor has been granted for 35 sage which may be carried within a signalling PDP con-
use in the session. text or some other suitable PDP context. Therefore it is
[0014] Because PoC services do not commonly use possible to avoid the problems caused by a non-existing
preconditions there is no guarantee that media bearers PDP context for media.
are ready when a PoC application server sends one or [0021] For better understanding of the invention, ref-
more floor control messages. This may cause a problem, 40 erence will now be made by way of example to the ac-
for example, when a user equipment is using a dedicated companying drawings in which:
signalling PDP context, since the dedicated signalling
PDP context does not allow transportation of RTCP traf- Figure 1 shows a communication system wherein
fic. For example, it is possible that no data carrier may the invention may be embodied;
have yet been activated forthe data communication me- 45 Figure 2 is a flowchart illustrating the operation of
dia at this point since the SOP answer has not yet been one embodiment; and
received. Thus the RTCP packet may need to be carried Figure 3 is s signaling flowchart illustrating the sig-
within some pre-existing data carrier, for example a pre- naling of one embodiment;
existing PDP context. However, if a user equipment is
using a dedicated signalling PDP context, it is not allowed 50 [0022] Certain embodiments of the present invention
to transport Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) nor Re- will be described by way of example, with reference to
al-time Transport protocol Control Protocol (RTCP) pack- the exemplifying architecture of a third generation (3G)
ets within the PDP context. In this case the gateway be- mobile communications system. However, it will be un-
tween the access network and the data network will sim- derstood that embodiments may be applied to any other
ply drop all incoming packets which do not comply with 55 suitable form of communications system.
a acceptance policy of gateway and therefore a user [0023] The Third Generation Partnership Project
equipment may not get any floor control messages prior (3GPP) has defined a reference architecture for the third
secondary PDP context activation. It is only after receiv- generation (3G) core network which will provide the users

3
5 EP 1 700 419 81 6

of user equipment with access to the multimedia servic- and receive signals from the base stations via the wire-
es. This core network is divided into three principal do- less interface. In the simplified presentation of Figure 1,
mains. These are the Circuit Switched (CS) domain, the the base stations 31 and 43 belong to the respective radio
Packet Switched (PS) domain and the Internet Protocol access networks (RAN). In the shown arrangement each
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) domain. 5 of the userequipment30, 44mayaccessthe IMS network
[0024] Figure 1 shows an IP Multimedia Network 45 45 via the two access networks associated with base
for offering IP multimedia services for IP Multimedia Net- stations 31 and 43, respectively. It shall be appreciated
work subscribers. IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) func- that, although, for clarity, Figure 1 shows the base sta-
tionalities can be provided by means of a Core Network tions of two radio access networks, a typical mobile com-
(CN) subsystem including various entities for the provi- 10 munication network usually includes a number of radio
sion of the service. The third generation partnership access networks.
project (3GPP) has defined use of the general packet [0028] The IMS domain is for ensuring that multimedia
radio service (GPRS) for the provision of the IMS serv- services are adequately managed. The IMS domain com-
ices, and therefore a GPRS based system will be used monly supports the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) as
in the following as an example of a possible backbone 15 developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force
communication network enabling the IMS services. (IETF). Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application-
[0025] A mobile communication system such as the layer control protocol for creating, modifying and termi-
3G cellular system is typically arranged to serve a plu- nating sessions with one or more participants (end-
rality of mobile user equipment usually via a wireless in- points). SIP was generally developed to allowforinitiating
terface between a user equipment and base stations of 20 a session between two or more endpoints in the Internet
the communication system. The mobile communication by making these endpoints aware of the session seman-
system may logically be divided between a radio access tics. A user connected to a SIP based communication
network (RAN) and a core network (CN). The core net- system may communicate with various entities of the
work (CN) entities typically include various control enti- communication system based on standardised SIP mes-
ties and gateways for enabling the communication via a 25 sages. User equipment or users that run certain applica-
number of radio access networks and also for interfacing tions on the user equipment are registered with the SIP
a single communication system with one or more com- backbone so that an invitation to a particular session can
munication system such as with other cellular systems be correctly delivered to these endpoints. To achieve this,
and/or fixed line communication systems. SIP provides a registration mechanism for devices and
[0026] In Figure 1 the intermediate mobile communi- 30 users, and it applies mechanisms such as location serv-
cation network provides packet-switched data transmis- ers and registrars to route the session invitations appro-
sion in the packet switched domain between a support priately. Examples of the possible sessions that may be
node and mobile user equipment. Different sub-networks provided by means of SIP signalling include Internet mul-
are in turn connected to an external data network, e.g. timedia conferences, Internet telephone calls, and mul-
to a public switched data network (PSPDN), via gateway 35 timedia distribution.
GPRS support nodes (GGSN) 34, 40. The GPRS serv- [0029] A user equipment within the radio access net-
ices thus allow transmission of packet data between mo- work may communicate with a radio network controller
bile data terminals and/or external data networks. More via radio network channels which are typically referred
particularly, the exemplifying general packet radio serv- to as radio bearers (RB). Each user equipment may have
ice (GPRS) operation environment comprises one or 40 one or more radio network channel open at any one time
more sub-network service areas, which are interconnect- with the radio network controller. Any appropriate mobile
ed by GPRS backbone networks 32 and 41. A sub-net- user equipment adapted for Internet Protocol (IP) com-
work comprises a number of packet data service nodes munication may be used to connect the network. For ex-
(SN). In this application the service nodes will be referred ample, a user may access the cellular network by means
to as serving GPRS support nodes (SGSN). Each of the 45 of a user equipment such as a Personal computer (PC),
SGSNs 33, 42 is connected to at least one mobile com- Personal Data Assistant (PDA), mobile station (MS) and
munication network, typically to base station systems. so on. The following examples are described in the con-
Although not shown for clarity reasons, the connection text of mobile stations.
may be provided by way of radio network controllers [0030] One skilled in the art is familiar with the features
(RNC) or other access system controllers such as base 50 and operation of a typical mobile station. Thus, a detailed
stations controllers (BSC) in such a way that packet serv- explanation of these features is not necessary. It is suf-
ice can be provided for mobile user equipment via several ficient to note that the user may use a mobile station for
base stations. tasks such as for making and receiving phone calls, for
[0027] Base stations 31 and 43 are arranged to trans- receiving and sending data from and to the network and
mit signals to and receive signals from mobile user equip- 55 for experiencing e.g. multimedia content. A mobile station
ment 30 and 44 of mobile users i.e. subscribers via re- is typically provided with processor and memory means
spective wireless interfaces. Correspondingly, each of for accomplishing these tasks. A mobile station may in-
the mobile user equipment is able to transmit signals to clude antenna means for wirelessly receiving and trans-

4
7 EP 1 700 419 81 8

mitting signals from and to base stations of the mobile tions. These include functions such as the call session
communication network. A mobile station may also be control functions (CSCFs). The call session control func-
provided with a display for displaying images and other tions may be divided into various categories such as a
graphical information for the user of the mobile user proxy call session control function (P-CSCF) 35,39, in-
equipment. Speaker means may also be provided. The 5 terrogating call session control function (1-CSCF) 37, and
operation of a mobile station may be controlled by means serving call session control function (S-CSCF) 36,38.
of an appropriate user interface such as control buttons, [0035] It shall be appreciated that similar function may
voice commands and so on. be referred to in different systems with different names.
[0031] The mobile stations 30 and 44 of Figure 1 are For example, in certain applications the CSCFs may be
configured to enable use of the Push-to-talk type servic- 10 referenced to as the call session control functions.
es. An activation function that may be required by a Push- [0036] Communication systems may be arranged
to-talk service can be provided by one of the buttons on such that a user who has been provided with required
the normal keypad of the mobile stations 30 and 44, or communication resources by the backbone network has
by a specific tangent key, for example with a tangent to initiate the use of services by sending a request for
known from the "Walkie-Talkie" devices. Other activation 15 the desired service over the communication system. For
techniques such as voice activation may also be used. example, a user may request for a session, transaction
In the case of voice activation a detected sound may be or other type of communications from an appropriate net-
used for triggering the set-up of the session for transmis- work entity. Furthermore, the user needs to register his/
sion of speech or other data. Instead of pressing a key, hers user equipment in a serving control entity of the IMS.
the user may also activate the service by means of an 20 The registration is typically done by sending a user iden-
appropriate menu selection. The manner how a mobile tity to the serving control entity. From the above dis-
station may activate the service is an implementation is- cussed exemplifying network entities the serving call ses-
sue, and will therefore not be described in any more de- sion control function (S-CSCF) forms in the 3G IMS ar-
tail. rangements the entity a user needs to be registered with
[0032] It shall be appreciated that although only two 25 in order to be able to request for a service by means of
mobile stations are shown in Figure 1 for clarity, a number the IMS system.
of mobile stations may be in simultaneous communica- [0037] The user equipment 30, 44 may connect, via
tion with each base station of the mobile communication the GPRS network, to application servers that are gen-
system. A mobile station may also have several simulta- erally connected to the IMS. In Figure 1 such an appli-
neous sessions, for example a number of SIP sessions 30 cation server is provided by a push-to-talk over cellular
and activated PDP contexts. The user may also have a (PoC) services server 50. The PoC application server is
phone call and be simultaneously connected to at least for providing push-to-talk over cellular (PoC) services
one other service. over the IMS network 45. The push-to-talk service is an
[0033] Overall communication between user equip- example of the so called direct voice communication
ment in an access entity and a gateway GPRS support 35 services. Users who wish to use the PoC service may
node is generally provided by a packet data protocol need to subscribe to an appropriate PoC server. The reg-
(PDP) context. Each PDP context usually provides a istration to the PoC service after the registration to the
communication pathway between a particular user IMS may then be done by the IMS by any appropriate
equipment and the gateway GPRS support node and, manner, for example by means of appropriate third party
once established, can typically carry multiple flows. Each 40 registration procedure or on request by the user.
flow normally represents, for example, a particular serv- [0038] The direct voice communication services are
ice and/or a media component of a particular service. intended to use the capabilities of the GPRS backbone
The PDP context therefore often represents a logical and the control functions of the Multimedia Subsystem
communication pathway for one or more flow across the (IMS) for enabling IP connections for the mobile stations
network. To implement the PDP context between user 45 30 and 44. The PoC servers may be operated by the
equipment and the serving GPRS support node, radio operator of the IMS system, or by a third party service
access bearers (RAB) need to be established which com- provider. A more detailed explanation of how the service
monly allow for data transfer for the user equipment. The allows the user of the mobile station 30 to engage in
implementation of these logical and physical channels is immediate communication with the user of the mobile
known to those skilled in the art and is therefore not dis- 50 station 44 is given later in this description.
cussed further herein. [0039] A user may open the communication link, for
[0034] The communication systems have developed example, by simply pressing a specific activation button
such that services may be provided for the user equip- on the mobile station 30. While the user of the mobile
ment by means of various functions of the IMS network station 30 speaks, the user of the mobile station 44 lis-
45 that are handled by network entities known as servers. 55 tens. The user of the mobile station 44 may then reply in
For example, in the current third generation (3G) wireless similar manner.
multimedia network architectures it is assumed that sev- [0040] The signaling between the user equipment and
eral different servers are used for handling different func- the appropriate call session control functions is routed

5
9 EP 1 700 419 81 10

via the GPRS networks. The user plane session set-up from the PoC application server at step 11 Oto the calling
signaling for the user equipment is routed via and con- party user equipment, this message also including an
trolled by the PoC application server 50, i.e. the PoC indication regarding the status of the floor. It shall be ap-
controls both the control plane and the user plane of the preciated that the answer may be communicated even if
PoC user. It shall be appreciated that the control plane 5 no answer has been yet received from the called party.
traffic between the PoC application server and the user [0046] Instead of sending any initial RTCP floor grant-
equipment is routed via the IMS 45 while the user plane ed (on caller side) and/or floor taken (on the called side)
traffic between the user equipment and the PoC applica- or similar messages, SOP messages are used for the
tion server is routed from the GPRS system to the PoC communication of the floor status information. The SOP
application server on interfaces 54 and 56. 10 answer on the calling party side at step 11 O may carry
[0041] The embodiments are based on the realisation information that the floor has been granted. The SOP
that it might be advantageous if use of a specific state offer on called party side at step 108 can be used to carry
message could be avoided. For example, it might be ad- information that the floor has been taken. Forth is purpose
vantageous to avoid using Real-time Transport protocol a new attribute may be defined for the SOP so as to carry
Control Protocol (RTCP) messages for communication 15 the floor control state. This may be done, for example,
of floor status information at the session set-up phase. by means of the SOP extension model. The attribute may
In the following exemplifying embodiments, instead of have enumerated values corresponding to the possible
having to indicate the initial floor control status in Push floor control states. The semantics of the attribute may
to talk session in a separate RTCP packet, the status is be such that it is capable of informing the receiver of the
indicated in a Session Description Protocol (SOP) offer 20 initial state of the floorfor the offered/answered media in
or answer. The provision of status information may be question. The initial state indicated this way may be over-
done by adding a single extension parameter to a SOP ridden by any subsequent RTCP floor control messages.
message with fixed token values describing the possible [0047] Afterthe exchange of the media and floor status
floor control states, such as floor granted or floor taken. information, the calling and called partiers may be given
Thus the SOP message may be used for exchange of 25 at step 112 appropriate indications that the calling party
media and floor control parameters. may start talking and that the called party should start
[0042] The following will describe with a reference to listening.
Figure 2 an embodiment wherein A-party and B-party [0048] Figure 3 illustrates an example for possible sig-
mobile stations are informed of the floor status right in naling between an A-party user equipment 30, a PoC
the beginning of the negotiation fora communication ses- 30 application server 50 and a B-party user equipment 44
sion. In accordance with an embodiment the mobile sta- after registration with the PoC application server. At step
tions may first be registered with an IMS, for example, 1O, the A-party gives an indication that he/she wishes to
with a respective serving CSCF. This is shown in step establish a speech connection with the B-party. The user
100 of Figure 2. equipment 30 may then send a 'SIP INVITE' message
[0043] After the mobile stations are successfully reg- 35 11 to the IMS 45 to be routed to the PoC application
istered at the IMS, the mobile stations may then be reg- server 50 for requesting for the speech connection with
istered with a PoC application server at step 102. The the B-party. The IMS may send a 'SIP 1OOTRYING' mes-
registration at step 102 may occur substantially soon af- sage 12 back to the user equipment 30 in confirmation
ter the registration with the IMS at step 100. For example, that it has received the request.
after a mobile station is successfully registered with the 40 [0049] The IMS 45 forwards the 'SIP INVITE' as mes-
IMS, a third party registration may be automatically car- sage 13 to the PoC application server 50. Upon receipt
ried out with the PoC application server at step 102. The of this message, the application server may send a 'SIP
third party registration may be performed by means of a 1OOTRYING' message 14backtothe IMS in confirmation
SIP third party registration procedure between the IMS that it has received the request.
and the PoC application server. This may be done for 45 [0050] In Figure 3 the floor status information is pro-
each user who has subscribed to the PoC services. vided to the A-party and the B-party by the SIP messages
[0044] Thus the user may not need to take any action 15, 17, 18 and 19 labelled with '*'. More particularly, in
at this stage. Alternatively, the user or any other party response to receiving the 'SIP INVITE' message 13, the
may trigger the registration at any stage after the mobile PoC application server 50 may send a 'SIP INVITE*' mes-
station is registered with the IMS. 50 sage 15 to the IMS to be routed to the 8-party user equip-
[0045] After registration a user may activate the PoC ment 44. The IMS may send at this stage a 'SIP 100
service, for example by pressing a Push-to-talk key on TRYING' message 16 back to the application server to
his mobile station at step 104. An offer is then sent from confirm that it has received the message. The IMS 45
the calling party user equipment to the PoC application forwards the 'SIP INVITE*' as message 17 to the PoC
server at step 106. The offer may then be forwarded from 55 enabled B-party user equipment 44.
the PoC application server at step 108 to the called party [0051] When the PoC application server 50 receives
user equipment together with an indication regarding the confirmation in message 16 from the IMS that it has re-
status of the floor. An answer to the request is forwarded ceived the request in message 15, the PoC application

6
11 EP 1 700 419 81 12

server may send an appropriate message 18 to the IMS. even be located in different networks.
Figure 3 shows 'SIP 200 OK*' message. Any other ap- [0058] The above describes a general application
propriate message, for example a 'SIP 202 Accepted', server based solution for a time critical service like the
may be sent at this stage. The acknowledgement of the Poe. However, it shall be appreciated that the invention
receipt may be sent even before the B-party user equip- 5 may be applied to other services without departing from
ment 44 has received the request or any indication that the spirit and scope thereof.
such a request might be expected. Contents of [0059] It shall also be appreciated that the embodi-
message18 are then forwarded to the A-party user equip- ments are not limited to be used in association with RTCP
ment 30 in message 19. Thus the A-party user equipment based floor control and Session Description Protocol.
is provided with the floor status information by the SIP 10 Furthermore, the initial floor control state can be carried
messages 18 and 19. in any appropriate protocol message used for any offer
[0052] The SOP offer or answer may be configured as and /or acceptance messages with similar fashion re-
shown in the simplified example below. This example gardless what is the actual protocol used for floor control.
assumes that the extension attribute is called "floor-con- [0060] It should be appreciated that while embodi-
trol-state". It shall be appreciated that the example does 15 ments of the invention have been described in relation
not show contain all possible Poe specific extensions. to mobile stations, embodiments of the invention are ap-
In the example below the indication is that the floor is plicable to any other suitable type of user equipment.
taken. Other indications would be encoded with similar [0061] The examples of the invention have been de-
tokens. scribed in the context of an IMS system and GPRS net-
20 works. This invention is also applicable to any other ac-
Example: cess techniques. Furthermore, the given examples are
described in the context of SIP networks with SIP capable
[0053] entities. This invention is also applicable to any other
appropriate communication systems, either wireless or
m=audio [port number] RTP/AVP [payload number] 25 fixed line systems and standards and protocols.
a=rtcp:[RTCP port number] [0062] It is also noted herein that while the above de-
a=floor-control-state:floorGranted scribes exemplifying embodiments of the invention, there
are several variations and modifications which may be
[0054] In response to receiving message 19, the A- made to the disclosed solution without departing from
party user equipment 30 may then give an indication at 30 the scope of the invention as defined in the appended
step 20 to the user of the user equipment that he/she claims.
may start talking. Any subsequent messaging may be
arranged in accordance with the SIP protocol. For exam-
ple, the user equipment 30 may acknowledge the OK Claims
message by sending a 'SIP ACK' message 21 to the IMS. 35
This message may then be forwarded to the Poe appli- 1. A method in a communication system (45) for com-
cation server 50 as message 22. munication of information during establishment of a
[0055] Once the required processing is completed at communication session, the method comprising:
the B-party user equipment 44 and the request can be
fulfilled, a 'SIP 200 OK' message 23 is communicated to 40 including floor status information of a data com-
the IMS and further in message 24 to the Poe application munication media in relation to a party of the
server. The B-party user equipment 44 may also give a communication session in a message carrying
start listening indication to the user thereof at step 25. data communication media information for the
The B-party user may be provided with an indication of communication session; and
a coming Poe "talk" session just before talk burst from 45 sending (108) the message from the communi-
the A-party comes through. cation system to the party's user equipment (44),
[0056] It shall be appreciated that the above example
relates to situation wherein the Poe application server is characterised in that the message is generated in
aware that the B-party user is reachable and does have accordance with a session description protocol.
an auto-answer function activated. The signal flows for 50
different use scenarios may differ from that of the Figure 2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step of
3 example. including floor status information comprises includ-
[0057] It shall be appreciated that although Figures 1 ing floor status information in an offer for the com-
and 3 show and the above describes only one application munication session.
server, for example a Poe server, a number of such serv- 55
ers may be provided. The A- and B-party user equipment 3. A method as claimed in claim 2, comprising including
may be registered with different application servers. The an indication that the floor is taken in the offer.
applications servers serving the A- and B-parties may

7
13 EP 1 700 419 81 14

4. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein characterised in that the message is configured in
the step of including the floor status information com- accordance with a session description protocol.
prises including the floor status information in an an-
swer to an offer for the communication session. 15. A communication system as claimed in claim 14,
5 wherein the application server comprises a push-to-
5. A method as claimed in claim 4, comprising including talk service application server.
an indication that the floor is granted in the answer.
16. A communication system as claimed in claim 14 or
6. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, com- 15, the communication system being configured to
prising carrying the message in accordance with a 10 carry the message in accordance with a session in-
session initiation protocol. itiation protocol.

7. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, com- 17. A communication system as claimed in any of claims
prising the step of sending a request for a push-to- 14 to 16, the communication system comprising an
talk service session. 15 Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem.

8. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, com- 18. An application server (50) for provision of data com-
prising sending the message over an Internet Pro- munication sessions, the application server (50) be-
tocol Multimedia Subsystem. ing configured to include in a message carrying in-
20 formation regarding a data communication media for
9. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, com- a communication session further information regard-
prising sending the message over a General Packet ing a floor status of the data communication media
Radio Service network. in relation of a party of the communication session
and to send the message to the party's user equip-
10. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, com- 25 ment via the data network, characterised in the ap-
prising providing the communication session by plication server is configured to generate the mes-
means of a Packet Data Protocol context. sage in accordance with a session description pro-
tocol.
11. A method as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein
the step of sending the message comprises sending 30 19. An application server as claimed in claim 18, com-
the message from an application server operatively prising a push-to-talk service application server.
connected to the communication system.
20. An application server as claimed in claim 18 or 19,
12. A method as claimed in claim 11, wherein the step comprising means for connection to an Internet Pro-
of sending the message comprises sending the mes- 35 tocol Multimedia subsystem.
sage from a push-to-talk over cellular server.
21. A application server as claimed in any of claims 18
13. A computer program comprising program code to 20, wherein the application server is configured
means adapted to perform the steps of any of the to include the further information in at least one of
preceding claims when the program is run on a com- 40 an offer for the communication session or an answer
puter. to the offer for a communication session.

14. A communication system (45) configured to provide 22. An application server as claimed in any of claims 18
communication sessions, the communication sys- to 21, wherein the application server is configured
tem comprising: 45 to transmit the message in accordance with a ses-
sion initiation protocol.
a data network for providing data communica-
tion resources; and 23. A message for describing a communication session,
an application server (50) connected to the data the message being configured to carry information
communication network, wherein the applica- 50 regarding a data communication media forthe com-
tion server includes floor status information of a munication session and information regarding a floor
data communication media in relation to a party status of the data communication media in relation
of a communication session in a message car- to a party of the communication session, character-
rying data communication media information for ised in that the message comprises a message in
the communication session and sends the mes- 55 accordance with a session description protocol.
sage to the party's user equipment (44) via the
data network,

8
15 EP 1 700 419 81 16

Patentanspri.iche tionssitzung mittels eines Paketdatenprotokollkon-
textes.
1. Veriahren in einem Kommunikationssystem (45) zur
Kommunikation von lnformationen wahrend des 11. Veriahren gemaB einem der hervorhegenden An-
Aufbaus einer Kommunikationssitzung, wobei das 5 sprOche, wobei der Schritt des Sendens der Nach-
Veriahren umfasst: richt Senden der Nachrichtvon einem Anwendungs-
server, der operativ mit dem Kommunikationssy-
Eintogen von Floor-Statusinformationen eines stem verbunden ist, umfasst.
Datenkommunikationsmediums in Bezug auf ei-
ne Partei der Kommunikationssitzung in eine 10 12. Veriahren gemaB Anspruch 11, wobei der Schritt
Nachricht, die Datenkommunikationsmedien- des Sendens der Nachricht Senden der Nachricht
lnformationen Ober die Kommunikationssitzung von einem Push-to-Talk-Ober-Zellen-Server um-
transportiert; und fasst.
Senden (108) der Nachricht von dem Kommu-
nikationssystem an eine Anwenderausstattung 15 13. Computerprogramm umfassend Programmcode-
(44) der Partei, mittel, die angepasst sind, die Schritte von einem
der vorhergehenden AnsprOche auszutohren, wenn
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nachricht ge- das Programm auf einem Computer lauft.
maB einem Sitzungsbeschreibungsprotokoll er-
zeugt wird. 20 14. Kommunikationssystem (45), das konfiguriert ist,
Kommunikationssitzungen bereitzustellen, wobei
2. Veriahren gemaB Anspruch 1, wobei der Schritt des das Kommunikationssystem umfasst:
Eintogens der Floor-Statusinformationen Eintogen
von Floor-Statusinformationen in ein Angebot tor die ein Datennetzwerk zum Bereitstellen von Da-
Kommunikationssitzung umfasst. 25 tenkommunikationsressourcen; und
einen Anwendungsserver (50), der mit dem Da-
3. Veriahren gemaB Anspruch 2, umfassend Eintogen tenkommunikationsnetzwerkverbunden ist, wo-
einer Anzeige in das Angebot, dass der Floor bean- bei der Anwendungsserver Floor-Statusinfor-
sprucht wird. mationen eines Datenkommunikationsmedi-
30 ums in Bezug auf eine Partei einer Kommunika-
4. Veriahren gemaB einem der vorhergehenden An- tionssitzung in eine Nachricht einfOgt, die Da-
sprOche, wobei der Schritt des Eintogens der Floor- tenkommunikationsmedien-lnformationen rnr
Statusinformationen Eintogen der Floor-Statusinfor- die Kommunikationssitzung transportiert, und
mationen in eine Antwort auf ein Angebot tor die die Nachricht an eine Anwenderausstattung
Kommunikationssitzung umfasst. 35 (44) der Partei Ober das Datennetzwerk sendet,

5. Veriahren gemaB Anspruch 4, umfassend Eintogen dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nachricht ge-
in die Antwort einer Anzeige, dass der Floor gewahrt maB einem Sitzungsbeschreibungsprotokoll konfi-
wird. guriert ist.
40

6. Veriahren gemaB einem der vorhergehenden An- 15. Kommunikationssystem gemaB Anspruch 14, wobei
sprOche, umfassend Transportieren der Nachricht der Anwendungsserver einen Push-to-Talk-Dienst-
gemaB einem SitzungsintOerungsprotokoll. anwendungsserver umfasst.

7. Veriahren gemaB einem der vorhergehenden An- 45 16. Kommunikationssystem gemaB Anspruch 14 oder
sprOche, umfassend den Schritt des Sendens einer 15, wobei das Kommunikationssystem konfiguriert
Anforderung fOr eine Push-to-Talk-Dienstsitzung. ist, die Nachricht gemaB einem Sitzungsinitiierungs-
protokoll zu transportieren.
8. Veriahren gemaB einem der vorhergehenden An-
sprOche, umfassend Senden der Nachricht Ober ein 50 17. Kommunikationssystem gemaB einem der AnsprO-
lnternetprotokoll-Multimedia-Untersystem. che 14 bis 16, wobei das Kommunikationssystem
ein lnternetprotokoll-Multimedia-Untersystem um-
9. Veriahren gemaB einem der hervorhegenden An- fasst.
sprOche, umfassend Senden der Nachricht Ober ein
allgemeines Paketfunkdienstnetzwerk. 55 18. Anwendungsserver (50) zum Bereitstellen von Da-
tenkommunikationssitzungen, wobei der Anwen-
10. Veriahren gemaB einem der hervorgehenden An- dungsserver (50) konfiguriert ist, in eine Nachricht,
sprOche, umfassend Bereitstellen der Kommunika- die lnformationen bezOglich eines Datenkommuni-

9
17 EP 1 700 419 81 18

kationsmediums fOr eine Kommunikationssitzung caracterise en ce que le message est genere con-
transportiert, weiter Informationen betreffend einen a
formement un protocole de description de session.
Floor-Status des Datenkommunikationsmedium in
Bezug auf eine Partei der Kommunikationssitzung 2. Precede selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'etape
einzufOgen und die Nachricht an eine Anwenderaus- 5 a
consistant inclure des informations d'activite plan-
stattung der Partei Ober das Datennetzwerk zu sen- cher comprend !'inclusion d'informations d'activite
den, plancher dans une offre pour la session de commu-
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Anwendungs- nication.
server konfiguriert ist, die Nachricht gemaB einem
Sitzungsbeschreibungsprotokoll zu erzeugen. 10 3. Precede selon la revendication 2, comprenant !'in-
clusion d'une indication selon laquelle le plancher
19. Anwendungsserver gemaB Anspruch 18, umfas- est pris dans l'offre.
send einen Push-to-Talk-Dienstanwendungsserver.
4. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
20. Anwendungsserver gemaB Anspruch 18 und 19 um- 15 a
precedentes, dans lequel l'etape consistant inclure
fassend Mittel zum Verbinden zu einem lnternetpro- les informations d'activite planchercomprend !'inclu-
tokoll-Multimedia-Untersystem. sion d'informations d'activite plancher dans une re-
a
ponse une off re pour la session de communication.
21. AnwendungsservergemaB einem der Anspruche 18
bis 20, wobei der Anwendungsserver konfiguriert ist, 20 5. Precede selon la revendication 4, comprenant !'in-
die weiteren lnformationen in wenigstens eines von clusion d'une indication selon laquelle le plancher
einem Angebot fOr die Kommunikationssitzung oder est accorde dans la reponse.
einer Antwort auf das Angebot fOr eine Kommunika-
tionssitzung einzufOgen. 6. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
25 precedentes, comprenant le transport du message
22. AnwendungsservergemaB einem der Anspruche 18 a
conformement un protocole d'initiation de session.
bis 21, wobei der Anwendungsserver konfiguriert ist,
die Nachricht gemaB einem SitzungsinitUerungspro- 7. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
tokoll zu ubertragen. precedentes, comprenant l'etape consistant en- a
30 voyer une demande pour une session de service de
23. Nachricht zum Beschreiben einer Kommunikations- messagerie vocale instantanee.
sitzung, wobei die Nachricht konfiguriert ist, lnforma-
tionen betreffend ein Datenkommunikationsmedium 8. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
fOr die Kommunikationssitzung und lnformationen precedentes, comprenant I' envoi du message par
betreffend einen Floor-Status des Datenkommuni- 35 un sous-ensemble multimedia de protocole internet.
kationsmedium in Bezug auf eine Partei der Kom-
munikationssitzung zu transportieren, dadurch ge- 9. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
kennzeichnet, dass die Nachricht eine Nachricht precedentes, comprenant l'envoi du message par
gemaB einem Sitzungsbeschreibungsprotokoll um- un reseau de service radio en paquets general.
fasst. 40
10. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
precedentes, comprenant la fourniture de la session
Revendications de communication au moyen d'un contexte de pro-
tocole de donnees en paquets.
1. Precede dans un systeme (45) de communication 45
pour la communication d'informations pendant l'eta- 11. Precede selon l'une quelconque des revendications
blissement d'une session de communication, le pre- precedentes, dans lequel l'etape consistant a
en-
cede comprenant: voyer le message comprend l'envoi du message en
provenance d'un serveur d'application relie de ma-
!'inclusion d'informations d'activite plancher 50 niere active au systeme de communication .
d'un media de communication de donnees en
rapport avec un correspondant de la session de 12. Precede selon la revendication 11, dans lequel l'eta-
communication dans un message apportant des a
pe consistant envoyer le message comprend l'en-
informations de media de communication de voi du message en provenance d'une messagerie
donnees pour la session de communication ; et 55 vocale instantanee par un serveur cellulaire.
l'envoi (108) du message en provenance du sys-
teme de communication vers l'equipement (44) 13. Programme d'ordinateur comprenant un moyen de
d'utilisateur du correspondant, code de programme adapte pour realiser les etapes

10
19 EP 1 700 419 81 20

de l'une quelconque des revendications preceden- 20. Serveur d'application selon la revendication 18 ou
tes lorsque le programme est lu sur un ordinateur. a
19, comprenant un moyen de connexion un sous-
ensemble multimedia de protocole internet.
14. Systeme (45) de communication configure pourfour-
nir des sessions de communication, le systeme de 5 21. Serveur d'application selon l'une quelconque des re-
communication comprenant : vendications 18 a 20, dans lequel le serveur d'appli-
cation est configure pour inclure les autres informa-
un reseau de donnees pourfournir des ressour- tions dans au moins l'une d'une offre pour la session
ces de communication de donnees ; et a
de communication ou une reponse l'offre pour une
un serveur (50) d'application relie au reseau de 10 session de communication.
communication de donnees, dans lequel le ser-
veur d'application inclut les informations d'acti- 22. Serveur d'application selon l'une quelconque des re-
vite plancher d'un media de communication de a
vendications 18 21, dans lequel le serveur d'appli-
donnees en rapport avec un correspondant cation est configure pour emettre le message, con-
d'une session de communication dans un mes- 15 a
formement un protocole d'initiation de session.
sage apportant des informations de media de
communication de donnees pour la session de 23. Message pour decrire une session de communica-
a
communication et envoie le message l'equi- tion, le message etant configure pour apporter des
pement (44) d'utilisateur par l'intermediaire du informations concernant un media de communica-
reseau de donnees, 20 tion de donnees pour la session de communication
et des informations concernant une activite plancher
caracterise en ce que le message est configure du media de communication de donnees en rapport
a
conformement un protocole de description de ses- avec un correspondant de la session de communi-
sion. cation, caracterise en ce que le message com-
25 a
prend un message, conformement un protocole de
15. Systeme de communication selon la revendication description de session.
14, dans lequel le serveur d'application comprend
un serveur d'application de service de messagerie
vocale instantanee.
30

16. Systeme de communication selon la revendication
14 ou 15, le systeme de communication etant con-
figure pour apporter le message conformement un a
protocole d'initiation de session.
35
17. Systeme de communication selon l'une quelconque
a
des revendications 14 16, le systeme de commu-
nication comprenant un sous-ensemble multimedia
de protocole internet.
40
18. Serveur (50) d'application pour la fourniture de ses-
sions de communication de donnees, le serveur (50)
d'application etant configure pour inclure, dans un
message apportant des informations concernant un
media de communication de donnees pour une ses- 45
sion de communication, d'autres informations con-
cernant une activite plancher du media de commu-
nication de donnees en rapport avec un correspon-
dant de la session de communication et pour en-
a
voyer le message l'equipement d'utilisateur du cor- 50
respondant, par l'intermediaire du reseau de don-
nees, caracterise en ce que le serveur d'application
est configure pour generer le message, conforme-
a
ment un protocole de description de session.
55
19. Serveur d'application selon la revendication 18,
comprenant un serveur d'application de service de
messagerie vocale instantanee.

11
45 36 50

~ 38
PoC

S-CSCF S-CSCF

54 I-CSCF 56
37 m
"'O
.....
...a.
N
35 0
""""'
0
39 .s:a
.....

# I
---------~--~-

: SGSN GGSN
-- -~
I
I
.--- -
I
I GGSN SGSN
U)

m
.....

i-----t~ I I
D
)----- ------
I I I I
cR:R:t
~ -----~ ~---- --5---------·
c::11:11::1
CICICI
CICCI

30 31 32 33 34 40 41 42 43 44

Fig. 1
EP 1 700 419 81

A user registers to a data network 100
~~

l
The user registers with a Poe AS connected to the ~ µ 102
data network

J
The user activates the PoC service for a call to ~ µ 104
another user
I
An offer is sent from the user to the Poe AS µ 106
~

j_
The offer is sent from the Poe AS to the other user
together with a floor status indication ~ µ 108
1
An answer is sent from the Poe AS to the user ~ µ 110
together with a floor status indication
j_
Start talking and start listening indications are given to' is-112
the users

Fig. 2

13
Fig. 3
IPR Declarations (N2) http://openmobilealliance.org/membership/ipr-declarations-8/

中文 Apply for Login Login Search

ABOUT OMA MEMBERSHIP NEWS EVENTS TECHNOLOGY CONTACT US

OMA SPECIFICATIONS
Browse the OMA database of over
200 free mobile data specifications
and standards. Read More >

OMA MEMBER IPR DECLARATIONS (N2)

Updated April 01, 2015

No representations or warranties (whether express or implied) are made by the Open Mobile Alliance regarding any
of the intellectual property rights represented on this Web site, including but not limited to the accuracy,
completeness, validity, applicability or relevance of the information or whether or not such rights are essential or
non-essential.

Country Patent Specification reference, Countries Declaration
Company Title Application #
/Province # impacted paragraph Applicable Date

20
Synchronization of WO
Nokia WO SyncML Sync Protocol US, WO December,
database data 02/086758
2002

Presence and Wireless Village Presence 20
WO
Nokia session handling WO Attributes System Architecture WO December,
02/054745
information Model 2002

Mobile
communication
EP, JP, US, 29 October,
Nokia system which US 2597917 WAP-PUST-OTA
WO, FI 2003
transmits short
messages

System and
method for OMA-WAP-ProvCont,
PCT/I1B02 29 October,
Nokia identifying and WO OMA-ERELD- US
/04884 2003
accessing network ClientProvisioning
devices

Dynamic agent for
WO/IBO1 CN, EP, JP, 29 October,
Nokia OTA Management WO SyncML Device Management
/00787 KR, US 2003
(OTAM)

AU, BR,
Apparatus, and CA, CN,
associated method EP, IN, JP,
SyncML Device Management 29 October,
Nokia for retrieving US US10/308906 KR, MX,
and Descriptions 2003
Mobile-Node Logic RU, SG,
Tree information US, WO,
ZA

Identity module EP, FR,
29 October,
Nokia manufacturer WO EP00/05502 WAP-WPKI GB, US.
2003
certificate WO

Method for
BR, CA,
checking the
CN, EP, FI, 29 October,
Nokia integrity of data, EP EP01903840.5 OMA-WAP-ProvBoot
HK, JP, 2003
system and mobile
KR, US,
terminal
WO

1 of 8 4/8/2015 12:37 PM
IPR Declarations (N2) http://openmobilealliance.org/membership/ipr-declarations-8/

Country Specification reference, Countries Declaration
Company Title Application # Patent #
/Province impacted paragraph Applicable Date

JP, KR, US

Activation of AU, CN,

 Nokia
Corporation
services in a
communication
USA 10/809710
OMA-TS-PoC-ControlPlane-
V1_0-1
EP, GB, IN,
JP, KR,
04 April
2007
system US, WO

Nokia Group details of OMA-TS-PoC-ControlPlane- 04 April
USA 10/979400 US, WO
Corporation group services V1_0-1 2007

AU, BR,
CA, CN,
EP, IN, JP,
Nokia Storage of content- 04 April
USA 11/077984 OMA-TS-DRM-DCF-V2_0 KR, MX,
Corporation location information 2007
MY, SG,
TH, TW,
US, ZA

AU, BR,
Apparatus and
CN, EP, IN,
Nokia method for OMA-TS- 04 April
USA 10/607539 JP, KR,
Corporation providing location RLP-V1_0-20051124-C 2007
MX, US,
information
WO, ZA

Method for
Nokia controlling parties OMA-TS_PoC-UserPlane- 04 April
USA 10/160272 US, EP
Corporation in real-time data V1_0_1-20061128-A 2007
communication

APPARATUS, AND
ASSOCIATED
METHOD, FOR
FACILITATING
LOCATION CN, EP, JP,
Nokia OMA-AD- 04 April
DETERMINATION USA 10/923497 KR, US,
Corporation SUPL-V1_0-20060127-C 2007
OF A MOBILE WO
STATION
PURSUANT TO A
LOCATION BASED
APPLICATION

PROVIDING
LOCATION AU, CN,
Nokia OMA-AD- 04 April
INFORMATION IN USA 10/787972 EP, IN, JP,
Corporation SUPL-V1_0-20060127-C 2007
A VISITED KR, US
NETWORK

AU, CN,
Defining nodes in
EP, FI, IN,
Nokia device OMA-TS-DM-TND- 04 April
USA 11/043730 JP, KR,
Corporation management V1_2-20060424-C 2007
MY, TH,
system
US

CA, CN,
Method and device
Nokia OMA-TS-DM-TND- EP, JP, KR, 04 April
for management of USA 10/422015
Corporation V1_2-20060424-C MX, MY, 2007
tree data exchange
TW, US

AU, BR,
Activation of CA, CN,
communication EP, HK, ID,
Nokia OMA-AD_PoC- 12 October
sessions in a USA 10/732214 IN, JP, KR,
Corporation V1_0-1-20061128-A 2007
communication MX, RU,
system SG, US,
ZA

AU, CN,
Nokia Communication OMA-TS_PoC-UserPlane- 12 October
USA 11/028605 EP, IN, JP,
Corporation system V2_0-20061201-D 2007
KR, US

AU, BR,
CA, CN,
PACKET MODE
Nokia OMA-TS_PoC-UserPlane- EP, IN, JP, 12 October
SPEECH USA 09/835867
Corporation V1_0_1-20061128-A KR, MX, 2007
COMMUNICATION
RU, SG,
US, ZA

Nokia System, network OMA-TS-PoC-ControlPlane- MY, TW, 12 October
USA 11/289007

4 of 8 4/8/2015 12:37 PM
19
A40284VI
(19) Europclisches
Patentamt
European 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Patent Office
Office europeen
des brevets
(11) EP 1 719 352 81
(12) EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45) Date of publication and mention (51) Int Cl.:
H04W 36118 r2009-01J H04W 28/18120090 1J
of the grant of the patent:
04.09.2013 Bulletin 2013/36
(86) International application number:
PCT/Fl2005/000107
(21) Application number: 05717234.8
(87) International publication number:
(22) Date of filing: 18.02.2005 WO 2005/081550 (01.09.2005 Gazette 2005/35)

(54) Packet switched handover in a mobile communication system, during which a mobile node
receives packets from a source node and a target node
Paketvermittelte Weiterreichung in einem Mobilkommunikationssystem, wahrend welcher eine
Mobilstation Pakete aus einem Quellenknoten und aus einem Zielknoten empfangt.
a
Transfert commutation par paquets dans un systeme de communication mobile, pendant lequel une
station mobile rei;:oit des paquets d'un noeud d'origine et d'un noeud de destination

(84) Designated Contracting States: (72) Inventors:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES Fl FR GB GR • NIEMELA, Tuomas
HU IE IS IT LI LT LU MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SKTR Fl-00210 Helsinki (Fl)
• KAURANEN, Kari P.
(30) Priority: 23.02.2004 Fl 20040280 Fl-00510 Helsinki (Fl)
• HUOMO, Miikka
(43) Date of publication of application: Fl-01610 Vantaa (Fl)
08.11.2006 Bulletin 2006/45
(7 4) Representative: Zacco Denmark A/S
(60) Divisional application: Hans Bekkevolds Alie 7
12199192.1I2 574 105 2900 Hellerup (DK)
12199198.8 I 2 574 106
12199204.4 I 2 574 107 (56) References cited:
EP-A1- 0 978 958 WO-A1-01/35586
(73) Proprietor: Vringo Infrastructure Inc. US-A- 6 137 783 US-A 1- 2002 066 011
New York, NY 10017 (US) US-A1- 2002 115 460 US-A1- 2003 091 011
US-A1- 2004 077 349 US-A1- 2004120 277

Note: Within nine months of the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent in the European Patent
Bulletin, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to that patent, in accordance with the
Implementing Regulations. Notice of opposition shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been
a.. paid. (Art. 99( 1) European Patent Convention).
w
Printed by Jouve, 75001 PARIS (FR)
EP 1 719 352 81 2

Description Packet Data Context (PDP) activation and deactivation,
handovers and the paging of mobile station 100. Part of
Background of the invention the above mentioned tasks are naturally done in other
network elements with which SGSN 104 is communicat-
Field of the invention: 5 ing. The GGSN is responsible for routing and tunneling
packets to and from a number of SGSN 104 and other
[0001] The invention relates to mobile communication SGSNs. The routing is based on SGSN address infor-
systems. Particularly, the invention relates to the per- mation maintained in a PDP context information held by
forming of packet switched handover in a mobile com- GGSN 106 for each network address activated for MS
munication system. 10 100, for example, an IP address or an X.25 address or
a PPP link.
Description of the Related Art: [0004] In Figure 1, the uppermost protocol layer in MS
100 is the application layer (APPL). The application layer
[0002] The introduction of conversational and stream- may be any protocol, for example, a WAP protocol or
ing services in Global System of Mobile Communications 15 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or Universal Data-
(GSM) has created a demand for efficient handovers gram Protocol (UDP). Over TCP/IP may be carried, for
from user perspective in GSM/Edge Radio Access Net- example, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The ap-
work (GERAN). The General Packet Radio Service plication layer communication is exchanged with a peer
(GPRS) and the IP Multimedia System (IMS) support the host, which may be located behind the Gi interface, for
conversational and streaming services on their side and 20 example, in the Internet. Below the application layer there
impose requirements on the GERAN side. It is necessary is the IP layer or alternaively X.25 layer, which in GPRS
to be able to perform Packet Switched (PS) handovers is supported by both MS 100 and GGSN 106. The IP
frequently enough and to be able to minimize interrup- address for packets addressed to MS 100 points to
tions in a constant packet stream to a mobile terminal. GGSN 106. An IP packet 114 is conveyed to MS 100
The interruptions must preferably be short enough to en- 25 using GPRS user plane protocols below the IP layer. Be-
able a packet buffering mechanism in the mobile terminal tween GGSN 106 and SGSN 104 IP packet 114 is con-
to hide the interruptions. Previously in GPRS it was suf- veyed using the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP). A GTP
ficient to provide a loss-free link layer service for interac- packet carried further' over UDP/IP.
tive applications such as Wireless Application Protocol [0005] In SGSN IP packet 114 data is routed based on
(WAP) browsing. In browsing applications moderate ex- 30 MS 100 location information and passed to Sub-Network
tra delays caused by handovers are acceptable. Howev- Dependent Convergence Protocol (SN DCP) layer. SND-
er, in streaming or conversational class services inter- CP is specified in the 3GPP specification 44.065. SNDCP
ruptions in the supposedly constant packet stream are layer maps network-level characteristics onto the char-
immediately noticeable unless, of course, they can be acteristics of the underlying network. For example, SND-
hidden using large enough buffers in the receiving ends. 35 CP takes care of the transmission and reception of Net-
However, such buffering introduces always a delay in the work layer Protocol Data Units (N-PDU) carrying IP pack-
media streams provided to the user. In the case of con- els. For example, IP packet 114 is carried in N-PDU 112.
versational voice services any significant delays are un- SNDCP multiplexes several packet data protocol pack-
allowable, especially considering other factors already ets for the same MS. It segments IP packet 114 to LLC
introducing a delay in the speech path such as noise 40 frames, for example, LLC frame 110. It also reassembles
filtering and speech coding. packets from LLC frames. Header compression and
[0003] Reference is now made to Figure 1, which is a packet payload compression is also performed at SND-
block diagram illustrating the architecture and the proto- CP layer. SNDCP performs parameter negotiation be-
col stacks in a GPRS system in association with the GER- tween MS 100 and SGSN 104. SNDCP buffers N-PDUs
AN. The GPRS system is specified, for example, in the 45 in the case of acknowledged mode services.
3GPP specification 23.060. The protocol stacks are illus- [0006] The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer provides
trated from the user plane point of view. In Figure 1 there a highly reliable link between MS 100 and SGSN 104.
is a Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) 106. GGSN The LLC is specified in 3GPP specifications 44.064 and
106 is connected to an external network (not shown) via 04.64. The LLC is independent of the underlying radio
a Gi interface. The external network may be an arbitrary 50 protocols and hides the BSS and radio interface related
IP network, for example, the Internet or an intranet. In tasks from the LLC layer users. LLC supports variable-
Figure 1 there is also a Serving GPRS Support Node length information frames. LLC supports both acknowl-
(SGSN) 104. GGSN 106 communicates with SGSN 104, edged and unacknowledged data transfers, that is', ac-
which routes packets to and from Mobile Station (MS) knowledged and unacknowledged modes of operation.
100 via a Base Station Subsystem (BSC). SGSN 104 55 LLC provides services typical to a link layer comprising
takes care of the mobility related tasks such as the main- parameter negotiation, flow control in the Asynchronous
taining of mobile station 100 location information, net- Balanced Mode (ABM), sequence control to maintain the
work registrations, routing area and location updating, ordering of LLC-frames, expedited delivery for high-pri-

2
3 EP 1 719 352 81 4

ority data, error detection, error recovery and indication. communicates with a BSC within a BSS. The signaling
LLC performs data confidentiality by means of the cipher- between an MS and a BSC goes via a BTS.
ing of LLC-frame contents. LLC also supports user iden- [0010] However, when MS 100 receives a report indi-
tity confidentiality by means of the use ofTemporary Log- cating that a cell served by BTS 224 has better radio
ical Link Identity (TLLI) instead of International Mobile 5 quality, it must start performing handover to the cell
Subscriber Identity (IMSI). served by BTS 224. The new cell is under the area of a
[0007] The relay layer relays LLC PDUs between the new SGSN 204. After the handover, packet stream 246
Um and Gb interfaces in the BSS. The Base Station Sys- should be routed to MS 100 from GGSN 200 via SGSN
tem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) layer specified in 3GPP 204, BSC 214 and BTS 224. BSC 214 and BTS 224 are
specification 08.18 conveys routing and QoS-related in- 10 also referred to as a target BSS 264. While the handover
formation between the BSS and the SGSN. For example, is not fully complete, SGSN 202 must forward packets
it carries radio resource related requests from the SGSN to both BSC 212 and SGSN 204. In order to be able to
to the BSS 102. It also carries LLC frames between the process packets from packet stream 240 SGSN 204 must
BSS and the SGSN. In addition to LLC frames it also receive them as a GTP tunneled packet stream 241 from
carries signaling PDUs associated with GRPS mobility 15 SGSN 202. Packets from GTP tunneled packet stream
management. The Network Service (NS) layer transports 241 are forwarded in SGSN 204 to its LLC entity 254.
BSSGP PDUs between BSS and SGSN. NS may be The LLC entity is started from initial state with initial LLC
based on Frame Relay (FR). The RLC sub-layer within connection variables. GTP tunneled packet stream 241
the RLC/MAC layer provides a radio technology depend- is routed from SGSN 204 as packet stream 244 carried
ent reliable link between MS 100 and BSS 102. The MAC 20 over an LLC connection. The problem in the packet du-
sub-layer performs the requesting and reservation of ra- plicated forwarding mechanism described above is that
dio resources and maps LLC frames onto the GSM phys- LLC entity 254 in the new SGSN, namely SGSN 204,
ical channels. The task of the MAC layer is to ensure has different state compared to LLC entity 252 and LLC
efficient sharing of common radio resource by several entity 230. This means that LLC entity 230 in MS 100
mobile stations. The RLC/MAC layer is defined in the 25 receives packets from two different independent LLC en-
3GPP specification GSM 04.60. tities. The corresponding peer LLC entity 230 in MS 100
[0008] The standardization organization 3G Partner- is not capable of receiving simultaneously packets from
ship Project (3GPP) is currently specifying the packet two different LLC entities, if the states of the LLC entities
switched handover for GERAN A/Gb mode. One of the comprising the LLC variables' are not synchronized. The
key aspects of the packet switched handover is duplicat- 30 different states essentially lead to the rejection of LLC
ed packet forwarding to both a source BSS and a target frames carrying packet stream 244 or the receiving of
BSS during handover, which has not yet been thoroughly duplicate LLC frames in an uncontrolled manner.
covered in the specifications. [0011] The rejection is due to the fact that LLC entity
[0009] Reference is now made to Figure 2, which is a 252 sends LLC frames with sequence numbers that are
block diagram of GPRS architecture illustrating problems 35 overlapping with the sequence numbers sent by LLC en-
in prior art associated with duplicated packet forwarding. tity 254 even though they are different LLC frames.
According to current GPRS specifications, an LLC entity Frames are rejected in LLC entity 230 also due to the
in a new SGSN can only be started so that an LLC con- fact that LLC entity 254 sends LLC frames using different
nection is establishing at the request of an SNDCP entity ciphering parameters. Because the ciphering parame-
or the peer LLC entity. An LLC entity can only be created 40 ters are different, LLC entity 230 is unable to decipher
in its initial state where the LLC connection variables have the LLC frames and discards them due to failing Frame
their initial values. In Figure 2 there is an MS 100, Base Check Sequence (FCS) verification. A further problem is
Transceiver Stations (BTS) 224-228 and Base Controller that SGSN 204 is unaware of the LLC frame sizes nego-
Stations (BSC) 210-214 in BSS 216. There is a GGSN tiated between MS 100 and SGSN 202. If SGSN 204
200, which is connected to IP network 201. From IP net- 45 uses values that exceed the maximum values supported
work 201 is received a downlink packet stream 246 for by MS 100, it discards all LLC frames. This in turn may
which a real-time service is required. Initially, downlink lead to the releasing of the PDP context carrying packets
packet stream 246 is tunneled to SGSN 202 as packet streams 240, 241, 242 and 244. MS 100 may additionally
stream 240. Initially, SGSN 202 routes packet stream also perform reset.
240 to MS 100 via BSC 212 and BTS 222 as packet 50 [0012] As explained in the 3GPP specification 44.064,
stream 242 using an LLC connection terminating at an the ciphering parameters for LLC frames comprise IOV,
LLC entity 230; which is located in MS 100. BSC 212 and LFN, OC and SX. IOV is an Input Offset Value, which is
BTS 222 are referred to as source BSS 262. MS 100 a 32 bit random value generated by the SGSN. LFN is
communicates with BSC 212 via BTS 222. BSC 212 per- the LLC Frame Number (LFN) in the LLC frame header.
forms handover related tasks including the handover de- 55 OC is an overflow counter that is calculated and main-
termination algorithms and decisions. In handover relat- tained independently at the sending and the receiving
ed signaling an SGSN communicates with a BSC within sides. An OC for acknowledged operation must be set
a BSS. Similarly, in handover related signaling an MS to 0 whenever asynchronous balanced mode operation

3
5 EP 1 719 352 81 6

is re-established for the corresponding Data Link Con- BSS 264 as packet stream 309. Target BSS forwards
nection Identifier (DLCI). An LLC layer connection is iden- packets from packet stream 308 to MS 100 as packet
tified using DLCI, which consists of Service Access Point stream 310. There is a delay before MS 100 is able to
Identifier (SAPI) and the TLLI associated with MS 100. receive packets from SGSN 204 via target BSS 264. SG-
OC shall be incremented by 512 every time when the 5 SN 202 sends PS Handover Command message 311 to
corresponding LFN rolls over. Due to this fact, OC is nev- source BSS 262. Source BSS sends further PS Hando-
er sent directly in LLC frames. The aim of OC is to add ver Command message to MS 100. Thereupon, MS 100
variation to the ciphering process in order to make it more tunes to the radio channel and timeslot allocated in the
robust. SX is an XOR mask calculated from the LLC entity target cell by target BSS 264. This is illustrated using
identifier. There are two IOV values, one for numbered 10 arrow 312. Target BSS 264 sends Physical information
information frames associated with acknowledged oper- to MS 100 for MS 100 to synchronize. After MS 100 has
ation and another for unconfirmed information frames as- synchronized, it sends a PS Handover Complete mes-
sociated with unacknowledged operation. There are also sage 314 to target BSS 264 at time t2 . Only after time t2
two LFN values, one for acknowledged operation and MS 100 is prepared to receive packets via target BSS
another for unacknowledged operation. There are four 15 264 normally, which shows that there is an intolerable
OC counters associated with each DLCI. There is one delay unless MS 100 receives packets via both target
OC counter per operation mode, which is either unac- BSS 264 and source BSS 262. Target BSS 264 sends a
knowledged or acknowledged, and direction of transmis- PS Handover Complete message 315 to SGSN 204.
sion, which is either uplink or downlink. Thereupon, SGSN 204 performs PDP context update
[0013] Naturally, the session key Kc used in the cipher- 20 messaging represented using arrows 316 and 317 with
ing algorithm is one of the ciphering parameters. GGSN 200. PDP context update indicates to GGSN 200
[0014] Reference is now made to Figure 3, which is a the address of current SGSN 204. After having received
signaling diagram illustrating signaling during a packet PDP context update at time t 3 , GGSN 200 is able to start
switched handover in accordance with the current 3GPP routing GTP packet stream 318 to right SGSN, which is
proposals. The current proposals are described in TSG 25 now SGSN 204. Thereupon, MS 100 receives packet
document GP-032710 "Packet Switched Handover for stream 320 from target BSS 264, which has received it
GERAN A/Gb mode, Stage 2", version 0.2.0, 2004-01. from SGSN : 204 as packet stream 319.
The architecture associated with the signaling is as illus- [0016] Reference is now made to Figure 4, which is
trated in Figure 2. MS 100 sends radio quality measure- signaling diagram illustrating the delay associated with
ment information pertaining to neighboring cells to source 30 a solution, which merely forwards packets from a source
BSS 262 using message 301. Based on the measure- node to a target node during handover processing. The
ment information source BSS 262 determines that solution is similar to the solution utilized in UMTS in as-
handover is required. At time 10 source BSS 262 deter- sociation with Serving Radio Network Server SRNS re-
mines that handover is to be performed to a new cell, location. SRNS relocation is explained in 3GPP 23.060.
which is' in the area of a new SGSN, which is SGSN 204. 35 In Figure 4 a source node 452 receives a packet stream
Source BSS 262 sends a PS Handover Required mes- 401 sent by an upper node 450, which is connected to
sage 302 to old SGSN 202. The message comprises, for an IP network 451. At time t0 upper node sends a specific
instance, the source cell, the target cell, TLLI, cause and packet 460 in packet stream 401. Source node forwards
a transparent container SGSN 202 determines based on packet stream further 402 to MS 100 via an access net-
the target cell if the handover is an intra- or inter-SGSN 40 work 456. Attime t1 MS 100 decides to start using a target
handover. SGSN 202 determines the identity of the new node 454 instead of source node 452 for receiving packet
SGSN and sends a Prepare PS Handover Request mes- streams. At time t 1 MS 100 acknowledges last frame re-
sage 303 to SGSN 204.: SGSN 204 sends a PS Hando- ceived via source node 452 using message 403. Packet
ver Required message 304, which requests target BSS 460 has not been completely received, for example the
264 to reserve radio resources for MS 100 in the target 45 last frame from packet 460 may be pending. MS 100
cell. When radio resources have been successfully allo- sends a request message 403 for source node 452 indi-
cated, target BSS 264 sends a PS Handover Request cating the abandoning of source node 452 for MS 100
Acknowledge message 305 indicating successful alloca- traffic. After receiving message 403, source node 452
tion. SGSN 204 sends a Prepare PS Handover Re- starts forwarding all packets addressed to MS 100 via
sponse message 306 to SGSN 202, which tells, among 50 target node 454 as packet stream 405. Packet stream
other things, that SGSN 202 may issue to MS 100 a com- 405 is forwarded by target node 454 to MS 100 as packet
mand to complete handover to the new cell. SGSN 202 stream 406. At time t 2 MS 100 receives a first packet
receives message 306 at time t1 . since MS 100 received the last frame via source node
[0015] However, simultaneously a packet from GTP 452 at time t 1. The time difference between t 1 and t2 rep-
packet stream 307 is received by SGSN 202. SGSN 202 55 resents the gap in the receiving of packets at MS 100,
forwards packets one by one from GTP packet stream whereas the time difference between 10 and t 2 represent
307 to SGSN 204 as packet stream 308. SGSN 204 a delay in receiving packet 460 from upper node 450 to
sends packets from packet stream 308 further to target MS 100. The delays explained above are intolerable for

4
7 EP 1 719 352 81 8

real-time services. er terminals between access point nodes of a packet-
[0017] As has been illustrated in association with Fig- switched network with minimal overhead and packet loss.
ures 2, 3 and 4, there are problems in performing packet The communications network employs a packet-
switched handover using current GPRS architecture and switched core network and a plurality of access points
the solutions proposed in prior art. On the one hand, it 5 coupled to the core network. Each access point is adapt-
must be possible for an MS to receive packets simulta- ed to provide any user terminal with wireless communi-
neously from a source node and a target node during the cations access to the core network when that user ter-
handover signaling. On the other hand, this is not possi- minal becomes affiliated with that access point. The sys-
ble in current GPRS specifications and leads to the re- tem and method further employ ad-hoc routing tech-
jection of forwarded frames at the MS side. 10 niques during handoff of a wireless user terminal be-
[0018] Reference publication WO 01/35586 discloses tween access point nodes of the core network to enable
a method and apparatus for facilitating network controlled the network to maintain multiple paths via which data
handover in a wireless network that employs packet packets are provided to the user terminal during handoff
switching and use of shared resources, such as times- to substantially eliminate packet loss during handoff. US
lots, and provides network element controlled handover 15 2003/091011 deals with IP layer mobility based on an
of a mobile unit by a base station system by providing address resolution cache.
packet routing for a plurality of mobile units to facilitate [0021] Reference publication US 2002/066011 dis-
handover of at least one mobile unit. The base station closes a method in which during connection setup with
system employs a memory that contains stored radio re- a first radio access network, a multimode mobile station
source requirement data, for example, PDP context in- 20 sends an unprotected initial signalling message that in-
formation, on a per mobile unit basis. By having the pack- cludes information about those encryption algorithms
et routing, storage and maintenance of shared radio re- that the multimode mobile station supports when it com-
source requirement data on a permanent basis at the municates in a second radio access network. The first
base station system level in a network, it is possible to radio access network saves some or all the information.
perform network controlled handovers without the control 25 Then it composes and sends an integrity-protected mes-
of the packet switched network element that provides sage that includes information about the encryption al-
packets to the base station system. There is a base sta- gorithms supported by the multimode mobile station in
tion system that includes a packet handover controller, the second radio access network.
which communicates with the shared radio resource con- [0022] Reference publication US 2002/115460 dis-
!roller, adopted to provide packet routing of received data 30 closes a method in which in a radio access network of a
packets for a plurality of mobile units. The memory is cellular telecommunications system, a radio network
coupled to the packet handover controller, containing controller sets a nominal power level for use by a base
stored radio resource requirement data that includes station in transmitting a common transport channel over
PDP context information. The packet handover controller the air interface in a cell for a connection involving a user
is adopted to determine a suitable target cell for the at 35 equipment unit. The nominal power level is set by the
least one mobile unit based on the stored radio resource radio network controller independently of whether the
requirement data and the included PDP context informa- base station supports a differentiated power control
tion. scheme. The differentiated power control scheme allows
[0019] Reference publication US 6, 137, 783 discloses the base station selectively to adjust the nominal power
a system and method for reducing or eliminating the 40 level in accordance with whether the cell served by the
transference of mobile terminal mobility management in- base station is a primary cell or a non-primary cell for the
formation caused by temporary signal interferences connection with the user equipment unit. When the cell
blocking communications. When the distance of a mobile is a primary cell, the base station adjusts the nominal
terminal from a base station servicing a first network sys- power level by subtracting an offset value from the nom-
tem exceeds a threshold value, the mobile terminal's dis- 45 inal power level to determine the power level used for
tances from other base stations (servicing other network actual transmission of data for the common transport
systems) are determined and the shortest distance, cor- channel over the air interface. In differing embodiments,
responding to a second network system, is selected and the offset value is acquired either from the radio network
control transferred. The mobility management informa- controller or is configured locally at the base station.
tion for the mobile terminal, however, resident within the 50 [0023] Reference publication EP 0 978 958 discloses
first network system, remains within the first network sys- a method for establishing a control channel in a mobile
tem after the control transference, the information being communication system wherein a mobile station treats a
accessible by the second network system via a packet plurality of calls using a plurality of sets of wireless com-
switch interconnecting the first and second network sys- munication resources, wherein a single control channel
terns. 55 is established between the mobile station and a network
[0020] Reference publication US 2003/091011 dis- for transporting control information between them in a
closes a communications network which is capable of manner that the control channel is formed by one of the
effectively and efficiently handling mobility of wireless us- sets of wireless communication resources which are be-

5
9 EP 1 719 352 81 10

ing used for a plurality of calls by the mobile station. node when said first packet switching node requests
handover preparation from said second packet switching
Summary of the invention: node; performing a logical link parameter exchange be-
tween said mobile node and said first packet switching
[0024] The invention relates to a method of performing 5 node; and sending logical link layer frames from said first
packet switched handover in a mobile communication and second packet switching nodes to said mobile node
network, comprising a mobile node, a first and a second during handover.
packet switching node, the method comprising: detecting [0027] The invention relates also to a method of per-
a handover condition associated with said mobile node forming packet switched handover in a mobile commu-
in said first packet switching node, requesting handover 10 nication network, comprising a mobile node, a first and
preparation by said first packet switching node from said a second packet switching node, the method comprising:
second packet switching node. The method is character- forming a first logical link layer entity in said mobile node,
ized in that it further comprises: receiving at least one and detecting a handover condition in said mobile node.
ciphering parameter from said first packet switching node The method is characterized in that the method further
to said second packet switching node when said first 15 comprises: receiving at least one ciphering parameter
packet switching node requests handover preparation from said first packet switching node to said second pack-
from said second packet switching node; receiving logical et switching node when said first packet switching node
link layer state information from said first packet switching requests handover preparation from said second packet
node to said second packet switching node; setting a switching node; forming a second logical link layer entity
state in a logical link layer entity in said second packet 20 in said mobile node; sending logical link layer frames
switching node based on said logical link layer state in- from said first and second packet switching nodes to said
formation; and sending logical link layer frames from said mobile node during handover; detecting handover com-
first and second packet switching nodes to said mobile pletion; and renegotiating logical link layer parameters
node during the handover. between said mobile node and said second packet
[0025] The invention relates also to a method of per- 25 switching node after said detecting of said handover com-
forming packet switched handover in a mobile commu- pletion when the logical link layer parameters are not
nication network comprising a mobile node, a first and a suitable.
second packet switching node, the method comprising: [0028] The invention relates also to a system wherein
detecting a handover condition associated with said mo- a packet switched handover is performed between a first
bile node in said first packet switching node, requesting 30 packet switching node and a second packet switching
handover preparation by said first packet switching node node. The system is characterized in that the system
from said second packet switching node. The method is comprises: a mobile node configured to receive logical
characterized in that the method further comprises: re- link layer frames from said first and second packet switch-
ceiving at least one ciphering parameter from said first ing nodes during the handover; a first packet switching
packet switching node to said second packet switching 35 node configured to detect a handover condition associ-
node when said first packet switching node requests ated with said mobile node, to request handover pre pa-
handover preparation from said second packet switching ration from said second packet switching node, to send
node; receiving a packet at said first packet switching at least one ciphering parameter to said second packet
node; forming a logical link layer Protocol Data Unit switching node when requesting handover preparation
(POU) from data in said packet; sending a first frame 40 from the second packet switching node, to send logical
containing said logical link layer Protocol Data Unit(PDU) link layer state information to said second packet switch-
to said mobile node from said first packet switching node; ing node; and a second packet switching node configured
sending said logical link Protocol data Unit (POU) from to set a state in a logical link layer entity based on said
said first packet switching node to said second packet logical link layer state information.
switching node; and sending a second frame containing 45 [0029] The invention relates also to a system wherein
said logical link layer Protocol Data Unit (PDU) to said a packet switched handover is performed between a first
mobile node from said second packet switching node. packet switching node and a second packet switching
[0026] The invention relates also to a method of per- node. The system is characterized in that the system
forming packet switched handover in a mobile commu- comprises: the mobile node configured to receive a log-
nication network comprising a mobile node, a first and a 50 ical link layer Protocol Data Unit (PDU) from said first
second packet switching node, the method comprising: packet switching node and the second packet switching
detecting a handover condition associated with said mo- node; the first packet switched node configured to detect
bile node in said first packet switching node, and request- a handover condition associated with said mobile node,
ing handover preparation by said first packet switching to request handover preparation from said second packet
node from said second packet switching node. The meth- 55 switching node, to send at least one ciphering parameter
od is characterized in that the method further comprises: to said second packet switching node when requesting
receiving at least one ciphering parameter from said first handover preparation from said second packet switching
packet switching node to said second packet switching node, to receive a packet, to form the logical link layer

6
11 EP 1 719 352 81 12

Protocol Data Unit (POU) from data in said packet, to are Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) and the log-
send a first frame containing said logical link layer Pro- ical link layer is GPRS Logical Link Control (LLC) and
tocol Data Unit (POU) to said mobile node, to send said the logical link parameter exchange is Logical Link Con-
logical link Protocol data Unit (POU) to said second pack- trol (LLC) exchange Identification (XID) negotiation. In
et switching node; and the second packet switching node 5 one embodiment of the invention the second packet
configured to send a second frame containing said logical switching node is a Base Station Subsystem (BSS) node,
link layer Protocol Data Unit (POU) to said mobile node for example, a base station controller or a base station.
from said second packet switching node. In one embodimentofthe invention, the first or the second
[0030] The invention relates also to a system wherein packet switching node is a node, which performs the for-
a packet switched handover is performed between a first 10 warding and switching of data packets at link layer. The
packet switching node and a second packet switching invention is not restricted to packet switching nodes that
node. The system is characterized in that the system switch packets at network layer level in the manner of
comprises: a mobile node configured to receive logical e.g. IP routers. By packets are meant herein throughout
link layer frames from said first and second packet switch- this disclosure data packets pertaining to any protocol
ing nodes during handover; the first packet switching 15 layer, for example, network layer packets, link layer
node configured to detect a handover condition associ- frames, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells.
ated with said mobile node, to request handover prepa- [0035] In one embodiment of the invention, the logical
ration from said second packet switching node, to send link parameter exchange is performed in response to the
at least one ciphering parameter to said second packet detection of handover condition at the first packet switch-
switching node when requesting handover preparation 20 ing node.
from said second packet switching node, to perform a [0036] In one embodimentofthe invention, the first log-
logical link parameter exchange between said mobile ical link layer entity in the mobile node is removed after
node and said first packet switching node and to send the detecting of handover completion.
logical link layer frames to said mobile node during [0037] In one embodiment of the invention, the at least
handover; and the second packet switching node config- 25 one ciphering parameter is received from the first packet
ured to send logical link layer frames to said mobile node switching node to the second packet switching node
during handover. when the first packet switching node requests handover
[0031] The invention relates also to a system wherein preparation from the second packet switching node. This
a packet switched handover is performed between a first means that the at least one ciphering parameter is sent
packet switching node and a second packet switching 30 from the first packet switching to the second packet
node. The system is characterized in that the system switching in the message that requests handover prep-
comprises: a mobile node configured to form afirstlogical aration.
link layer entity, to detect a handover condition, to form [0038] In one embodiment of the invention, the logical
a second logical link layer entity, to detect handover com- link layer information is received from the first packet
pletion, to receive logical link layer frames from the first 35 switching node to the second packet switching node
packet switching node and the second packet switching when the first packet switching node requests handover
node during the handover; a first packet switching node preparation from the second packet switching node. This
configured to send at least one ciphering parameter to means that the logical link layer information is sent from
said second packet switching node when requesting the first packet switching node to the second packet
handover preparation from said second packet switching 40 switching in the message that requests handover prep-
node, and to send logical link layer frames to said mobile aration.
node during handover; a second packet switching node [0039] In one embodiment of the invention, the logical
configured to renegotiating logical link layer parameters link parameter exchange is performed in response to the
between said mobile node and said second packet condition where the mobile node receives an LLC frame,
switching node after said detecting of said handover com- 45 which has a duplicate flag set. The duplicate flag indi-
pletion when the logical link layer parameters are not cates the duplication of the LLC frame for handover pur-
suitable. poses. In one embodiment of the invention, the duplicate
[0032] In one embodiment of the invention, the mobile flag is only accepted by the mobile node while handover
node is a mobile terminal, for example, a UMTS terminal, is being performed. Otherwise, the receiving of the flag
a GSM terminal, a GPRS terminal, a WLAN terminal or 50 results in an error indication to the peer LLC-entity.
a terminal within an arbitrary cellular radio system. [0040] In one embodiment of the invention, the logical
[0033] In one embodiment of the invention, the mobile link layer means in the mobile node and in the first and
node is a mobile computer, for example, a laptop com- second packet switching nodes are represented by one
puter, palmtop computer or a personal digital assistant or many Logical Link Control (LLC) entities, a Logical
(PDA). 55 Link Management Entity (LLME) and a multiplexing entity
[0034] In one embodiment of the invention, the mobile associated with them. On transmission the multiplexing
communication system is a General Packet Radio Serv- entity generates and inserts the FCS, performs a frame
ice (GPRS), the first and second packet switching nodes ciphering function and provides SAPl-based logical link

7
13 EP 1 719 352 81 14

control layer contention resolution between the various et Radio Service (GPRS) system in association with
logical link entities. The functions performed by multiplex- the GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN);
ing entity and LLME are described in 3GPP specification Fig. 2 is a block diagram illustrating General Packet
23.060. Radio Service (GPRS) network architecture and
[0041] In one embodiment of the invention, the control 5 problems in prior art associated with duplicated
means in the first and second packet switching node com- packet forwarding;
prise the higher protocol layer entities above the logical Fig. 3 is a signaling diagram illustrating signaling dur-
link layer. For example, in a SGSN the control means ing a packet switched handover in prior art;
may comprise the relay layer entities, the SNDCP layer Fig. 4 is a signaling diagram illustrating the delay
entities and the GTP layer entities. 10 associated with a solution, which merely forwards
[0042] In one embodiment of the invention, the control packets from a source node to a target node during
means in the mobile node comprise the higher protocol handover processing;
layer entities pertaining to the GPRS user plane. Fig. 5 is a signaling diagram depicting one embodi-
[0043] In one embodiment of the invention, the signal- ment of packet switched handover method utilizing
ing means in the mobile node comprise the signaling pro- 15 state transfer, according to the invention;
tocols used to communicate with the first and the second Fig. 6a is a block diagram depicting one embodiment
packet switching nodes. In a GPRS mobile terminal the of packet switched handover method utilizing frame
signaling means comprises the GPRS control plane sig- forwarding via Serving GPRS Support Node (SG-
naling protocol stack entities. In one embodiment of the SN), according to the invention;
invention, the.actual mobility management and radio 20 Fig. 6b is a block diagram depicting one embodiment
control related application logic are performed in control of packet switched handover method utilizing frame
means or in separate control means in association with forwarding directly to target Base Station Subsys-
signaling means. In this embodiment the exchange of tem, according to the invention;
signaling messages is handled by separate means re- Fig. 7 is a signaling diagram depicting one embodi-
served for the task. 25 ment of packet switched handover method utilizing
[0044] In one embodiment of the invention, the signal- logical link parameter reset, according to the inven-
ing means in the first and the second packet switching tion;
nodes comprise the signaling protocols used to commu- Fig. 8 is a block diagram depicting one embodiment
nicate with the mobile node. In a SGSN the signaling of packet switched handover method utilizing dupli-
means comprises the GPRS control plane signaling pro- 30 cate logical link control entities, according to the in-
tocol stack entities. vention;
[0045] In one embodiment of the invention, the sending Fig. 9 is a signaling diagram depicting one embodi-
of logical link layer frames or any other messages be- ment of packet switched handover method utilizing
tween the mobile node and the packet switching nodes a duplicate frame indicator, according to the inven-
is performed via a radio access network so that the 35 tion;
frames and messages are forwarded by one or many Fig. 10 is a flow chart depicting one embodiment of
intermediate network elements such as base station con- packet switched handover method utilizing context
trollers, radio network controllers and base transceiver transfer, according to the invention;
stations. In one embodiment of the invention, the first and Fig. 11 is a flow chart depicting one embodiment of
the second packet switching nodes are directly connect- 40 packet switched handover method utilizing frame
ed to base transceiver stations and manage the radio forwarding, according to the invention;
network control procedures directly. Fig. 12 is a flow chart depicting one embodiment of
[0046] The benefits of the invention are associated with packet switched handover method utilizing logical
improved quality of service. With the invention it is now link reset, according to the invention;.
possible to provide a continuous packet stream to a mo- 45 Fig. 13 is a flow chart depicting one embodiment of
bile station during handover. packet switched handover method utilizing duplicate
logical link control entities, according to the inven-
brief description of the drawings: tion;
Fig. 14 is a flow chart depicting one embodiment of
[0047] The accompanying drawings, which are includ- 50 packet switched handover method utilizing a dupli-
ed to provide a further understanding of the invention and cate frame indicator, according to the invention;
constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodi- Fig. 15 illustrates a Serving GPRS Support Node
ments of the invention and together with the description (SGSN) in one embodiment of the invention; and
help to explain the principles of the invention. In the draw- Fig. 16 illustrates a mobile node in one embodiment
ings: 55 of the invention.

Fig. 1 is a block diagram illustrating the prior art ar-
chitecture and the protocol stacks in a General Pack-

8
15 EP 1 719 352 81 16

detailed Description of the embodiments: iment of packet switched handover, which utilizes frame
forwarding in a system as illustrated in Figure 6a or 6b.
[0048] Reference will now be made in detail to the em- At step 1100 SGSN 202 waits for a message from source
bodiments of the present invention, examples of which BSS 262 indicating that handover is required. In one em-
are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. 5 bodiment of the invention the handover indication may
[0049] Figure 10 is a flow chart depicting one embod- also be received from MS 100. When the message is
iment of packet switched handover, which utilizes state received method continues in step 1102. At step 1102
transfer using a signaling illustrated in Figure 5. The sig- SGSN 202 waits for an event where SGSN 202 receives
naling is performed in GPRS system architecturn, which a packet 61 Ofrom GGSN 200, which is the first user plane
is illustrated in Figure 2. At step 1000 it is checked if 10 packet after the start of handover. At this event a first
handover occurs. In case there is handover MS 100 LLC frame 614 that carries data from packet 610 is to be
sends radio quality measurement information pertaining sent by SGSN 202. When the event occurs packet 610
to neighboring cells to source BSS 262 using message is received by an SNDCP entity 600 in SGSN 202 via the
301. Based on the measurement information source BSS GTP and relay layers as illustrated in Figure 1.
262 determines that handover is required. The determi- 15 [0053] Packet 610 is received to SGSN 202 via tunnel
nation is performed using an algorithm that is executed 240. The SNDCP entity 600 performs packet segmenta-
in a Base Station Controller (BSC) within the source BSS tion for packet 610 and other SNDCP level tasks and
262. At time t0 source BSS 262 determines that handover issues a request to an LLC-entity 252 to send first LLC-
is to be performed to a new cell, which is in the area of frame 614. The request is issued in the form of an LLC
a new SGSN, which is SGSN 204. Source BSS 262 20 Service Data Unit (SOU). At step 1104 LLC-entity 252
sends a PS Handover Required message 302 to old SG- prepares an LLC-PDU using the information contained
SN 202. The message comprises, for instance, the in LLC-SDU and the LLC-entity 252 state variables. At
source cell, the target cell, TLLI, cause and a transparent step 1106 LLC-entity 252 sends the prepared LLC-PDU
container. SGSN 202 determines based on the target in a first LLC-frame 614 to source BSS 262 and BSC 212
cell if the handover is an intra-or inter-SGSN handover. 25 therein.
SGSN 202 determines the identity of the new SGSN and [0054] At step 1108 LLC-entity 252 passes the LLC-
sends a Prepare PS Handover Request message 303 to PDU in a second LLC-frame 616 to a frame forwarding
SGSN 204. entity 604 in association with SNDCP entity 600. It should
[0050] At step 1002 the state pertaining to the logical be noted that second LLC-frame 616 is a duplicate of
link is obtained by the LLC-entity in SGSN 204. This is 30 LLC-frame 614. Frame forwarding entity 604 sends the
achieved so that Prepare PS Handover Request mes- second LLC-frame 616 to SGSN 204 using a connection
sage carriers LLC state information element 500. LLC 241, which tunnels LLC-frames prepared by LLC-entity
state information element 500 comprises information that 252 to SGSN 204. Connection 241 is, for example, a
is used to synchronize LLC-entities in SGSN 202 and GTP tunnel established between SGSN 202 and SGSN
SGSN 204. Information element 500 comprises at least 35 204 for the transparent forwarding of LLC-frames. The
the session key Kc, the IOV values for both modes of second LLC-frame 616 is received by LLC-entity 606 in
operation, both LFN values and the four OC values. SG- SGSN 204. LLC-entity 606 is configured to receive LLC-
SN 204 stores information element 500 until SGSN 202 frames via connection 241 and forward them transpar-
forwards packets to it. The handover signaling between ently towards target BSS 264. The transparent forward-
network elements continues as explained in association 40 ing means in this case that the LLC-entity does not alter
with Figure 3. the LLC-frame fields indicating LLC-entity 252 state. In
[0051] At step 1004 when a first forwarded packet is one embodiment of the invention, relay LLC POU formed
received from SGSN 202, an LLC entity is initialized in from LLC-frame 616 is not relayed through SNDCP pro-
SGSN 204. During initialization SGSN 204 uses informa- tocol entity in SGSN 204. In another embodiment of the
tion element 500. By having information element 500 and 45 invention the LLC POU from LLC-frame 616 is relayed
the LLC state information in it, it is possible for SGSN through protocol entity chain GTP-SNDCP-LLC-BSSGP
204 to construct an LLC-entity, which is an exact replica in order to be sent to target BSS 264.
of the LLC-entity in SGSN 202 from MS 100 point of view. [0055] In one embodiment of the invention illustrated
Thereupon, MS 100 is able to receive LLC frames from in Figure 6b SGSN 202 passes second LLC-frame 616
both LLC-entities without noticing a difference. In one 50 directly to target BSS 264. This is achieved so that a
embodiment of the invention the LLC-entity in SGSN 204 connection 241 b is formed between SGSN 202 and tar-
is initialized and started already after SGSN 204 has re- get BSS 264. This is achieved so that at step 1108 is
ceived message 303 and no packets to be forwarded omitted from the method. Instead, at step 1110 LLC-en-
have yet been received by SGSN 204. At step 1006 SG- tity 252 passes the LLC-PDU in a second LLC-frame 616
SN 204 starts forwarding packets received via SGSN 202 55 to a frame forwarding entity 604b in association with
using the LLC-entity constructed and initialized at step SNDCP entity 600. Frame forwarding entity 604b sends
1006. the second LLC-frame 616 to target BSS 264 using con-
[0052] Figure 11 is a flow chart depicting one embod- nection 241 b. Target BSS 264 is configured to receive

9
17 EP 1 719 352 81 18

LLC-frame 616 and other duplicate LLC-frames for LLC-entity 254 to have initial LLC parameter values. The
handover and to prepare them for transmission to MS initial values correspond to the LLC-parameter values
100. negotiated between SGSN 202 and MS 100 during XID-
[0056] Figure 12 is a flow chart depicting one embod- reset procedure at step 1204. Thereupon, SGSN 204
iment of packet switched handover, which utilizes logical 5 starts sending the forwarded packets towards MS 100.
link reset achieved using a signaling illustrated in Figure Afterwards, SGSN 204 and MS 100 may negotiate more
7. The signaling is performed in GPRS system architec- optimal LLC parameters. Typically the re-negotiation of
ture, which is illustrated in Figure 2. At step 1200 it is LLC parameters is performed after routing area update.
checked if handover occurs. In case there is handover [0059] Figure 13 is a flow chart depicting one embod-
MS 100 sends radio quality measurement information 10 iment of packet switched handover, which utilizes illus-
pertaining to neighboring cells to source BSS 262 using trated in Figure 8. At step 1300 MS 800 has only one
message 301. Based on the measurement information LLC-entity, which is first LLC-entity 802. First LLC-entity
source BSS 262 determines that handover is required. 802 is the peer entity for LLC-entity 252 in SGSN 202.
The determination is performed using an algorithm that There is an LLC connection 842 between LLC-entities
is executed in a Base Station Controller (BSC) within the 15 252 and 802. LLC connection 842 carries a packet stream
source BSS 262. At time to source BSS 262 determines originating from GGSN 200 to MS 800. MS 800 waits for
that handover is to be performed to a new cell, which is a condition where handover is required. This is deter-
in the area of a new SGSN, which is SGSN 204. Source mined based on, for example, a handover command re-
BSS 262 sends a PS Handover Required message 302 ceived from BSS 262. When the condition is detected
to SGSN 202. The message comprises, for instance, the 20 the method continues in step 1302. At step 1302 MS 100
source cell, the target cell, TLLI, cause and a transparent constructs a second LLC-entity 804, which exists simul-
container. SGSN 202 determines based on the target taneously with first LLC-entity 802 at least during hando-
cell if the handover is an intra- or' inter-SGSN handover. ver. Second LLC-entity 804 is the peer entity for LLC-
SGSN 202 determines the identity of a new SGSN, which entity 254 in SGSN 204. At step 1304 MS 800 initializes
in this case is SGSN 204, and sends a Prepare PS 25 second LLC-entity 804. The LLC parameters are initial-
Handover Request message 303 to SGSN 204. ized to values compatible with the values to which SGSN
[0057] At step 1202 cipher parameters pertaining to 204 initializes the LLC parameters while it initializes LLC-
the logical link are obtained by the LLC-entity in SGSN entity 254 at step 1306. At step 1306 SGSN 204 receives
204. This is achieved so that Prepare PS Handover Re- packets forwarded from SGSN 202 via a tunneling con-
quest message carries cipher parameter information el- 30 nection 241. Tunneling connection 241 is, for example,
ement 700. Information element 700 comprises, for ex- a GTP tunnel. SGSN 204 sends the forwarded packets
ample, the session key Kc and any other parameters not towards MS 800 using LLC connection 844, which it sets
re-negotiated at during XID-reset procedure. At step up between LLC-entities 254 and 804. At step 1308 MS
1204 SGSN 202 starts XID-reset procedure so that LLC- 800 checks if handover is finished. If handover is not
entity 252 in SGSN 202 sends an XID command mes- 35 finished method continues at step 1308.
sage 701 to MS 100 via source BSS 262. XID command [0060] When the handover is finished LLC connection
message 701 includes information on LLC parameters 842 between LLC-entities 252 and 802 is no longer used
such as, for example, LLC version number, IOV values, to carry LLC-frames. In one embodiment of the invention
retransmission timeout, maximum number of retransmis- at step 1310 MS 800 checks if LLC parameters pertaining
sions, maximum information field lengths in the two ac- 40 to LLC connection 844 are suitable taking into consider-
knowledgement modes, frame buffer sizes in uplink and ation, for example, the radio conditions at the cell served
downlink direction, window sizes in uplink and downlink by BTS 224. MS 800 may also readjust the parameters
directions and layer-3 parameters. XID command mes- depending on available memory and the data rate on
sage 701 proposes LLC parameter values that corre- LLC connection 844. In one embodiment of the invention
spond to initial LLC values set when a new SGSN initial- 45 LLC parameters at LLC-entity 254 are initialized first to
izes its LLC-entity. At the receipt of XID command mes- moderate values, which are made suitable for most mo-
sage 701, MS 100 sets LLC parameters to the values bile stations under different radio conditions. Mobile sta-
proposed and issues XID response message 702 ac- tions may have also varying memory sizes and software
knowledging the proposed parameter values. In one em- versions. For example, information field lengths, frame
bodiment of the invention MS 100 is configured to accept 50 buffer and window sizes may be first set to values lower
the parameters proposed by SGSN 202 automatically than would otherwise be negotiated between peering
when it is aware that a handover process is pending. In LLC-entities. If MS 800 determines that LLC parameters
one embodiment of the invention MS 100 accepts a are not suitable, it readjusts them to different values at
downlink POU automatically from SGSN 204 if it is step 1312. The parameters are to be readjusted, for ex-
flagged accordingly and if it is received during handover. 55 ample, using an XID reset procedure involving the ex-
[0058] At step 1206 SGSN 204 starts receiving packets changing of XID command and XID response between
forwarded from SGSN 202. In Figure 7 such packets are LLC-entities 804 and 254. If parameter values are suit-
carried in packet stream 308. SGSN 204 initializes its able no readjusting is needed.

10
19 EP 1 719 352 81 20

[0061] In one embodiment of the invention, MS 800 parameters are set to default handover values. The de-
removes the first LLC-entity, which was used prior to fault values may be standardized so that optimization is
handover, after the handover is complete. At step 1314 maximized or normal default values are used. When MS
MS 800 performs the procedures necessary for removing 100 receives the LLC-PDU in an LLC frame, it detects
LLC-entity 802, which is no longer used. MS 800 may 5 that the duplicate for handover bit is set. At step 1408
also remove LLC-entity 802 directly after step 1308 be- MS performs implicit XID-reset for the LLC-entity in it. In
fore checking whether the LLC parameters are suitable. implicit XID-reset the MS 100 sets automatically the LLC
The removing of LLC-entity comprises, for example, the parameters to values, which are compatible with values
releasing of memory reserved for the use of LLC-entity set by LLC-entity in SGSN 204 when it is first created
802 and LLC connection 842 in MS 800. Similarly, infor- 10 and initialized. Implicit XID-reset is required in MS 100
mation pertaining to LLC-entity 802 and LLC connection before it is able to process any LLC frames from SGSN
842 may be removed from memory tables maintained in 204. For example, this is due to the differing ciphering
MS 800. parameters, for example overflow count, which have not
[0062] Figure 14 is a flow chart depicting one embod- been received at step 1402.
iment of packet switched handover method, which utiliz- 15 [0065] Figure 15 illustrates a Serving GPRS Support
es a duplicate frame indicator conveyed and processed Node (SGSN) in one embodiment of the invention. SGSN
using a signaling illustrated in Figure 9. The signaling is 1500 comprises a signaling entity 1504, which commu-
performed in GPRS system architecture, which is illus- nicates with a logical link layer entity 1506. Signaling en-
trated in Figure 2. At step 1400 it is checked if handover tity 1504 performs GPRS control plane signaling. Logical
occurs. In case handover occurs MS 100 sends radio 20 link layer entity 1506 carries both control plane and user
quality measurement information pertaining to neighbor- plane messages as specified in 3GPP 23.060 pertaining
ing cells to source BSS 262 using message 301. Based to LLC. In the embodiment of the invention disclosed in
on the measurement' information source BSS 262 deter- association with the description of Figures 6 and 11 log-
mines that handover is required. The determination is ical link layer entity 1506 is responsible forforming logical
performed using an algorithm that is executed in a Base 25 link layer' Protocol Data Units (POU) and sending the
Station Controller (BSC) within the source BSS 262. At logical link layer Protocol Data Units (POU) to new SGSN.
time t0 source BSS 262 determines that handover is to In one embodiment of the invention the sending of the
be performed to a new cell, which is in the area of a new logical link layer PDUs to new SGSN is achieved so that
SGSN, which is SGSN 204. Source. BSS 262 sends a logical link layer entity 1506 passes the PDUs to control
PS Handover Required message 302 to SGSN 202. The 30 entity 1502, which sends them via, for example, a GTP
message comprises, for instance, the source cell, the entity 1510 to the new SGSN. In one embodiment of the
target cell, TLLI, cause and a transparent container. SG- invention signaling entity 1504 is responsible for detect-
SN 202 determines based on the target cell if the hando- ing handover conditions, requesting handover prepara-
ver is an intraor inter-SGSN handover. SGSN 202 deter- tion from other SGSNs, receiving handover preparation
mines the identity of a new SGSN, which in this case is 35 requests from other SGSNs, sending logical link layer
SGSN 204, and sends a Prepare PS Handover Request state information, ciphering parameters and other infor-
message 303 to SGSN 204. mation to other SGSNs. In one embodiment of the inven-
[0063] At step 1402 cipher parameters pertaining to tion, the actual mobility management and radio related
the logical link are obtained by the LLC-entity in SGSN application procedures associated with signaling mes-
204. This is achieved so that Prepare PS Handover Re- 40 sages received to signaling entity 1504 are performed
quest message carries cipher parameter information el- by control entity 1502 or by a separate control entity within
ement 700. Information element 700 comprises, for ex- signaling entity 1504. In one embodiment of the invention
ample, the session key Kc and any other parameters not control entity 1502 is responsible, for exam pie, for setting
re-negotiated at during a XID-reset procedure. the state in logical link layer entity 1506 based on logical
[0064] At step 1404 SGSN 204 waits for packets for- 45 link layer information received from another SGSN and
warded from SGSN 202 to it. When such a packet is sending logical link layer frames to mobile node during
received in message 308, the method continues at step handover. The actual sending of logical link layer frames
1406. At step 1406 an SNDCP entity in SGSN 204 indi- is performed via lower protocol layers 1508. The arrows
cates to LLC-entity in SGSN 204 while requesting the in Figure 15 illustrate directions of information flows be-
sending of an LLC-SDU that the LLC-SDU is a first LLC- 50 tween the entities within SGSN 1500.
SDU comprising data from packets forwarded from SG- [0066] Figure 16 illustrates a mobile node in one em-
SN 202 to SGSN 204. The LLC-PDU is therefore a du- bodiment of the invention. In Figure 16 mobile node is
plicate of another LLC-PDU sent from SGSN 202. LLC- more specifically a GPRS mobile terminal. Mobile node
entity in SGSN 204 sets a duplicate for handover flag in 1600 comprises a signaling entity 1604, which commu-
the header of the LLC-PDU to be sent. The flag may be 55 nicates with a logical link layer entity 1606. Logical link
carried in, for example, in one of the reserved bits in LLC layer entity 1606 carries both control plane and user
address field or in one of the UI control field bits. There- plane messages as specified in 3GPP 23.060. In one
fore, no extra bits are needed in LLC-PDU header. LLC embodiment of the invention signaling entity 1604 is re-

11
21 EP 1 719 352 81 22

sponsible for receiving signaling messages from the base 2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising:
station subsystem and detects handover conditions and
handover completion based on received signaling mes- utilizing a General Packet Radio Service
sages. Logical link layer entity 1606 performs the Logical (GPRS) network as said mobile communication
Link Control (LLC) protocol related tasks. In the embod- 5 network, Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN)
iment of the invention disclosed in association with the as said first (202) and second packet switching
description of Figure 12 logical link layer entity 1606 is nodes (204), and GPRS Logical Link Control
arranged to renegotiate logical link layer parameters with (LLC) as said logical link layer.
new SGSN after the handover completion. Mobile station
1600 comprises also a control entity 1602, which per- 10 3. A method of performing packet switched handover
forms higher protocol layer related tasks and overall co- in a mobile communication network comprising a
ordination of communication. In one embodiment of the mobile node (100), a first (202) and a second packet
invention control entity 1602 is arranged to form a first switching node (204), the method comprising:
logical link layer entity during connection establishment
procedure and a second logical link layer entity in re- 15 detecting a handover condition associated with
sponse to a handover condition. The arrows in Figure 16 said mobile node in said first packet switching
illustrate directions of information flows between the en- node, and
tities within mobile node 1600. requesting handover preparation by said first
[0067] It is obvious to a person skilled in the art that packet switching node from said second packet
with the advancement of technology, the basic idea of 20 switching node,
the invention may be implemented in various ways. The characterized in that the method further com-
invention and its embodiments are thus not limited to the prises:
examples described above; instead they may vary within
the scope of the claims. receiving at least one ciphering parameter
25 (900) from said first packet switching node
to said second packet switching node when
Claims said first packet switching node requests
handover preparation from said second
1. A method of performing packet switched handover packet switching node;
in a mobile communication network, comprising a 30 receiving a packet at said first packet
mobile node (100), a first (202) and a second packet switching node;
switching node (204), the method comprising: forming a logical link layer Protocol Data
Unit (POU) from data in said packet;
detecting a handover condition associated with sending a first frame containing said logical
said mobile node in said first packet switching 35 link layer Protocol Data Unit (POU) to said
node, and mobile node from said first packet switching
requesting handover preparation by said first node;
packet switching node (202) from said second sending said logical link Protocol data Unit
packet switching node, (POU) from said first packet switching node
characterized in that the method further com- 40 to said second packet switching node; and
prises: sending a second frame containing said log-
ical link layer Protocol Data Unit (POU) to
receiving at least one ciphering parameter said mobile node from said second packet
(900) from said first packet switching node switching node.
to said second packet switching node when 45
said first packet switching node requests 4. The method according to claim 3, further comprising
handover preparation from said second the step of:
packet switching node;
receiving logical link layer state information utilizing a General Packet Radio Service
(500) from said first packet switching node 50 (GPRS) network as said mobile communication
to said second packet switching node; network, Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN)
setting a state in a logical link layer entity as said first and second packet switching nodes
(254) in said second packet switching node (202, 204), and GPRS Logical Link Control
based on said logical link layer state infor- (LLC) as said logical link layer.
mation; and 55
sending logical link layer frames from said 5. The method according to claim 3, further comprising:
first and second packet switching nodes to
said mobile node during the handover. utilizing a General Packet Radio Service

12
23 EP 1 719 352 81 24

(GPRS) network as said mobile communication forming a first logical link layer entity (802) in
network, a Serving GPRS Support Node (SG- said mobile node, and
SN) as said first packet switching node (202, detecting a handover condition in said mobile
204), a Base Station Subsystem (BSS) node as node, characterized in that the method further
said second packet switching node, and GPRS 5 comprises:
Logical Link Control (LLC) as said logical link
layer. receiving at least one ciphering parameter
(900) from said first packet switching node
6. A method of performing packet switched handover (202) to said second packet switching node
in a mobile communication network comprising a 10 (204) when said first packet switching node
mobile node (100), a first (202) and a second (201) requests handover preparation from said
packet switching node, the method comprising: second packet switching node;
forming a second logical link layer entity
detecting a handover condition associated with (804) in said mobile node (100);
said mobile node (100) in said first packet 15 sending logical link layer frames from said
switching node (202), first and second packet switching nodes to
and requesting handover preparation by said said mobile node during handover;
first packet switching node (202) from said sec- detecting handover completion; and
ond packet switching node (204), renegotiating logical link layer parameters
characterized in that the method further com- 20 between said mobile node and said second
prises: packet switching node after said detecting
of said handover completion when the log-
receiving at least one ciphering parameter ical link layer parameters are not suitable.
(900) from said first packet switching node
(202) to said second packet switching node 25 10. The method according to claim 9, further comprising:
when said first packet switching node re-
quests handover preparation from said sec- removing said first logical link layer entity (802)
ond packet switching node; in said mobile node after said detecting of
performing a logical link parameter ex- handover completion.
change between said mobile node (100) 30
and said first packet switching node (202); 11. The method according to claim 9, further comprising:
and
sending logical link layer frames from said utilizing a General Packet Radio Service
first and second packet switching nodes (GPRS) network as said mobile communication
(202, 204) to said mobile node (100) during 35 network, Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN)
handover. as said first and second packet switching nodes
(202, 204), and GPRS Logical Link Control
7. The method according to claim 6, wherein, in said (LLC) as said logical link layer.
performing step, said logical link parameter ex-
change is performed in response to a condition 40 12. A system for performing a packet switched handover
where said mobile node (100) receives a logical link of a mobile node (100) between a first packet switch-
layer frame, which has a duplicate flag set. ing node (202) and a second packet switching node
(204), characterized in that the system comprises:
8. The method according to claim 6, further comprising:
45 a mobile node (100) configured to receive logical
utilizing a General Packet Radio Service link layer frames (242, 244) from said first and
(GPRS) network as said mobile communication second packet switching nodes during the
network, Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) handover;
as said first and second packet switching nodes a first packet switching node (202) configured
(202, 204), GPRS Logical Link Control (LLC) as 50 to detect a handover condition associated with
said logical link layer, and Logical Link Control said mobile node, to request handover prepara-
(LLC) exchange Identification (XID) negotiation tion from said second packet switching node, to
as said logical link parameter exchange. send at least one ciphering parameter (900) to
said second packet switching node when re-
9. A method of performing packet switched handover 55 questing handover preparation from the second
in a mobile communication network, comprising a packet switching node, to send logical link layer
mobile node ( 100), a first (202) and a second packet state information (500) to said second packet
switching node (204), the method comprising: switching node; and

13
25 EP 1 719 352 81 26

a second packet switching node (204) config- 15. A system for performing a packet switched handover
ured to set a state in a logical link layer entity of a mobile (100) between a first packet switching
based on said logical link layer state information. node (202) and a second packet switching node
(204), characterized in that the system com prises:
13. A system for performing a packet switched handover 5
of a mobile node (100) between a first packet switch- a mobile node (100) configured to form a first
ing node (202) and a second packet switching node logical link layer entity, to detect a handover con-
(204), character- ized in that the system comprises: dition, to form a second logical link layer entity,
to detect handover completion, to receive logical
a mobile node (100) configured to receive a log- 10 link layer frames from the first packet switching
ical link layer Protocol Data Unit (POU) (241, node and the second packet switching node dur-
242) from said first packet switching node and ing the handover;
the second packet switching node; a first packet switching node (202) configured
the first packet switched node (202) configured to send at least one ciphering parameter (900)
to detect a handover condition associated with 15 to said second packet switching node when re-
said mobile node, to request handover prepara- questing handover preparation from said sec-
tion from said second packet switching node, to ond packet switching node, and to send logical
send at least one ciphering parameter (900) to link layer frames to said mobile node during
said second packet switching node when re- handover; and
questing handover preparation from said sec- 20 a second packet switching node (204) config-
and packet switching node, to receive a packet, ured to renegotiating logical link layer parame-
to form the logical link layer Protocol Data Unit ters between said mobile node and said second
(POU) from data in said packet, to send a first packet switching node after said detecting of
frame containing said logical link layer Protocol said handover completion when the logical link
Data Unit (POU) to said mobile node, to send 25 layer parameters are not suitable.
said logical link Protocol data Unit (POU) to said
second packet switching node; and
the second packet switching node (204) config- Patentanspriiche
ured to send a second frame containing said log-
ical link layer Protocol Data Unit (POU) to said 30 1. Verfahren zum DurchfUhren paketvermittelter Wei-
mobile node from said second packet switching terreichung in einem Mobilkommunikationsnetz-
node. werk, umfassend einen mobilen Knoten ( 100), einen
ersten (202) und einen zweiten Paketvermittlungs-
14. A system for performing a packet switched handover knoten (204), wobei das Verfahren umfasst:
of a mobile node ( 100) between a first packet switch- 35
ing node (202) and a second packet switching node Feststellen eines mil dem mobilen Knoten im
(204), character- ized in that the system comprises: ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten verknlipften
Weiterreich ungszustands,
a mobile node (100) configured to receive logical und
link layer frames (242, 244) from said first and 40 Anfordern einer Weiterreichungsvorbereitung
second packet switching nodes during hando- durch den ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten
ver; (202) van dem zweiten Paketvermittlungskno-
the first packet switching node (202) configured ten,
to detect a handover condition associated with dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren
said mobile node, to request handover prepara- 45 weiter umfasst:
lion from said second packet switching node, to
send at least one ciphering parameter (900) to Empfangen wenigstens eines Verschllisse-
said second packet switching noder when re- lungsparameters (900) van dem ersten Pa-
questing handover preparation from said sec- ketvermittlungsknoten an den zweiten Pa-
ond packet switching node, to perform a logical 50 ketvermittlungsknoten, wenn der erste Pa-
link parameter exchange between said mobile ketvermittlungsknoten eine Weiterrei-
node and said first packet switching node and chungsvorbereitung aus dem zweiten Pa-
to send logical link layer frames to said mobile ketvermittlungsknoten anfordert;
node during handover; and Empfangen logischer Verbindungsschicht-
the second packet switching node (204) config- 55 zustandsinformationen (500) van dem er-
ured to send logical link layer frames to said mo- sten Paketvermittlungsknoten an den zwei-
bile node during handover. ten Paketvermittlungsknoten;
Festlegen eines Zustands in einer logi-

14
27 EP 1 719 352 81 28

schen Verbindungsschichteinheit (254) im gische Verbindungsschichtprotokolldaten-
zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten auf einheit (POU) enthalt, an den mobilen Kno-
Grundlage der logischen Verbindungs- ten aus dem zweiten Paketvermittlungs-
schichtzustandsinformationen; und knoten.
Senden logischer Verbindungsschichtrah- 5
men van dem ersten und zweiten Paketver- 4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, weiter umfassend den
mittlungsknoten an den mobilen Knoten Schritt:
wahrend der Weiterreichung.
Verwenden eines allgemeinen paketorientier-
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, zusatzlich umfassend: 10 ten Funkdienst (GPRS)-Netzwerks als Mobil-
kommunikationsnetzwerk, der bedienenden
Verwenden eines allgemeinen paketorientier- GPRS-Unterstlitzungsknoten (SGSN) als er-
ten Funkdienst (GPRS)-Netzwerks als Mobil- sten und zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten
kommunikationsnetzwerk, der bedienenden (202, 204) und einer GPRS-logischen Verbin-
GPRS-Unterstlitzungsknoten (SGSN) als er- 15 dungssteuerung (LLC) als der logischen Verbin-
sten (202) und zweiten Paketvermittlungskno- dungsschicht.
ten (204) und einer GPRS-logischen Verbin-
dungssteuerung (LLC) als der logischen Verbin- 5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, weiter umfassend:
dungsschicht.
20 Verwenden eines allgemeinen paketorientier-
3. Verfahren zum Durchflihren einer paketvermittelten ten Funkdienst (GPRS)-Netzwerks als Mobil-
Weiterreichung in einem Mobilkommunikationsnetz- kommunikationsnetzwerk, eines bedienenden
werk, umfassend einen mobilen Knoten (100), einen GPRS-Unterstlitzungsknotens (SGSN) als er-
ersten (202) und einen zweiten Paketvermittlungs- sten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202, 204), eines
knoten (204), wobei das Verfahren umfasst: 25 Basisstationsteilsystem (BSS)-Knoten als zwei-
ten Paketvermittlungsknoten und einer GPRS-
Feststellen eines mil dem mobilen Knoten im logischen Verbindungssteuerung (LLC) als der
ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten verknlipften logischen Verbindungsschicht.
Weiterreichungszustands,
und 30 6. Verfahren zum Durchflihren einer paketvermittelten
Anfordern einer Weiterreichungsvorbereitung Weiterreichung in einem Mobilkommunikationsnetz-
durch den ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten van werk, umfassend einen mobilen Knoten (100), einen
dem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten, ersten (202) und einen zweiten (204) Paketvermitt-
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren lungsknoten, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:
weiter umfasst: 35
Feststellen eines mil dem mobilen Knoten (100)
Empfangen wenigstens eines Verschllisse- im ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202) ver-
lungsparameters (900) van dem ersten Pa- bundenen Weiterreichungszustands und Anfor-
ketvermittlungsknoten an den zweiten Pa- dern einer Weiterreichungsvorbereitung durch
ketvermittlungsknoten, wenn der erste Pa- 40 den ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202) van
ketvermittlungsknoten eine Weiterrei- dem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204),
chungsvorbereitung van dem zweiten Pa- dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren
ketverm ittlu ngsknoten a nfordert; weiter umfasst:
Empfangen eines Pakets am ersten Paket-
vermittlungsknoten; 45 Empfangen wenigstens eines Verschllisse-
Erstellen einer logischen Verbindungs- lungsparameters (900) van dem ersten Pa-
schichtprotokolldateneinheit(PDU) aus Da- ketvermittlungsknoten (202) an den zwei-
len dieses Pakets; ten Paketvermittlungsknoten, wenn der er-
Senden einesersten Rahmens, welcherdie ste Paketvermittlungsknoten eine Weiter-
logische Verbindungsschichtprotokollda- 50 reichungsvorbereitung van dem zweiten
teneinheit (POU) enthalt, an den mobilen Paketvermittlungsknoten anfordert;
Knoten van dem ersten Paketvermittlungs- Austauschen logischer Verbindungspara-
knoten; meter zwischen dem mobilen Knoten (100)
Senden der logischen Verbindungsschicht- und dem ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten
protokolldateneinheit (POU) van dem er- 55 (202); und
sten Paketvermittlungsknoten an den zwei- Senden logischer Verbindungsschichtrah-
ten Paketvermittlungsknoten; und men aus dem ersten und zweiten Paketver-
Send en eines zweiten Rahm ens, der die lo- mittlungsknoten (202, 204) an den mobilen

15
29 EP 1 719 352 81 30

Knoten (100) wahrend der Weiterreichung. gischen Verbindungsschichtparameter un-
geeignet sind.
7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, bei dem der Austausch
logischer Verbindungsparameter im Durchfl.lhrungs- 10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, weiter umfassend:
schritt als Antwort auf einen Zustand durchgefl.lhrt 5
wird, in dem der mobile Knoten (100) einen logischen Entfernen der ersten logischen Verbindungs-
Verbindungsschichtrahmen emptangt, welcher ei- schichteinheit (802) im mobilen Knoten nach
nen Doppelmarkierungssatz aufweist. dem Feststellen desAbschlusses derWeiterrei-
chung.
8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, weiter umfassend: 10
11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, weiter umfassend:
VenNenden eines allgemeinen paketorientier-
ten Funkdienst (GPRS)-Netzwerks als Mobil- Verwenden eines allgemeinen paketorientier-
kommunikationsnetzwerk, der bedienenden ten Funkdienst (GPRS)-Netzwerks als Mobil-
GPRS-Unterstlitzungsknoten (SGSN) als er- 15 kommunikationsnetzwerk, der bedienenden
sten und zweiten Paketvermittlungsknotens GPRS-Unterstlitzungsknoten (SGSN) als er-
(202, 204), einer GPRS-logischen Verbin- sten und zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten
dungssteuerung (LLC) als der logischen Verbin- (202, 204) und einer GPRS-logischen Verbin-
dungsschicht und einer logischen Verbindungs- dungssteuerung (LLC) als der logischen Verbin-
steuerungs (LLC)-Austauschidentifikations 20 dungsschicht.
(XID)-Verhandlung als Austausch logischer
Verbindungsparameter. 12. System zum Durchfl.lhren einer paketvermittelten
Weiterreichung eines mobilen Knotens (100) zwi-
9. Verfahren zum Durchfl.lhren einer paketvermittelten schen einem ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202)
Weiterreichung in einem Mobilkommunikationsnetz- 25 und einem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204),
werk, umfassend einen mobilen Knoten (100), einen dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das System um-
ersten (202) und einen zweiten Paketvermittlungs- fasst:
knoten (204), wobei das Verfahren umfasst:
einen mobilen Knoten (100), eingerichtet zum
Erstellen einer ersten logischen Verbindungs- 30 Empfangen logischer Verbindungsschichtrah-
schichteinheit (802) im mobilen Knoten und men (242, 244) aus dem ersten und zweiten Pa-
Feststellen eines Weiterreichungszustands im ketvermittlungsknoten wahrend der Weiterrei-
mobilen Knoten; chung;
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren einen ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202),
weiter umfasst: 35 eingerichtet zum Feststellen eines mil dem mo-
bilen Knoten verknlipften Weiterreichungszu-
Empfangen wenigstens eines Verschllisse- stands, flir das Anfordern einer Weiterrei-
lungsparameters (900) van dem ersten Pa- chungsvorbereitung van dem zweiten Paketver-
ketvermittlungsknoten (202) an den zwei- mittlungsknoten, zum Send en wenigstens eines
ten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204), wenn 40 Verschllisselungsparameters (900) an den
der erste Paketvermittlungsknoten eine zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten beim Anfor-
Weiterreichungsvorbereitung van dem dern einer Weiterreichungsvorbereitung van
zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten anfor- dem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten; zum
dert; Senden logischer Verbindungsschichtzu-
Erstellen einer zweiten logischen Verbin- 45 standsinformationen (500) an den zweiten Pa-
dungsschichteinheit (804) im mobilen Kno- ketvermittlungsknoten; und
ten (100); einen zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204),
Senden logischer Verbindungsschichtrah- eingerichtet zum Festlegen eines Zustands in
men van dem ersten und zweiten Paketver- einer logischen Verbindungsschichteinheit auf
mittlungsknoten an den mobilen Knoten 50 Grundlage der logischen Verbindungsschicht-
wahrend der Weiterreichung; zustandsinformationen.
Feststellen des Abschlusses der Weiterrei-
chung; und 13. System zum Durchfl.lhren einer paketvermittelten
Neuverhandlung logischer Verbindungs- Weiterreichung eines mobilen Knotens (100) zwi-
schichtparameter zwischen dem mobilen 55 schen einem ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202)
Knoten und dem zweiten Paketvermitt- und einem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204),
lungsknoten nach dem Feststellen des Ab- dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das System um-
schlusses der Weiterreichung, wenn die lo- fasst:

16
31 EP 1 719 352 81 32

einen mobilen Knoten (100), eingerichtet zum len Knoten wahrend der Weiterreichung; und
Empfangen einer logischen Verbindungs- den zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204),
schichtprotokolldateneinheit (POU) (241, 242) eingerichtet zum Senden logischer Verbin-
van dem ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten und dungsschichtrahmen an den mobilen Knoten
dem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten; 5 wahrend der Weiterreichung.
den ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202), ein-
gerichtetzum Feststellen eines mitdem mobilen 15. System zum Durchflihren einer paketvermittelten
Knoten verknlipften Weiterreichungszustands, Weiterreichung eines mobilen Knotens (100) zwi-
zum Anfordern einer Weiterreichungsvorberei- schen einem ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202)
tung van dem zweiten Paketvermittlungskno- 10 und einem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204),
ten, zum Senden wenigstens eines Verschllis- dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das System um-
selungsparameters (900) an den zweiten Paket- fasst:
vermittlungsknoten beim Anfordern einer Wei-
terreichungsvorbereitung van dem zweiten Pa- einen mobilen Knoten (100), eingerichtet zum
ketvermittlungsknoten; zum Empfangen eines 15 Erstellen einer ersten logischen Verbindungs-
Pakets, zum Erstellen der logischen schichteinheit, zum Feststellen eines Weiterrei-
Verbindungsschichtprotokolldateneinheit chungszustands, zum Erstellen einer zweiten
(POU) aus Dalen dieses Pakets; zum Senden logischen Verbindungsschichteinheit, zum
eines ersten Rahmens, der die logische Feststellen des Abschlusses einer Weiterrei-
Verbindungsschichtprotokolldateneinheit 20 chung, zum Empfangen logischerVerbindungs-
(POU) enthalt, an den mobilen Knoten, zum schichtrahmen van dem ersten Paketvermitt-
Senden der logischen Verbindungsschichtpro- lungsknoten und dem zweiten Paketvermitt-
tokolldateneinheit (POU) an den zweiten lungsknoten wahrend der Weiterreichung;
Paketvermittlungsknoten ; einen ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202),
u~ ~ eingerichtetzum Senden wenigstens eines Ver-
den zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204), schllisselungsparameters (900) an den zweiten
eingerichtet zum Senden eines zweiten Rah- Paketvermittlungsknoten beim Anfordern einer
mens, der die logische Verbindungsschichtpro- Weiterreichungsvorbereitung van dem zweiten
tokolldateneinheit (POU) enthalt, an den mobi- Paketvermittlungsknoten und zum Senden logi-
len Knoten aus dem zweiten Paketvermittlungs- 30 scher Verbindungsschichtrahmen an den mob i-
knoten. i en Knoten wahrend der Weiterreichung; und

einen zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204),
14. System zum Durchflihren einer paketvermittelten eingerichtet zur Neuverhandlung logischer Ver-
Weiterreichung eines mobilen Knotens (100) zwi- bindungsschichtparameter zwischen dem mo-
schen einem ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202) 35 bilen Knoten und dem zweiten Paketvermitt-
und einem zweiten Paketvermittlungsknoten (204), lungsknoten nach dem Feststellen des Ab-
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das System um- schlusses der Weiterreichung, wenn die logi-
fasst: schen Verbindungsschichtparameter ungeeig-
net sind.
einen mobilen Knoten (100), eingerichtet zum 40
Empfangen logischer Verbindungsschichtrah-
men (242, 244) van dem ersten und zweiten Pa- Revendications
ketvermittlungsknoten wahrend der
Weiterreichung ; 1. a
Procede de realisation d'un transfer! commutation
den ersten Paketvermittlungsknoten (202), ein- 45 de paquets dans un reseau de communications avec
gerichtetzum Feststellen eines mitdem mobilen les mobiles, comprenant un noeud mobile (100), un
Knoten verknlipften Weiterreichungszustands, premier (202) et un deuxieme noeud (204) de com-
zum Anfordern einer Weiterreichungsvorberei- mutation de paquets, le procede comprenant:
tung van dem zweiten Paketvermittlungskno-
ten, zum Senden wenigstens eines Verschllis- 50 detecter une condition de transfer! associee
selungsparameters (900) an den zweiten Paket- audit noeud mobile dans le premier noeud de
vermittlungsknoten beim Anfordern einer Wei- commutation de paquets,
terreichungsvorbereitung van dem zweiten Pa- et
ketvermittlungsknoten, zum Durchflihren eines demander par le premier noeud de commutation
Austausches logischer Verbindungsparameter 55 de paquets (202) la preparation d'un transfer!
zwischen dem mobilen Knoten und dem ersten audit deuxieme noeud de commutation par pa-
Paketvermittlungsknoten und zum Senden logi- quets,
scher Verbindungsschichtrahmen an den mo bi- caracterise en ce que le procede comprend en

17
33 EP 1 719 352 81 34

outre: mier noeud de commutation de paquets de-
mande audit deuxieme noeud de commu-
recevoir au mains un parametre de chiffre- tation de paquets la preparation d'un trans-
ment (900) dud it premier noeud de commu- fer!;
tation de paquets audit deuxieme noeud de 5 recevoir un paquet au niveau dudit premier
commutation de paquets lorsque ledit pre- noeud de oommutation de paquets;
mier noeud de commutation de paquets de- former une unite de donnees de protocole
mande la preparation d'un transfer! audit (POU (Protocol Data Unit)) de couche de
deuxieme noeud de commutation de pa- a
liaison logique partir de donnees dans le-
quets; 10 dit paquet;
recevoir des informations d'etat de la cou- envoyer une premiere trame contenant la-
che de liaison logique (500) dudit premier dite unite de donnees de protocole (POU)
noeud de commutation de paquets vers le- de couche de liaison logique vers ledit
dit deuxieme noeud de commutation de pa- a
noeud mobile partir dudit premier noeud
quets; 15 de commutation de paquets;
etablir un etatdans une entite de couche de envoyer ladite unite de donnees de proto-
liaison logique (254) dans ledit deuxieme cole (POU) de couche de liaison logique a
noeud de commutation de paquets sur la partirdudit premier noeud de commutation
base desdites informations d'etat de la cou- de paquets vers ledit deuxieme noeud de
che de liaison logique; et 20 commutation de paquets; et
envoyer des trames de couche de liaison envoyer une deuxieme trame contenant la-
logique depuis lesdits premier et deuxieme dite unite de donnees de protocole (POU)
noeuds de commutation de paquets audit de couche de liaison logique vers ledit
noeud mobile durant le transfer!. a
noeud mobile partir dud it deuxieme noeud
25 de commutation de paquets.
2. Procede selon la revendication 1, comprenant en
outre: 4. Procede selon la revendication 3, comprenant en
outre l'etape:
utiliser un reseau de type General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS) en tantque leditreseau de com- 30 d'utiliser un reseau de type General Packet Ra-
munications avec les mobiles, des noeuds de dio Service (GPRS) en tan! que ledit reseau de
support de service GPRS (Serving GPRS Sup- communications avec les mobiles, des noeuds
port Nodes (SGSN)) en tan! que lesdits premier de support de service GPRS (Serving GPRS
(202) et deuxieme (204) noeuds de commuta- Support Nodes (SGSN)) en tan! que lesdits pre-
tion de paquets, et la commande de liaison lo- 35 mier et deuxieme noeuds de commutation de
gique de GPRS (Logical Link Control (LLC)) en paquets (202, 204), et la commande de liaison
tan! que ladite couche de liaison logique. logique de GPRS (Logical Link Control (LLC))
en tan! que ladite couche de liaison logique.
3. a
Precede de realisation d'un transfer! commutation
de paquets dans un reseau de communications avec 40 5. Procede selon la revendication 3, comprenant en
les mobiles, comprenant un noeud mobile (100), un outre :
premier (202) et un deuxieme (204) noeud de com-
mutation de paquets, le procede comprenant: utiliser un reseau de type General Packet Radio
Service (GPRS) en tant que Iedit reseau de com-
detecter une condition de transfer! associee 45 munications avec les mobiles, un noeud de sup-
audit noeud mobile dans le premier noeud de port de service GPRS (Serving GPRS Support
commutation de paquets, Node (SGSN)) en !ant que ledit premier noeud
et de commutation de paquets (202, 204), un
demander par le premier noeud de commutation noeud de sous-systeme de station de base (Ba-
de paquets la preparation d'un transfer! audit 50 se Station Subsystem (BSS)) en tant que ledit
deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets, deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets et
caracterise en ce que le procede com prend en la commande de liaison logique de GPRS (Lo-
outre: gical Link Control (LLC)) en tan! que ladite cou-
che de liaison logique.
recevoir au mains un parametre de chiffre- 55
ment (900) dud it premier noeud de commu- 6. Procede de realisation d'un transfer! a commutation
tation de paquets audit deuxieme noeud de de paquets dans un reseau de communications avec
commutation de paquets lorsque ledit pre- les mobiles, comprenant un noeud mobile (100), un

18
35 EP 1 719 352 81 36

premier (202) et un deuxieme (204) noeud de com- premier (202) et un deuxieme (204) noeuds de com-
mutation de paquets, le procede comprenant: mutation de paquets, le procede comprenant:

detecter une condition de transfer! associee former une premiere entite de couche de liaison
audit noeud mobile (100) dans le premier noeud 5 logique (802) dans ledit noeud mobile, et
de commutation de paquets (202); detecter une condition de transfer! dans ledit
et demander par le premier noeud de commu- noeud mobile
tation de paquets (202) la preparation d'un caracterise en ce que le procede comprend en
transfer! audit deuxieme noeud de commutation outre:
de paquets (204); 10
caracterise en ce que le procede com prend en recevoir au mains un parametre de chiffre-
outre : ment (900) dud it premier noeud de commu-
tation de paquets (202) audit deuxieme
recevoir au mains un parametre de chiffre- noeud de commutation de paquets lorsque
ment (900) dud it premier noeud de commu- 15 ledit premier noeud de commutation de pa-
talion de paquets (202) audit deuxieme quets demande la preparation d'un transfer!
noeud de commutation de paquets lorsque audit deuxieme noeud de commutation de
ledit premier noeud de commutation de pa- paquets;
quetsdemande la preparation d'un transfer! former une deuxieme entite de couche de
audit deuxieme noeud de commutation de 20 liaison logique (804) dans ledit noeud mo-
paquets; bile (100);
realiser un echange de parametre de liaison envoyer des trames de couche de liaison
logique entre ledit noeud mobile (100) et le- logique depuis lesdits premier et second
dit premier noeud de commutation de pa- noeuds de commutation de paquets au
quets (202); et 25 noeud mobile durant le transfer!;
envoyer des trames de couche de liaison detecter l'achevement du transfer!; et
logique depuis lesdits premier et second renegocier des parametres de couche de
noeuds de commutation de paquets (202, liaison logique entre ledit noeud mobile et
204) vers led it noeud mobile (100) du rant ledit deuxieme noeud de commutation de
le transfer!. 30 paquets apres ladite detection dudit ache-
vement du transfer! lorsque les parametres
7. Procede selon la revendication 6, dans lequel, dans de couche de liaison logique ne convien-
ladite etape de realisation, ledit echange de para- nent pas.
metre de liaison logique est effectue en reponse a
une oondition dans laquelle ledit noeud mobile (100) 35 10. Procede selon la revendication 9, comprenant en
rei;:oit une trame de couche de liaison logique dans outre:
laquelle un indicateur de doublon est positionne.
enlever ladite premiere entite de couche de
8. Precede selon la revendication 6, comprenant en liaison logique (802) dudit noeud mobile apres
outre : 40 ladite detection de l'achevement du transfer!.

utiliser un reseau de type General Packet Radio 11. Procede selon la revendication 9, comprenant en
Service (GPRS) en tantque leditreseau de com- outre:
munications avec les mobiles, des noeuds de
support de service GPRS (Serving GPRS Sup- 45 utiliser un reseau de type General Packet Radio
port Nodes (SGSN)) en !ant que lesdits premier Service (GPRS) en !ant que led it reseau de com-
et deuxieme noeuds de commutation de pa- munications avec les mobiles, des noeuds de
quets (202, 204), la commande de liaison logi- support de service GPRS (Serving GPRS Sup-
que de GPRS (Logical Link Control (LLC)) en port Nodes (SGSN)) en tant que lesdits premier
tant que ladite couche de liaison logique, et la 50 et deuxieme noeuds de oommutation de pa-
negociation d'echange identification (XID) de la quets (202, 204), et la commande de liaison lo-
commande de liaison logique de GPRS (Logical gique de GPRS (Logical Link Control (LLC)) en
Link Control (LLC)) en tan! que led it echange de tan! que ladite couche de liaison logique.
parametre de liaison logique.
55 12. Systeme pour realiser un transfer! de commutation
9. Procede de realisation d'un transfer! a commutation de paquets d'un noeud mobile (100) entre un premier
de paquets dans un reseau de communications avec noeud de commutation de paquets (202) et un
les mobiles, comprenant un noeud mobile (100), un deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets (204),

19
37 EP 1 719 352 81 38

caracterise en ce que le systeme comprend: me contenant ladite unite de donnees de proto-
cole (POU) de couche de liaison logique vers
un noeud mobile (100) configure pour recevoir ledit noeud mobile depuis led it deuxieme noeud
des trames de couche de liaison logique (242, de commutation de paquets.
244) desdits premier et deuxieme noeuds de 5
commutation de paquets durant le transfer!; 14. Systeme pour realiser un transfer! de commutation
un premier noeud de commutation de paquets de paquets d'un noeud mobile (100) entre un premier
(202) configure pour detecter une condition de noeud de commutation de paquets (202) et un
transfer! associee audit noeud mobile, pour de- deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets (204),
mander la preparation d'un transfer! audit 10 caracterise en ce que le systeme comprend:
deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets,
pour envoyer au mains un parametre de chiffre- un noeud mobile ( 100) configure pour recevoir
ment (900) audit deuxieme noeud de commuta- des trames de couche de liaison logique (242,
tion de paquets lorsque la demande de prepa- 244) desdits premier et deuxieme noeuds de
ration d'un transfer! audit deuxieme noeud de 15 commutation de paquets durant le transfer!;
commutation de paquets est effectuee; pour en- le premier noeud de commutation de paquets
voyer des informations d'etat de la couche de (202) configure pour detecter une condition de
liaison logique (500) audit deuxieme noeud de transfer! associee audit noeud mobile, pour de-
commutation de paquets; et mander la preparation d'un transfer! audit
un deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets 20 deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets,
(204) configure pour etablir un etat dans une pour envoyer au mains un parametre de chiffre-
entite de couche de liaison logique en fonction ment (900) audit deuxieme noeud de commuta-
desdites informations d'etat de la couche de tion de paquets lorsque la demande de prepa-
liaison logique. ration d'un transfer! audit deuxieme noeud de
25 commutation de paquets est effectuee, pour
13. Systeme pour realiser un transfer! de commutation realiser un echange de para metre de couche de
de paquets d'un noeud mobile (100) entre un premier liaison logique entre ledit noeud mobile et ledit
noeud de commutation de paquets (202) et un premier noeud de commutation de paquets et
deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets (204), pour envoyer des trames de couche de liaison
caracterise en ce que le systeme comprend: 30 logique a partir dudit noeud mobile durant le
transfer!; et
un noeud mobile (100) configure pour recevoir le deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets
une unite de donnees de protocole (POU) de (204) configure pour envoyer des trames de
couche de liaison logique (241, 242) du premier couche de liaison logique audit noeud mobile
noeud de commutation de paquets et du deuxie- 35 durant le transfer!.
me noeud de commutation de paquets;
le premier noeud de commutation de paquets 15. Systeme pour realiser un transfer! de commutation
(202) configure pour detecter une condition de de paquets d'un noeud mobile (100) entre un premier
transfer! associee audit noeud mobile, pour de- noeud de commutation de paquets (202) et un
mander la preparation d'un transfer! audit 40 deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets (204),
deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets, caracterise en ce que le systeme comprend :
pour envoyer au mains un parametre de chiffre-
ment (900) audit deuxieme noeud de commuta- un noeud mobile (100) configure pour former
tion de paquets lorsque la demande de prepa- une premiere entite de couche de liaison logi-
ration d'un transfer! audit deuxieme noeud de 45 que, pour detecter une condition de transfer!,
commutation de paquets est effectuee; pour former une deuxieme entite de couche de
pour recevoir un paquet, pour former l'unite de liaison logique, pour detecter l'achevement du
donnees de protocole (POU) de couche de transfer!, pour recevoir des trames de couche
liaison logiquea partir de donnees dans ledit de liaison logique du premier noeud de commu-
paquet; pour envoyer une premiere trame con- 50 tation de paquets et du deuxieme noeud de com-
tenant ladite unite de donnees de protocole mutation de paquets durant le transfer!;
(POU) de couche de liaison logique vers ledit un premier noeud de commutation de paquets
noeud mobile, pour envoyer ladite unite de don- (202) configure pour envoyer au mains un pa-
nees de protocole (POU) de couche de liaison rametre de chiffrement (900) audit deuxieme
logique audit deuxieme noeud de commutation 55 noeud de commutation de paquets lorsque la
de paquets; et demande de preparation d'un transfer! audit
le deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets
(204) configure pour envoyer une deuxieme tra- est effectuee, et pour envoyer des trames de

20
39 EP 1 719 352 81 40

couche de liaison logique audit noeud mobile
durant le transfer!; et
un deuxieme noeud de commutation de paquets
(204) configure pour renegocier des para metres
de couche de liaison logique entre ledit noeud 5
mobile et leditdeuxieme noeud de commutation
de paquets apres ladite detection dud it acheve-
mentdu transfer! lorsque les parametresde cou-
che de liaison logique ne conviennent pas.
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

21
EP 1 719 352 81

Um
I
Gb Gn Gi
100
r--'

RLC BSSGP IP IP
...............
MAC NS L2 L2
SMRF . SMRF Llbis Llbis Ll Ll

MS BSS SGSN 106 GGSN I

102 104 I

FIG. I (PRIOR ART)

22
EP 1 719 352 81

201

246

202

214

100

FIG. 2 (PRIOR ART)

23
EP 1 719 352 81

100 262 264 202 204 200
~ ~ ~ .~ ..
.r-' ~
BSS
BSS Old New
MS GGSN
Source TarJ et SGSN SGSN
Measure- Handover Prepare
mentdat~ required .....
PSHOR~q

ro: to
302
~
.,.
304
,,,;--I 303
--,
r iJ7
PSHOReq
-,

~
Reservation of radio
resources in target BSC PSHOR~A~
,
? Prepare
305 PS HO Resp
t .- _;
I i-P' I
306 1
GTP packet stream
..

t ,H7 I I
packet str~an1
310 307 ~
~ packet stream packet stream -.308
-,,,PS HO Command
""'

.-.-
I I
~

PS HO-Command
~
[Pi , .....
I IJ'
-ro:
t1 S HO access
3 l~H rPlhysical information
.-.-
_...
, ,., ~ Update
_,J 300
313 ..,,. I
~
I
PDP Ctx 316
PS HO Complete PS HO Complete
?-,... ?
,
~
Req ,c1i.--11
--,
314 315 Res ~
....
I
P'
317 GTPpacket
,,,.,. packet stream packet stream stream t4

r:;
~ ~

? "' ~
... .... 320 ... .... ... 318 L.

FIG. 3 (PRIOR ART)

24
EP 1 719 352 81

451
450

401
408

452
SOURCE
NODE

456

FIG. 4 (PRIOR ART)

25
EP 1 719 352 81

100 262 264 202 204 200
_r" _d__ _d__ _d__ ,,-'
BSS BSS Old New
MS GGSN
Source Tar et SGSN SGSN
Measure- Handover I 500
ment date_ 1-r-eq_u_ir....ed_....+----"'"~ Prepare r--'
r:7 -, ' PS HO Rec [LLC-state)
301 302 3

..,_c:_
.... ~
o~ 303 PS HO R ~r
-,
r Initilization
e1. I " of LLC-statt
Reservation of radio I\ I"
resources in target BSC V .____ P_S_,H O_R_~_,__A_~.:ai
__
{;;
Prepare
PS HO Resp
t
,i-P
-
306
..._GTP packet stream
,~ 11
307 packetstr~am
~
, 310
_ _d__ p~~ket

ti
-PS HO Commandstream
.....
,,
....
PS HO Command
packet stream
r
~

- J•- 309
,.1-:z: " ~
, PS HO access ..lli.
11 3
31 f:Physical information ..... ~ 300
1" Update
313 ~ _Jr
PS HO Complete .,,. PS HO Complete PDP Ctx 316
~ Req ~
?' ? ,,,.
,....p~es
314 315

317 GTP packet
_ packet stream packet stream ~tream
14_;--~---1-1--7~----1 ~
? '?
320 319 318

FIG. 5

26
EP 1 719 352 81

201

202

606

···.-·:·;·~··:·:·~·~··.-· ..:·:·;·:·:··:· ·:·:· ·;· ··.BssT.....i
. . ----.· GERANl

214

226
216

100
FIG. 6a

27
EP 1 719 352 B1

201

246

204

202 SGSN

BSS/ !
GERAN~ .
.
214 .

228 226
216

100
FIG. 6b

28
EP 1 719 352 81

100 262 264 202 204 200
.c:!_ -2 . c:!_ ~ 2 2
BSS BSS · Old New
MS GGSN
Source Tar et SGSN SGSN
Measure- Handover r 700
mentda~ required ~
Prepare r'
(cipher
~-,
ta 302
r' PSHOReq
"'i
_,.,
, parameters
303 lji-¥
p - XIDCommand
'11-1 XID Response
_._._
_J_J_
-.--.- 702
II
JC!HPSHOReq ~~
304
701 ..,, -,
'

~
Reservation of radio PS HO Re_g_A~
resources in target BSC
;: ,
Prepare
PS HO Resp
t]
I 1-P'
t
306 I
....GTP packet stream
I 1--~ TT
307 packet stream
~
~
310 ....308
..,2 packet stream ..,, packet stream
~

~
-,,,,_PS HO Command
-.--.-
..LL

_J I ..I
-
PS HO Command ro:·
I{: I -
~
tiH PS HO access 311
....
313]~~]hysical information
-.--.- ,.
-'- 1-1-' 300 Update
313 I
.....
.LJ_
I I
PDP Ctx.31~
PS HO Complete PS HO Complete
?-,.... ~
--, Req~...
314 <s - ~
Res
,.
t3

317~
GTP packet
packet stream ..,, packet stream stream t4
L. L.
'
r7 '
? '?
320 319 318
... .... ....
FIG. 7

29
EP 1 719 352 B1

200

202

254
.. ..
••• , •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• t

.
•••••••••• ••••••••••••

: : --.-. BSS/ ~
GERAN~
210 :
.
212 : -"ft"-illlllt'
214

228 226

802 804
800
FIG. 8

30
EP 1 719 352 81

100 262 264 202 204 200
r:!_ d r-' ,-/_ ,_..; ~
BSS BSS Old New
GGSN
MS Source Tar et SGSN SGSN
Measure-
ment da~~
Handover
required _... Prepare
l 900
,-I
--:;;J ' _______.,...__ _ _7, . PS HO Req
.__---=::7
(cipher
r ~
3fo--1 302 304 ~ "
7
parameters
i r-1 303 PS HO Req
Reservation of radio " ' ...
resources in target BSC 1 -_ _ _ V
P_S....H,_O_R_e....._qA_c~~
r7
305
Prepare
t PS HO Resp
t1,i-P l_J

306
~GTP packet stream
I~ TI
307 packet str~am
901 902 -.CZ
ir-' LLC_@uplicated) _r" LLC(duplicated)--....308
XID , 310TT , 11
Reset J packet stream packet stream
_, r-
,-
I
Tl
I
""
-
~

t 2 PS HO Command PS HO Command
~·~,,,E-----++-----~
'
~
i
,"' ~
309
~ 1rS HO access ...
312 ~ ,-. -, 311
71-1.t'hysical infonnation ;-1.-J 300 Update
313 ~ +t
PDP Ctx 316
PS HO Complete _'II. PS HO Complete
.._~~--.-;~~---,•I ~ ~ Req ~

314 315 Res
-
~
317 GIP packet
packet stream packet stream stream
? i
••,~--M-7----1
i
'4,-?--..---1
320 319 318
._ ...
FIG. 9

31
EP 1 719 352 81

PACKET SWITCHED
HANDOVER rvrETHOD

1000
NO

1002
OBTAIN LLC-STATE
1004
INITIALIZE LLC-ENTITY
1006

START FORWARDING PACKETS

FINISH

FIG. 10

32
EP 1 719 352 81

PACKET SWITCHED
HANDOVER METHOD

1100
NO

NO

1104

PREP ARE LLC-PDU FROM
LLC-SDU
1106

SEND LLC-FRAME TO
SOURCE BSS
1108

TUNNEL LLC-FRAME TO
NEW SGSN
1110
SEND LLC-FRAME TO
TARGET BSS

FINISH

FIG. 11

33
EP 1 719 352 81

PACKET SWITCHED
HANDOVER METHOD
1200
NO

1202
OBTAIN CIPHER PARAMETERS
1204
PERFORM XID-RESET
1206

START FORWARDING PACKETS

FIN1SH

FIG. 12

34
EP 1 719 352 81

PACKET SWITCHED
HANDOVER METHOD

1300
NO

1302
PREP ARE SECOND
LLC-ENTITY
1304
INITIALIZE SECOND
LLC-ENTITY
1306

START FORWARDING PACKETS

1308
NO

1312

NEGOTIATE MORE
SUIT ABLE LLC-PARAMETERS

1314
REMOVE FIRST
LLC-ENTITY

FINISH

FIG. 13

35
EP 1 719 352 81

PACKET SWITCHED
HANDOVER METHOD

1400
NO

1402
OBTAIN CIPHER PARAMETERS

NO 1404

1406
SEND LLC-PDU WITH
DUPLICATE FOR HO FLAG
1408
PERFORM XID-RESET IN MS

FINISH

FIG. 14

36
EP 1 719 352 B1

TO OTHER
1500 SGSNs

1502
1510
CONTROL GTP

1504
SIGNALING
ENTITY

LOGICAL
LINK
LAYER 1506
LOWER
LAYERS
1508

TOBSS

FIG. 15

37
EP 1 719 352 81

1600

1602
CONTROL

1604
SIGNALING
ENTITY

LOGICAL
LINK
LAYER 1606
LOWER
LAYERS
1608

TOBSS

FIG. 16

38
EP 1 719 352 81

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION

This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European
patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be
excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description

WO 0135586 A [0018] US 2002066011 A [0021]
US 6137783 A [0019] US 2002115460 A [0022]
US 2003091011 A [0020] EP 0978958 A [0023]

39
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page I of5

ANNEX!

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION FORMS

IPR Holder/Organisation

Signatory R'e :__________ _
....~._~~~~-----.i
Name: Tin10 Bussa _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: IPR Manager _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Depart1nent: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Address: P.0.BOX 300, 90401 OULU, FINLAND (Yrttipellontie I, 90230 OULU, Finland) _ _ _ _ __

Tel.: +358405135865 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!'ax: +358718052880 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
E-1nail: ti1no.hussa@nokia.co1n_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR infor1nation statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inforn1 ETSI that,

\.Vith reference to the technical proposal identified a3 GSM. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

It is 1ny belief that the IP Rs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to beco1ne, Essential IP Rs in relation to that Standard.

IPR Jicensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the TPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on tenns and conditions which arc in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETST IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and perfonnance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Oulu, 28 June 2006 _ _ _ __
(Signed for and on behalfofthe SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director-General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex- FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 5 of5

TS 23.140
GSM Nokia US 20050198161 Multimedia United States
Corporation message transfer

TS 43.129 
GSM Nokia WO 2005081550 PS handover Patent
Corporation Cooperation
Treaty
TS 23.009
GSM Nokia US 6243582 Inter-MSC United States
TS 29.002 hand over in high
Corporation
speed data
transmission

*Patent family information is provided voluntarily. The completeness and accuracy of any patent family information that is provided cannot be guaranteed.

Please return this fann duly signed to: EISI Director General- Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETS! - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page I of5

ANNEX!

IPR INFORMATION STATEMENT AND LICENSING DECLARATION FORMS

IPR Holder/Organisation

Signatory R'e :__________ _
....~._~~~~-----.i
Name: Tin10 Bussa _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Position: IPR Manager _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Depart1nent: IPR _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Address: P.0.BOX 300, 90401 OULU, FINLAND (Yrttipellontie I, 90230 OULU, Finland) _ _ _ _ __

Tel.: +358405135865 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!'ax: +358718052880 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
E-1nail: ti1no.hussa@nokia.co1n_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

IPR infor1nation statement

In accordance with the ETSI IPR Policy, Article 4.1, I hereby inforn1 ETSI that,

\.Vith reference to the technical proposal identified a3 GSM. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

It is 1ny belief that the IP Rs listed in Annex 2 are, or are likely to beco1ne, Essential IP Rs in relation to that Standard.

IPR Jicensing declaration

The SIGNATORY has notified ETSI that it is the proprietor of the IPRs listed in Annex 2 and has informed ETSI
that it believes that the TPRs may be considered ESSENTIAL to the Standards listed above.
The SIGNATORY and/or its AFFILIATES hereby declare that they are prepared to grant irrevocable licenses under
the IPRs on tenns and conditions which arc in accordance with Clause 6.1 of the ETST IPR Policy, in respect of the
STANDARD, to the extent that the IPRs remain ESSENTIAL.
The construction, validity and perfonnance of this DECLARATION shall be governed by the laws of France.

Place, Date: Signature:

Oulu, 28 June 2006 _ _ _ __
(Signed for and on behalfofthe SIGNATORY)

Please return this form duly signed to:
ETSI Director-General - Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETSI - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex- FRANCE
Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS INSTITUTE
page 5 of5

TS 23.140
GSM Nokia US 20050198161 Multimedia United States
Corporation message transfer 

GSM
TS 43.129
Nokia WO 2005081550 PS handover Patent
Corporation Cooperation
Treaty
TS 23.009
GSM Nokia US 6243582 Inter-MSC United States
TS 29.002 hand over in high
Corporation
speed data
transmission

*Patent family information is provided voluntarily. The completeness and accuracy of any patent family information that is provided cannot be guaranteed.

Please return this fann duly signed to: EISI Director General- Karl Heinz Rosenbrock

ETS! - 650, route des Lucioles - F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - France I Fax. +33 (0) 4 93 65 47 16
20
A40312VI
(12) STANDARD PATENT (11) Application No. AU 2005212893 C1
(19) AUSTRALIAN PATENT OFFICE

(54) Title
Method and computer program for controlling radio resources, user equipment, ra-
dio network controller, and base station

(51) International Patent Classification(s)
H04B 7100 (2006.01)

(21) Application No: 2005212893 (22) Date of Filing: 2005.02.14

(87) WIPO No: W005/079095

(30) Priority Data

(31) Number (32) Date (33) Country
20040244 2004.02.16 Fl
10/833,301 2004.04.28 us
(43) Publication Date: 2005.08.25
(44) Accepted Journal Date: 2009.05.14
(44) Amended Journal Date: 2013.11.28

(71) Applicant(s)
Vringo Infrastructure, Inc.

(72) lnventor(s)
Toskala, Antti;Ranta-Aho, Karri

(7 4) Agent I Attorney
Allens Patent & Trade Mark Attorneys, GPO Box 1776Q, MELBOURNE, VIC, 3001

(56) Related Art
US 7209762 82 = AU 2003261535
(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT)

(19) World Intellectual Property
Organization
International Bureau Illlll llllllll II llllll lllll lllll lllll llll III Ill lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111

(43) International Publication Date (10) International Publication Number
25 August 2005 (25.08.2005) PCT WO 2005/079095 Al
(51) International Patent Classification7 : H04Q7/38, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN,
ll04L 12/56, ll04B 7/00 CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, Fl,
GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE,
(21) International Application Nmnber: KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD,
PCT/FI2005/000097 MG, ~MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG,
(22) International Filing Date: 14 February 2005 (14.02.2005) PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM,
TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM,
(25) Filing Language: English zw
(26) Publication Language: English (84) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, .for every
(30) Priority Dala: kind of regional protection available): ARIPO (BW, GH,
20040244 16 Febrnary 2004 (16.02.2004) FI GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM,
I0/833,301 28 April 2004 (28.04.2004) US ZW), Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM),
European (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI,
(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): NOKIA FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO,
CORPORATION [FI/FI]; Keilalahdentie 4, FI-02150 Es- SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN,
poo (PI). GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG).

(72) Invenlors; and Declaration under Rule 4.17:
(75) Inventors/Applicants (for US only): RANTA-AHO, as to applicant's emitlement to apply .for and be granted
Karri [PI/PI]; Hakkukuja 1 C 40, PI-02650 Ilspoo (PI). a patent (Rule 4.17(ii)) for the following designations AE,
TOSKAJ,A, Antti [FI/FI]; Mankkaanrinne 2 C, FI-02180 AG, A/,, AM. AT, Alf, AZ, RA, RR, RG, RR, RW. RY, RZ,
Espoo (FI). CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE,
(74) Agent: KOLSTER OY AB; Iso Roobertinkatu 23, P.O. EG, ES, Fl, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, JS,
Box 148, FT-00121 Helsinki (FI). JP, KE, KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV. MA,
MD, MG, MK. MN, M\V, MX. MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM,
(81) Designated Stales (unless otherwise indicated, for every PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC. SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, SY.
kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, Tl, TM, TN. TR, TT. IZ, UA, UG, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA,
[Continued on next page]

(54) Title: METHOD AND COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CONTROLLING RADIO RESOURCES, USER EQUIPMENT, RA-
=
= DIO NETWORK CONTROLLER, J\ND BJ\SE STATION
=
--= RNC 400
458
BS
=
410
SPGU
422
448
SU
scu 406 428
CU1 CSU2
"'
~
Q
~ 432
['-..
Q STU2
in
Q
Q (57) Abstract: A method, base station, user equipment, radio network controller, and computer program are provided. According
M to the invention, data packets are communicated from a base station to user equipment over a high speed downlink packet access
O connection including a high speed physical downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical
> control channel for uplink signalling. The high speed physical downlink shared channel is suspended in a plurality of predefined
~ suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet access connection in a standby state.
WO 2005/079095 Al Illlll llllllll II llllll lllll lllll lllll llll III Ill lllll lllll lllll 111111111111111111111111111111111

ZM, ZIV, ARJPO patent (BW. GH, GM, KE, LS, MW. MZ, before the expiration of the time limit for amending the
NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, VG, ZM, ZW), Eurasian patent (AM, claims and to be republished in the event of receipt of
AZ, BY. KG, KZ. MD, RU, Tl, TM), European patent (AT, amendments
BE. BG, Cll, CY. CZ, DE. DK, EE, ES, Fl, FR, GB, GR,
H/J, IH, IS, n; u; UJ, MC, NJ,, /'/,, VJ; RO, SH, SI, SK, For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid-
TR). OAPJ patent (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CJ, CM, GA, GN, GQ, ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin-
GW. ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG) ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette.
Published:
with international search report
-----------------· ·--·-- · - - - -

1

Method and computer program for controlling radio resources, user equipment,
radio network controller, and base station

Field
[0001] The invention relates to a method of controlling radio resources in a
wireless telecommunications system, a radio network controller for controlling radio
resources in a wireless telecommunications system, a computer program for controlling
radio resources in a wireless telecommunications system, a user equipment of a wireless
telecommunications system, and a base station of a wireless telecommunications system.
Background
[0002] High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a packet-based data
service in a WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) downlink with typical
data transmission capacity from a few megabits per second to more than ten megabits per
second.
[0003] An HSDPA connection includes a high speed physical downlink shared
channel (HS-POSCH) for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel (HS-DPCCH) for uplink signalling. The HS-POSCH and the HS-DPCCH are
implemented on top ofWCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) dedicated
channels, such as the DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Data Channel) and the DPCCH
(Dedicated Physical Control Channel), and thus share the shared radio resources, such as
power resources, with the WCDMA dedicated channels. The sharing of the radio
resources results in inflexibility in radio resource allocation to the HSDPA channels and
the WCDMA dedicated channels. Therefore, improvements are needed for radio resource
control in a wireless telecommunications system supporting an HSDPA operation.
[0004) A need therefore exists for an improved method, user equipment, base
station, radio network controller, and computer program.
[0004A] It is to be understood that, throughout the description and claims of
this specification, the word 'comprise' and variations of the word, such as 'comprising' and
'comprises', is not intended to exclude other additions, components, integers or steps.
Brief description of the invention
[0005) According to one aspect there is provided a method, comprising:
communicating data packets from a base station to user equipment over a high
speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical downlink
shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of
predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet
access connection in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.

chbm A0123705454-v4 120318909
2

[0006] According to another aspect there is provided a method, comprising:
communicating data packets from a base station to user equipment over a high
speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical downlink
shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel
in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
M dedicated physical control channel in a standby state,
0\ wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
00
N to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
~

N [0007] According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
tr)
0 a communicator configured to communicate data packets from a base station to
0
N user equipment over a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high
speed physical downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed
dedicated physical control channel for uplink signalling; and
a connection suspender configured to connect to the communicator, and to
suspend the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of predefined
suspension cime periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet access
connection in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
(0008) According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus including
user equipment, the apparatus comprising:
a communicator configured to communicate data packets received from a base
station over a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed
physical downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated
physical control channel for uplink signalling; and
a connection suspender configured to connect to the communicator, and to
suspend the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of predefined
suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet access
connection in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
[0009) According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus including
user equipment, the apparatus comprising:
a communicator configured to communicate data packets received from a base
station over a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed

chbm A0123705454-v4 120318909
3

physical downlink shared channel for data packec transfer and a high speed dedicated
physical control channel for uplink signalling; and
a connection suspender configured to connect to the communicator, and co
suspend the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
dedicated physical control channel in a scandby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
[0010] According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
a suspension controller configured to control a suspension of a high speed
downlink packet access connection, between a base station and user equipment, in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods with suspension parameters while
maintaining the high speed downlink packet access connection in a standby state, the
suspension parameters configured to characterise temporal characteristics of a plurality of
suspension time periods by defining a duration of the suspension; and
a signalling unit configured to connect to the suspension controller, to signal the
suspension parameters,
wherein the duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
(0011] According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
a suspension controller configured to control the suspension of transmission,
between a base stacion and user equipment, of the high speed dedicaced physical control
channel in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods with suspension parameters
while maintaining the high speed dedicated physical control channel in a standby state,
che suspension parameters configured to characterise temporal characteristics of a
plurality of suspension time periods by defining a duration of the suspension; and
a signalling unit configured co connect to the controller, to signal the suspension
parameters
wherein che duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
[0012) According co another aspect there is provided a computer readable
medium encoded with a computer program, the computer program executing a
computer process comprising:
communicating data packets from a base station to user equipment over a high
speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical downlink

chbm A0123705454-v4 120318909
4

shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of
predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet
access connection in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
[0013] According to another aspect there is provided a computer readable
medium encoded with a computer program, the computer program executing a computer
process comprising:
communicating data packets from a base station to user equipment over a high
speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical downlink
shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel
in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
dedicated physical control channel in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
[0014) According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
communication means for communicating data packets to user equipment over a
high speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical downlink
shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending means for connecting to the communication means, and for
suspending the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of predefined
suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet access
connection in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
[0014A] According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
communication means for communicating data packets from a base station over
a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical
downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical
control channel for uplink signalling; and

197 4505-1 :bab
4a

suspending means for connection to the communication means, and for
suspending the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of predefined
suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet access
connection in a standby state
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
[0014B) According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
communication means for communicating data packets from a base station over
a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical
downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical
control channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending means for connection to the communication means, and for
suspending the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
dedicated physical control channel in a standby state
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
(0014C] According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
controlling means for controlling a suspension of a high speed downlink packet
access connection in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods with suspension
parameters while maintaining the high speed downlink packet access connection in a
standby state, the suspension parameters characterizing temporal characteristics of a
plurality of suspension time periods by defining a duration of the suspension; and
signalling means connected to the controlling means, for signalling the
suspension parameters,
wherein the duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
(00140] According to another aspect there is provided an apparatus, comprising:
controlling means for controlling the suspension of transmission of the high
speed dedicated physical control channel in a plurality of predefined suspension time
periods with suspension parameters while maintaining the high speed dedicated physical
control channel in a standby state, the suspension parameters characterizing temporal
characteristics of a plurality of suspension time periods by defining a duration of the
suspension; and

1974505-1:bab
4b

signalling means connected to the controlling means, for signalling the
suspension parameters,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter
known to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.
(0015) The method, user equipment, base station, network controller and
computer program of the invention provide several advantages. In an embodiment of the
invention, the flexibility of the radio resource allocation is increased, thus enabling an
increase in the number of simultaneous high speed downlink packet access users served
by a base station, the reuse of the base station resources, and the allocation of power
resources for the WCDMA dedicated channels.

List of Drawings
(0016] In the following, the invention will be described in greater detail with
reference to the preferred embodiments and the accompanying drawings, in which
(0017) Figure 1 shows an example of the structure of a wireless
telecommunications system;
(0018) Figure 2 illustrates the elements of an HSDPA connection;
(0019) Figure 3 shows a time structure of an HSDPA connection;

197 4505-1 :bab
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

5

[0020] Figure 4 shows examples of the structure of a radio network
controller, the structure of a base station, and the structure of user equipment;
[0021] Figure 5A shows a first example of the methodology accord-
ing to embodiments of the invention;
[0022] Figure 58 shows a second example of the methodology ac-
cording to embodiments of the invention;
[0023] Figure 6 shows a third example of the methodology accord-
ing to embodiments of the invention, and
[0024] Figure 7 shows a fourth example of the methodology accord-
ing to embodiments of the invention.

Description of embodiments
[0025] Figure 1 illustrates an example of a wireless telecommunica-
tions system to which the present solution may be applied. Below, embodi-
ments of the invention will be described using the UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System) as an example wireless telecommunications
system. The structure and the functions of the network elements are only de-
scribed when relevant to the invention.
[0026] The wireless telecommunications system may be divided into
a core network (CN) 100, an UMTS terrestrial radio access network (UTRAN)
102, and user equipment (UE) 104. The core network 100 and the UTRAN 102
compose an infrastructure of the wireless telecommunications system.
[0027] The UTRAN 102 is typically implemented with wideband
code division multiple access (WCOMA) radio access technology.
[0028] The core network 100 includes a serving GPRS support
node (SGSN) 108 connected to the UTRAN 102 over an lu PS interface. The
SGSN 108 represents the center point of the packet-switched domain of the
core network 100. The main task of the SGSN 108 is to transmit packets to the
user equipment 104 and to receive packets from the user equipment 104 by
using the UTRAN 102. The SGSN 108 may contain subscriber and location
information related to the user equipment 104.
[0029] The UTRAN 102 includes radio network sub-systems (RNS)
106A, 1068, each of which includes at least one radio network controller
(RNC) 110A, 11 OB and nodes B 112A, 1128, 112C, 1120.
[0030] The radio network controller 11 OA, 11 OB controls the radio
resources of the UTRAN 102. The radio network controller 11 OA, 11 OB con-
trols one or more nodes B 112A, 1128, 112C, 1120. Functions performed by
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

6

the radio network controller 11 OA, 11 OB include tasks such as downlink power
control, handover management, and admission control. The radio network con-
trollers 11 OA, 11 OB may communicate with each other through an lur interface.
[0031] Some functions of the radio network controller 110A, 110B
may be implemented with a digital computer, memory and computer programs
for executing computer processes. Furthermore, the radio network controller
11 OA, 11 OB may include connecting means, such as buses and cables, for
connecting the radio network controller 11 OA, 11 OB to the node B 112A, 1128,
112C, 1120. The basic structure and the operation of the radio network con-
troller 11 OA, 11 OB are known to one skilled in the art and only the details rele-
vant to the presents solution are discussed in detail.
[0032] It should be noted, that the UTRAN 102 may also include IP
(Internet Protocol) based network elements, such as IP base stations and IP
servers. The structure of an IP radio access network is known to a one skilled
in the art and the teachings of the present solution may easily be transferred
from the given examples to the IP based systems.
[0033] The node B 112A, 1128, 112C, 1120 implements the Uu in-
terface, through which the user equipment 104 may access the telecommuni-
cations system infrastructure. The node B 112A, 112B, 112C, 1120 performs
tasks such as channel coding, rate adaptation, spreading, and basic radio re-
source management operations. Hereafter, the node B 112A, 1128, 112C,
1120 is called a base station.
[0034] The base station 112A, 1128, 112C, 112D is further respon-
sible for tasks associated with the HSOPA connection. Such tasks include
scheduling the user equipment in the HSDPA data transfer, performing data
packet retransmission procedures, such as HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Re-
transmission Request), and performing adaptive coding and modulation (AMC)
procedures.
[0035] Some functions of the base station 112A, 1128, 112C, 112D
may be implemented with a digital computer, memory and computer programs
for executing computer processes. Furthermore, the base station 112A, 112B,
112C, 1120 may include connecting means, such as buses and cables, for
connecting the base station B 112A, 1128, 112C, 1120 to the radio network
controller 11 OA, 11 OB.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

7

[0036] The basic structure and operation of the base station 112A,
1128, 112C, 1120 are known to one skilled in the art and only the details rele-
vant to the present solution are discussed in detail.
[0037] The user equipment 104 may include two parts: mobile
equipment (ME) 114 and a UMTS subscriber identity module (USIM) 116.
[0038] The mobile equipment 114 typically includes at least one ra-
dio modem for implementing the Uu interface.
[0039] Some functionalities of the user equipment 104 may be im-
plemented with a digital computer, memory and computer programs for execut-
ing computer processes. The user equipment 104 may further comprise an an-
tenna, a user interface, and a battery.
[0040] The. USIM 116 comprises user-related information and in-
formation related to information security in particular, for instance an encryp-
tion algorithm.
[0041] The basic structure and operation of the user equipment 104
are known to one skilled in the art and only the details relevant to the present
solution are discussed in detail.
[0042] With reference to Figure 2, an HSDPA (High Speed
Downlink Packet Access) connection includes an HS-POSCH (High Speed
Physical Downlink Shared Channel), which provides a transport mechanism for
HSDPA logical channels, such as an HS-DSCH (High Speed Downlink Shared
Channel).
[0043] The HS-DSCH provides a logical transport mechanism for
data transfer from the base station 112A to 1120 to the user equipment 104.
The HS-POSCH may be both time- and code-shared between various pieces
of user equipment 106 connected to the base station 112A to 1120.
[0044] The HSDPA connection further includes an HS-DPCCH
(High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel), which is an uplink channel
that carries packet acknowledgement messages (ACK/NACK) and channel
information (CQI) on the HS-POSCH. A packet acknowledgement message is
typically generated for each data transport block received in the user equip-
ment 104.
[0045] The packet acknowledgement messages (ACK/NACK) in-
clude an indication of the success or failure of reception of a data packet in the
user equipment 104. The estimation of the success of the reception may be
based on CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) carried out for a received packet in
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

8

the user equipment 104. The packet acknowledgement messages are used for
performing HARO procedures in the base station 112A to 1120.
[0046] The channel information may be represented by a channel
quality indicator (COi), which characterizes the quality of the HS-POSCH. The
COi is used as feedback information for AMC procedures. If the CQI informa-
tion is outdated, scheduler decisions could be erroneous. An HSDPA connec-
tion typically includes an HS-SCCH (High Speed Physical Downlink Shared
Control Channel), which serves as a downlink signalling channel parallel to the
HS-POSCH. The HS-SCCH carries downlink information such as channeliza-
tion code sets, modulation scheme, transport block size, and HARQ process
information to the user equipment 104. The downlink information allows the
user equipment 104 to listen to the HS-DSCH at the correct time and to use
the correct codes to allow successful decoding of a received packet.
[0047] The HSDPA connection is a communication connection in-
cluding data transfer capabilities and signalling capabilities between the base
station 112A to 1120 and the user equipment 104. The HSDPA connection is
formed on top of dedicated physical channels, such as DPDCH (Dedicated
Physical Data Channel) and DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel)
provided by the WCDMA radio access technology.
[0048] With reference to Figure 3, a time structure 300 of an
HSDPA connection is shown. The horizontal axis 302 shows time on an arbi-
trary scale. The timeline goes from the top to the bottom.
[0049] During a predefined suspension time period 308A, 3088, the
HSDPA connection is suspended, i.e. the HS-DPSCH, HS-PDCCH, HS-
SCCH, or a combination thereof, are not operable. However, during the sus-
pension time periods 308A, 3088, the HSDPA connection remains in a
standby state, i.e. the DPDCH and DPCCH are transmitted and received nor-
mally allowing the resumption of transmission of any of the HS-DPSCH, HS-
PDCCH, or HS-SCCH without additional delays.
[0050] Between the suspension time periods 308A, 3088, there are
operable HSDPA periods 304A, 3048, 304C, during which the HSDPA con-
nection may be used for data packet transfer and signalling.
[0051] The temporal characteristics of the suspension time periods
308A, 3088 may be characterized by suspension parameters. Such parame-
ters are, for example, a suspension duration parameter which characterizes
the duration 31 OA, 31 OB of the suspension time period 308A, 3088, frequency

. '
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

9

of occurrence of the suspension time periods 308A, 3088, and a suspension
timing parameter which characterizes the timing 312A, 3128 of the suspension
time period 308A, 3088.
[0052] The timing 312A, 3128 may correspond to the time instant
when a suspension time period 308A, 3088 starts.
[0053] The suspension parameters may further characterize the du-
ration of the time periods 306A, 3068, 306C, when the suspension is off and
the HSDPA connection is operable.
[0054] The suspension parameters may further represent the tem-
poral characteristics of a sequence of the suspension time periods 308A,
3088. In such a case, the duration 31 OA, 3108 of the different suspension time
periods 3108A, 3088 may be jdentical, and, thus, a single suspension duration
parameter may be used to characterize the plurality of the suspension time
periods 308A, 3088 in the sequence. The use of the sequence of the suspen-
sion time periods 308A, 308b may be triggered and timed with a suspension
timing parameter, which may characterize, for example, the timing 312A of the
first suspension time period 308A in the sequence. The duration 310A, 310A of
the suspension time period 308A, 3088 may vary from 50 milliseconds to 500
milliseconds, while the duration 306A, 3068, 306C of the operable HSDPA
periods 304A to 304C may vary from 50 milliseconds to 1000 milliseconds de-
pending on the embodiment. The present solution is not, however, restricted to
the above figures.
[0055] The predefined characteristics of the suspension time peri-
ods 308A, 3088 and the standby state of the HSDPA connection are based on
the fact, that at least a portion of the suspension parameters are available to
the user equipment 104, base station 112A to 1120 or both the user equip-
ment 104 and base station 112A to 1120 so that no signalling of the suspen-
sion parameters for example from the network controller 11 OA, 11 OB is re-
quired between the suspension time periods 308A, 3088. The suspension pa-
rameters may be programmed in the base station 112A to 1120 and/or the
user equipment in advance.
[0056] With reference to Figure 4, the base station 402 includes a
communicating unit (CU1) 406 for communicating data packets to the user
equipment 404 over an HSDPA connection 416. The user equipment 404, cor-
respondingly, includes a communicating unit (CU2) 426 for communicating
data packets from the base station 402 over the HSDPA connection 416.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

10

[0057] The communicating units 406, 426 provide the Uu interface
and the implementation of the HSDPA channel structure including the HS-
DPCCH, the HS-POSCH, and the HS-SCCH. Furthermore, communicating
units 406, 426 perform HSDPA communication procedures, such as the AMC
procedures, HARO procedures, and the associated signalling.
[0058] With further reference to Figure 4, the radio network control-
ler 400 includes a suspension control unit (SCU) 448 for controlling the sus-
pension of the HSDPA connection 416 in a plurality of predefined suspension
time periods 308A, 3088 with suspension parameters 450 while maintaining
the HSDPA connection 416 in a standby state.
[0059] The suspension parameters 450 are communicated to a sig-
nalling unit 446 which performs signalling of the suspension parameters 452,
454 to the base station 402.
[0060] The suspension control unit 448 may be implemented with a
computer program which may be executed in the digital computer of the radio
network controller 400.
[0061] In an embodiment of the invention, the suspension parame-
ters 450 are generated in the suspension control unit 448 and delivered to the
signalling unit 446.
[0062] The base station 402 may further include a suspension pa-
rameter generating unit (SPGU) 410 connected to a connection suspending
unit 408. The suspension parameter generating unit 410 may generate sus-
pension parameters 422 and deliver the suspension parameters 422 to the
connection suspending unit 408.
[0063] The suspension parameter generating unit 410 of the base
station 402 may be implemented with a digital computer and a computer pro-
gram.
[0064] In an embodiment of the invention, suspension parameters
452, 454 are generated based on the number of user equipment sets 404 re-
quiring an HSDPA connection 416 with the base station 402. As the number of
the user equipment sets 404 requiring an HSDPA connection 416 increases,
the capacity limit of the base station 402 may be exceeded. In such a case,
some HSDPA connections 416 may be suspended, thus allowing the estab-
lishment of more HSDPA connections. As a result, the overall availability of the
HSDPA service is improved.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

11

[0065] In an embodiment of the invention, the suspension parame-
ters 410, 452, 454 are generated based on an interference load in the uplink,
which may result from excessive HS-DPCCH signalling. Such a case may oc-
cur, for example, if the uplink of a cell with HSDPA capability is already highly
loaded due to active DPCCH and/or DPDCH of a great number of user equip-
ment sets 404, and a great number of user equipment sets 404 transmit the
HS-DPCCH simultaneously. Transmission of each HS-DPCCH requires its
own share of the uplink capacity, thus adding to the overall load of the uplink.
[0066] In an embodiment of the invention, some of the user equip-
ment sets 404 are located at the cell edge and a high transmit power is needed
to provide a sufficient receive signal level in the base station 402. In order to
enable successful uplink data transmission, e.g. user data transmission or
RRC (Radio Resource Control) signalling, to the radio network controller 400, it
may be beneficial to have sufficient transmit power available for the uplink
DPCCH and/or DPDCH transmission. When the HS-DPCCH is being transmit-
ted it requires a share of the transmission power resource available at the user
equipment 404, thus reducing the possible transmission power available for
the DPCCH and/or DPDCH. In a power limited situation, it is possible that if the
HS-DPCCH is being transmitted, one or more uplink channels, DPCCH,
DPDCH or HS-DPCCH, will be allocated sufficient power for reliable reception
in the base station 402. Thus, by introducing time periods, such as the time
period 308A, 3088, during which the HS-DPCCH is not transmitted in the up-
link, the uplink DPCCH and/or DPDCH can be allocated an extensive amount
of power. This, in turn, ensures that, for example, RRC signalling required by
radio connection management has better probability of getting through even
when the user equipment 404 is in a power limited situation.
[0067] The HSDPA connection 416 may be suspended in the user
equipment 404, in the base station 402, or both in the user equipment 404 and
the base station 402.
[0068] In an aspect of the invention, the user equipment 404 in-
cludes a connection suspending unit (CSU2) 428 for suspending the HSDPA
connection 416 in the predefined suspension time periods 308A, 3088 while
maintaining the HSDPA connection 416 in a standby state.
[0069] The connection suspending unit 428 includes suspension
parameters and transmits a control signal 434 to the communicating unit 426.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

12

The control signal 434 carries instructions for suspending the HSDPA connec-
tion 416 in the suspension time periods 308A, 3088.
[0070] The connection suspending unit 428 may be implemented,
for example, with the digital computer and computer program of the user
equipment 404.
[0071] In an aspect of the invention, the base station 402 includes a
connection suspending unit (CSU1) 408 connected to the communicating unit
406, for suspending the HSDPA connection 416 in a plurality of predefined
suspension time periods 308A, 3088 while maintaining the HSDPA connection
416 in a standby state.
[0072] The connection suspending unit 408 includes suspension
parameters and transmits a control signal 418 to the communicating unit 406.
The control signal 418 carries instructions for suspending the HSDPA connec-
tion 416 in the suspension time periods 308A, 3088.
[0073] The connection suspending unit 408 may be implemented,
for example, with the digital computer and computer program of the base sta-
tion 402.
[0074] The suspension parameters may include instructions for
suspending the HSDPA connection 416 in a synchronous manner in the user
equipment 404 and base station 402. In such a case, both the user equipment
402 and the base station 402 may implement the suspending time periods,
such as those shown in Figure 3, in transmission/reception of the HSDPA con-
nection 416.
[0075] A synchronization of the suspension procedures in the user
equipment 404 and base station 402 may be based on, for example, general
synchronization information required in radio transmission.
[0076] In an embodiment of the invention, the suspension parame-
ters 454 are signalled to the communicating unit 406 of the base station 402,
which delivers the suspension parameters 454 to the communicating unit 426
of the user equipment 404 by using a downlink channel such as the HS-SCCH
of the HSDPA connection 416.
[0077] The communicating unit 426 of the user equipment 404 de-
livers the suspension parameters to the connection suspension unit 428 of the
user equipment 404.
[0078] The suspension of the HSDPA connection 416 may be acti-
vated and possibly deactivated based on the suspension parameters 454.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

13

[0079] In an embodiment of the invention, the suspension parame-
ters 452 are signalled to the connection suspending unit 408 of the base sta-
tion 402 by using NBAP (Node B Application Part) signalling, for example.
[0080] The suspension of the HSDPA connection 416 may be acti-
vated and possibly deactivated based on the suspension parameters 452.
[0081] In an embodiment of the invention, the user equipment 404
includes a storing unit (STU2) 432 connected to the connection suspending
unit 428. The storing unit 432 stores suspension parameters 430, which may
be used by the connection suspending unit 428 when the suspension of the
HSDPA connection 416 is activated. The storing unit 432 may be implemented
with memory means, such as random access memory.
[0082] In an embodiment of the invention, the base station 402 in-
cludes a storing unit (STU 1) 412 connected to the connection suspending unit
408. The storing unit 412 stores suspension parameters 424, which may be
used by the connection suspending unit 408 when the suspension of the
HSDPA connection 416 is activated. The storing unit 412 may be implemented
with memory means, such as random access memory.
[0083] The suspending control unit 448 of the radio network control-
ler 400 may generate an activating signal 456, which is delivered to the con-
nection suspending unit 408 of the base station 402. The activating signal 456
may explicitly activate the suspension of the HSDPA connection 416 or include
instructions, such as timing, for starting the suspension. As a result of activa-
tion, the suspending unit 408 may retrieve the suspension parameters 424
from the storing unit 412.
[0084] The connection suspending unit 428 of the base station 402
receives an activating signal 452 and is activated to transmit a control signal
418 to the communicating unit 406 in order to suspend the HSDPA connection
416.
[0085] The suspending control unit 448 of the radio network control-
ler 400 may also generate an activating signal 458, which is delivered to the
connection suspending unit 428 of the user equipment 404 via a signalling
channel, such as the HS-SCCH of the HSDPA connection 416. The activating
signal 458 may explicitly activate the suspension of the HSDPA connection
416 or include instructions, such as timing, for starting the suspension. As a
result of activation, the suspending unit 428 may retrieve the suspension pa-
rameters 430 from the storing unit 432.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

14

[0086] The connection suspending unit 408 of the base station 402
receives an activating signal 458 and is activated to transmit a control signal
434 to the communicating unit 426 in order to suspend the HSDPA connection
416.
[0087] The storing .unit 412, 432 and the activating signal 456, 458
enable suspension parameters 452, 454 to be delivered to the connection
suspending unit 408, 428 prior to the execution of the actual suspension of the
HSDPA connection, thus allowing flexibility in the timing of the signalling of the
suspension parameters 452, 454. Furthermore, the suspension parameters
452, 454 may be used to perform the suspension of the HSDPA connection
416 for a long period of time, thus reducing the need to continuous deliver the
suspending instruction to the connection suspending unit 408, 428.
[0088] The activating signal 456, 458 enables the suspension of the
HSDPA connection 416 to be performed with the plurality of the suspension
time periods 308A, 3088 at a desired time instant, thus providing flexibility for
selecting the time when the suspension of the HSDPA connection is executed.
[0089] The suspension of the HSDPA connection 416 may be im-
plemented in various manners depending on the embodiment.
[0090] In an embodiment of the invention, the connection suspend-
ing unit 428 generates a control signal 434, which includes instructions for
suspending the transmission of a CQI in uplink in a plurality of predefined sus-
pension time periods 308A, 3088. The suspending of the transmission of the
CQI may result in the use of an outdated CQI value in the scheduler. The use
of the outdated CQI value may in some circumstances cause suspension or at
least complications in scheduling the user equipment 102 and, thus, the sus-
pension of transmission of the HS-DPSCH. In some applications, it would be
beneficial to cancel the user equipment 404 from scheduling if the latest CQI
available from the user equipment 404 in the base station scheduler was older
than an implementation-specific time interval, which may be of the order of
tens of milliseconds.
[0091] The suspension parameters 454 or the activating signal 458
signalled from the radio network controller 400 may include an instruction to
remove the CQI from the frame structure of the HS-DPCCH signalled in the
uplink. However, the transmission of the acknowledgement messages
(ACK/NACK) may still be continued.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

15

[0092] It should be noted that after each suspension time period
308A, 308B, the base station 402 would preferably continue transmitting the
HS-OPSCH after the reception of a first reliable CQI in order to ensure a suffi-
cient channel quality.
[0093] In an embodiment of the invention, the connection suspend-
ing unit 428 generates a control signal 434, which includes instructions for
suspending the transmission of the HS-OPCCH in a plurality of predefined sus-
pension time periods 308A, 3088.
[0094] The suspension parameters 454 or the activating signal 458
may include an instruction to cancel the transmission of the HS-OPCCH in the
predefined suspension time periods 308A, 308B. The suspension of transmis-
sion of the HS-OPCCH may result in the lack of feedback information required
for the AMC and HARQ, and the scheduler of the base station
i
402 may not be
able to schedule the user equipment 404. As a result, transmission of downlink
channels, such as the HS-PDSCH and the HS-SCCH, is interrupted approxi-
mately in the suspension time periods 308A, 3088.
[0095] The suspension of the HS-OPCCH releases radio resources
for the OPCCH thus giving rise to cell coverage.
[0096] In an embodiment of the invention, the connection suspend-
ing unit 428 generates a control signal 434, which includes instructions for
suspending reception of the HS-SCCH in a plurality of predefined suspension
time periods 308A, 3088.
[0097] The suspension parameters 454 or the activating signal 458
signalled from the radio network controller 400 may include an instruction to
cancel reception of the HS-SCCH in the predefined suspension time periods
308A, 3088. The suspension of reception of the HS-SCCH may be realized in
the receiver of the user equipment 402 102 by interrupting the tracking of the
HS-SCCH code channel and interrupting the processing of HS-SCCH data.
The HS-SCCH informs the user equipment 402 if a data packet is to be re-
ceived in one or several HS-POSCH codes, and indicates data packet charac-
teristics, such as those associated with modulation and coding, to enable the
user equipment 402 to receive the data packet on the HS-POSCH. As a result
of suspending the reception of the HS-SCCH, the transmission of acknowledge
messages is interrupted.
[0098] In some embodiments, the suspension of the HSOPA con-
nection 416 is initiated in the base station 402.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/Fl2005/000097

16

[0099] In an embodiment of the invention, the connection suspend-
ing unit 408 of the base station 402 generates a control signal 418, which in-
cludes instructions for suspending the reception of the HS-OPCCH in a plural-
ity of predefined suspension time periods 308A, 3088.
[0100] The suspension parameters 452 or the activating signal 456
signalled from the radio network controller 400 may include an instruction to
cancel the reception of the HS-OPCCH in the predefined suspension time pe-
riods 308A, 308B.
[0101] The suspension of reception of the HS-OPCCH may result in
the cancellation of the delivery of the CQI and acknowledgement messages to
the base station 402 in approximately the suspension time periods 308A,
3088, and, thus in the incapability of transmitting the HS-POSCH.
[0102] In an embodiment of the invention, the connection suspend-
ing unit 408 of the base station 402 generates a control signal 418, which in-
cludes instructions for suspending the scheduling of data packets to the user
equipment 404 in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods 308A,
3088.
[0103] The suspension parameters 452 or the activating signal 456
signalled from the radio network controller 400 may include an instruction of
cancelling the scheduling in the predefined suspension time periods 308A,
3088. As a result of suspending the scheduling, no data packets are received
by the user equipment 402 and no acknowledgement messages are generated
and transmitted.
[0104] With reference to Figure 5A, in an embodiment of the inven-
tion, the method starts in 500.
[0105] In 502, data packets are communicated over the HSOPA
connection 416 including the HS-POSCH and HS-DPCCH.
[0106] In 504, the HSOPA connection 416 is suspended in a plural-
ity of predefined suspension time periods 308A, 3088 while maintaining the
HSOPA connection 416 in a standby state.
[0107] In 506, the method ends.
[0108] With reference to Figure 5B, in an embodiment of the inven-
tion, the method starts in 508.
[0109] In 510, data packets are communicated over the HSOPA
connection 416 including the HS-POSCH and HS-OPCCH.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

17

[0110] In 512, the transmission of the HS-DPCCH is suspended in
the predefined time periods 308A, 3088 while maintaining the HS-DPCCH in a
standby state.
[0111] In 514, the method ends.
[0112] With reference to Figure 6, in an embodiment of the inven-
tion, the method starts in 600.
[0113] In 602, data packets are communicated over the HSDPA
connection 416 including the HS-POSCH and HS-DPCCH.
[0114] In 604, a decision is made whether to use at least one stored
suspension duration parameter 424, 430.
[0115] If the at least one stored suspension parameter 424, 430 is
not used, at least one suspension parameter 452, 454 characterizing the tem-
poral characteristics of the plurality of the suspension time periods 308A, 3088
is signalled in 608, and the HSDPA connection 416 is suspended on the basis
of the at least one suspension parameter in 610.
[0116] If the at least one stored suspension parameter 424, 430 is
used, an activating signal 456, 458 is signalled in order to activate the suspen-
sion of the HSDPA connection 416 in 614. In 614, the suspension of the
HSDPA connection 416 is activated. In 616, the HSDPA connection 416 is
suspended in the plurality of time periods 308A, 3088 on the basis of the at
least one stored suspension parameter 452, 454.
[0117] In 618, the method ends.
[0118] With reference to Figure 6, in an embodiment of the inven-
tion, the method starts in 700.
[0119] In 702, the data packets are communicated over the HSDPA
connection 416 including the HS-POSCH and HS-DPCCH.
[0120] In 704, the transmission of a channel quality indicator is sus-
pended in uplink in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods 308A,
3088.
[0121] In 706, transmission of the HS-DPCCH is suspended in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods 308A, 3088 while maintaining
the HS-DPCCH in a standby state.
[0122] In 708, the reception of the HS-DPCCH is suspended in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods 308A, 3088 while maintaining
the HS-DPCCH in a standby state.
WO 2005/079095 PCT/FI2005/000097

18

[0123] In 710, the scheduling of data packets to the user equipment
is suspended in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods 308A, 3088.
[0124] In 712, the reception of the HS-SCCH is suspended in a plu-
rality of predefined suspension time periods 308A, 3088 while maintaining the
HS-SCCH in a standby state.
[0125] In 714, the method ends.
[0126] The relative order of the method steps 704 to 712 may vary
depending on the implementation. It is possible that the execution of one
method step 704 to 712 triggers an execution of an other method step 704 to
712 due to the causalities of the different elements, such as channels and
feedback information, applied in the HSDPA connection 416.
[0127] In some aspects, the invention provides a computer program
for executing a computer process, of which embodiments are shown and de-
scribed in conjunction with Figures 5A, 58, 6, and 7.
[0128] The computer program may be implemented with a digital
processor and memory means located in the radio network controller 400,
base station 402, and the user equipment 404.
[0129] The computer program may be stored on a data carrier, such
as a CD (Compact Disc), a hard drive, a diskette, and a portable memory unit.
The computer program may further be transferred with an electric signal in a
data network, such as the Internet.
[0130] Even though the invention has been described above with
reference to an example according to the accompanying drawings, it is clear
that the invention is not restricted thereto but can be modified in several ways
within the scope of the appended claims.
FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA

Vringo Infrastructure, Inc. v ZTE (Australia) Pty Ltd (2013] FCA 1152

Citation: Vringo Infrastructure, Inc. v ZTE (Australia) Pty Ltd
[2013] FCA 1152

Parties: VRINGO INFRASTRUCTURE, INC. v ZTE
{AUSTRALIA) PTY LTD {ACN no 578 428)
File number: NSD 1010 of2013

Judge: YATES J

Date of judgment: 4 November 2013

Catchwords; PATENTS application to amend patent clerical errors
introduced into claims in course of earlier application to
amend patent

Legislation: Patents Act 1990 (Cth) ss 102, 104, 105

Date of hearing: 4 November2013

Place: Sydney

Division: GENERAL DIVISION

Category: Catchwords

Number of paragraphs: 6

Counsel for the Applicant: Mr D Shavin QC with Ms CL Cochrane

Solicitor for the Applicant: Allens

Counsel for the Respondent: Mr NR Murray

Solicitor for the Respondent: Davies Collison Cave Law
IN THE FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA
NEW SOUTH WALES DISTRICT REGISTRY
GENERAL DIVISION NSD 1010 of 2013

BETWEEN: VRINGO INFRASTRUCTURE, INC.
Applicant

AND: ZTE (AUSTRALIA) PTY LTD (ACN 1 lO 578 428)
Respondent

JUDGE: YATESJ
DATE OF ORDER: 4 NOVEMBER 2013
WHERE MADE: SYDNEY

BY CONSENT, THE COURT ORDERS THAT:

1. Under s 105(1) of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth), leave be granted to the applicant to amend
Patent No. 2005212893 in accordance with Annexure A to the interlocutory application
dated 17 July 2013.
2. The applicant pay the costs of the respondent of and incidental to the interlocutory
application.
3. Paragraph 5 of the orders made on 22 August 2013 be vacated.
4. The parties serve any lists of proposed categories of documents for discovery by
25 November 2013.
5. The parties agree on categories of documents for discovery or, to the extent that they do
not agree, file any application for discovery in relation to the disputed categories, by
16 December 2013.
6. By 31 March 2014 or 15 weeks after any applications made pursuant to paragraph 5 of
these orders are finally determined by the Court, whichever is later, the parties make
I
discovery of all documents in the categories agreed or ordered.
7. Time be extended to the respondent to 18 November2013 to respond to the applicant's
notice to admit dated 28 October 2013.
8. The proceeding be fixed for further directions on a date no earlier than the date fot
compliance with paragraph 6 of these orders. The parties are to approach the Associate
to Yates J for the purpose of fixing the date and time of the next directions hearing.
-2-

Note: Entry of orders is dealt with in Rule 39.32 of the Federal Court Rules 2011.
IN THE FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA
NEW SOUTH WALES DISTRICT REGISTRY
GENERAL DIVISION NSD 1010of2013

BETWEEN: VRINGO INFRASTRUCTURE, INC.
Applicant

AND: ZTE (AUSTRALIA)PTY t TD (ACN no 578 428)
Respondent

JUDGE: YATES J
DATE: 4 NOVEMBER 2013
PLACE: SYDNEY

REASONS FOR JUDGMENT
(REVISED FROM TRANSCRIPT)

By interlocutory application dated 17 July 2013, the applicant has applied to amend
Patent No. 2005212893, The amendments relate to claims 9 and 20. The applicant relies on
the affidavits of Christopher John Bird affinned 9 August 2013, Christopher John Bird
affinnedJ7 July 2013, and Sarah Louise Matheson sworn 17 July 2013.

2 The present application is made to correct clerical errors introduced into claims 9
and 20 in the course of an earlier application for leave to amend the complete specification of
the patent under s 104 of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) (the Act). Those amendments were
allowed by the Commissioner on 17 May 2013. Subsequent to those amendments being
allowed, it came to Mr Bird's attention that those amendments included certain clerical
errors. On 11 June2013, the applicant commenced this proceeding. Prior to that time, the
applicant infonned the Commissioner of the clerical errors that had been made. It made a
further request for leave to amend the patent under s 104 of the Act. On 31 May 2013, the
Commissioner infonned the applicant that its amendment request to correct the clerical errors
was valid and would be allowed.

3 However, because of the intervention of the commencement of this proceeding, the
application for amendment before the Commissioner could not proceed to coIJ1pletion and the
applicant has been required to approach the Court under s 105 of the Act to pemlit the
amendment. In making this application, the applicant has complied with s 105(3) of the Act,
-2-

which requires notice of the application to be given to the Commissioner who is entitled to
appear and be heard. The Commissioner stated in a letter dated 25 July 2013 that she does
not intend to exercise any right to appear and be heard.

4 The respondent has been informed of the amendment and does not oppose the
amendment. Indeed, it has consented to an order being made allowing the amendment.
There has been no third party opposition to the present application.

5 I am satisfied on the material before me that the errors sought to be corrected are truly
clerical errors. So far as claim 9 is concerned, the error was to incorporate an integer of
claim l 0 into claim 9 in lieu of the correct paragraph which commenced with the same
opening words. So far as claim 20 is concerned, the error is trivial and simply relates to the
capitalisation of the first word ofthe first integer of that claim.

6 In the present case, s I 02(3)(a) of the Act applies, namely, that the preceding
provisions of s 102 of the Act do not apply for the purpose of correcting a clerical error or an
obvious mistake made in, or in relation to, a complete specification. I am satisfied that it is
appropriate that the complete specification be amended as sought by the applicant.

I certify that the preceding six (6)
numbered paragraphs are a true copy
of the Reasons for Judgment herein
of the Honourable Justice Yates.

Associate:

Dated: 5 November 2013
IN THE FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA (FCA)
NEW SOUTH WALES REGISTRY - FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA
GENERAL DIVISION No: NSDlOl0/2013

NOTICE OF FILING AND HEARING

This application was filed electronically in the FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA (FCA) on
16/07/2013.

DETAILS OF FILING

Document Lodged: Interlocutory Application - Form 35 - Rule 17.01 (1 )(a)
File Number: NSDl 010/2013
File Title: Vringo Infrastructure INC v ZTE (Australia) Pty Ltd ACN 110 578
428
District Registry: NEW SOUTH WALES REGISTRY - FEDERAL COURT OF
AUSTRALIA
Reason for Listing: Directions and Interlocutory Hearing
Time and date for hearing: 22/07/2013, 9:30 AM
Place: Court Room l 9D, Level 17 Law Courts Building Queen's Square,
Sydney

Dated: 17/07/2013 Registrar

NOTES

1. This Notice forms part of the application and contains information that might
otherwise appear elsewhere in the application. The Notice must be included in the
application served on each party to the proceeding.
2. The 'reason for listing' is descriptive and does not limit the issues that might be
dealt with, or orders that might be made, at the hearing.
Form 35
Rule 17.01(1)
Interlocutory application
No NSD 1010of2013

Federal Court of Australi~
District Registry: New South Wales
Division: General

Vringo Infrastructure, Inc.

Applicant

ZTE (Australia) Pty Ltd
(ACN 110 578 428)

Respondent

To the Respondent

The Applicant applies tor the interlocutory orders set out in this appiicaticin.

The Court will hear this applicatJon, or make orders for the conduct of the proceeding, at the
time and place stated below. If you or your lawyer do not attend; then the Court may make
orders In your absence.

Time and date for hearing

Place Law Courts Building, Queens Square, Syd~y NSW

Date: 17 July 2013

Signed by an officer acting with the
authority of the District Registrar

Filed on .behalfof: Vringo Infrastructure, Inc., the Applicant
Prepared by: Sarah Louise Matheson
Law ftrm: Allens
Tel: (03) 96141011 Fax: (03) 96144661
Email: SLMM:JSGM (Ms MathesQn} Sarah.Matheson@allens.com.au;
Jesse.Gleeson@allens;com.au
Address for service:
101 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC 3000
Email: Sarah.Matheson@allens.com.au
DX: 30999 Melbourne
2

Interlocutory orders sought

1. Under subsection 105(1) of the Patents Act 1990 (Cth), leave be granted to the
Applicant to amend Australian Standard Patent No 2005212893 in the tenns set out
in the statement of Proposed Amendments included in Annexure CHB-8 to the
affidavit of Christopher J Bird affirmed 17 July 2013, a copy of which is ~ched to
this Interlocutory Application and marked Annexure 11A"; and

2. Such further or other relief as may be ordered; and

3. Costs be reserved.

Service on the Respondent

It is intended to serve this application on the Respondent.

Date: 17 July 2013

y Sarah Louise Matheson
Lawyer for the Applicant
AUSTRALIA
PatentsAct 1990

STATEMENT OF PROPOSED AMENDM.ENTS

PatantNo: 2006212893

Applicant Vrlngo Infrastructure, Inc.

ts. Delete Clafmll pages 21 and 23 of the CD1nplete spedllcdon a'ld replace ltlelefor ll4!W
daim& pagea 21 and 23..slbmHIEd tler8wlth.

Date¢ 24 Msw 2013
J~ ll{t:: &JJ 1-IJ llJ lif ~·
I

I ilti.q
. i~ llti1
llJ1.
s
11t~I· 1· Ja- ~I~· · 1·
f-lJ1Jllill
1
It ~ft:.Jllil1
?
i
e
1
r

I I IJ lP. Jl ·f lit 1 J Il f t lt .J
[.a. l 1 I
i}t! ti~! i~ tf ~iillf. r~ Jtllil({ I

J U.
f
a: ... ··II
J Jf I l
11
t
a:..
J rl
I I - ·

11 .11 J:~~11 i.l.
u -
1
iJ I ·t.1 1l1·1 iJt·
lt i~l I l~l f1
tf· I l}a.i ~il·r
8
Ef "Ef J · r f11
tr 11
whetcin the dutadon of1be IJU81'G""irnl i! defined br•.su.spemioa parameter
known to tbc blle •t2ffoa and~ 1l9Cl' eqQiptQCUt~ the suspc:o5ion.

18. Ao llppU&tUS, mptpriltna·

a~coa.uaDer~toccatrol~suspemionof~
between ll bc!Be·station and USU' eqniprmtt, of the high epced declicaMj pbysieal dmtml
cbiMclin a plun.lityof pmdrftqcd $U1penii Cl time J:*iods with ~Oil~
wbllc llU!hltaiq.iog the high speed dedk::;ued phpical mnbdl chmnd fn a:~ sate.
1he11.11peB1io11~~ to characterise a:m.pond d.m~ of•
~af~dineperiads btdrftnJpg·a.dnradonofthe~; and

~ •duralfm of.die·~ ii defined byt Susprm.loQ pllWlitt
known to the baae 1tm1oa aad ~user 4'q\li~~ ihe mspepik>D.

1~. wmc:m
'l'bc .,.....,... of c:Wm 11. dx: tnJap<:NSioo.~ • conflgun:d to
c:onfd the smpeaalon cf tnos f:9ll1M of cbc bi&lupced dc::diaticd.~ mntrcl
ckmnc:I fn a pluralityflfpmfeAtM:d ~time pcrrigda wbDe nvrinninfng tho high
speed dedL *'N ph'pbl aJIUiDl dw•nn eJ in albmdbystaU:.

20. the~- ofdalqt.17, wt.eie:tu the .mspemion c:murallt.ris ooaigud to
cootrdl tbc ~af~ cf the bigb 9p:ecihdk:a1rd pbJsbl c:mmot rhermtl
in. pluraUtyof p.to>+scif suspe.asion time pexbls while mwmQrining \he high speed
dedic:erc4 plrfeia1 amtrol chanDel Jn aatandby !!WC.

21. Tbe ~tue of dddm 17, •btaci4 lhe smpe:nek:a..~ is oonflga1red to
coat1'qJ the suspemion oftnnsm•l<m of• cbao.nelqmlfty~ in uplink.in a
plurdtyof~mt.pea•laf! time~ tbech1ft11e1 qwlliJ:yindbkw~
to~·- qualityof thc ldP epecd pby.tJaltdaWnlinkQred ~

22. l'he ~cl. claim 1.7, wherdll the~ contioller is CObBgured to
a.md the 1U1peoskm of'~ of daaa packe.'tJ .-0 !he UICr' equfpPle.Dt In a plutaiity
of pn~dcGaed ~time pcdods.
Zl

·'· ~~ iru:fru:I• JJBCE'equ'J•~ ibe·appltllUI mmpdsiog:
a mrmrrqruc;atm'conlgmm lo cmmnuniam: dmpadccts retdtcd from a hue
itmon O\IV a biafa speed. downlink padri:t aaaa ftllU!U'doo incJncUng a hfgh speed
pllysicaJ dowa1iak sh.an:d d.amd for &da pu:kettramf'er:aad a.high spee.cl.cfrrdk:;uerl
pbJ*al coa11Vl dqmnel bvpll4 tfgmlJin& and-

IUspeod tbe IX 110THOA of thehlgh *~ilfcu.ed phyidad. amlt01 cfpmu.J In a
f]'

plQraUtyof~ned ~w.bile~tbeh;ghapced
• dttBratrd dwuw:l 111 a.Mladby . .

Whereitl a cfrtndoo of me ...-p!S"IOQ ii c:fe60.e!d hy &SUIJM ill~ paramcta' Jcncnm
e
to tbci blse lil::lt:kHl 1he 'Dlei" eqd1 · lad' bebn:rr:he SIDp"Plion.

10. Arl ~ iD.dudingmer~ the: 1pt:mra1m c:omprf5tDg;
aCO"'PnJmCUoc"~.to comnmnk:ale dma~A:cd9al~at.e
~ avr:z a bigh ...,_f c:lowQUnk packl'!taccesa:ronM1:tkla indu4iol a .hflh speed
~-downltrslnlmed annd - - - pldr.et'tnnaferwt ahfab speed ded• pref
ph)'Siclll~ rbaoei.~uplmk~ md
a.c:oancctlDD. ~ mn&,gured IDc:ooaaect iothe ••••unip.....,.., md r.o
suspend die 11 •ri'lion of il:w: hiJh apa;d cledbted px)9k:al CoGtrol dnnne.1 ma
pbmlfty.of.p:aM w,J IUlpemiott ttme p:rioda ~n;ndntthdng tbehi&li ¥eed
~ •tcd~ c:ontzo1. ehtnndtn ·~ltllle,
wLe.u:Jo. a datadoa. ohht Jmpe•tino ftd.,.,, byaawpa~l parama= JmoWn
io the 1me ataiioa aad tae user eq1l1tJ 1near belbrelhe llllJPCM{on.

11. Tbt: appuld.µS d. dab 9. wbac:lu the "*'Cdina mspendcr Is~ iD
smpCnd the. a.smleloa af rhc bfdi apeed dec«cated phJlbl C!IOldld. dMnmt In 11:
pluralitr of predrfined.~ tiine pmiucll wb1J.e malnrafnf;qg rim hlgb apeed
~phJslcal ccmml ch•nnd bl asradbf eme.

12. l'hc: appu.dl18 oldaim.9, wbicrda tbe coaDMdOn ~ • wdpred ~
suspend the fftjil .. i•W! oh mauel qadtyiadidlP' kl uplfpk IQ. a pimalllyof
p1C1ki6ued suapensinn time pabfl. tb.c chaancl qadtyinc1~ II confipn:d IO
dlaJw,,. 1i5C me quallyOf tJ:ie.bfsh speed ~dowallntshued thpnel
~ thcdQn.tfop. Qf tbe mspemioa; is dehed by a 8uspemiOQ patameta
JmQwn io die buc sbdkxl tbd the mcr-cqufpPM'Jll belbre the suspension.

a wspemh:m oautrOllcr axdlgnn=d 'CD contrpl., 9Wlpcmian of trsaan 1rrbn.
bttweeu a 1-e lblfioa.azid Ulim'equlpmem. of the hiah speed dcdkm:d ~ cumot
~in a plunJ.itrofpndrftnedauaPc11 aem dme periods wil;b ~pll•••"=llf!l:S
while mtafnb!lnjog the hJglt speed ded""""'iw:f phflbl c:cot:tol .channel fQ. a-lla,ndby-.,
lbc su:-p rn'+.ia pll'IDUl!ter5 eonAgt•red to~ tempaQl duu1'Cte&:il1'.ial ofa
phnlltyof. mspen+n ~ pedQdf 1"' definfnt; a duntfoa. ollhe 11DPMsljon; and
a ,,....,Ungua:dr a:mliped m Nim!~ ID the c::cmtrabe:r, to lipal dleauapmsiou

~-·
wbcn:tn 1he doadooof dic ~- drftnetl by an..pep~ puar.em-
Ja:iiow. 10 au bmeftO:ln .S die uscrequlpmenthefi:n me~

19. Tbe.appallUI of dafm.17, wheief.ri ibe IUft"'"sft "*' axd:ltJl1et ia ronflatJRd io
ammt the ..... ,,,too of ma.._,fgipn f1'dic hf8b Speeddrdkated p1rfafal eoAflOl
dtannd IQ. aplunlltyafprecfefirMwt sespe•.;on tlmepec:iodl w;biJe IDlintaln,bJa thcbfab
apee4 dccfiratrd phyaita1 ~ cb!!!Qfte1 ma *1ldbr~
<<-r;, .
20. /he "1Jif8iatlil of clafm 17, whell::in sbc nep::mion ~ .. eonftptcd co
~dlelUlp!!Dlioa of na::pdo4 of.theldgla s.pecd clcdfcttrd ~ a:iatiolthanttel
taaplunlilyofpmik&•cd 11~ rimepc:riodt w.blle~ die high speed
dedicaed .PliJ'licd c:o.atml cbumd in al!llQdbtalarc..

'l'hcappu:ilbJI of claim 17, ~die mspe.ncic •• matro1let ii con6gt"'Cd to
21.
~ tbe·sospeasbl Gb: I •11dsakm of a Ehmfnel .qmdity~ in u.P&akz &
plunlitrof~ ~ lirmrpcdodl, rbe th•cl qualityindinJDrCQDflgnicd
10 ~the qm1f.ty of tire JtJB,l:l speed.~ downlidksbarr:d cbutneJ

22. '1'be ~ofdaim 17, wherein~~ c:ontroUer ts~ to.
c:omml die~ ofKhedu1iag.of data~ to the user equ1pnM:at in a plQrlllty
ofpredeftnrd suspc:mk>a. 'dme ~~
19

The claims defining the invention are as follows:
1. A method, comprising:

communicating data packets from a base station to user equipment over a high
speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical downlink
shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of
predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed downlink packet
access connection in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.

2. A method, comprising:
communicating data packets from a base station to user equipment over a high
speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed physical downlink
shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated physical control
channel for uplink signalling; and
suspending the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel
in a plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
dedicated physical control channel in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.

3. An apparatus, comprising:

a communicator configured to communicate data packets from a base station to
user equipment over a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high
speed physical downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed
dedicated physical control channel for uplink signalling; and
a connection suspender configured to connect to the communicator, and to
suspend the high speed downlink packet access connection in a plurality of predefined
suspension time periods whUe maintaining the high speed downlink packet access
connection in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.

chbm A0123705454-v4 120318909
20

4. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein the connection suspender is
configured to suspend reception of the high speed dedicated physical control channel in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
5 dedicated physical control channel in a standby state.

5. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein the connection suspender is
configured to suspend scheduling of data packets to the user equipment in a plurality of
predefined suspension time periods.
10

6. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein the apparatus further comprises a
generator configured to connect to the connection suspender, and to generate at least one
suspension parameter, the at least one suspension parameter configured to characterise
temporal characteristics of a plurality of suspension time periods; and
15 wherein the connection suspender is configured to suspend the high speed
downlink packet access connection in the plurality of time periods on the basis of the at
least one suspension parameter.

7. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein the apparatus further comprises a
20 memory configured to connect to the connection suspender, to store at least one
suspension parameter configured to characterise the temporal characteristics of a plurality
of suspension time periods; and
wherein the connection suspender is configured to be activated by a received
activating signal and to suspend the high speed downlink packet access connection in the
2s plurality of time periods on the basis of the at least one suspension parameter stored in the
memory.

8. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein the connection suspender is
configured to suspend the high speed downlink packet access connection on the basis of
30 at least one suspension parameter received from a radio network controller, the at least
one suspension parameter is configured to characterise temporal characteristics of a
plurality of suspension time periods.

35

1967526-3:bab
21

9. An apparatus including user equipment, the apparatus comprising:

a communicator configured to communicate data packets received from a base
station over a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed
physical downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated
physical control channel for uplink signalling; and
a connection suspender configured to connect to the communicator, and to
suspend the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
dedicated physical control channel in a standby state,

wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.

10. An apparatus including user equipment, the apparatus comprising:

a communicator configured to communicate data packets received from a base
station over a high speed downlink packet access connection including a high speed
physical downlink shared channel for data packet transfer and a high speed dedicated
physical control channel for uplink signalling; and
a connection suspender configured to connect to the communicator, and to
suspend the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
dedicated physical control channel in a standby state,
wherein a duration of the suspension is defined by a suspension parameter known
to the base station and the user equipment before the suspension.

11. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the connection suspender is configured to
suspend the transmission of the high speed dedicated physical control channel in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed
dedicated physical control channel in a standby state.

12. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the connection suspender is configured to
suspend the transmission of a channel quality indicator in uplink in a plurality of
predefined suspension time periods, the channel quality indicator is configured to
characterise the quality of the high speed physical downlink shared channel.

chbm A0123705454-v4 120318909
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----

22

13. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the connection suspender is configured to
suspend the reception of the high speed physical downlink shared control channel in a
plurality of predefined suspension time periods while maintaining the high speed physical
downlink shared control channel in a standby state.

14. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the communicator is configured to receive at
least one suspension parameter, the at least one suspension parameter configured to
characterise temporal characteristics of a plurality of suspension time periods; and
wherein the connection suspender is configured to suspend the high speed
downlink packet access connection in the plurality of time periods on the basis of the at
least one svspension parameter.

15. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the apparatus further comprises a memory
configured to connect to the connector, to store at least one suspension parameter
configured to characterise the temporal characteristics of a plurality of suspension time
periods; and
wherein the connection suspender is configured to be activated by a received
activating signal and to suspend the high speed downlink packet access connection in the
plurality of time periods on the basis of the at least one suspension parameter stored in
the memory.

16. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein the connection suspender is configured to
suspend the high speed downlink packet access connection on the basis of a