You are on page 1of 21



im sciences

Sir Qazi Waheed

Abdul Haseeb Shah
Aleena Hashmi
Mohammad Haseeb
Zartashia Arshad
Mujahid Hussain
Naila Nizam


Table of Contents:-

Sources & References

What is stress - Stress management..?

Historical foundations

Models of stress management

• Transactional model

• Health realization model

Types of stress
• Negative or distress

• Positive or Eustress

Causes of stress
• Stressors

• Categories

 Internal stressors

 External stressors

 Hidden stressors

 Obvious stressors

 Automatic stressors
• Alarm reaction

• Resistance

• Exhaustion

 Initial phase

 Burn out

Stress at work

 Causes of work stress

Stress and work life balance

Coping up
• Undertake time management techniques

• Try and engage yourself in a supportive social


• Natural stress relief

Measuring stress
Sources & References:-

i. www.about



iv. "Effects of Stress." WebMD. 2 June 2005.


v. Health wise, Incorporated. 3 Apr. 2007



vii. Principles and Practice of Stress Management,

Third Edition. By Lehrer, Paul M.; David H. (FRW)
Barlow, Robert L. Wool folk, Wesley E. Sime

viii. Lazarus, R.S., & Folk man, S. (1984). Stress,

Appraisal and Coping.

ix. Bower, J. E. & Segerstrom, S.C. (2004). "Stress

management, finding benefit, and immune
function: positive mechanisms for intervention
effects on physiology".

x. Wolfgang Linden; Joseph W. Lenz; Andrea H. Con

(2001). "Individualized Stress Management for
Primary Hypertension: A Randomized Trial".

xi. Istituto Scientia. (2007) Effects of Natural Stress

Relief Meditation on Trait Anxiety: A Pilot Study, in
Psychological Reports, Vol. 101
What is stress – stress
Stress is the “wear and tear” our bodies
experience as we adjust to our continually
changing environment; it has physical and
emotional effects on us and can create a positive
or negative feeling. Whether the stress is positive
or negative, the body and mind react the same
way. Everyone experiences stress. Stress can be
major (such as a health or relationship problem)
or it can be minor (change in weather, increased
household duties). It is an entirely personal thing.
No one can determine how stressed you are, or
whether you have a right to be stressed. You
choose whether to retain the stress, or whether
you want to relieve it.

Although you cannot control the amount of

stress in your life, you can relieve the stress.
There are many ways to relieve stress. Stress is
an adaptive response to a situation that is
perceived as challenging or threatening to a
person’s well being. Stress response is a complex
emotion that produces physiological changes to
prepare us for fight or flight to defend the threat
or flee from it.
Historical foundations
Walter Cannon and Hans Selye used animal
studies to establish the earliest scientific basis for
the study of stress. They measured the
physiological responses of animals to external
pressures, such as heat and cold, prolonged
restraint, and surgical procedures, and then
extrapolated from these studies to human beings.

Subsequent studies of stress in humans by

Richard Rahe and others established the view that
stress is caused by distinct, measureable life
stressors, and further, that these life stressors can
be ranked by the median degree of stress they
produce. Thus, stress was traditionally
conceptualized to be a result of external insults
beyond the control of those experiencing the
stress. More recently, however, it has been
argued that external circumstances do not have
any inherent capacity to produce stress, but
instead their effect is mediated by the individual's
perceptions, capacities, and understanding.
Models of stress management
Transactional model
Richard Lazarus and Susan Folk man
suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of
as resulting from an “imbalance between
demands and resources” or as occurring when
“pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to
cope”. Stress management was developed on the
idea that stress is not a direct response to a
stressor but rather one's resources and ability to
cope mediate the stress response and are
agreeable to change, thus allowing stress to be

In order to develop an effective stress

management program it is first necessary to
identify the factors that are central to a person
controlling his stress, and to identify the
intervention methods which effectively target
these factors. Lazarus and Folk man’s
interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction
between people and their external environment
(known as the Transactional Model). The model
conceptualizes stress as a result of how a stressor
is appraised and how a person appraises his/her
resources to cope with the stressor. The model
breaks the stressor-stress link by proposing that if
stressors are perceived as positive or challenging
rather than a threat, and if the stressed person is
confident that he/she possesses adequate rather
than deficient coping strategies, stress may not
necessarily follow the presence of a potential
Health realization model
The health realization model of stress is also
founded on the idea that stress does not
necessarily follow the presence of a potential
stressor. Instead of focusing on the individual's
appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or
her own coping skills (as the transactional model
does), the health realization model focuses on the
nature of thought, stating that it is ultimately a
person's thought processes that determine the
response to potentially stressful external
circumstances. In this model, stress results from
appraising oneself and one's circumstances
through a mental filter of insecurity and
negativity, whereas a feeling of well-being results
from approaching the world with a "quiet mind,"
"inner wisdom," and "common sense"

This model proposes that helping stressed

individuals understand the nature of thought--
especially providing them with the ability to
recognize when they are in the grip of insecure
thinking and access natural positive feelings--will
reduce their stress.
Types of stress

Negative or Distress:
 Also called stress, the degree of physiological,
psychological and behavioral deviation from
healthy functioning.

 Distress is also referred to as anxiety, severe

strain or mental suffering resulting from
exhaustion or an accident. It is the negative kind
of stress that is not healthy for your body as well
as for your mind. The reasons behind distress
could be many and may vary on case to case

Positive or Eustress:
 It is also necessary part of life because it activates
and motivates people to achieve goals, change
their environments and succeed in life’s

 Eustress is healthy for you. It keeps you excited

about life. It is basically a desirable form of stress
which is healthful and gives a feeling of

Our main focus will be the causes and management of

distress, because it has become a chronic problem in
many societies
Causes of stress
 The causes of stress including any
environmental conditions that place a physical
or emotional demand on the person.

A. Internal Stressors: Anything that stresses
you internally is an internal stressor. Examples
are your diet, personal interests or aesthetic

B. External Stressors: Anything that causes

stress outside your body or in your
environment is an external stressor. It could be
pollution, noise or a new vehicle

C. Hidden Stressors: The stressor that you as

well as your doctor are not able to identify is a
hidden stressor.

D. Obvious Stressors: Experiencing a stress

before deadlines is quite obvious. Such
stressors are indisputable and are known as
obvious stressors.

E. Automatic Stressors: These are the stressors

your body itself reacts to. Sometimes you
yourself are not aware of them. Such stressors
Stress is involved in three stages:

Alarm reaction:

 Look at a student's face just before he is going

to give an exam. Isn't the fear and tension
clearly evident? When something has just
started stressing you and you feel a fight or
flight kind of attitude, then you are in the alarm
stage of stress. It is the start up stage which
defines the first reaction to the stressor


 When a student is sitting in the examination

hall and writing his exam, he is bothered about
completing it in time. He is making full efforts
to cope with the situation and his whole body is
engaged in fighting against the condition. This
is the resistance stage. In this stage, the body
keeps making continuous efforts to cope with
stress and therefore feels run down and
exhausted. The person starts feeling irritated,
over reacts to minor situations and gets
mentally and physically weak. Psychological,
physical and behavioral changes are also
clearly visible.

 If a student is preparing for his exam and

despite of every possible effort, he is not able
to relate to his studies, he is bound to get
stressed. The stress could reach a height where
he/she may feel completely exhausted and
helpless to the extent of committing suicide.
This is the exhaustion stage.

(a)Initial phase: The stress persists and due

to lack of appropriate measures the person is not
able to concentrate and work efficiently.

(b) Burnout: The person is completely

exhausted and drained of all energy reserves.
There is a complete physical, psychological and
emotional breakdown
Stress at work
Stress at work is a relatively new phenomenon of modern lifestyles.
The nature of work has gone through drastic changes over the last
century and it is still changing at whirlwind speed. They have touched
almost all professions, starting from an artist to a surgeon, or a
commercial pilot to a sales executive. With change comes stress,
inevitably. Professional stress or job stress poses a threat to physical
health. Work related stress in the life of organized workers,
consequently, affects the health of organizations.

“Stop stressing and start living.”

Causes of work stress
Job stress may be caused by a complex set of reasons. Some of the most
visible causes of workplace stress are:

Job Insecurity
Organized workplaces are going through metamorphic changes under intense
economic transformations and consequent pressures. Reorganizations,
takeovers, mergers, downsizing and other changes have become major
stressors for employees, as companies try to live up to the competition to
survive. These reformations have put demand on everyone, from a CEO to a
mere executive.

High Demand for Performance

Unrealistic expectations, especially in the time of corporate reorganizations,
which, sometimes, puts unhealthy and unreasonable pressures on the
employee, can be a tremendous source of stress and suffering. Increased
workload, extremely long work hours and intense pressure to perform at peak
levels all the time for the same pay, can actually leave an employee’s
physically and emotionally drained. Excessive travel and too much time away
from family also contribute to an employee's stressors.

The expansion of technology—computers, pagers, cell phones, fax machines
and the Internet—has resulted in heightened expectations for productivity,
speed and efficiency, increasing pressure on the individual worker to constantly
operate at peak performance levels. Workers working with heavy machinery
are under constant stress to remain alert. In this case both the worker and
their family members live under constant mental stress. There is also the
constant pressure to keep up with technological breakthroughs and
improvisations, forcing employees to learn new software all the times.

Workplace Culture
Adjusting to the workplace culture, whether in a new company or not, can be
intensely stressful. Making oneself adapt to the various aspects of workplace
culture such as communication patterns, hierarchy, dress code if any,
workspace and most importantly working and behavioral patterns of the boss
as well as the co-workers, can be a lesson of life. Maladjustment to workplace
cultures may lead to subtle conflicts with colleagues or even with superiors. In
many cases office politics or gossips can be major stress inducers.

Personal or Family Problems

Employees going through personal or family problems tend to carry their
worries and anxieties to the workplace. When one is in a depressed mood, his
unfocused attention or lack of motivation affects his ability to carry out job

“I have known great many troubles but most of them never happened.”
Coping up

There are several ways of coping with stress.

The techniques are called destressitizer. A
destressitizer is any process by which an
individual can relieve stress. Different relaxation
techniques are used to cope with stress.
Relaxation technique is the method that helps a
person to relax; to attain a state of increased
calmness; or otherwise reduce levels of anxiety,
stress or tension. Relaxation techniques are often
employed as one element of a wider stress
management program and can decrease muscle
tension, lower the blood pressure and slow heart
and breathe rates, among other health benefits.
Various techniques are used by individuals to
improve their state of relaxation. Some of the
methods are performed alone, and some require
the help of another person, often a trained
professional; some involve movement, while some
focus on stillness; and some methods involve
other elements. Certain relaxation techniques
known as "formal and passive relaxation
exercises" are generally performed while sitting
or lying quietly, with minimal movement and
involve "a degree of withdrawal"

 Undertake time management techniques.

Some techniques of time management may
help a person to control stress. In the face of high
demands, effective stress management involves
learning to set limits and to say "No" to some
demands that others make. Set a time table for
your everyday routine. Include work, exercise,
recreation and entertainment in it. Plan a time
slot where all the members of the family are able
to sit together and interact.
 Try and engage yourself in a supportive
social circle.

Make friends and create a social group

where you are able to recreate yourself. If you
stay away from the thought of the stressor for
some time, you are bound to refresh yourself. And
once you are refreshed, you might also be able to
see the other viewpoint.

 Natural stress relief

Natural Stress Relief (NSR) is a form of
meditation which uses a silent mantra. It is
practiced twice a day for 15 minutes at a time,
while sitting in a comfortable chair. Silent
repetition of the mantra creates a resonance in
the nervous system which leads to the release of
stress in the body. NSR was developed by Istituto
Scientia in the late 1990's, as an alternative to
Transcendental Meditation, which had become
prohibitively expensive to learn.

NSR meditation does not involve

concentration or putting oneself into a trance. The
practitioner is awake and fully aware of his
surroundings during meditation. Repetition of the
mantra is effortless and leads the practitioner to
deeper levels of thought. It has been described as
a state of restful alertness. Benefits claimed by
practitioners of NSR include clearer thinking,
better health and increased productivity, all of
which are improved by the release of
Other techniques are;-

 One way of controlling stress is by following

religion, as most of the religion stress on prayers
and few other things, prayers help one in calmness
and give a person a way to relax his stress.

 Yoga, personality test, self hypnosis, and the

likes can be of great help. Practice them to
emerge out of stressful situations.

 Do things that feed tour aesthetic interest.

Painting, listening music, cooking and so on. Do
what you like doing to feed your soul. Practice
spirituality if you feel like.

 Make a budget for everything that you do.

Sometimes in house financial issues lead to stress
for parents. Try to frame a budget for everything
that you do to avoid such circumstances.

 Remember you are not alone, if you have

children; you are likely to have stress.

 Today homes have become the most

stressed place because emotional, psychological
and mental wavelengths of parents and children
do not match with each other.

 It is important to build a flexible environment

to suit the requirements of both the segments.
Measuring stress

In order to effectively manage stress, you must become

aware of the amount and types of stressors in your
everyday life. One way of developing an awareness is to
assess the frequency and amount of stress in your daily
routine, and then trace the stress to its source (i.e., the
stressor). Below is a list of five quick, easy ways of
measuring stress in your daily life. These methods can
be easily used any time and anywhere.

Check muscle tension by "Scanning"

When you scan, you are checking different muscles in
your body as if you could X-ray each part and look for
tension. Start at the top of your head and work your way
down. Check your forehead, eyes, jaws (are you
clenching your teeth?). Then move to your neck and
shoulders and check for tension or pain. Next your arms,
chest and stomach. Check your breathing to see if it is
rapid and shallow rather than slow and deep. Scan your
upper legs, calves and your feet and toes.

Check hand temperature

Place your hand on the side of your neck just above your
collar. If your hand is noticeably cooler than your neck,
your hand temperature indicates that your body is
probably stressed.

“Humor is a wonderful stress reducer, an antidote to upsets”

Check for nervous sweating
Many people perspire(break out in sweat) when they are
tense. This is an involuntary hormones. This is yet
another simple indicator that your body is responding to
some stressor.

Check for a rapid pulse rate (> 75 bpm)

At rest, most people will have a pulse rate in the 50s or
60s. However, if your pulse rate is higher than 75 bpm,
it may indicate that your body is responding to a

Check for rapid, shallow breathing

When people are relaxed, they breath slowly and deeply
with relaxed stomach muscles. When people are tense,
they often tighten their stomach muscles and breathe
through their chests. Since the chest is not as
expandable as the stomach, one will exhibit rapid,
shallow, chest breathing. One technique for managing
stress, is to learn to breathe in a more relaxed fashion.
Relax the stomach and breathe in slowly, filling the
stomach first and then the chest. Relax again as you
exhale and repeat.

Note that each of these methods for dealing

with body stress utilizes a physical sign or symptom to
assess stress levels.
These signs may not always be perceptible however,
becoming more aware of stress symptoms may reinforce
healthy attitudes and practices in response to common

After you have used these methods to uncover the most

stressful times and places in your day, then take some
time to analyze these situations to see what seems to be
causing the stress. For example, let's say that you have
noticed that the most stressful time for you is at work.
What do you think is causing such a stressful reaction?
Perhaps it has to do with your workstation. A computer
display terminal that is set too close to your face so that
you experience eye strain, or a chair that is too high or
too low. A keyboard that is too high or too low. Or,
perhaps your problem is that you and your boss
constantly disagree, or that he or she is putting extra
pressure on you to perform tasks within unreasonable

Once you are able to define your most stressful

situations and what causes them, you will then be able
to map out your strategy for managing these stresses.
If you fell like stressed

• It’s all about stress management not stress.

Try to control your stress by using different

• We should learn to see stressful situations

are challenges.

• Try physical activities, it will energize you

and you will feel fresh, it includes walking,
jogging, cleaning, gardening etc

• Give break to what you are doing just to

relax, temporarily remove stress from
yourself. Taking break is the most sensible

• Inhale and exhale in appropriate way to

reduce stress.

• Humor is a wonderful stress reducer, an

antidote to upsets. Laughter relieves tension.
So laugh as much as you can when you feel